Fir-na-craibhe of the Bann Valley

The Fir-na-Craibhe or the men of Creeve take their name from the Gaelic word Craibhe meaning �tree� or �branch�, which is the old name of the district west of the river Bann at Coleraine, otherwise called �Cuil-rathain' from the earliest times. According to the Rev. William Reeves, the men of Craibhe inhabited the district of Craibhe, so called from Craobh, daughter of Eoghan mac Duirtheacht, who gave 'Ess Na Creeve' now called the Cutts of Coleraine on the river Bann, its name1. It crossed between the townland of Ballyness on the west side and Mountsandel on the east side of the river. During the twelfth century, Coleraine, pronounced �Kool rahin�, meaning the corner or nook of ferns2, lay in Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt; that is, the Cuil, the corner or nook of �An Tuaiscirt� (a shorten form of Dal Araide an Tuaiscirt) from the northern branch of the Dal Araide3.

Map below: The blue section to the right of the river Bann is the Cuil-in-tuaiscerit

The Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt was later created the liberties of Coleraine.

Dal Araide of the North should not be confused with Dal Araide proper that was by 1100 reduced to the southern parts of Co. Antrim with its principal centre in the district of Moylinny. Dal Araide of the North, otherwise the tricha c�t of �An Tuaiscert�, was absorbed into the cantred of Twescard, which had been created by the Anglo-Normans after John de Courcy�s took control of parts of the northern territories by force. This cantred was also an early medieval deanery and comprised the rural deaneries of Ballymoney and Dunluce. The following map demarcates the boundaries of the tricha c�t of Twescard and Dal Riata (associated with old Dal Riata in Scotland). Dal Araide is often referred to as Dal Riata, known as the cantred of Dalrede in 12004.

Very little is known about the men of Creeve or whether their territory formed part of muinter Dun-mbo, which seems to have been originally held by the family of Cuana, and later merged with the Clann Ferchair. Cuana is Coony or Cooney, a name meaning handsome, elegant. According to the Irish Genealogies, the Clann Colmain held the kingship of Fir Li. They descend from Colm�n son of Niall Frossach (d.778) son of Fergail (d.722), and depending on which genealogical collection is cited, Colm�n was one of four or five sons of Niall, namely, Aed Oirdnide (d.819), Colm�n, Ferchair, Cuana and Muircertach. The names of each are listed in the following genealogical tractates:

Coic mc. Neill frossaigh mc. Feargaile .i. Aed ornidhe & Colman diatad Clann Colman for fearaibh lii, & Fearchar diatat Clann Fearcair & Cuana diada Muinter Duine bo & Muircertach diadat Clann Muircertaigh Locha h-Eaneagh. O�Clery�s Book of Genealogies

Coicc (C�ig, five) mic Neill frosaigh mic Fergaile .i. Aedh oirdnighe, Colman (dia ta clann Colmain a feraibh Li), et Ferchair (dia ta clann Ferchair), ocus Cuana (dia ta muinter Duin bo), et Muircertach (dia ta clann Muircertaigh locha h-enaigh), amhail as-rubrad indso:

Coicc mic ag Niall frosach ran
Aed oiirdnide ocus Colman
Ferchair is Cuana na creach
Ocus Muirchertach meirgeach

Laud Genealogies and Tribal Histories

C�ic (C�ig, five) maic N�ill�Frossaig�mic Fergaile:��ed Ordnide & Colm�n, diat�Clann Colm�in for Feraib L�; & Ferchar, diat� Muinter D�inb�; & Muirchertach diat� Clann Muirchertaig Locha Enaig.

Rawlson B. 502 and Book of Lecan

Coic (C�ig, five) meic N�ill Frosaig m. Fergaile; Aed Oirdnidi, Colm�n a quo Clann Colmain hi Feraib Lii, Fergar a quo Muinter Duin Bo; Muirchertach a quo Clann Muircertach Locha Enaich.

With the exception of the family Aed Oirdnide, king of Cenel Eogain, and Ferchair, founder of the Clann Fearchar, the genealogy of Colm�n and Cuana has not survived. It looks like the genealogy of the Clann Colm�n has been removed and Cuana merged with the Clann Fearchar. Cuana in mentioned in the O'Clery's genealogies, but not in Lauds, Rawlson B. 502 and the Book of Lecan.

Clann Ferchair may already have been settled in the district of Coleraine, when Aed Findlaith son of Niall Caille (d.846) son of Aed Oirdnide (d.819), with the Cenel Eogain plundered all the strongholds of the foreigners (Norse Vikings) in the territories of the North, both in Cenel Eogain and Dal Araide in 866. The Dal Araide mentioned in the entry below, must refer to �Dal Araidi of the North�, rather than its southern counter part.

AU 866

Aed son of Niall plundered all the strongholds of the foreigners (i.e. in the territory of the North) both in Cen�l E�gain and D�l Araidi, and took away their heads, their flocks, and their herds from camp by battle. A victory was gained over them at Loch Febail and twelve score heads taken thereby.

The following decade, we find the Cenel Eogain and the Norse Vikings forging an alliance, undoubtedly, to the mutual benefit of their respective leaders. Together, in 871, the Cenel Eogain and the Vikings stormed �Dun Sobariche� (modern Dunseverick) in the territory of Dal Riata, a victory remembered long afterwards and if we are to believe the annals, the storming of Dun Sobariche by the Cenel Eogain was something that had �never been achieved before�. At the time, Aed Findlaith was still king of the Cenel Eogain and he is known to have forged alliances with several Norse Viking kings from Ireland and the western parts of Scotland. Aed married Mael Muire, daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin, king of the Scots, and was the father of Niall Glundub, king of the Cenel Eogain. This marriage is likely to have taken place following an alliance between Aed Findlaith and the McAlpin king of Scots.

Dun Sobariche (the Fort of Sobariche)

The ruined castle was last occupied Gilledubh Ua Cathain in 1657

The men of Craibhe are first recorded in Irish Annals in 1099, when they burned the stone church of Ardstraw in Co. Tyrone belonging to the U� Fhiachrach. Under the Ua Cathain, the northern part of Fir Li appears to have been annexed. Fir Li derive their name from Mag Li on the west bank of the river Bann from Camus to the Moyola river. This river stretches from approximately 27 miles from the Sperrin Mountains to Lough Neagh. The Fir Li were originally a branch of the Ui Moccu Uais. Part of their territory fell to the Cenel Eogain and was settled by t

In 1171, there had been a great foraying of the Ulster lead by the chieftain, Magnus Mac Donnsleibhe of the Ua Eochadha, into Cuil-in-tuaisceirt and during this incursion, they plundered Cuil-rathain and several churches until a small number of the Cenel Eogain under the command of Conchobur Ua Cathain, overtook them and gave battle and killed twenty one of their men, both chiefs and sons of chiefs, and a multitude of others along with them. In both the 1171 and 1182 campaigns, the Ua Cathain had defended the territory of Cuil-in-tuaisceirt, re-enforcing their lordship and military dominance in the area, which would yet again be challenged, and it seems they probably lost control of the territory meantime to John de Courcy.

AU = Annals of Ulster 431-1541
FM = Annals of the Four Masters 123-1616
LC = Annals of Loch Ce 1014-1648
AI = Annals of Inisfallen
MCB = Mac Carthaigh�s Book 1114-1437

FM 893.7

Maelmaire, son of Flannagan, lord of Feara Lii, died.

AU 921.7
A fleet of the foreigners came into Loch Febail, i.e. Acolb with thirty-two ships. Cennrig was quickly(?) and completely abandoned by them, except for a few who remained behind in it through sloth. Fergal son of Domnall, king of the North, was in hostilities with them, and killed the crew of one of their ships and wrecked the ship and took its booty. Another naval force was at Cenn Magair on the coast of T�r Conaill, i.e. under the son of Uathmar�n son of Barid, with twenty ships. AU 930.2

Foreigners on Loch nEchach, and their naval camp was at Ruib Mena.

AU 933.1
Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed [Findlaith] and Sicfrith son of Uathmar�n, i.e. the son of Domnall's daughter, inflicted a rout on Muirchertach son of Niall and on Conaing in Mag Uatha, where fell Maelgarb, king of Derlas, and Conmal, king of Tuath Achaidh, and two hundred�others. AU 943.2

Muirchertach son of Niall, i.e. Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, king of Ailech and the Hector of the western world, was killed by the heathens, i.e. by Blacair son of Gothfrith, king of the foreigner, at Glas Liath�in beside Cluain Cha�n, in Fir Rois, on the first feria, fourth of the Kalends of March 26 Feb.

AU 945.2

The foreigners of Loch nEchach were killed by Domnall son of Muirchertach and by his kinsman, i.e. Flaithbertach, and their fleet was destroyed.

AU 949.2

Ua Canann�in made a foray and plundered Fir L� and killed Flaithbertach ua N�ill.

Note: Flaithbertach son of Muirchertach son of Niall Gl�ndub.
AU 955.3

Domnall son of Muirchertach led a force, with ships, from Tuag Inbir, on Loch nEchach and Daball, across Airgialla, on Loch �irne, then on Loch Uachtair, and he plundered Br�ifne and took hostages from ua Ruairc.

FM 1003.6

Domhnall, son of Flannagan, lord of Feara-Li, died.

AU 1036

Domnall ua hUathmar�in, king of Fir L� was killed by the D�l Araide.

FM 1036

Domhnall Ua h-Uathmharain, lord of Feara-Li, was slain by the Dal-Araidhe.

AU 1059

Muiredach ua Flainn, king of U� Tuirtre, died.

AU 1063

C� Duilig ua Taidc, king of Fir L�, was killed.

AU 1081

Mael Mithig ua Mael Ruanaid, king of U� Tuirtri�by the Cen�l Binnigh of Glenn�and ua Uathmur�n, king of Fir L�, were killed.

AU 1099

The stone church of Ard Sratha was burned by Fir na Cra�bhe against U� Fhiachrach.

AU 1101

An expedition was made by Muirchertach ua Briain and by Leth Moga into Connacht, and over Eas Ruaidh into T�r E�gain, and they razed Ailech and burned and outraged many churches also, including Fathain of Muru and Ard Sratha. They went thereafter over Fertas Camsa and burned C�l Rathain and committed slaughter there. They afterwards took the hostages of the Ulaid. They went home over Slige Midluachra.

FM 1101

A great army was led by Muircheartach Ua Briain, King of Munster, with the men of Munster, Leinster, Osraighe, Meath, and Connaught, across Eas-Ruaidh, into Inis-Eoghain; and he plundered Inis-Eoghain, and burned many churches and many forts about Fathan-Mura, and about Ard-sratha; and he demolished Grianan-Oiligh, in revenge of Ceann-coradh, which had been razed and demolished by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn some time before; and Muircheartach commanded his army to carry with them, from Oileach to Luimneach, a stone of the demolished building for every sack of provisions which they had. In commemoration of which was said:

I never heard of the billeting of grit stones,
Though I heard of the billeting of companies,
Until the stones of Oileach were billeted
On the horses of the king of the West.

Muircheartach after this went over Feartas-Camsa into Ulidia, and carried off the hostages of Ulidia; and he went the round of all Ireland in the space of a fortnight and a month, without battle, without attack, and he returned to his house by Slighe-Midhluachra. The expedition was called "The circuitous hosting."

FM 1102

A hosting of the men of Ireland to Ath-cliath, to oppose Maghnus and the foreigners of Lochlann, who had come to plunder Ireland; but they made peace for one year with the men of Ireland; and Muircheartach gave his daughter to Sichraidh, son of Maghnus, and gave him many jewels and gifts.

AU 1110

Cernach grandson of Ulcha, superior of C�l Rathain, died in penitence.

AU 1118

Laidcn�n ua Duibdara, king of Fir Manach, was killed by the U� Fhiachrach and Fir na Cra�bhe.

FM 1138

Raghnall, son of Imhar Ua Cathain, lord of the Craebh, Cianachta, and Fir-Li, fell through treachery and guile, by the Ui-Eoghain of the Valley.

AU 1156

Aedh Ua Canannain, king of Cenel-Conaill, was killed by Ua Cathain and by the Men of the Craibh.

AU 1171

Great foraying force [was led] by Maghnus Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] with all Ulidia into Cuil-in-tuaisceirt, so that they plundered Cuil-rathain (Coleraine) and other churches, until a small number of the Cenel-Eogain under Conchobur Ua Cathain overtook them and gave battle and killed one and twenty men, both chiefs and sons of chiefs, and a multitude of others along with them. And Maghnus himself was wounded. And moreover that Maghnus was killed shortly after in Dun by Donnsleibhe, that is, by his own brother and by Gilla-Oenghusa Mac Gilla-espuic, namely, by the lawgiver of Monaigh, after great evils had been done by him,�namely, after leaving his own wedded wife and after taking his wife from his fosterer, that is, from Cu-maighi Ua Flainn and she [had been] the wife of his own brother at first, namely, of Aedh; after inflicting violence upon the wife of his other brother also, that is, of Eochaidh; after profanation of bells and croziers, clerics and churches. Donnsleibhe took the kingship in his stead.

Note: The Annals of Four Masters has �Gilla-Aenghusa son of Mac Gillaepscoip, ruler of Monaigh at Dun Downpatrick�.

FM 1171

A great predatory force was led by Maghnus Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua hEochadha and the Ulidians into Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt; and they plundered Cuil-rathain Coleraine and other churches. A small party of the Cinel-Eoghain, under Conchobhair Ua Cathain, overtook them; and a battle was fought between them, in which the Ulidians were defeated, with the loss of one-and-twenty chieftains and sons of chieftains, with many others of the commonalty; and Maghnus himself was wounded, but he escaped from the conflict on that occasion. He was afterwards killed by his own brother, Donnsleibhe, and Gilla-Aenghusa, son of Mac Gillaepscoip, ruler of Monaigh at Dun Downpatrick, after having perpetrated many evil deeds.

AU 1176

Bean-Midhe, daughter of Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, wife of Cu-maighi Ua Flainn, queen of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li, died.

AU 1176

Cu-maighi Ua Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li and Dal-Araidhe, was killed by Cu-Midhe, his own brother and by the Fir-Li.

FM 1176

Cooey O'Flynn, Lord of Hy-Tuirtre, Firlee, and Dalaradia, was slain by Cumee, his own brother, and the Firlee.

AU 1181

A great foray by the Men of Magh-Itha around O'Cathain, namely, Echmarcach and by the Cenel-Binnigh of the Glenn, until they went past Tuaim [on the Bann] and harried Fir-Li and Ui-Tuirtri and took away many thousands of cows.

FM 1181

The men of Moy-Ithe, together with O'Kane Eachmarcach, and the Kinel-Binny of the Valley, mustered an army, and crossed Toome. They plundered all the territories of Firlee and Hy-Tuirtre, and carried off many thousands of cows.

AU 1181

A hosting by Domnall, son of Aedh Ua Lochlainn and by the Cenel-Eogain of Telach-oc into Ulidia and they gained a battle over the Ulidians and over Ui-Tuirtri and over Fir-Li, around Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] and around Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn.

FM 1181

Donnell, the son of Hugh Mac Loughlin, and the Kinel-Owen of Tullaghoge, made an incursion into Ulidia, and defeated the Ulidians, the Hy-Tuirtre, and the Firlee, together with Rory Mac Donslevy, and Cumee O'Flynn.

AU 1182

A hosting by Domnall Ua Lochlainn to Dun-mbo in Dal-riatai and battle was there given by him to the Foreigners and defeat [was inflicted] upon Cenel-Eogain and Raghnall Ua Breislein was killed there and Gilla Crist Ua Catha[i]n was killed there and many others [were killed]. And the Gospel of [St.] Martin was carried off with them by the Foreigners.

LC 1182

A hosting by Domhnall Mac Lachlainn to D�n-b� in Dal-Riada, and they gave battle there to the Foreigners; and the Cenel-Eoghain were defeated, and Raghnall O'Breslen was slain, and Gillachrist O'Cathain, et alii multi; and the Gospel of Martin was carried off by the Foreigners.

FM 1182

Donnell, the son of Hugh O'Loughlin, marched with an army to Dunbo in Dal Riada, and there gave battle to the English. The Kinel-Owen were defeated, and Randal O'Breslen, Gilchreest O'Kane, and many others, were killed. On this occasion they carried off with them the Gospel of St. Martin.

MCB 1183

Defeat and slaughter [inflicted] by John de Courcy at C�il an Tuaiscirt on Cin�al E�ghain, [Cin�al] Conaill, and Cianachta, and Giolla Cr�ost � Cathain, son of the king of Fir na Craoibhe, and Raghnall � Brisl�in, chieftain of F�na, were killed.

AU 1197

Conchobur Ua Catha[i]n died.

MCB 1197

Conchobhar � Cathain, king of Fir na Craoibhe and Cianachta, fell by the power of Patrick together with his saints and relics, in retribution for the violation of his security.

AU 1197

Sluaghadh la h-Eoan Do Chuirt co n-Gallaibh Uladh co h-Ess Craibhe, co n-dernsat caistel Cille Santan, cor falmaichedh tricha ced Ciannacht doibh. Isin caistel-sin imorro ro fagadh Roitsel Phitun co sochraiti 'maille fris. T�inic dono Roitsel Phitun ar creich co Port Daire, co ro airc Cluain � & Enach & Derc Bruach. Ruc imorro Flaithbertach O Mael Doraidh .i., ri Conaill & Eogain co n-uathadh do Chonall & d'Eogan forro, co tucsat maidm ar traigh na h-Uathcongbala forro, co ro marbadh a n-ar ann .i., 'mo mac Ardgail h-Ui Lochlainn, tre mirbail Coluim Cille & Cainnich & Brecan ro airgsetar ann.

A hosting by John De-Courcy with the Foreigners of Ulidia to Ess-craibhe, so that they built the castle of Cell-Santain [and] the cantred of Ciannachta was desolated by them. Moreover, in that castle was left Roitsel Fitton [and] a force along with him. Then Roitsel Fitton came on a foray to the Port of Daire, so that he pillaged Cluain-i and Enach and Derc-bruach. But Flaithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh (namely, king of [Cenel-]Cona[i]ll and Cenel-Eoga[i]n) overtook them with a small force of the [Cenel-]Cona[i]ll and the [Cenel-]Eoga[i]n, so that he inflicted defeat upon them on the strand of the [N]uathcongbhail [and] they were slaughtered to a large number (namely, around the son of Ardgal Ua Lochlainn), through miracle of Colum-cille and Cainnech and Brecan [whose churches] they pillaged there.

FM 1197

John De Courcy and the English of Ulidia marched, with an army, to Eas-Creeva, and erected the castle of Kilsanctan, and wasted and desolated the territory of Kienaghta. He left Rotsel Pitun, together with a large body of forces, in the castle, out of which they proceeded to plunder and ravage the territories and the churches. Rotsel Piton afterwards came on a predatory excursion to the harbour of Derry, and plundered the churches of Cluain-I, Enagh, and Dergbruagh. But Flaherty O'Muldory, Lord of Kinel-Owen and Kinel-Conell, with a small party of the northern Hy-Niall, overtook him; and a battle was fought between them on the strand of Faughanvale, in which the English and the son of Ardgal Mac Loughlin were slaughtered, through the miracles of SS. Columbkille, Canice, and Brecan, whose churches they had plundered.

FM 1198

An army was led by John De Courcy into Tyrone, among the churches; and Ardstraw and Raphoe were plundered and destroyed by him. He afterwards went to Derry, where he remained a week and two days, destroying Inishowen and the country generally. And he would not have withdrawn all his forces from thence had not Hugh O'Neill sailed with five ships to Killi [...] in Latharna, burned a part of the town, and killed eighteen of the English. The English of Moylinny and Dalaradia mustered three hundred men, and marched against Hugh, who had no intimation of their approach until they poured round him, while he was burning the town. A battle was then fought between them, in which the English were defeated. The English were routed five successive times before they retreated to their ships; and there were only five of Hugh's people slain. As soon as John De Courcy had heard of this, he left the place where he was etermined upon making conquests, that is, Derry-Columbkille.

AU 1199

A hosting by Jobn De-Courcy into Tir-Eogain throughout the churches: namely, Ard-sratha and Rath-both were destroyed by him, until he reached Daire, so that he was there two nights over a week, destroying Inis-Eogain and the country besides. And he would not have gone therefrom for a long time, had not [lit. until] Aedh Ua Neill, [with] a force of five ships, reached Cell [ruadh?] in Latharna, so that he burned a part of the town and killed twenty, wanting two, therein. Then the Foreigners of Magh-Line and Dal-Araidhe were, three hundred [strong], both in mail and without mail, in front of him and they [the Irish] noticed not, until [the Foreigners] poured against them, burning the town. Thereupon they gave battle in the centre of the town and it went against the Foreigners. And [the Irish] gave five defeats to them thenceforward, until they went into their ships and only five of the people of Ua Neill were lost. Thereafter John went away, when he heard that.

FM 1205

Manus O'Kane, son of the Lord of Kianaghta and Firnacreeva, tower of the valour and vigour of the North, was wounded by an arrow, and died of the wound.

AU 1206

Maghnus Ua Cathain, son of the king of Ciannachta and Fir-na-craibhe, tower of championship and courage of the North, fell by the wound of an arrow.

FM 1209

The King of England came to Ireland with seven hundred ships, and landed at Dublin, where he remained until he had recruited himself after the fatigues of his voyage, and then set out for Tioprait Ultain in Meath, where Cathal Crovderg O�Conor came into his house i.e. made his submission to him. He banished Walter de Lacy to England, and then proceeded, with his nobles, to Carrickfergus, whence he also banished Hugo de Lacy to England. Hugh O�Neill repaired hither at the King�s summons, but returned home without giving him hostages. The King besieged Carrick until it surrendered, and he placed his own people in it. O�Conor then returned home.

AU 1210

The king of the Saxons John came into Ireland with a fleet hard to count, namely, seven hundred ships.

FM 1211

Thomas Mac Uchtry and the sons of Randal Mac Sorley came to Derry with a fleet of seventy-six ships, and plundered and destroyed the town. They passed thence into Inishowen, and ravaged the entire island recte peninsula.

AU 1212

Thomas, son of Uchtrach with the sons of Raghnall, son of Somarle, came to Daire of St. Colum-cille with six and seventy ships and the town was greatly destroyed by them and Inis-Eogain was completely destroyed by them and by the Cenel-Conaill.

May-June, 1212

John Bishop of Norwich to the K. Alan de Galloway [Galweia] had sent to the Bishop in Ireland, Alan's uncle, another knight and a clerk to receive the lands which the K. had there granted to Alan. The Bishop having called before him at Carrickfergus the knights and the better and more prudent men of the province, delivered to Alan on the K.'s behalf 140 fees, that is to say, all Dalreth', the Isle of Rathlin, the cantred of Kymlalmerath, the lands of Gweskard' and of Lathern', the cantreds of Kunnoch and Tirkehik' beyond the Ban, excepting 20 fees nearest to the castle of Kilsantan',10 on this side of and 10 beyond the Ban, which the Bishop retains for the custody of that castle; excepting also ecclesiastical rights and all things belonging to ecclesiastics, lands given by the K. to Duncan de Karrach, and all fees whereof others had previously been enfeoffed. The lands had been so assigned to Alan on condition that if they contain more fees than had been given to him, the surplusage shall revert to the K., or Alan shall seek the K.'s pleasure thereon; and if he shall not have had his full complement, the Bishop is to supply the deficiency in the nearest locality beyond the Ban.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 427]

FM 1212

Farrell O'Kane, Lord of Kienaghta and Firnacreeva, was slain by the English.

AU 1213

Ferghal Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta and Firna-craibhe, was killed by the Foreigners.

FM 1213

Thomas Mac Uchtry and Rory Mac Randal plundered Derry-Columbkille, and carried off, from the middle of the church of Derry, all the precious articles of the people of Derry, and of the north of Ireland, which they brought to Coleraine.

FM 1213

O'Kane and the sept of Firnacreeva, came to Derry to take the house of the son of Mac Loughlin. The great prior, of the abbey church of Derry, who interposed to make peace between them, was killed. God and St. Columbkille wrought a miracle on this occasion; for Mahon Magaithne, the person who had gathered and mustered the army, was killed in the doorway of the church of Duvregles, in revenge of Columbkille.

FM 1213

The castle of Coleraine was erected by Thomas Mac Uchtry, and the English of Ulidia; and all the cemeteries and buildings of the town were thrown down excepting only the church to supply materials for erecting this castle.

June 27, 1213

Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to cause Robert Fitz Serlon to have an exchange for his land which the K. has given to the nephew of Duncan de Karrek. Beer Regis.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 461]

July 15, 1213

Grant to Alan Fitz Roland of Galloway [Galwea] of the forest within the land which the K. gave to him in Ireland, and of the fairs and markets belonging to that land. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 463]

July 23, 1213

Grant to Thomas of Galloway [Galweia], Earl de Athull', of that part of the vill of Derekoneull' which belonged to O'Neal [que fuit O'Nelis] in Kenlion, besides the cantred of 'Talachot retained in the K.'s hand, and the land which the K. gave to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the K. in fee, by the service of 3 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 468]

July 28, 1213

Grant in fee to Thomas Fitz Roilland, of Galloway, of 3 knights fees on this side of the Ban, and of 3 knights fees beyond that river, retained in the K.'s hand when the K. gave his land to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the K. in fee. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, William Earl de Ferrers, and others. Dorchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 474]

AU 1214

Thomas, son Of Uchtrach and Ruaidhri, son of Raghnall, plundered Daire completely and took the treasures of the Community of Daire and of the North of Ireland besides from out the midst of the church of the Monastery.

AU 1214

Ua Cathain and the Men of Craibh came to Daire to seize a house against the sons of Mac Lachlainn, so that between them they killed the great manciple of the Monastery of Daire. But God and St. Colum-cille wrought a great miracle therein: the man that assembled and mustered the force, namely, Mathgamain Mag Aithne, was killed in reparation to Colum-cille immediately, at the door of the Penitentiary of Colum-cille.

AU 1214

The castle of Cuil-rathain was built by Thomas, son of Uchtrach and by the Foreigners of Ulidia. And all the cemeteries and fences and buildings of the town, save the church alone, were pulled down for that.

April 2, 1215

The K. commands Henry Archbishop of Dublin, justiciary of Ireland, to allow the men of Alan de Galloway to go into Ireland and return with the ship which Alan took at Kirkudbright; and to permit Alan to have his merchandise on board the ship until its owner shall have come to the K. and communicated with the justiciary. Lichfield.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 545]

June 27, 1215

Grant to Alan Fitz Rolland of the following lands in Ireland, namely:�The land between Inverarma and the bounds of Dalred, saving to Dunecan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres, which the K. previously gave to him; all Crihenelanmerach'; all Dalred; the Island of Rachrun; and all Toschart'; saving to the K. The castle of Kirkesantam, with 10 knights fees about it. Further grant to Alan of all the land of Kennaght and Tirketin', saving to the K. 10 knights fees on the Ban within the said land of Kennacht; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 10 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 564]

June 27, 1215

Grant to Thomas de Galloway [Galweya], Earl of Athole [Athobnensis], of the following lands, namely:�Killesantan, with the castle of Culrath'; 10 knights fees in Twescart, near that castle, on the Ban; on the other side of the Ban 10 knights fees in Kenact, near the castle; Duncathel; with all Twerth' and Clinkinmolan'; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 2 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 565]

June 30, 1215

The K. commands his justiciary of Ireland to deliver to Thomas de Galloway the K.'s castle of Antrum, to be held in his custody during pleasure. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 567]

AU 1216

Trad h-Ua Mail Fhabhaill, toisech Ceneoil Ferghusa, co n-a braithribh & co n-�r mor, do marbadh do Muiredach mac M�rmair Lemhnach.

Trad Ua Mailfhabhaill, chief of Cenel-Ferghusa, along with his kinsmen and with great havoc, was killed by Muiredach, son of the Great Steward of Lemhain (Lennox).

June 16, 1220

The K. to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway has come to the K. and rendered fealty. Mandate to the justiciary to cause Alan to have seisin of the following lands given and confirmed to him by the charter of King John, which the K. has inspected:�All the land between Inverarma and the boundaries of Dalrede, saving to Duncan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres of land given to by him King John ; all Crihenelanmerach by its right boundaries; all Dalrede by its right boundaries with the Island of Rachrun ; all Thoskart ; saving to the K. the castle of Kirkesantan, with 10 knights fees near the castle ; all the land of Kennacht, and all the land of Tirkethin by its right boundaries; saving to the K. and his heirs 10 knights fees on the Ban, within the said land of Kennacht. York.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 942]

April 18, 1220

The K. to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway will come to the K. to render homage, and a charter of faithful service, provided the land which he ought to hold of the K. in Ireland be restored to him. Mandate to the justiciary to give him or his emissary seisin of all the lands in Ireland granted and confirmed to him by King John. Westminster.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 937]

April 18, 1220

The K. to Alan de Galweia [Galloway]. Hamo de Galloway, clerk, has come to the K. and Council on behalf of Alan, praying the restoration of his lands, and asserting that he was ready to do homage and give a charter of faithful service. The K. Complies with the petition, orders the lands in Ireland given to Alan by King John to be restored, and commands the justiciary of Ireland to give seisin thereof to Alan or his emissary. Alexander King of Scotland, and part of his Council, will meet the K. and part of his Council at York, to make a treaty on matters touching the kingdoms of England and Scotland. The K. commands Alan to come thither to render homage and a charter as above. The K. will do what of right he ought to do regarding Alan's lands in England. Westminster.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 936]

AU 1222

The son of Ugo De Lacy came into Ireland in despite of the king of the Saxons, until he came to Aedh O'Neill; so that they went together against the Foreigners of Ireland and destroyed much in Meath and in Leinster and in Ulidia and razed the castle of Cuil-rathain. And the Foreigners of Ireland collected four and twenty battalions at Dun-delgain, until Aedh O'Neill and the son of Ugo came with four battalions against them, so that the Foreigners gave the award of his own word to O'Neill.

AU 1228

The castle of Cuil-rathain was built this year.

FM 1247

Eachmarcach O'Kane, Lord of Kienaghta and Firnacreeva, was slain by Manus O'Kane, after having gone on a predatory excursion into his country as far as Armoy in Dal-Riada.

AU 1247

Eachmarcach Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta and of Fir-na-craibhe, was killed by Maghnus Ua Cathain, on his going upon a foray to the latter, to Airther-muighi in Dal-riatai.
AU 1264

Cumhuidhe Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta, was taken prisoner by Aedh the Tawny.

December 27, 1272

Inquisition taken at le Finaleburn, in Twiscard, by Sir W[illiam] Fitz Warin, seneschal of the Lord Edward in Ulster, as to how Sir H[enry] de Mandevyle behaved in regard to the K[ing], the Lord Edward, and the English in Ulster after Edward had made him bailiff in Twiscared. Jurors:- Henry Savage [Salvagius] son of Sir R. Savage, Reginald le Chen, W. Pewdelou, Hugh Savage, Richard Fitz R[ichard], Henry Savage of Tualaneske, W. of Flanders, Thomas Savage, Michael Bonekyl, John son of Smith, Patrick Fitz Adam, Walter de Peter, Geoffrey son of Wye, Elias Sendal, Elias de Angle, Richard Fitz Hubert, Robert Broun, W. Toller, Robert Dodde, Gilbert de Burn, W. Blake, Ralph de Weltun, John Long, Matthew Malerb; Who Say as follows:- That Magnus Ochaan was slain at Down [Dun'], against the peace of the K. and of the Lord Edward, and after his death Hugh Ochaan offered to Sir H[enry] 500 cows to the use of the Lord Edward for the land of Fernecreu' and Kenack, to hold of the Lord Edward; Sir H[enry] refused to take them, but put the son of Magnus, a traitor to the K. and the Lord Edward, in seisin of the lands, and he still unjustly holds them:�That 27 English men and women coming from Maulin' towards Twiscard by way of Collan were killed by consent of Sir H[enry]; this was done by the Irish of Turtria [Ui-Tuirtre], by counsel of Sir H[enry]; that the Irish of Turtria burnt the land of Ocaynymery and Cachery and killed 22 English by the instigation and precept of the same Sir H[enry]:- That Coumoy Ochaan, by counsel of the same Sir H[enry], burnt William of Culrath [Coleraine], and killed J. Fitz Philip and 13 other English:�That Sir W[alter] de Burgh, late Earl of Ulster, was seized at his death as custodee of Mamym' and Cachery, and Sir H[enry] intruded into them:�That Sir H[enry] took from the men of Drindrif and Dunsumery 20 oxen for licence to carry corn out of the country, and they were nevertheless despoiled of 19 marks of silver:�That Sir H[enry] unjustly took 40 oxen from the burgesses of Poreros and Portchani', because they would not feed his servants wandering through the country:�That he promised to John son of Sir H. de Logan 2 carucates of land to seduce Reginald le Chen when fighting against Coumoy Ochaan at Glasdale:�That Sir H[enry] had false measures to; receive rents in corn from the farmers of the Lord Edward, and they are thus ignorant of the extent of the Lord Edward's loss:�That Sir H[enry] unjustly took a hogshead of the price of 55 marks from Godfrey Ury:�That R. of Galwyd gave to the Lord Edward half a mark and to Sir H[enry] 5 marks and a horse worth 3 marks to procure his discharge from prison, into which he had been put for killing his wife:�That Sir H[enry] had unjustly taken from the sureties of J. son of W. 20 marks, from Roger Ruffus 5 marks, from Thomas son of Noese 3 marks, and from W. Scot 3 marks:�That after he became bailiff of Twiscard he had, on the Bann, a fishing boat worth 4 marks a year, but whether he had a warrant they know not:�That after the death of Richard de Burgh, late Earl of Ulster Sir H[enry] made a purpresture on the demesnes of the Lord Edward at Archrepico of 2 carucates of land:�That Sir H[enry] has no right in Crech or Glybos, unless in that parcel of land whereof he was enfeoffed by Sir J. Biset, but he has now appropriated all that land to the loss of the Lord:�That Sir H[enry] after the death of Sir W[alter] de Burgh, late Earl of Ulster, diminished by gifts bestowed on himself the annual rent of Twiscard, to the loss of the Lord of 201. of silver:� That Sir H[enry] converted all this rapine and unjust extortion to his own use:�That the said Walter Earl of Ulster held at his death the bailiwick of Twiscard, with le Crech and Glynboy all which Sir H[enry] has now unjustly appropriated to the loss of Lord. Given at le Finlieburn, on the feast of St. John the Evangelist 57 Hen. III.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284 (London, 1877), p. 158, No. 929]

Note: Glasdale is Glenstall in the parish of Ballymoney. Drindrif is now Dunluce. Dunsumery is believed to be Dunseverick. Ocaynymery is an old name for the parish of Ramoan. Cachery is Cary, the name of a barony.