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Gall Gaedhil in Ireland

Gall Gaedhil in Medieval Records relating to Scotland

A.D. 830-1200


AB = Annals of St. Bertin 830-882
AT = Annals of Tigernach 488-1200
AU = Annals of Ulster 431-1541
BT = Brut y Tywysogion (Welsh Chronicles of the Princes)
CM = Canterbury Manuscript
FA = Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.
FM = Annals of the Four Masters 123-1616
LC = Annals of Loch C� 1014-1590
PM = Peterborough Manuscript


The Irish Annals and Chronicles of England and Isles of Man

AU 839

Bellum re genntib for firu Fortrenn in quo ceciderunt Euganan m. Oengusa & Bran m. Oengussa & Ed m. Boanta & alii pene innumerabiles ceciderunt.

The heathens won a battle against the men of Foirtriu, and E�gan�n son of Aengus, Bran son of �engus, Aed son of Boanta, and others almost innumerable fell there.

AB 847

The Scotti, who for several years had been attacked by the Northmen, were made into tribute-payers. And [the Northmen] also took possession of the surrounding islands and dwelt there, with no one offering resistance.

[M�rkus, Gilbert: Conceiving a Nation: Scotland to AD 900 (Edinburgh, 2017), p. 233]

AU 866

Amlaiph & Auisle do dul i Fortrenn co n-Gallaib Erenn & Alban cor innriset Cruithentuaith n-uile & co tucsat a n-giallo.

Amla�b and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them.

AU 871

Amhlaiph & �mar do thuidecht afrithisi du Ath Cliath a Albain dibh cetaibh long, & praeda maxima hominum Anglorum & Britonum & Pictorum deducta est secum ad Hiberniam in captiuitate.

Amla�b and �mar returned to �th Cliath from Alba with two hundred ships, bringing away with them in captivity to Ireland a great prey of Angles and Britons and Picts.

CS 872

Artgal, king of the Britons of Srathclyde, was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed.

AU 873

Flaithbertach son of Muirchertach, superior of D�n Caillen, died.

AU 875

The Picts encountered the dark foreigners in battle, and a great slaughter of the Picts resulted.

Note: the Poppleton MSS mentions the battle of Dollar between the Danish Vikings and the Scots, in which the Scots were driven in defeat to Atholl ... spelt Achcochan
.
AU 875

Oist�n son of Amla�b, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann.

AU 878

The shrine of Colum Cille and his other halidoms arrived in Ireland, having been taken in flight to escape the foreigners.

CS 878

The shrine of Colum Cille and his other halidoms arrived in Ireland, having been taken in flight to escape the foreigners.

AU 913

Cathroined re n-gentibh for fairinn nochoblaigh de Ultaibh i n-airiur Saxan d� i torchradur ili, .i. Cumuscach m. Mael Mochorghi m. righ Leithi Cathail.

The heathens inflicted a battle-rout on the crew of a new fleet of the Ulaid, on the coast of England, and many fell, including Cumuscach son of Mael Mocheirgi, son of the king of Leth Cathail.

Note: n-airiur is translated �coast of� Saxon.

AU 917

Sitriuc h. Imair cona chobluch do ghabail oc Cinn Fhuait i n-airiur Laigen. Ragnall h. h-Imair cona chobluch ailiu co Gallu Locha Da Chaech. �r n-Gall oc Neimlid la Mumain. �r n-aile la Eoganacht & Ciaraidhe.

Sitriuc, grandson of �mar, landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin. Ragnall, grandson of �mar, with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch d� Chaech. A slaughter of the foreigners at Neimlid in Muma. The E�ganacht and the Ciarraige made another slaughter.

Note: n-airiur is translated coast of in the above text.

AU 918

Gaill Locha Da Caech do dergiu Erenn, .i. Ragnall r� Dubgall, & na da iarla, .i. Ottir & Graggabai & sagaith d�oib iar sin co firu Alban. Fir Alban dono ara cenn-somh co comairnechtar for bru Tine la Saxanu Tuaiscirt. Do-gensat in genti cethrai catha dibh, .i. cath la Gothbrith ua n-Imair; cath lasna da iarla; cath lasna h-�c-tigerna. Cath dano la Raghnall i n-eroloch nad-acadur fir Alban. Roinis re feraibh Alban forsna tri catha ad-conncadur co rolsat �r n-dimar dina genntibh im Ottir & im Graggabai. Raghnall dono do-fuabairt iar suidhiu i l-lorg fer n-Alban coro la ar dibh acht nad-farcbath ri na mor-m�er di suidibh. Nox prelium dirimit.

The foreigners of Loch d� Chaech, i.e. Ragnall, king of the dark foreigners, and the two jarls, Oitir and Gragabai, forsook Ireland and proceeded afterwards against the men of Scotland. The men of Scotland, moreover, moved against them and they met on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland. The heathens formed themselves into four battalions: a battalion with Gothfrith grandson of �mar, a battalion with the two jarls, and a battalion with the young lords. There was also a battalion in ambush with Ragnall, which the men of Scotland did not see. The Scotsmen routed the three battalions which they saw, and made a very great slaughter of the heathens, including Oitir and Gragabai. Ragnall, however, then attacked in the rear of the Scotsmen, and made a slaughter of them, although none of their kings or earls was cut off. Nightfall caused the battle to be broken.

FM 939 (=941)

Murchobhlach la Muirchertach, mac N�ill, co t-tuc orgain & �dala iomdha a h-Inisbh Gall iar m-breith buadha & cosgair.

A fleet was conducted by Muircheartach son of Niall, and he carried off much plunder and booty from the Insi-Gall, after gaining victory and triumph.

FM 939 (=941)

A battle was gained over the foreigners of Ath-cliath by the Ui-Failghe, i.e. by Aimhergin, son of Cin-aedh, lord of Ui-Failghe, where there fell a thousand of the foreigners, with Aedh Albanach, and many chieftains besides him.

CS 941

Murcablach Ia Muircertach mac Nell go ttug orgain a hInisb Alban.

A fleet was brought by Muirchertach son of Niall, and he brought back plunder from Inse Alban.

FM 960 (=962)

The fleet of the son of Amhlaeibh (Amla�b) and of the Ladgmanns (lawmen) came to Ireland, and plundered Conaille and Edar, with Inis-mac-Neasain; and the Ladgmanns afterwards went to the men of Munster, to avenge their brother, i.e. Oin, so that they plundered Inis-Doimhle and Ui-Liathain, and robbed Lis-mor and Corcach, and did many other evils. They afterwards went into Ui-Liatain, where they overtaken by Maelchluiche Ua Maeleitinn, who made a slaughter of them, i.e. killing three hundred and sixty-five, so that there escaped not one of them but the crews of three ships.

Note: This the first of two references to the lawmen of Isles. For the second, see under the year 974. It seems the Isles is likely to have been organised and ruled by assemblies of freeholders who regularly elected lawmen to preside over their public affairs. The use of the plural, lawmen, suggests that each island or group of islands may have had its own assembly.

FM 961 (=963)

Fothadh, mac Brain, scribhnidh & espucc Insi Alban.

Fothadh, son of Bran, scribe and Bishop of�Insi-Alban.

Note: Bishop Fothad was also bishop of the Scots. He may have transferred his seat to Iona.

FM 972 (=974)

The plundering of Inis-Cathaigh (Scattery Island) by Maghnus (Maccus), son of Aralt, with the Lagmanns (lawmen) of the Isles along with him; and Imhar, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach (Limerick), was carried off from the island, and the violation of Seanan thereby.

Note: Maccus son of Arailt, and his brother, Gofraidh son of Arailt, are generally accepted to have been the sons of Aralt mac Sitriuc (Harald Sigtryggsson), the great grandson of �mair, founder of the U� �mair dynasty in Dublin and Isles.

AU 980.1

Cath Temrach ria Mael Sechnaill m. n-Domnaill for Gallaibh Atho Cliath & na n-Indsedh I r-roladh derg-ar Gall & nert Gall a h-Erinn, d� I torchair Ragnall m. Amhlaim m. rig Gall, & Conamhal m. airri Gall, & alii multi.

The battle of Temair�was won�by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall against the foreigners of �th Cliath and the Isles, and very great slaughter was inflicted on the foreigners therein, and foreign power�ejected�from Ireland�as a result. There fell therein Ragnall son of Amla�b, the son of the king of the foreigners, and Conamal, son of a tributary king of the foreigners, and many others.

AT 980.3

The battle of Tara gained by Maelseachnaill the Great son of Domhnall son of Donnchadh son of Flann, by the king of Ireland, over the Foreigners of Dublin, over the sons of Olaf specially, wherein many fell, including Raghnall son of Olaf, crown prince of the Foreigners, and Conmael, son of Giolla Airi (Aire) and the Orator of Dublin, and many others. Braen son of Murchadh, crown prince of Leinster, and Congalach son of Flann, king of the Gailenga, and his son Mael�n, and Fiachra and C� Duiligh, two sons of Dublaech, two kings of the Fir Tulach, and Lachtna, king of Mughdoirn Maigen, fell in the counterblow of that battle.

Note: Conamal was "Conamhal m. airri Gall" by the�Annals of Ulster, and "Conmael mac Gilli Airi" by the Annals of Tigernach, and although, doubtful, he may be identified as the son of a man named Gilli, who bore the title�airr� Gall�("royal deputy of the Foreigners"). Alternatively, the name and epithet have been miscopied and the annals refer to the personal name�Gilla Maire�and the epithet�Gall.

CS 980

Amlaib, son of Sitric, over-king of the foreigners of �th Cliath, went in exile to Ia (Iona), and died after communion and repentance.

AU 983.2

Mael Sechnaill, son of Domnall, and Gl�n Iairn, son of Amla�b, inflicted a battle-rout on Domnall Claen, king of Laigin, and �mar of Port L�irge, in which fell Gilla P�traic son of �mar and others�many being drowned or slain. (Gilla P�traic son of Amla�b).

AU 986.2

The Danes arrived on the coast of D�l Riata, that is, with three ships, and seven score of them were executed and others sold.

AU 986.3

� of Colum Cille was plundered by the Danes on Christmas Night, and they killed the abbot and fifteen of the elders of the monastery.

AU 987.1

The battle of Manu�was won�by Aralt's son (Gothfrith) and the Danes, and a thousand were slain therein.

AU 987.3

A great slaughter of the Danes who plundered � (Iona), and three score and three hundred of them were slain.

AU 989.4

Gofraidh m. Arailt, ri Innsi Gall, do marbad i n-Dal Riatai.

Gothfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, was killed in D�l Riata.

AT 989

Godfrey son of Harald, king of the Hebrides, fell by the D�l Riada.

CS 989

Gothfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, fell by the D�l Riata.

AU 1005

Ragnall m. Gothraidh r� na n-Innsi, in Christo.

Ragnall son of Gofraid, king of the Isles, rested in Christ.

CS1005

Ragnall son of Gotfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, dies.

AU 1013

Muirchertach son of Aed ua N�ill was killed by the D�l Riatai.

AU 1014

Siucraid son of Lodur, jarl of Innsi Orc, and Domnall son of Eimen son of Cainnech, earl of Marr in Scotland, killed at the battle of Clontarf.

LC 1014

Do-rechtadar ann S�ighraidh Fionn & S�oghraidh Donn, dha mhac Lothair �arla Innsi h-Orc, co sl�aghaib Innsi h-Orc imaille fri�. Do-rochtadar ann, imorro, sl�igh d�mh�ra a h-Innisbh Gall & a Manuinn, & as na Rennoib, & a Breathnoibh, & a Pl�mennoibh.

Thither came Siograd Finn, and Siograd Donn, two sons of Lothar, Jarl of Innsi-hOrc, accompanied by the armies of Innsi-hOrc. Thither came, moreover, great hosts from Innsi-Gall, and from Manainn, and from the Renna, and from the Britons, and from the Flemings.

Sighrud, son of Lothar, Jarl of Insi-hOrc, and Domhnall, son of Eimhin, son of Cainnech M�r, great steward of Marr in Alba; et alii multi nobiles.

ASC 1031

Here Cnut (king of England) went to Rome; and in the same year he went to Scotland, and Malcolm, the king of Scots, submitted to him and two other kings, Maelbeth and Iehmarc.

[Source: Swanton, Michale (ed & trans): The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London, 1997), p. 157-8]
Note: Iehmarc is usually identified with Echmarcach, king of the Rhinns (in Galloway).

AU 1034.1

Mael Coluim m. Cinaedha, ri Alban, obiit.

Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland, died.

AU 1034.10

Suibne m. Cinaedha, ri Gall-Gaidhel, mortuus est.

Suibne son of Cinaed, king of the Gallgaedil, died.

HGC 1034

Bonhed Gruffudd o barth y vam: Fruffudd vrenhin, m Regnell, verch Avleod, vrenhin dinas Dulyn a phymhet ran ywerdon ac enys Vanav, a hanoed gynt o deyrnas Prydein. A brenhin oed ar lawer o enyssed ereill, Denmarc, a�Galwei, a�Renneu, a Mon, a Gvyned a gvyned ene lle y gwnaeth avloed castell cadarn ae dom ae fos etwas en amlvc ac aelwit castell avloed vrenhin.

Gruffudd�s pedigree on his mother side: king Gruffudd, son of Ragnallt, daughter of Olaf, king of the city of Dublin, and a fifth part of Ireland and the Isle of Man, which was formerly of the kingdom of Britain. And he was king over many other islands, Denmark and�Galloway�and the�Rinns, and Man, and Anglesey, and Gwynedd, where Olaf built a strong castle with its mound and ditch still visible and called �The Castle of King Olaf�.

Note: Vita Griffinin filii Conani is in Peniarth MS 17 which dates to the middle of the thirteenth century. See Jones, Arthur: The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan (Manchester, 1910), pp. 104-5, and Russell, Paul: Vita Griffini Filii Conani (Cardiff, 2005), p. 55, 129-130.

AU 1035.5

Ragnall ua h�mair, king of Port L�irce, was killed in �th Cliath by Sitriuc son of Amla�b.

AT 1036.8

Sitriuc mac Amlaim do dul assa righi tar muir, & Eachmarcach 'sa righi.

Sitriuc son of Olaf (Amla�b) went from his realm over the sea, and Eachmarcach reigned in his stead.

Note: Sitriuc ruled Dublin for almost fifty years between 989 and 1036.

AT 1036.9

Gofraidh�mac Sitriuca do marbad do mac Gluin Iaraind a m-Bretnaib.

Gofraidh son of Sitric was killed in Wales by the son of Iron-knee.

AT 1038.1

Imar tar �is Eachmarcaigh, & Reachru do argain do Gallaib.

�mar (son of Aralt) succeeded Echmarcach and Rechru was plundered by the Foreigners.

FM 1038.13

Reachru�do orccain do�Ghallaibh.

Reachru was plundered by the foreigners.

OS 1037-1045

One summer Earl Thorfinn went raiding in the Sudreyjar (Hebrides) and in various parts of Skotland. He himself lay at anchor off Gaddgedlar where Skotland borders on England, but he sent some of his troops south to raid the English coast, as the people had driven all their livestock out of his reach. When the English realised that the Vikings had arrived, they gathered together, made a counter-attack, recovered all that had been stolen and killed every able-bodied man among them except for a few they sent back to tell Thorfinn this was how they discouraged the Vikings from their raids and looting.

[P�lsson, Hermann and Edwards, Paul (translators): Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney (London, 1978), p. 61. Place names in italics taken form Gudbrand Vigfursson�s copy of the Orkneyinga Saga and Magus Saga (London, 1887), Vol 1 Icelandic Sagas, p. 41]

AT 1044.4

Loscad Scrine Padraic la mac n-Arailt.

The burning of St Patrick's Skreen by the son of Arailt (�mar).

FM 1044.10

h-Ua h-Aedha, tigherna Ua Fiachrach Arda Sratha, do mharbhadh l� mac n-Arailt, & losccadh Scr�ne P�traicc lais bhe�s.

Ua h-Aedha, lord of Ui-Fiachrach-Arda-Sratha, was slain by the son of Aralt, by whom also the shrine of Patrick was burned.

AT 1045.3

�r Ulad i Reachraind im Regnall h-ua n-Eochadha la h-Imar mac Arailt.

A slaughter in Rathlin of the Ulaid including Raghnall � hEochadha, by �mar son of Arailt.

AI 1045.5

Regnall h-Ua Eochada,�r�gdamna�Ulad, do marbad do�Gallaib��tha Cliath�i r-Rechrain, .ccc. do mathib Ulad�imme.

Ragnall Ua hEochada, royal heir of Ulaid, was slain by the foreigners of �th Cliath in Rechru, together with three hundred nobles around him.

FM 1045.12

Ar for�Ultoibh�h-i�Reachrainne�la o�Ghallaibh�Atha Cliath, .i. h-Iomhar�mac�Arailt, in ro marbhadh tr� ch�d im�Raghnall�ua n-Eochadha.

A slaughter was made of the Ulidians at Reachrainn, by the foreigners of Ath-cliath, i.e. Imhar, son of Aralt, in which were slain three hundred men, together with Raghnall Ua h-Eochadha.

AT 1045.11

Sluaiged la mac n-Eochadha & la Mael Sechlainn co Gallaib, coro loiscset Sord & F�ne Gall.

A hosting by Mac Eochadha and Maolseachlainn as far as the Foreigners, and they burned Swords and Fingal.

Note: Niall mac Eochaid, king the Ulster, made a retaliatory raid on Finn Gall in north of Dublin, for the killing of Ragnall Ua Eochada, royal heir of Ulaid. The enmity between Niall son of Eochaid, may go back to 1022, when a naval combat was fought in the Irish Sea between the foreigners of �th Cliath and Niall, and the foreigners were defeated and a great number of them slaughtered, and prisoners were also taken. In 1026, the Annals record a further attack by Niall against the foreigners and burned their territory in east Brega, and took great booty and valuables from them.

AT 1046.6

Eachmarcach a n-Ath Cliath tar e�s Arailt.

Eachmarcach succeeded (�mar son of) Arailt in Dublin.

FM 1046.8

Mag�Arailt�do ionnarbadh do�Ghallaibh, & mac�Raghnaill�do r�oghadh.

The son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners, and the son of Raghnall was elected king.

AU 1052

Echmarcach son of Ragnall, king of the foreigners, was banished by the king of Laigin, i.e. Diarmait son of Mael na mB�, and the latter himself took the kingship as a result.

AT 1052

A raid by the son of Maol na mB� into Fingal and he burned the country from Dublin to the Delvin river, but he overtook no cows, so that he and the Foreigners fought great skirmishes round the fortress of Dublin, wherein fell many on both sides, and Echmarcach son of Raghnall, the king of the Foreigners, went overseas, and the son of Maol na mB� assumed the kingship after him.

FM 1052.8

A predatory excursion was made into Fine-Gall by the son of Mael-na-mbo, and he burned the country from Ath-cliath to Albene; but he did not seize cows until they had great skirmishes around the fortress, where many fell on both sides, so that the lord of the foreigners, Eachmarcach, son of Raghnall, went overseas, and the son of Mael-na-mbo assumed the kingship of the foreigners after him.

AU 1054.1

�mar son of Aralt, king of the foreigners, died.

LC 1054.1

Imhar, son of Aralt, king of the Foreigners, died.

AU 1064

Echmarcach, king of the Foreigners, died.

Note: Marianus Scottus (d.c.1082) the chronicler described him as rex inna renn, king of the Rhinns, when he died on pilgrimage to Rome in 1065.

SAEC 1079

Ailred of Rievaulx�s account of the Malcolm, king of Scots, attack on the church and men of Hexham.

Summation. At the time when Malcolm, king of Scots, ravaged Northumbria with cruel slaughter, he ever preserved peace with the church of Hexham, through honour for the saints who rest in it. But when on one occasion his messengers fell among robbers near the lands of that church, and returned robbed and wounded to the king, they laid the charge of this cruelty against innocent people. And the king was enraged and furious over this accusation, and swore that for such ingratitude he would wholly destroy the place itself and the people. The King was angry, and summoned his Galwenses (Galwegians) vassals, more cruel than the rest and ordered them to attack Hexham Church, where the people of the district sought refuge. As evening fell, a dense and thick mist descended on the river Tyne making it difficult to cross the river for his army to attack Hexham. The Galwenses therefore entered the mist, and passing through some wastes crossed the stream on the on the west, on the way which leads to Cumbrian, and towards evening found themselves on the border of their own district. But the king waited both for the Galwenses whom he had sent, and for the departure of the mist, which he abhorred; and was in doubt what he should do. But when the mist rose and disclosed the light which it had hidden he river had swollen with a sudden flood, and for three days hindered the king�s attempt� to cross the river. Then the king returned to himself and summoned his nobles and said �What do we, Let us retire hence, since these saints are at home�.

[Anderson, Alan O.: Scottish Annals from English Chronicles 500 to 1286 (London, 1908), p. 100-102: see also James Rainer�s History of the Priory of Hexham Vol. 1 in The publication of the Surtees Society (Durham, 1864), Vol. Xliv, p. 177-180]

AI 1094

Macc Congail, r� na Rend, do marbad.

Congal's son, king of Na Renna, was slain.

Note: Benjamin Hudson has suggested that na Renna refers to the Renna, known as the Rhinns of Galloway, which equates with modern Wigtownshire.

CKMS 1098

Magnus rex Norwegiae filius Olavi filii Haraldi Harfagre, Galwedienses ita con striuxit, nt cogeret cos materias lignorum caedere et ad litus portare ad munitiones construendas.

Magnus, King of Norway, son of Olave, the son of Harald Harfager, compelled the men of Galloway to cut timber and bring it to the shore for the construction of the forts.

[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings o Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]

CSMS 1102

Olavus films Godredi Crouan coepit regnare super omnes insulas, regnavitque XL.ta annis. Erat autem vir pacificus, habuitque omnes reges Yberniae et Scotiae ita sibi confoederatos, nt nullus auderet perturbare regnum insularum omnibus diebus ejus. Accepit autem uxorem Affricam�nomine filiam Fergus�de Galwedia, de qua genuit Godredum. Habuit et concubinas plures, de quibus fihios tres, scilicet Reignaldum, Lagmannum, et Haraldum, et filias multas generavit, quarum una nupsit Sumerledo regulo�Herergaidel, quae fuit causa ruinae totius regni insularum. Genuit namque ex ea filios IV., Dubgallum, Raignaldum, Engus, et Olavum, do quibus latius in sequentibus dicemus.

Olave, son of Godred Crouan, began to reign over all the Isles, and he reigned forty years. He was a man of peace, and was in such close alliance with all the kings of Ireland and Scotland, that no one ventured to disturb the kingdom of the Isles during his time. He took a wife named Affrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway, by whom he had issue Godred. He had also many concubines, by whom he had issue three sons; Reginald, Lagman, and Harold, and many daughters, one of whom was married to Sumerled, Lord of Argyll; and this was the cause of the ruin of the whole kingdom of the Isles; for he had issue by her four sons, Dugald, Reginald, Angus, and Olave, of whom we shall speak more fully hereafter.

[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]

CSMS 1142

Eodenm anno tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi, qui nutriti suerant apud Dubliniam, congregantes magnam turbam hominum et omnes profugas regis, venerunt ad Manniam postulantes ab codem rege medietatem totius regni insularuni sibi dan. Rex autem cum audisset, placare eos volens, respondit super hoc consilium se habituruni; cunique diem et locuni constituissent, ubi concilium haberi debuisset, interim illi necjuissimi de morte regis inter se tractabant. Constituta antern die conve nerunt utueque partes, illi vero cum suis ex altera. Regnaldus autem medianus frater, qii euni per cussurus erat, stabat seorsiin loquens cum quodam viro de principibus terr~e. Cumque vocatus venisset ad regem, ver tens se ad eum quasi salutans eum, securim fulgentem in altum levavit, et caput regis uno ictu amputavit. Perpetrato autem tanto scelere statim terrain diviserunt inter se. Paucis diebus transactis, congregata classe, transfretaverunt ad Galwediam, volentes sibi subjugare. Galwedienses autem conglobati et ruagno impetu facto, congressi sunt cum cis. Liii statiin terga vertentes, fugerunt cum magna confusione ad Manniam, omnesque Galwedienses qui in ea habita bant quosdam jugulaverunt, alios expulerunt.

In the same year three sons of Harold, the brother of Olave, who had been brought up in Dublin, assembling a large body of men, and among them all the refugees from the dominions of Godred, came to Man, and demanded from the king one half of the whole kingdom of the Isles for themselves. The king having heard their application, and being desirous to pacify them, answered that he would take advice on the subject. When the day and place for holding a meeting had been agreed upon, these most wicked men spent the interval in planning the death of the king. On the appointed day both parties met at the port called Ramsey, and sat down in order, the king and his followers on one side, and they with theirs on the other. Reginald, the second brother, who was to give the fatal blow, stood apart, speaking to one of the chiefs of the country. On being summoned to approach the king, turning to him as if in the act of saluting, he raised his gleaming battleaxe on high, and at a blow cut off the king's head. As soon as this atrocious act was perpetrated they divided the country between them. After the lapse of a few days they collected their fleet, and sailed to Galloway with the purpose of conquering it. But the men of Galloway, forming a compact body, rushed upon them with great impetuosity; whereupon the invaders turned and fled in great confusion to Man, and massacring some, expelled the rest of the Galloway residents in the island.

[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]

FM 1154

Coblach l� Toirrdhealbhach Ua c-Concobhair for muir timchell Ereann fo thuaith .i. loinges Duin Gaillmhe, Chonmaicne Mara, Fhear n-Umhaill, Ua n-Amhalgadha, & Ua Fiachrach, & An Cosnamhaigh U� Dubhda h-i c-cennas forra, & ro airccset T�r Chonaill, & Inis E�ghain. Do-chuas � Chenel Eoghain, & o Mhuircertach, mac N�ill dar muir co ruaiclidis .i. go cendcad�s longas Gall-Ghaoidhel Arann, Cinn T�re, Manann & centair Alban archena,& mac Scelling � c-cennas forra, & iarna t-torracht h-i c-comhfhogus Innsi h-Eoghain ima c-comhr�inicc d�ibh& don loinges oile feachair cath longda co h-amnus aighthighe eatorra, & bh�ttar occan iomtuarccain � prim co n�in, & marbhthar sochaidhe mhor do Chonnachtaibh imon c-Cosnamhaigh Ua n-Dubhda l�sna h-allmhurachaibh. Ro mheabhaidh, foran sluagh n-allmhurach,& ro l�dh a n-�r, & fhagbhait a longa, & ro benadh a fhiacla a mac Scelling.

A fleet was brought by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair on the sea, round Ireland northwards, i.e. the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach, and the Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda in command over them; and they plundered Tir-Conaill and Inis-Eoghain. The Cinel-Eoghain and Muircheartach, son of Niall, sent persons over sea to hire (and who did hire) the fleets of the Gall-Gaeidhil, of Ara, of Ceann-tire, of Manainn, and the borders of Alba in general, over which Mac Scelling was in command; and when they arrived near Inis-Eoghain, they fell in with the other fleet, and a naval battle was fiercely and spiritedly fought between them; and they continued the conflict from the beginning of the day till evening, and a great number of the Connaughtmen, together with Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda, were slain by the foreigners. The foreign host was however defeated and slaughtered; they left their ships behind, and the teeth of Mac Scelling were knocked out.

AU 1164

Maithi muinnteri Ia, .i. in sacart mor, Augustin & in fer leginn (.i., Dub Sidhe) & in disertach, .i. Mac Gilla Duibh Duibh & cenn na Ceile n-De, .i., Mac Forcellaigh & maithi muinnteri Ia arcena do thiachtain ar cenn comarba Coluim Cille, .i. Fhlaithbertaich h-Ui Brolcain, do gabail abdaine Ia a comairi Somarlidh & Fer Airir Gaidhel & Innsi Gall, co ro astaie comarba Patrick & ri Erenn, .i. Ua Lochlann & maithi Cenel Eogain e.

Select members of the Community of Ia, namely, the arch-priest, Augustin and the lector (that is, Dubsidhe) and the Eremite, Mac Gilla-duib and the Head of the Celi-De, namely, Mac Forcellaigh and select members of the Community of Ia besides came on behalf of the successor of Colum-cille, namely, Flaithbertach Ua Brolchain's acceptance of the abbacy of Ia, by advice of Somharlidh and of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Insi-Gall; but the successor of Patrick and the king of Ireland, that is, Ua Lochlainn and the nobles of Cenel-Eogain prevented him.

AU 1164

Somharlidh Mac Gille Adhamhnain & a mac do marbadh & �r Fer Airir Ghaedhel & Cinn Tire & Fer Innsi Gall & Gall Atha Cliath ime.

Somharlidh Mac Gilla-Adhamhnain and his son were killed and slaughter of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Cenn-tire and of the men of Insi-Gall and of the Foreigners of Ath-cliath around him.

AT 1164

Somairle mac Gilla Brighdi, r� Indsi Gall & Cind Tire, & a mac .i. Gilla Brighdi, co n-ar Gall Atha Cliath araen r�u, do marbadh Ia Firu Alban.

Somhairle son of Giolla Br�de, king of the Hebrides and Cantyre, and his son Giolla Br�de, were killed by the men of Scotland, with slaughter of Foreigners of Dublin with them.

CSMS 1164

Somerled assembled a fleet of 160 ships and put in at Renfrew, with the intention of subduing the whole of Scotland. But through divine punishment he was overcome by a small number of foes, and there slain with his son and a vast number of his people.

[Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicles of the Kings of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]

AU 1165.8

Mael Coluim Cennmor, mac Eanric, ardri Alban, in cristaidhe as ferr do bai do Gaidhelaibh re muir anair, ar deirc & a�nech & crbudh, do �c.

Mael-Coluim Great-head, son of Henry, arch-king of Scotland, the best Christian that was of the Gaidhil [who dwell] by the sea on the east for almsdeeds, hospitality and piety, died.

AU 1169.3
This was the year in which Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, King of Ireland, granted ten cows every year from himself, and from every king that should succeed him, forever, to the lector of Ard-Macha, in honour of Patrick, to instruct the youths of Ireland and Alba (Scotland) in literature.

AT 1171.7

Cath Atha Cliath etir Miligh Gogan & Asgall mac Raghnaill rig Gall, co n-dorchair iarom and Aschall & Eoan Lochlandach, et alii multi.

The battle of Dublin between Miles Cogan and Ascall son of Raghnall king of the Foreigners, and Ascall fell there, and Eoan the Norseman and many others.


Acallam na Senorach or The Colloquy of the Ancients

Acallam na Sen�rach belongs to the Finn or Fenian Cycle, which is classified by modern scholarship as one of four medieval Irish literacy cycles. The others are the Ulster Cycle, the Cycle of Historical Tales (or Cycle of the Kings) and the Mythological Cycle. Its value to modern historians lies the names of kindred, peoples and their territories, and local place names. Fenian lays and ballads began to be composed at least as early as the eleventh century and these became the dominant literary form of the tradition from the late medieval period onwards. The composition of the Acallam has been dated between 1190 and 1228, with modern opinion placing it towards the latter date. In the Acallam, its principal character is Finn mac Cumaill and his warrior band called fian, his son Oision and grandson Oscar, who are portrayed as defenders of people, rather than, invaders. In medieval Irish sources, the fian warriors, also called f�nnidi, were usually men, free-born, were men, free-born, some career warriors and others young men, including, the sons of kings and high-status families, who had not yet come into their inheritance.

In the following section of the Acallam, we find five territories from which the leaders of the fian could be called upon in Scotland, Briton, northern Lochlann, Innsi Gall and Gall Gaedhil, which by the eleventh century can be traced in the Annals of Ireland and other sources.

4538-4562: Those original Fianna of Finn's were a noble set, said the king of Leinster. "No worse than each man of us their survivors was each man of them, except in so far as they attained not to be in the one epoch and time with you; and a thing that served shepherds and herdsmen for a pastime was to practise here the gathering up of their weapons and of their raiment that once were the three battalions of the Fianna: Finn mac Cumall's, and those of Ferdoman mac Innoman from lathrach caein or 'pleasant site,' of the Galianic province." Eochaid king of Leinster said: "by the reality of thy valour and of thy skill at arms, Caeilte, I conjure thee to recite for us in their companies and in their cohorts all such as loch Lurgan's bramble?bush drowned of them." Then Caeilte said:

Faelan of Finnloch out of the province of Connacht in the west.
Angus and Dobarchoe or 'waterdog,' i.e. 'otter,' out of Leinster's province;
Druimdherg or 'red?back' of Derry,
And Dubh dha det or 'black one of two teeth,' of Kinelconall in the north;
Iubhar and Aicher, Aedh and Art, the four kings of coill an chosnamha at this present called Ossory;
Cairell, Caicher, Cormac and Caemh, the king of Dalaradia's four sons out of the north;
Maine and Art and Aralt or 'Harold,' the king of Scotland's three sons from beyond;
Eobhran and Aedh and Eoghan, the king of Bretan's three sons;
Uai king of Isla and his two sons: Cerna and Cernabroc, the two kings of innse gall or 'the isles of strangers,' i.e. the Hebrides, in the north;
Diure and Barrac and Idea (Ida), the king of northern Lochlann's three sons;
Luath and Innell and Eoghan, the three kings of the Mairtine of Munster in the west;
Glas and Delga and Duibhne, three sons of the king of the tuatha of Bregia and of Meath;
Illann (Ul-ann) and Aedh and Eoghanan, three sons of the king of Kinelowen in the north;
Samaisc (heifer) and Arthur and Inbeir (Ivar), three sons of the king of the gallghaedhel from beyond.

Which make up the names of the chiefs and lords and men of territory which the bramble?bush drowned of Finn mac Cumall's original Fianna.
[O�Grady, Standish H (ed): Silva Gadelica: A Collection of Tales in Irish (London, 1892), p. 211-12]

Note: Samaisc means �summer dry� and is defined as a �three yeare old dry heifer�, who has not yet been brought to the bull, and is rated as having a value of 12 scruples, that is, half an ounce of silver. Diure is an old Noric name, as is Ida. Dobarchoe or Doharchu means �waterdog� or �otter�.





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