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Hessian soldiers in the American Revolution


Transport Ships

Donated by John Merz




S#7, Vol.2, pages 76-81:
Part of the Lossberg Regiment embarked Sep.8, 1779 
in New York on board the "Adamant". Rest of regiment
on board "King George" and "Badger", destination Canada.
In hurricane on Sep.15, 1779, the Adamant went down
with all men aboard. Major von Hanstein, Captains Steding
and von Wurmb, all were lost.
S#8 Vol.4/2, pages 25-28:
Diary of the Hessian Lt. Jacob Piel - details on "Adamant


S#143, pags. 85-93:
Lt. Christoph Bode of the Hessen-Kassel Leibregiment
wrote an account of the voyage of the "Alicia" from New York to Ilfracombe in the Bristol Channel of England, starting Dec.8, 1781 (embarked Nov.30, 1781). During a storm Jan.16, 1782 tossed the ship unto rocks near the beach in the Irish channel. Some people left the ship to continue by land. Ship was pulled off the rocks and continued to port, arrived Jan. 19, 1782 at the Bristol Channel. Still on board on Jan.27, 1782. (On the English coast of Cornwall)


S#2 pages 243-244:
In the summer of 1779, Sir Henry Clinton planned an 
expedition against Charleston. The soldiers were embarked 
19. Dec. 1779, but on account of the weather did not put to
sea until the 29th. The voyage was a very stormy one, and
when in early February the fleet arrived at the mouth of the
Savannah River, many ships were missing. A bark "ANNA"
containing 30 Hessian and Ansbach Chasseurs, and other
soldiers had been dismasted early January and was left to
the fury of the waves. For 8 weeks this bark with 250 souls
on board ran out of provisions, and famine set in. At last
the Irish coast came in sight. The vessel grazed on a rock
and sprang a leak. The boatswain took command and 
brought her to St. Ives in Cornwall. The pilot succeeded in
beaching the bark just as she was about to sink, and the
crew and passengers were saved at last. (See "Eelking
Vol.2, pages 63-64.)
S#7 pages 63-64:
As above. On Feb.25,1780, stranded at Saint Ives, Ireland. 
Middle of March the troops were taken to Plymouth, and
were shipped from there middle of August to New York,
where they arrived on 17. Oct. 1780 for a second time.


S#4 Vol.VI, pages 28-39:
Sep. 8,1779 - Kassel Regiment v. Knyphausen boarded
3 ships - Archer, Triton and Molly, in New York. The "Archer" took on 213 soldiers. The ships set sail Sep.9, 1779.  The total fleet was 25 ships under convoy to warship 
"Renown" of 50 guns. Colonel von Borck on board "Archer". September 1oth the Archer lost contact with the fleet and returned to New York. Was given orders to sail to Halifax and Quebec under protection of the 20-gun ship "Camilla". Arrived in Halifax Sep, 28 and waited for the fleet to arrive. But by Oct. 8th left on their own for Quebec. Due to strong  winds and other problems, the Archer never made it past Prince Edward Island, and landed there on Oct. 27,1779 at Charlottetown. The troops under Col.von Borck wintered there until June 15, 1780. Embarked again on the Archer and left for Quebec June 16, arrived on June 29,1780 at Quebec.
S#8 Vol.4/2 pages 25-28:
Diary of the Hessian Lt. Jacob Piel - Details of "Archer".
S#143 pages 73-76:
Report on the capture of 2 companies of Regt. Knyphausen
by Valentine C. Hubbs.
S#144 pages 25-26:
Report of landing of Knyphausen Regiment on P.E.I.

Note by JHM: After the American revolution several soldiers
of the Regt. von Knyphausen returned from Germany to
settle on Prince Edward Island.


S#2 pages 237-38:
The Hessen-Kassel Regiment v. Lossberg and v.Knyphausen sailed from New York on board of 6 ships on Sep. 8, 1779.Part of Lossberg's Regt. was on the "Badgere" The hurricane which scattered the fleet on Sep.15th, damaged the ship and made her unable to steer. The Badger was attacked by  privateers who took on Oct. 9th a Lieutenant, 3 Ensigns, and twenty men on board the privateer, but the Badger itself was freed next day by the British Frigate "Solebay" and was brought with most of her soldiers in safety in New York. 
S#7, Vol.2, pages 76-81:
Same story with more details (Eelking), stating that the privateer was captured by the "Solebay" and the prisoners were freed. S#8, vol.4/2, pages 25-28:
Diary of the Hessian Lt. Jacob Piel - details on ship "Badger.


S#8, vol.3/1 pages 41 and 44:
The Brig "Favourite" was taken on April 22, 1777 by Captain John Fisk of the Massachusets State Navy Privateer "Massachusets". Taken prisoner were 57 privates and 6 NCO's of the Hessen-Kassel Field Jaeger Company (replacement recruits, eight days out of England. (see PDF Georg Hatstaett)
S#7, page 171:
On 25 May 1777 five-hundred Hesse Kassel troops were 
shipped out in Bremerlehe, with them two new Jaeger comp., which had left Kassel on March 8, 1777. During a storm some ships became separated, of which one with 60 Jaegers was captured by American privateers. The prisoners were taken to Cambridge by Boston, then to Rutland. At the end of 1778, 20 of them were exchanged, the rest in December 1780.


Leonhard Kratz, Musketeer, Hanau Regt. Erbprinz, left on
board "Hero" from Quebec City to Germany - August 1783.
S#301 #2 pg32 (Correspondenz with Dr. Joachim Fischer):
"Hero" - the Hessen-Hanau Regiment Erbprinz boarded ship
end of July 1783 at Point Levy, Quebec.


S#8, Vol.3/2 page 16:
The Hessen-Kassel Regt. Rall was sent to East Florida in
Nov. 1778, and then to the defense of Savannah, Georgia.
The British ship "Jason", enroute from New York to Svannah with parts of the Rall Regt. on board was captured by American privateers on April 7, 1779. The prisoners were taken to the prison in Rutland, Mass. One of the prisoners was Philip Reinhold PAULI, who was discharged in America and became a Minister of the Reformed church in Reading, PA.


S#7 vol.2 pages 76-80:
Part of the Hessen-Kassel Regt. v.Lossberg embarked 
Sep. 8,1779 in New York on board the 12-gun ship 
"King George", the rest of the Regt. on board of "Adamant" 
and "Badger", Col.von Loos was on the "King George'
destination was Canada. On the 15th a hurricane scattered 
the fleet and damaged the ships. The "King George" returned
to New York on 2. Oct. together with the warship "Renown" and the "Springfield"
S#8 vol.4/2, pages 25-28:
Diary of the Hessian Ltn. Jacob Piel - details on ship 
"King George".


S#143 pages 63-70:
Extract from the Journal of Colonel Frantz Carl von Seitz,
describing the voyage of his regiment sailing together with
an English Battalion of the Bavarian Corps from New York
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, on board the "Mermaid". They sailed in a fleet of 13 ships of the line and a large number of transport ships, Oct. 7th 1778 to Nov.13, 1778. The transports sailed to England, and the "Mermaid" to Boston with the warships.  Off Boston the "Mermaid' turned north to Halifax under the protection of the Frigate "Delaware". The "Mermaid" was old and barely seaworthy, and violent storms separated the fleet, and they were forced to make Halifax on their own. At Halifax numerous difficulties had to overcome. The Regiment von Seitz remained in Halifax to the end of the war.


S#4, vol.VI, pages 28-39:
In New York on Sep.8, 1779, the Kassel Regt.Knyphausen
boarded 3 ships, Archer, Triton, and Molly. The "Molly" took on 157 men. The fleet totalling 25 ships under the convoy of the warship "Renown", 50 guns, set sail on Sep. 9, 1779.
During a storm the ships were separated from the fleet. 
The "Molly" and the Triton were captured by American privateers. S#133, page 16, 
Same story as above. S#7, vol.2, page 81:
The ship "Molly" with troops from Regt. Knyphausen was 
brought into Philadelphia on 26. Sep. 1779 by the American
sloop "Mars" under Captain Taylor, with one Major, six N.C.O's and 156 men. All the prisoners were brought to Reading, PA. S#8 vol.4/2 pages 25-28:
Diary of the Hessian Lt. Jacob Piel - details on ship "Molly".
S#143, pages 24,73,84:
Report of the capture of 2 comp. of Knyphausen Regt.


Sailed from New York on 10.Sep.1778 with a detachment
of British and German troops on board for Quebec. Put into
harbour of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia on the 14. Oct. 1778.
The officers on board represent the impossibility of going
up the St. Lawrence river at this advanced season, and the 
ship needs repairs. Therefore ordered the troops on board 
to winter quarters at Lunenburg.
Source: Report on Am.Manuscript in Royal Institute of Great Britain, Vol.1, 1901, NAC M-341/IL/Pos.3. P818 Oct.24.1778,
Brig.Gen. McLean to General Sir Henry Clinton.
(This confirms that v. Specht's Regt. was reported by 
Gen.McLean to Gen. Haldimand to be over wintering
in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.) 


After the capitulation of Pensacola in Florida, soldiers 
of the Waldeck Regiment boarded the Spanish ship 
"Santa Rosalia" on 29. May 1781 for their return and
release in New York.
S#141page XXIII:
Eleven ships carrying the Pensacola Garrison sailed
for Havana on June 4, 1781, and arrived at Havana betw.
15. and 20. June. left for New York 30. June and arrived
12. July 1781 at New York.


S#26 page 199: 
A small number of Hessian soldiers with Brunswickers 
and Hanauers were found on a captured American Frigate, 
the 'South Carolina'. They testified that they had been 
compelled to take service on this ship by being kept on 
starvation diet in the cramped goal of Reading 
S#17 Ser.23, pages 58-63:
Lists 32 men from the Hanau Regt. who entered service
aboard American warship, 16. Oct. 1782.


S#4 vol.VI, pages 28-39: 
In New York on Sep. 8,1779, the Knyphausen Regt. boarded 3 ships, Archer, Molly, and Triton. The Triton took on 215 men. The fleet with a total of 25 ships under convoy of warship 'Renown' (50 guns) set sail on Sep.9, 1779. Capt. Wiederholt on board the 'Triton'.
S#2, pages 230-237: Wiederhold's quarters were on the 'Triton'. A Brig armed with 6 small cannons and 2 swivels, and a crew of 7 men. On the 15.Sep. the wind was risingand in the evening it was a hurricane. The main mast broke and the foremast went overboard. The storm drove the ship south and on the 17.September had drifted as far south as the Virginia capes. On the morning of the 26. Sep. the 'Triton' was captured by two American privateers, the 'MARS' and the 'COMET', and brought into Little Egg Harbor.  Here the prisoners disembarked, passed through Philadelphia and were at last quartered at Reading, Pennsylvania. 
S#8,vol.4/2, pages 25-28: Diary of the Hessian Lt. Jacob Piel - details on ship 'Triton'. S#143 pages 73-84:
Report of the capture of 2 companies of Knyphausen Regt.






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