NORTHERN BRANCH OF THE Ui NEILL
Fir-na-craibhe of the Bann Valley
The Fir-na-Craibhe or the men of Creeve take their name from the Gaelic word Craibhe meaning ‘tree’ or ‘branch’, which is the old name of the district west of the river Bann at Coleraine, otherwise called ‘Cuil-rathain' from the earliest times. The men of Craibhe are first recorded in 1099, when they burned the stone church of Ardstraw in Co. Tyrone belonging to the Uí Fhiachrach (see below). According to the Rev. William Reeves, the men of Craibhe inhabited the district of Craibhe, so called from Craobh, daughter of Eoghan mac Duirtheacht, who gave 'Ess Na Creeve' now called the Cutts of Coleraine on the river Bann, its name1. It crossed between the townland of Ballyness on the west side and Mountsandel on the east side of the river. During the twelfth century, Coleraine, pronounced ‘Kool rahin’, meaning the corner or nook of ferns2, lay in Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt; that is, the Cuil, the corner or nook of ‘An Tuaiscirt’ (a shorten form of Dal Araide an Tuaiscirt) from the northern branch of the Dal Araide3. The Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt was later created the liberties of Coleraine.
Dal Araide of the North should not be confused with Dal Araide proper that was by 1100 reduced to the southern parts of Co. Antrim with its principal centre in the district of Moylinny. Dal Araide of the North, otherwise the tricha cét of ‘An Tuaiscert’, was absorbed into the cantred of Twescard, which had been created by the Anglo-Normans after John de Courcy’s took control of parts of northern territories by force. This cantred was also an early medieval deanery and comprised the rural deaneries of Ballymoney and Dunluce. The following map demarcates the boundaries of the tricha cét of Twescard and Dal Riata (associated with old Dal Riata in Scotland). Dal Araide is often referred to as Dal Riata, known as the cantred of Dalrede in 12004.
The blue section to the right of the river Bann is the Cuil-in-tuaiscerit
The earliest references in the Irish Annals associated with the northern branch of the Dal Araide, are listed below, and indicate the point at which, the Cenel Eogain defeated their kings.
Eochaid m. Bressail, ri Dal Araide in Tuaisceirt, iugulatus est a sociis suis.
Eochaid son of Bressail, king of Dal Araidi of the North, was killed by his associates.
Cinaedh m. Echdach, ri Dal Araidhe in Tuaisceirt, iugulatus est per dolum a sociis suis.
Cinaed son of Echaid, king of Dal Araidi of the North, was deceitfully killed by his own associates.
Flannacan m. Ecdhach, rex Dail Araide in Tuaisceirt, iugulatus est a Genere Eugain.
Flannacan son of Echaid, king of Dal Araidi of the North, was killed by the Cenel Eogain.
Aed son of Niall plundered all the strongholds of the foreigners (i.e. in the territory of the North) both in Cenél Eógain and Dál Araidi, and took away their heads, their flocks, and their herds from camp by battle. A victory was gained over them at Loch Febail and twelve score heads taken thereby.
It may be something or it may be nothing, but it is interesting to observe that after the death of Dorm Corci in 792, who is believed to be the last known king of Dal Riata in North Antrim or possibly Scotland, and the death of Bressal son of Flaithre, king of Dal Araide, also in that year, the annals designate Bressal’s successors, kings of Dal Araide of the North. There is a hint preserved in the annalistic entries of 824, 832 and 849 that suggests the political map in the north of Antrim had been re-drawn by Eochaid son of Bressal. Mael Duin son of Aed Oridnide was king of the Cenel Eogain in 8495, and although his name is not recorded (see above), it is possible he may have led the attack against Flannacan and the Dal Araide of the North either for plunder or to establish their over-kingship. If this is correct, it would explain why the kings of the northern branch of the Dal Araide disappear from the Dal Araide king list preserved in the Book of Leinster. The last named king from the northern branch to hold the over-kingship of Dal Araide was Eochaid son of Bressal, who died in 832. All the names of the kings listed after him belong to the southern branch and if you open this link, I have extracted all the kings named in the Book of Leinster and inserted dates of death to highlight the crucial period of interest between Flathroe son of Fiachrach (d. 774) and Loingsech Ua Lethlobuir (d. 932).
Significantly, it was Aed Findlaith son of Niall Caille, who was in power when he and the Cenel Eogain plundered all the strongholds of the foreigners (Norse Vikings) in the territories of the North, both in Cenel Eogain and Dal Araide in 866. The Dal Araide mentioned here must refer to ‘Dal Araidi of the North’, rather than its southern counter part. The following decade, we find the Cenel Eogain and the Norse Vikings forging an alliance, undoubtedly, to the mutual benefit of their respective leaders. Together, in 871, the Cenel Eogain and the Vikings stormed ‘Dun Sobariche’ (modern Dunseverick) in the territory of Dal Riata, a victory remembered long afterwards and if we are to believe the annals, the storming of Dun Sobariche by the Cenel Eogain was something that had ‘never been achieved before’. At the time, Aed Findlaith was still king of the Cenel Eogain and he is known to have forged alliances with several Norse Viking kings from Ireland and the western parts of Scotland. Aed married Mael Muire, daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin, king of the Scots, and was the father of Niall Glundub, king of the Cenel Eogain. This marriage is likely to have taken place following an alliance between Aed Findlaith and the McAlpin king of Scots. Aed died at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille on 20th November, 879, and was buried at Armagh.
Dun Sobariche (the Fort of Sobariche)
The ruined castle was last occupied Gilledubh Ua Cathain in 1657
For the tenth and eleventh century, very little information has survived for either the tricha cét of Dal Araidi of the North or Dal Riata, and except for a few references (e.g. Viking attacks) we know almost nothing about the native sub-kings or their people. There are hints the Cenel Eogain held some influence over them and were perhaps over-kings. For example, in 914, the last known king of Dal Riata in Ireland, ‘Diarmaid son of Selbach’, was killed in battle fighting on the side of Niall Glundub, king of the Cenel Eogain, against Flann son of Mael Sechnaill, king of Tara, at Greilach Eilte in the territory of Meath in Ireland. Later, in 926, when Dun Sobariche was ‘sacked’ by a Danish fleet of Vikings from Loch Cuan (Strangford Lough in Co. Down), during which it was reported ‘many men were killed or captured’, Muirechertach son of Niall Glundub, king of the Cenel Eogain, later routed and killed their leader Alpthann (Old Norse, Haldan) son of Gothfrith at the bridge of Cluain na Crimther. Unfortunately, the genealogies belonging to the kings of Dal Riata and the Fir-na-Craibh have not survived for the period in quesiton. However, a branch of the Clann Drugan of the Cenel Eogain known as the Ua Cathain, anglicised to O’Cahan, then to O’Kane, are said to have taken the kingship of the men of Craibhe and the genealogies for them have been preserved in MacFirbis and O'Cleary’s Books of Genealogies.
According to the genealogies, the Ua Cathains are traced from Conchobhar son of Fergal son of Mael Duin (d. 722) and are traced through the Clann Conchobar of Magh Itha. In the annals, the earliest variable king was known as Ragnall, son of Imhar (Ivar) Ua Cathain, lord of the Craibhe, Ciannachta and Fir-Li. He was killed treacherously by the Ua Eogain of the Valley in 1138. It would appear the Ua Eogain of the Valley were the Cenel Binnigh of the Glen, otherwise, the valley of Clenconkeyne in the old barony of Loughlinsholn west of the river Bann. In the Ua Cathian tractate, Ivar’s father is named Gillecrist. The prefix Gille and its application to a saint’s name begins to flourish from about the second half the tenth century onwards. This suggests personal names prefixed with Gille are likely to date no earlier than the second half of the tenth century, which suits Gillecrist who appears to have lived during the mid-eleventh century. There also appears to be at least two generations missing from the Ua Cathain lineage probably between Gillecrist and Con-cionaedh son of Diarmada. A simple comparison with the linage of the McLaughlin kings of Ailech indicates the missing generations cover the second half of the tenth century, when the Ua Neill kings were in ascendancy and ruled the Cenel Eogain from Tullahogue in Co. Tyrone.
In the Dal Araide king list, it is worth noting the name of ‘Cinaed son of Cathain’ who was over-king of the people of Dal Araide for a brief period following the death of Flathri mac Fiachrach in 774. There is no record in the Irish annals or the genealogies to a king by this name, but if he did indeed rule as king, the name of his father, Cathain will be of interest to those researching the O’Kanes. He may well have belonged to the northern branch of the Dal Araide, and even though Cathain lived a few generations earlier than ‘Cathain son of Drugan son of Conchobar son of Fergal’, the presence of Cathain’s name in northeast Ulster would support an early connection. In fact, the earliest copy of the Clann Conchobar genealogy in The Laud Genealogies and Tribal Histories, dating from the eleventh century, notes Cathain was probably originally spelt as ‘Eochathan with the first element, ‘Eo’ being miscopied for ‘Cu’ or ‘Con’, found in names like Cu-cionaedh or Con-cionaedh (hound of Cinaed or Kenneth), Cu-maighe or Con-maighe (meaing hound of the plain) and Cu-Midhe or Con-Midhe (meaning hound of Meath). Some of these names were used by the kings of Fir-Li in the twelth century, e.g. Cu-maighe and Cu-Midhe, and later by the Ua Cathain kings themselves. If Cinaed son of Conchobar, killed by the Cruithin (Dal Araide?) in Mag Cobo in Co. Down in 808, is the same Cinaed, eldest son of Conchobar son of Fergal, it is possible the Cenel Eogain were already pushing their way east across the river Bann into the territory of the Ulaid (Ulstermen) before 800.
There is evidence to demonstrate that other branches of the Cenel Eogain had settled on the west side of the river Bann in Co. Londonderry, including the Clann Fearchar from the Dunboe area next to Fir-na-Craibhe. The earliest genealogies refer to the Clann Fearchar as the ‘muinter Duin bo’, muinter meaning the household or community of Dunboe in the sense of the ‘inhabtants of a place’. Dunboe means the fort of the cows and traces of this early promontory fort are located near the Church of Dunboe and the Irish Sea. In the Laud, Rawlinson and Ballymote genealogies, the Clann or Muinter Fearchar of ‘Duin bo’ are said to be ‘a quo’ or ‘diata’, respectively meaning from whom descend and called or named after - Fearchar son of Niall Frossach son of Fergal, king of the Cenel Eogain and the Northern Ui Neill, who died in Iona Colum Cille in Argyllshire in 778.
The pedigree of the Clann Fearchar ends with ‘Gillemartin son of Duib Essa’ suggesting he was a sub-king whose family probably lost their ability to compete for a place within the kingship of the Cenel Eogain. Gillemartin’s name reflects a dedication to St. Martin of Tours in France and it would appear an ecclesiastical community had grown up around this saint in Dunboe. In 1182, Domnall Mac Lochlainn lead a host of the Cenel Eogain to 'Dun mbo' said to be in Dal Riata and gave battle against the Anglo-Normans lead by John de Courcy, who defeated the Cenel Eogain. Ragnall Ua Breslin and Gilla Crist Ua Cathain were both killed along with many others, and the Gospel of St. Martin was carried off with them by the Anglo-Normans. The territory of Dal Riata is not known to have extended west of the river Bann as far as Dunboe; therefore, the reference to Dal Riata is likely to have been a mistake possibly for ‘An Tuaiscert’ or Dal Araide, part of which seems to have extended across the river into Drumtarsy renamed Killowen in 1607. In a Computus return for the year 1262 from Twescard, there is an item of 20 shillings from two carucates of land in Drumtarsy7.
Another branch of Cenel Eogan are said to descend from Niall Frossach, the Clann Colman of Fir Li, a neighbouring tricha cét south of Fir-na-Craibhe (see map above). The kingdom of Fir Li presents a complex picture. It derives its name from Mag Li west of the river Bann, which extented from Camus to the river Moyola. By 1138, the northern part of Fir Li seems to have been conquered and annexed by the Ua Cathain: the southern part of Fir Li remained in the possession of a Ui Moccu Uais branch of kings, who were close relatives of the Ui Thuirtre . No pedigrees for the kings of the Fir Li survive, but references to them appear in the annals. The O’Flynn kings of the Ui Moccu Uais appear to have dominated the southern segment of Fir Li in the eleventh and twelfth century. However, two kings usually associated with the Cenel Binnig, a branch of the Cenel Eogain, may have intruded the kingship of Fir Li; namely, Domnall Ua Uathmarain, king of Fir Li, who was killed by the Dal Ariade in 1036, and the Ua Uathmarain, king of Fir Li, killed in 1081. Alternatively, the Ua Uathmarain kings may have belonged to the Clann Colman, whose genealogies have not survived.
There is some evidence to indicate, the Cenel Eogain had already expanded into Fir Li sometime before 949, when Flaithbertach Ua Neill, king of the Cenel Eogain, was killed defending Fir Li against the Ua Canannain of Cenel Conaill, who had made a foray into the district and plundered it. Flaithbertach was the brother of Muirchertach son of Niall Glundub, king of the Cenel Eogain, killed by Blacair son of Gothfrith, king of the Vikings, in 943. As already mentioned, Muirchertach had routed the Viking king Alpthann (Old Norse, Haldan) son of Gothfrith, responsible for the sacking of Dun Sobariche in 926. By then the royal centre at Ailech in Inishowen was giving way to Tullahogue in Co. Tyrone, where the Ua Neill kings of the Cenel Eogain were later inaugurated. From here, in the second half of the eleventh century, the Mac Lochlainn kings of Ailech would build their power base, supported by the Clann Conchobar of Magh Itha and others8. Although not mentioned until later, the Ua Cathain gave their support to the Mac Lochlainns, anglicised to McLaughlin, and in the twelfth century, we find them fighting along side the Mac Lochlainn against the Ua Neill in 1177.
Eight years earlier, in 1171, there had been a great foraying of the Ulaid lead by the chieftain, Magnus Mac Donnsleibhe of the Ua Eochadha, into Cuil-in-tuaisceirt and during this incursion, they plundered Cuil-rathain and several churches until a small number of the Cenel Eogain under the command of Conchobur Ua Cathain, overtook them and gave battle and killed twenty one of their men, both chiefs and sons of chiefs, and a multitude of others along with them. In both the 1171 and 1182 campaigns, the Ua Cathain had defended the territory of Cuil-in-tuaisceirt, re-enforcing their lordship and military dominance in the area, which would yet again be challenged, and it seems they probably lost control of the territory meantime to John de Courcy.
The De Galloway brothers, Alan and Thomas, and probably Donald and Rory, two of the sons of Ragnall son of Somerled, lord of Argyll, were not the only Gaelic nobles from the west of Scotland to show an interest in the north of Ireland. In 1216, the Annals of Ulster record the killing of Trad Ua Mailfhabhaill, chief of the Cenel Feargusa, by Muiredach son of Alwyn, earl of Lennox. Alwyn is called ‘Mórmair’ translated Great Steward of Lemhain (Lennox). The ‘great havoc’ wrought by Muiredach seems to have taken place in Carrickbraghy on Inishowen in Co. Donegal, where the Ua Mailfhabhaill were chiefs of the Clann Feargusa. Other branches of the Clann Feargusa held territoy south of the Sperrin Mountains in Co. Tyrone, e.g. the O’Hagans (Ua hOgains), O’Mellans and O’Quins. The Ua hOgains were based at Tullahogue, where they were hereditary brehons, and had the hereditary right of inaugurating the Ua Neill kings. The O’Mellen territory included Slieve Gallion to the north and what is now Cookstown to the south, with the whole are being known as Mellanaght. The O’Quins held land probably in the vicinity of Lissan. Interestingly, Donnsleibhe Ua hOgain, who died about 1122, was chief of the Clann Feargusa and lawgiver of Tullahogue. Could there have been familial ties between the Clan Feargusa and the earls of Lennox or were they simply heired as Gallowglass?
AU = Annals of Ulster 431-1541
FM = Annals of the Four Masters 123-1616
LC = Annals of Loch Ce 1014-1648
MCB = Mac Carthaigh’s Book 1114-1437
Echmhilidh Ua hAitidhe, lord of Ui-Eathach, was slain by the Ulidians themselves.
Extract from the Book of Cluain-mic-Nois, and the Book of the Island, i.e. the Island of the Saints, in Loch Ribh.
A great army was led by Brian, son of Ceinneidigh, into Cinel-Conaill and Cinel-Eoghain, to demand hostages. The route they took was through the middle of Connaught, over Eas-Ruaidh, through the middle of Tir-Conaill, through Cinel-Eoghain, over Feartas Camsa, into Dal-Riada, into Dal-Araidhe, into Ulidia, into Conaille-Muirtheimhne; and they arrived, about Lammas, at Bealach-duin. The Leinstermen then proceeded southwards across Breagha to their territory, and the foreigners by sea round eastwards southwards? to their fortress. The Munstermen also and the Osraighi went through Meath westwards to their countries. The Ulidians rendered hostages on this occasion; but they Brian Borumha and his party did not obtain the hostages of the races of Conall and Eoghan.
A great army of the men of Ireland was led by Brian son of Cendétigh, king of Mumu, to Cenél Conaill and Cené Eógain to obtain hostages, through the centre of Connacht, over Es Ruadh through the centre of Cenél Conaill, and through Cenél Eogain to Belach Dúin. The Ulaid gave hostages on that occasion, and they obtained hostages neither from Cenél Conaill nor Cenél Eogain.
Brian brought an army on a circuit of Ireland into Connacht, over Es Ruaid into Tír Conaill, through Cenél Eógain, over Fertas Camsa, into Ulaid, into the assembly of the Conaille; and at Lammas they came to Belach Dúin, and the full demand of the community of Patrick and of his successor i.e. Mael Muire son of Eochaid, was granted.
(It is remarkable that Sliab Cua has no troop,
That foreigners do not row around Eidnech,
That a lone woman crosses Luachair,
That cows are without a herdsman, lowing.
—That is in Brian's time.)
Muircheartach, son of Aedh O'Neill, was slain by the Dal-Riada, with a number of others along with him.
A defeat was inflicted on the Dál Araide by the Ulaid in which many were killed.
A battle between the Ulidians and the Dal-Araidhe, wherein the Dal-Araidhe were defeated by Niall, son of Eochaidh; and wherein fell Domhnall, son of Loingseach, lord of Dal-Araidhe; Niall, son of Dubhtuine, son of Eochaidh, son of Ardgar, ex-king of Ulidia; and Conchobhar Ua Domhnallain,lord of Ui-Tuirtri, and others along with them.
A battle between the Ulaid and the Dál Araide, and the Dál Araide were defeated. There fell therein Domnall ua Loingsigh, king of Dál Araide, and Niall son of Dub Tuinne, and Conchobur ua Domnalláin, king of Uí Thuirtri, and many others. Niall son of Eochaid was triumphant.
Domnall ua hUathmaráin, king of Fir Lí was killed by the Dál Araide.
Domhnall Ua h-Uathmharain, lord of Feara-Li, was slain by the Dal-Araidhe.
Conchobhar Ua Loingsigh, lord of Dal-Araidhe, was slain by the son of Domhnall Ua Loingsigh, in Leinster (i.e. in Ui-Buidhe), in violation of the guarantee of Niall, son of Eochaidh, King of Ulidia, and of Diarmaid, son of Mael-na-mbo.
A predatory incursion was made by Niall, son of Maeleachlainn, upon the Dal-Araidhe; and he carried off two thousand cows and sixty persons as prisoners.
Muiredach ua Flainn, king of Uí Tuirtre, died.
A raid was made by Ardgar son of Lochlainn and the Cenél Eógain into Dál Araide, and they carried off a great cattle-prey, and killed or captured two hundred people.
Cú Duilig ua Taidc, king of Fir Lí, was killed.
Brodur, the enemy of Comgall, who killed his king in Bennchor, was killed by the king of Dál Araide.
Brodar, the enemy of Comhghall (it was by him the king was killed at Beannchair), was slain by the lord of Dal-Araidhe.
Domnall ua Loingsigh, king of Dál Araide, and Muirchertach ua Maílfhábaill, king of Carraic Brachaide, were killed by the Uí Méith of Menn Tíre.
Domhnall Ua Loingsigh, lord of Dal-Araidhe, and Muircheartach Ua Maelfabhaill, lord of Carraig-Brachaidhe, were slain by the Ui-Meith.
Ua Eochaidén, king of Dál Araide, was killed by his own people.
Ua Loingsigh, king of Dál Araide, was killed by his own people.
Ua Loingsigh, lord of Dal-Araidhe, was slain by the Dal-Araidhe themselves.
Mael Mithig ua Mael Ruanaid, king of Uí Tuirtri—by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn—and ua Uathmurán, king of Fir Lí, were killed.
The defeat of Ard Achaidh was inflicted by the Dál Araide on the Ulaid, and in it fell Gilla Comgaill ua Cairill.
A great victory was gained at Ard-achad, by the Dal-Araidhe, over the Ulidians, wherein were slain Lochlainn Ua Cairill, royal heir of Ulidia; and Gillachomhghaill Ua Cairill; and a great host along with them.
The stone church of Ard Sratha was burned by Fir na Craíbhe against Uí Fhiachrach.
An expedition was made by Muirchertach ua Briain and by Leth Moga into Connacht, and over Eas Ruaidh into Tír Eógain, and they razed Ailech and burned and outraged many churches also, including Fathain of Muru and Ard Sratha. They went thereafter over Fertas Camsa and burned Cúl Rathain and committed slaughter there. They afterwards took the hostages of the Ulaid. They went home over Slige Midluachra.
A great army was led by Muircheartach Ua Briain, King of Munster, with the men of Munster, Leinster, Osraighe, Meath, and Connaught, across Eas-Ruaidh, into Inis-Eoghain; and he plundered Inis-Eoghain, and burned many churches and many forts about Fathan-Mura, and about Ard-sratha; and he demolished Grianan-Oiligh, in revenge of Ceann-coradh, which had been razed and demolished by Domhnall Ua Lochlainn some time before; and Muircheartach commanded his army to carry with them, from Oileach to Luimneach, a stone of the demolished building for every sack of provisions which they had. In commemoration of which was said:
I never heard of the billeting of grit stones,
Though I heard of the billeting of companies,
Until the stones of Oileach were billeted
On the horses of the king of the West.
Muircheartach after this went over Feartas-Camsa into Ulidia, and carried off the hostages of Ulidia; and he went the round of all Ireland in the space of a fortnight and a month, without battle, without attack, and he returned to his house by Slighe-Midhluachra. The expedition was called "The circuitous hosting."
A hosting of the men of Ireland to Ath-cliath, to oppose Maghnus and the foreigners of Lochlann, who had come to plunder Ireland; but they made peace for one year with the men of Ireland; and Muircheartach gave his daughter to Sichraidh, son of Maghnus, and gave him many jewels and gifts.
Cernach grandson of Ulcha, superior of Cúl Rathain, died in penitence.
Laidcnén ua Duibdara, king of Fir Manach, was killed by the Uí Fhiachrach and Fir na Craíbhe.
An army was brought by Conchobor ua Lochlainn and the Cenél Eógain and the Dál Araide and the Airgialla into Magh Coba, and they took the hostages of the Uí Echach. They turn thereafter south into the territory of the men of Brega, and left some of their people dead there and committed a great crime before God and man, i.e. the burning of Áth Truim with its churches, and a number of people suffered martyrdom there. They returned home, not having obtained peace from God or men.
Raghnall, son of Imhar Ua Cathain, lord of the Craebh, Cianachta, and Fir-Li, fell through treachery and guile, by the Ui-Eoghain of the Valley.
Aedh Ua Canannain, king of Cenel-Conaill, was killed by Ua Cathain and by the Men of the Craibh.
The turning of the Ulidians upon Ua Lochlainn [took place] and a foray [was made] by them upon the Ui-Meith, so that they took away many cows and killed a multitude of persons. A foray also [was made] by them upon the eastern Ui-Bresail and another foray upon Dal-riatai.
A hosting by Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, [along with] both [Cenel-] Cona[i]ll and [Cenel-] Eoga[i]n and the Airgialla, into Ulidia, so that they harried all the country, except, the chief churches of the Ulidians and killed a countless number of them, including Echmarcach, son of Mac Gilla-espuic and including Ua Lomanaigh (Lamont in Scotland) and they expelled Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] from Ulidia. And Ua Lochlainn gave the kingship to Donnsleibhe [Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha] and all the Ulidians gave their pledges to Ua Lochlainn, through the might of his regal power.
The Ulidians began to turn against Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, and proceeded with a force against the Ui-Meith, and carried off cows, and slew many persons. They made another deprecatory irruption upon the Ui-Breasail-Airthir, and another upon the Dal-Riada.
A great army was afterwards led by Muircheartach Ua Lochlainn, consisting of the Cinel-Conaill, Cinel-Eoghain, and Airghialla, into Ulidia; and they plundered and spoiled the whole country, except the principal churches of Ulidia; and they made a countless slaughter of men, and slew, among others, Eachmarcach Mac Gilla-Epscoib and Ua Lomain; and they banished Eochaidh Mac Duinnsleibhe from Ulidia, after having deprived him of his kingdom; and all the Ulidians gave their hostages to Ua Lochlainn for his royal power.
Great foraying force [was led] by Maghnus Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] with all Ulidia into Cuil-in-tuaisceirt, so that they plundered Cuil-rathain (Coleraine) and other churches, until a small number of the Cenel-Eogain under Conchobur Ua Cathain overtook them and gave battle and killed one and twenty men, both chiefs and sons of chiefs, and a multitude of others along with them. And Maghnus himself was wounded. And moreover that Maghnus was killed shortly after in Dun by Donnsleibhe, that is, by his own brother and by Gilla-Oenghusa Mac Gilla-espuic, namely, by the lawgiver of Monaigh, after great evils had been done by him,—namely, after leaving his own wedded wife and after taking his wife from his fosterer, that is, from Cu-maighi Ua Flainn and she [had been] the wife of his own brother at first, namely, of Aedh; after inflicting violence upon the wife of his other brother also, that is, of Eochaidh; after profanation of bells and croziers, clerics and churches. Donnsleibhe took the kingship in his stead.
Note: The Annals of Four Masters has ‘Gilla-Aenghusa son of Mac Gillaepscoip, ruler of Monaigh at Dun Downpatrick’.
A great predatory force was led by Maghnus Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua hEochadha and the Ulidians into Cuil-an-tuais-ceirt; and they plundered Cuil-rathain Coleraine and other churches. A small party of the Cinel-Eoghain, under Conchobhair Ua Cathain, overtook them; and a battle was fought between them, in which the Ulidians were defeated, with the loss of one-and-twenty chieftains and sons of chieftains, with many others of the commonalty; and Maghnus himself was wounded, but he escaped from the conflict on that occasion. He was afterwards killed by his own brother, Donnsleibhe, and Gilla-Aenghusa, son of Mac Gillaepscoip, ruler of Monaigh at Dun Downpatrick, after having perpetrated many evil deeds.
Mael-Patraic O'Banain, bishop of Condeiri and Dal-Araidhe, a venerable man, full of holiness and of meekness and of purity of heart, died full piously in Iona of Colum-cille, after choice old age.
Bean-Midhe, daughter of Donnchadh Ua Cerbaill, wife of Cu-maighi Ua Flainn, queen of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li, died.
Cu-maighi Ua Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li and Dal-Araidhe, was killed by Cu-Midhe, his own brother and by the Fir-Li.
Cooey O'Flynn, Lord of Hy-Tuirtre, Firlee, and Dalaradia, was slain by Cumee, his own brother, and the Firlee.
A hosting by John De Courcy and by the knights into Dal-Araidhe (and to Dun-da-lethlas), on which they killed Domnall, grandson of Cathusach [Mac Duinnsleibhe Ua Eochadha], king of Dal-Araidhe. Moreover, John went during the same expedition into Ui-Tuirtri and into Fir-Li, until Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn burned Airthir-Maighi before him and they [John's forces] burned Cuil-rathain and many other churches.
An army was led by John De Courcy and the knights into Dalaradia and to Dun da leathghlas; they slew Donnell, the grandson of Cathasach, Lord of Dalaradia. Dun da leathghlas was plundered and destroyed by John and the knights who came in his army. A castle was erected by them there, out of which they defeated the Ulidians twice, and the Kinel-Owen and Oriels once, slew Conor O'Carellan, chief of Clandermot, and Gilla-Macliag O'Donnelly, chief of Feardroma; and Donnell O'Flaherty now Laverty was so wounded by arrows on this occasion, that he died of his wounds in the church of St. Paul at Armagh, after having received the body and blood of Christ, and after extreme unction and penance. Many other chieftains were also slain by them besides these. During the same expedition, John De Courcy proceeded with his forces to Hy-Tuirtre and Firlee; before his arrival, however, Cume O'Flynn had set Armoy on fire; but they burned Coleraine and many other churches on this incursion.
Dun-da-lethglas was destroyed by John De Courcy and by the knights that came with him, and a castle was made by them there, wherefrom they twice inflicted defeat upon Ulidia and defeat upon Cenel-Eogain and upon Airgialla; where was killed Conchobur Ua Cairella[i]n (namely, chief of Clann-Diarmata) and Gilla Mac Liac Ua Donngaille, chief of Fir-Droma, and wherein was wounded with arrows Domnall Ua [F]laithbertaigh—and he died of those wounds in the monastery [of Canons Regular] of Paul [and Peter] in Ard-Macha, after partaking of the Body of Christ and after his anointing and wherein were killed many other nobles. Now, Conchobur Ua Cairella[i]n before that (namely, in the Spring) inflicted defeat upon the Cenel-Eogain and upon Ua Maeldoraidh; where a great number of the Cenel-Eogain were killed, around the son of Mac Sherraigh and around many nobles besides.
John de Courcy went to Downpatrick, and the town was destroyed by him, and the whole of Ulaid was destroyed by him; but therein a defeat was inflicted upon him, and the nobles of his people were slain, and he himself was taken prisoner.
It is in that year likewise went John [De Courcy], with his knights, pillaging from Dun to the Plain of Conaille, so that they took many preys therein and were a night in camp in Glenn-righi. Howbeit, Murchadh Ua Cerbaill, king of Airgialla, and Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha], king of Ulidia, with the Ulidians came up with them that night and made an onset upon them. Thereupon defeat was inflicted upon the Foreigners and stark slaughter was put upon them. The same John, notwithstanding, went for preys into Dal-Araidhe and into Ui-Tuirtri. But Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn, king of Ui-Tuirtri and Fir-Li, made an onset upon theme. That battle also went against the Foreigners and slaughter of them was inflicted.
John De Courcy with his foreigners repaired to Machaire Conaille, and committed depredations there. They encamped for a night in Glenree, where Murrough O'Carroll, Lord of Oriel, and Cooley Mac Donslevy, King of Ulidia, made a hostile attack upon them, and drowned and otherwise killed four hundred and fifty of them. One hundred of the Irish, together with O'Hanvy, Lord of Hy-Meith-Macha, fell in the heat of the battle. John De Courcy soon after proceeded to plunder Dalaradia and Hy-Tuirtre; and Cumee O'Flynn, Lord of Hy-Tuirtre and Firlee, gave battle to him and his foreigners, and defeated them with great slaughter, through the miracles of Patrick, Columbkille, and Brendan; and John himself escaped with difficulty, being severely wounded, and fled to Dublin.
A great foray by the Men of Magh-Itha around O'Cathain, namely, Echmarcach and by the Cenel-Binnigh of the Glenn, until they went past Tuaim [on the Bann] and harried Fir-Li and Ui-Tuirtri and took away many thousands of cows.
The men of Moy-Ithe, together with O'Kane Eachmarcach, and the Kinel-Binny of the Valley, mustered an army, and crossed Toome. They plundered all the territories of Firlee and Hy-Tuirtre, and carried off many thousands of cows.
A hosting by Domnall, son of Aedh Ua Lochlainn and by the Cenel-Eogain of Telach-oc into Ulidia and they gained a battle over the Ulidians and over Ui-Tuirtri and over Fir-Li, around Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe [Ua Eochadha] and around Cu-Midhe Ua Flainn.
Donnell, the son of Hugh Mac Loughlin, and the Kinel-Owen of Tullaghoge, made an incursion into Ulidia, and defeated the Ulidians, the Hy-Tuirtre, and the Firlee, together with Rory Mac Donslevy, and Cumee O'Flynn.
A hosting by Domnall Ua Lochlainn to Dun-mbo in Dal-riatai and battle was there given by him to the Foreigners and defeat [was inflicted] upon Cenel-Eogain and Raghnall Ua Breislein was killed there and Gilla Crist Ua Catha[i]n was killed there and many others [were killed]. And the Gospel of [St.] Martin was carried off with them by the Foreigners.
A hosting by Domhnall Mac Lachlainn to Dún-bó in Dal-Riada, and they gave battle there to the Foreigners; and the Cenel-Eoghain were defeated, and Raghnall O'Breslen was slain, and Gillachrist O'Cathain, et alii multi; and the Gospel of Martin was carried off by the Foreigners.
Donnell, the son of Hugh O'Loughlin, marched with an army to Dunbo in Dal Riada, and there gave battle to the English. The Kinel-Owen were defeated, and Randal O'Breslen, Gilchreest O'Kane, and many others, were killed. On this occasion they carried off with them the Gospel of St. Martin.
Defeat and slaughter [inflicted] by John de Courcy at Cúil an Tuaiscirt on Cinéal Eóghain, [Cinéal] Conaill, and Cianachta, and Giolla Críost Ó Cathain, son of the king of Fir na Craoibhe, and Raghnall Ó Brisléin, chieftain of Fána, were killed.
Conchobur Ua Catha[i]n died.
Conchobhar Ó Cathain, king of Fir na Craoibhe and Cianachta, fell by the power of Patrick together with his saints and relics, in retribution for the violation of his security.
Sluaghadh la h-Eoan Do Chuirt co n-Gallaibh Uladh co h-Ess Craibhe, co n-dernsat caistel Cille Santan, cor falmaichedh tricha ced Ciannacht doibh. Isin caistel-sin imorro ro fagadh Roitsel Phitun co sochraiti 'maille fris. Táinic dono Roitsel Phitun ar creich co Port Daire, co ro airc Cluain Í & Enach & Derc Bruach. Ruc imorro Flaithbertach O Mael Doraidh .i., ri Conaill & Eogain co n-uathadh do Chonall & d'Eogan forro, co tucsat maidm ar traigh na h-Uathcongbala forro, co ro marbadh a n-ar ann .i., 'mo mac Ardgail h-Ui Lochlainn, tre mirbail Coluim Cille & Cainnich & Brecan ro airgsetar ann.
A hosting by John De-Courcy with the Foreigners of Ulidia to Ess-craibhe, so that they built the castle of Cell-Santain [and] the cantred of Ciannachta was desolated by them. Moreover, in that castle was left Roitsel Fitton [and] a force along with him. Then Roitsel Fitton came on a foray to the Port of Daire, so that he pillaged Cluain-i and Enach and Derc-bruach. But Flaithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh (namely, king of [Cenel-]Cona[i]ll and Cenel-Eoga[i]n) overtook them with a small force of the [Cenel-]Cona[i]ll and the [Cenel-]Eoga[i]n, so that he inflicted defeat upon them on the strand of the [N]uathcongbhail [and] they were slaughtered to a large number (namely, around the son of Ardgal Ua Lochlainn), through miracle of Colum-cille and Cainnech and Brecan [whose churches] they pillaged there.
John De Courcy and the English of Ulidia marched, with an army, to Eas-Creeva, and erected the castle of Kilsanctan, and wasted and desolated the territory of Kienaghta. He left Rotsel Pitun, together with a large body of forces, in the castle, out of which they proceeded to plunder and ravage the territories and the churches. Rotsel Piton afterwards came on a predatory excursion to the harbour of Derry, and plundered the churches of Cluain-I, Enagh, and Dergbruagh. But Flaherty O'Muldory, Lord of Kinel-Owen and Kinel-Conell, with a small party of the northern Hy-Niall, overtook him; and a battle was fought between them on the strand of Faughanvale, in which the English and the son of Ardgal Mac Loughlin were slaughtered, through the miracles of SS. Columbkille, Canice, and Brecan, whose churches they had plundered.
An army was led by John De Courcy into Tyrone, among the churches; and Ardstraw and Raphoe were plundered and destroyed by him. He afterwards went to Derry, where he remained a week and two days, destroying Inishowen and the country generally. And he would not have withdrawn all his forces from thence had not Hugh O'Neill sailed with five ships to Killi [...] in Latharna, burned a part of the town, and killed eighteen of the English. The English of Moylinny and Dalaradia mustered three hundred men, and marched against Hugh, who had no intimation of their approach until they poured round him, while he was burning the town. A battle was then fought between them, in which the English were defeated. The English were routed five successive times before they retreated to their ships; and there were only five of Hugh's people slain. As soon as John De Courcy had heard of this, he left the place where he was etermined upon making conquests, that is, Derry-Columbkille.
A hosting by Jobn De-Courcy into Tir-Eogain throughout the churches: namely, Ard-sratha and Rath-both were destroyed by him, until he reached Daire, so that he was there two nights over a week, destroying Inis-Eogain and the country besides. And he would not have gone therefrom for a long time, had not [lit. until] Aedh Ua Neill, [with] a force of five ships, reached Cell [ruadh?] in Latharna, so that he burned a part of the town and killed twenty, wanting two, therein. Then the Foreigners of Magh-Line and Dal-Araidhe were, three hundred [strong], both in mail and without mail, in front of him and they [the Irish] noticed not, until [the Foreigners] poured against them, burning the town. Thereupon they gave battle in the centre of the town and it went against the Foreigners. And [the Irish] gave five defeats to them thenceforward, until they went into their ships and only five of the people of Ua Neill were lost. Thereafter John went away, when he heard that.
Manus O'Kane, son of the Lord of Kianaghta and Firnacreeva, tower of the valour and vigour of the North, was wounded by an arrow, and died of the wound.
Maghnus Ua Cathain, son of the king of Ciannachta and Fir-na-craibhe, tower of championship and courage of the North, fell by the wound of an arrow.
The King of England came to Ireland with seven hundred ships, and landed at Dublin, where he remained until he had recruited himself after the fatigues of his voyage, and then set out for Tioprait Ultain in Meath, where Cathal Crovderg O’Conor came into his house i.e. made his submission to him. He banished Walter de Lacy to England, and then proceeded, with his nobles, to Carrickfergus, whence he also banished Hugo de Lacy to England. Hugh O’Neill repaired hither at the King’s summons, but returned home without giving him hostages. The King besieged Carrick until it surrendered, and he placed his own people in it. O’Conor then returned home.
The king of the Saxons John came into Ireland with a fleet hard to count, namely, seven hundred ships.
Thomas Mac Uchtry and the sons of Randal Mac Sorley came to Derry with a fleet of seventy-six ships, and plundered and destroyed the town. They passed thence into Inishowen, and ravaged the entire island recte peninsula.
Thomas, son of Uchtrach with the sons of Raghnall, son of Somarle, came to Daire of St. Colum-cille with six and seventy ships and the town was greatly destroyed by them and Inis-Eogain was completely destroyed by them and by the Cenel-Conaill.
John Bishop of Norwich to the K. Alan de Galloway [Galweia] had sent to the Bishop in Ireland, Alan's uncle, another knight and a clerk to receive the lands which the K. had there granted to Alan. The Bishop having called before him at Carrickfergus the knights and the better and more prudent men of the province, delivered to Alan on the K.'s behalf 140 fees, that is to say, all Dalreth', the Isle of Rathlin, the cantred of Kymlalmerath, the lands of Gweskard' and of Lathern', the cantreds of Kunnoch and Tirkehik' beyond the Ban, excepting 20 fees nearest to the castle of Kilsantan',10 on this side of and 10 beyond the Ban, which the Bishop retains for the custody of that castle; excepting also ecclesiastical rights and all things belonging to ecclesiastics, lands given by the K. to Duncan de Karrach, and all fees whereof others had previously been enfeoffed. The lands had been so assigned to Alan on condition that if they contain more fees than had been given to him, the surplusage shall revert to the K., or Alan shall seek the K.'s pleasure thereon; and if he shall not have had his full complement, the Bishop is to supply the deficiency in the nearest locality beyond the Ban.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 427]
Farrell O'Kane, Lord of Kienaghta and Firnacreeva, was slain by the English.
Ferghal Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta and Firna-craibhe, was killed by the Foreigners.
Thomas Mac Uchtry and Rory Mac Randal plundered Derry-Columbkille, and carried off, from the middle of the church of Derry, all the precious articles of the people of Derry, and of the north of Ireland, which they brought to Coleraine.
O'Kane and the sept of Firnacreeva, came to Derry to take the house of the son of Mac Loughlin. The great prior, of the abbey church of Derry, who interposed to make peace between them, was killed. God and St. Columbkille wrought a miracle on this occasion; for Mahon Magaithne, the person who had gathered and mustered the army, was killed in the doorway of the church of Duvregles, in revenge of Columbkille.
The castle of Coleraine was erected by Thomas Mac Uchtry, and the English of Ulidia; and all the cemeteries and buildings of the town were thrown down excepting only the church to supply materials for erecting this castle.
June 27, 1213
Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to cause Robert Fitz Serlon to have an exchange for his land which the K. has given to the nephew of Duncan de Karrek. Beer Regis.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 461]
July 15, 1213
Grant to Alan Fitz Roland of Galloway [Galwea] of the forest within the land which the K. gave to him in Ireland, and of the fairs and markets belonging to that land. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 463]
July 23, 1213
Grant to Thomas of Galloway [Galweia], Earl de Athull', of that part of the vill of Derekoneull' which belonged to O'Neal [que fuit O'Nelis] in Kenlion, besides the cantred of 'Talachot retained in the K.'s hand, and the land which the K. gave to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the K. in fee, by the service of 3 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 468]
July 28, 1213
Grant in fee to Thomas Fitz Roilland, of Galloway, of 3 knights fees on this side of the Ban, and of 3 knights fees beyond that river, retained in the K.'s hand when the K. gave his land to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the K. in fee. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, William Earl de Ferrers, and others. Dorchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 474]
Thomas, son Of Uchtrach and Ruaidhri, son of Raghnall, plundered Daire completely and took the treasures of the Community of Daire and of the North of Ireland besides from out the midst of the church of the Monastery.
Ua Cathain and the Men of Craibh came to Daire to seize a house against the sons of Mac Lachlainn, so that between them they killed the great manciple of the Monastery of Daire. But God and St. Colum-cille wrought a great miracle therein: the man that assembled and mustered the force, namely, Mathgamain Mag Aithne, was killed in reparation to Colum-cille immediately, at the door of the Penitentiary of Colum-cille.
The castle of Cuil-rathain was built by Thomas, son of Uchtrach and by the Foreigners of Ulidia. And all the cemeteries and fences and buildings of the town, save the church alone, were pulled down for that.
April 2, 1215
The K. commands Henry Archbishop of Dublin, justiciary of Ireland, to allow the men of Alan de Galloway to go into Ireland and return with the ship which Alan took at Kirkudbright; and to permit Alan to have his merchandise on board the ship until its owner shall have come to the K. and communicated with the justiciary. Lichfield.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 545]
June 27, 1215
Grant to Alan Fitz Rolland of the following lands in Ireland, namely:—The land between Inverarma and the bounds of Dalred, saving to Dunecan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres, which the K. previously gave to him; all Crihenelanmerach'; all Dalred; the Island of Rachrun; and all Toschart'; saving to the K. The castle of Kirkesantam, with 10 knights fees about it. Further grant to Alan of all the land of Kennaght and Tirketin', saving to the K. 10 knights fees on the Ban within the said land of Kennacht; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 10 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 564]
June 27, 1215
Grant to Thomas de Galloway [Galweya], Earl of Athole [Athobnensis], of the following lands, namely:—Killesantan, with the castle of Culrath'; 10 knights fees in Twescart, near that castle, on the Ban; on the other side of the Ban 10 knights fees in Kenact, near the castle; Duncathel; with all Twerth' and Clinkinmolan'; to hold of the K. in fee by the service of 2 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey de Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 565]
June 30, 1215
The K. commands his justiciary of Ireland to deliver to Thomas de Galloway the K.'s castle of Antrum, to be held in his custody during pleasure. Winchester.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 567]
Trad h-Ua Mail Fhabhaill, toisech Ceneoil Ferghusa, co n-a braithribh & co n-ár mor, do marbadh do Muiredach mac Mórmair Lemhnach.
Trad Ua Mailfhabhaill, chief of Cenel-Ferghusa, along with his kinsmen and with great havoc, was killed by Muiredach, son of the Great Steward of Lemhain (Lennox).
June 16, 1220
The K. to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway has come to the K. and rendered fealty. Mandate to the justiciary to cause Alan to have seisin of the following lands given and confirmed to him by the charter of King John, which the K. has inspected:—All the land between Inverarma and the boundaries of Dalrede, saving to Duncan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres of land given to by him King John ; all Crihenelanmerach by its right boundaries; all Dalrede by its right boundaries with the Island of Rachrun ; all Thoskart ; saving to the K. the castle of Kirkesantan, with 10 knights fees near the castle ; all the land of Kennacht, and all the land of Tirkethin by its right boundaries; saving to the K. and his heirs 10 knights fees on the Ban, within the said land of Kennacht. York.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 942]
April 18, 1220
The K. to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway will come to the K. to render homage, and a charter of faithful service, provided the land which he ought to hold of the K. in Ireland be restored to him. Mandate to the justiciary to give him or his emissary seisin of all the lands in Ireland granted and confirmed to him by King John. Westminster.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 937]
April 18, 1220
The K. to Alan de Galweia [Galloway]. Hamo de Galloway, clerk, has come to the K. and Council on behalf of Alan, praying the restoration of his lands, and asserting that he was ready to do homage and give a charter of faithful service. The K. Complies with the petition, orders the lands in Ireland given to Alan by King John to be restored, and commands the justiciary of Ireland to give seisin thereof to Alan or his emissary. Alexander King of Scotland, and part of his Council, will meet the K. and part of his Council at York, to make a treaty on matters touching the kingdoms of England and Scotland. The K. commands Alan to come thither to render homage and a charter as above. The K. will do what of right he ought to do regarding Alan's lands in England. Westminster.
[Sweetman, H. S.: Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1215 (London, 1875), no. 936]
The son of Ugo De Lacy came into Ireland in despite of the king of the Saxons, until he came to Aedh O'Neill; so that they went together against the Foreigners of Ireland and destroyed much in Meath and in Leinster and in Ulidia and razed the castle of Cuil-rathain. And the Foreigners of Ireland collected four and twenty battalions at Dun-delgain, until Aedh O'Neill and the son of Ugo came with four battalions against them, so that the Foreigners gave the award of his own word to O'Neill.
The castle of Cuil-rathain was built this year.
Eachmarcach O'Kane, Lord of Kienaghta and Firnacreeva, was slain by Manus O'Kane, after having gone on a predatory excursion into his country as far as Armoy in Dal-Riada.
Eachmarcach Ua Cathain, king of Ciannachta and of Fir-na-craibhe, was killed by Maghnus Ua Cathain, on his going upon a foray to the latter, to Airther-muighi in Dal-riatai.
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