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Wisconsin was once the home of three great Indian tribes: Iroquois, Sioux, and Algonquian. In what was later to become Langlade County the Menominee, Chippewa, and Pottawatomie Indians were especially numerous. They utilized what came to be known as the Lake Superior Trail and parts of the Wolf River for transportation.
On Post Lake, which is an enlargement of the Wolf River, there was a trading post between the French and the Indians. Settlers residing at upper Post Lake recall the days when Pottawattomie wigwams dotted the east shore of the lake. A ring having I.H.S. engraved on it, and a small cross, both found on the east shore, have been identified by Dave Edick, pioneer Wolf River settler, as those of a Jesuit missionary. Mr. Edick himself found a cross and some dishes in a mound located on what was probably the site of an Indian village.
The Post and Pickerel Lake territory is known for its mounds. They are scattered in the village on the southern shore of Post Lake, on the Pickerel Trail from the Post Lake Branch Trail to Pickerel, and on the trail along the east bank of the Wolf to Pickerel Lake.
From Indian days until the present time Wisconsin has been ruled under three flags: French, English, and United States. During the French regime in Wisconsin, the government was in the hands of military officers who had command over all the affairs of the French traders and the Indian allies.
During the early French history of the state one of the important names to be associated with this northern region was that of Charles de Langlade, for whom Langlade County was named. Langlade, the son of a Canadian gentleman and an Ottawa squaw, was born in 1729 at Mackinac Island, where he spent much of his boyhood. In early manhood he became a famous French soldier, leading many Indians into battle, and during the French and Indian War drawing many recruits from within what is now Langlade County. The force under the command of Langlade in this war, besides the French, was composed of Ottawas, Chippewas, Menominees, Winnebagoes, Pottawattomies, Hurons, Wyandottes, and perhaps still others. This force defended the French Fort DuQuesne against the English under General Braddock in 1755.
At the end of the war Langlade returned to Mackinac where he and his father took the oath of allegiance to England's king. The following years were spent in the service of the Canadian militia, the British militia, and then at the post of La Baye, now Green Bay. In 1780 Langlade was appointed Indian agent by the British. Soon after this he was made commander-in-chief of the Canadian militia. During the Revolutionary War he conducted several raids against the English colonies that had joined the colonists. He was known as the King's Interpreter. For these services he received an annuity of $800 and a grant of three thousand acres of land in Canada, and was confirmed in his title to his Green Bay farm, at which place he had claimed a tract of land. He spent his old age on this farm, busy, contented, and happy. His grandchildren gathered about him, and he took great delight in telling them of the many battles (ninety-nine, he asserted) in which he had taken an active part.
Charles de Langlade is often called the "Founder and Father of Wisconsin." Whether or not he was the first settler in Wisconsin is not definitely known. He died in 1800, still retaining the love of his savage followers, who called him, A-ke-wau-ge-ke-tan-so - 'He who is fierce for land' - that is, a military conqueror.
In 1763 the French regime in Wisconsin ended, to be supplanted by that of the British control, which extended over the period 1763-1783. When the United States acquired her independence in 1783, this territory was freed from British jurisdiction, thereby coming under the United States government.
In 1800 Wisconsin, originally under the territorial government of the Northwest Territory, was made a part of Indiana Territory. Between 1809 and 1836, when it became Wisconsin Territory, it was also under the territorial governments of Illinois and Michigan. Wisconsin was admitted to the Union as a state in 1848, but it was not until thirty-three years later that Langlade County was established.
When Langlade County was organized February 27, 1879, it was first called New County and was attached to Shawano County for judicial purposes. In February, 1880, the legislature passed an act changing the name New to Langlade in honor of Charles de Langlade. This change was proposed by Lyman C. Draper, Secretary of the State Historical Society.
Langlade County is located in the north central part of the state. It is bounded on the north by Oneida and part of Forest County, on the south by Shawano and part of Marathon County, on the west by Lincoln, and on the east by Oconto and part of Forest County. It is subdivided into seventeen civil divisions or towns: Summit, Vilas, Elcho, Evergreen, Price, Polar, Norwood, Rolling, Langlade, Wolf River, Peck, Neva, Antigo, Ainsworth, Ackley, Parrish, and Upham.
The Eau Claire in the western part of the county and the Wolf in the eastern part are the most important rivers. The Prairie, Pine, and Hunting rivers are of minor importance. Springbrook, which runs through the city of Antigo, was once considered a river, for one of the early newspapers stated that the Catholic friends held services in their church over the river.
Mach-Ke-No-Siew, Post, Bass, and Summit lakes are the most important in the county. Summit Lake is officially the highest body of water in Wisconsin, being 1,697 feet above sea level. There are a number of smaller lakes in the county, situated especially in the towns of Upham and Elcho.
It was into this country of lakes and rivers that 'The Father of Antigo,' as Francis A. Deleglise is called, came. Mr. Deleglise was born in Switzerland in 1825, coming to America in 1848 with his parents, who settled in Dodge County, Wisconsin. Francis Deleglise fought in the Civil War in 1861 under Captain Marston. In 1862 he became a corporal and participated in many struggles of the famous 'Iron Brigade' under General Bragg on the Potomac. At the present time the Deleglise Memorial Committee of the Old Settlers' Club has made plans for the erection of a memorial to the founder of Antigo. This memorial will be placed on the flatiron block known as the County Normal block.
After the Civil War, accompanied by Mr. Joseph St. Louis, Mr. Deleglise began locating lands in central Wisconsin. Both men were from Outagamie County, their homes having been near the present city of Little Chute. When they reached what is now Langlade County, they decided that here was the best land that they had yet seen, but Mr. St. Louis believed that the region where Phlox is now located was on the probable route of the railroad, while Mr. Deleglise maintained not only that the railroad would pass through Springbrook (now Antigo) but also that the soil was superior to that in the Phlox territory. Each man carried out his own idea; so two settlements were started. Thus it was that in 1879, Mr. Deleglise platted the city, the future Antigo.
The name Antigo was suggested by a railroad engineer, Mr. Rummery, from the Chippewa phrase, 'Nequi-Antigo-Sheebeh', meaning a stream running through the village. Choosing the name caused much excitement and heated discussion. Of the fifty-nine who signed a petition to organize a city, fifty were for naming the settlement Antigo, and nine wanted to call it Springbrook. Two men who could have signed refused to because the majority were in favor of Antigo as a name.
In April, 1885, the city of Antigo was officially organized with Thomas Lynch, mayor; J.E. Mullowney, clerk; L.K. Strong, school commissioner; John Wines, Eli Waste, and E.R. Colton, justices. At that time the city was divided into four wards, Clermont street and Fifth avenue being the dividing lines.
Francis Deleglise, the founder of Antigo, named the streets. Among those which are memorials to famous people are Field, Milton, Irving, Clermont, Edison, Reed, Morse, Dorr, Lincoln, Watson, Hudson, and Fulton streets. Other streets were named because of peculiar characteristics which they had. Weed street received its name because it led north-easterly from J.H. Weed's mills, the largest saw-mills in Langlade County at that time. A main north and south thoroughfare leading to the highway to Lake Superior was called Superior street. Aurora street was the street nearest the dawn. Arctic street was the most northern street. Virginia street, the first street definitely surveyed, received its name from the fact that it was laid out with the help of the surveyor's daughter, Anna Virginia Deleglise, now Mrs. Thomas Morrissey.
The territory which now comprises Langlade, Evergreen, and Wolf River townships was taken from Langlade County in 1881 and attached to Shawano County. The settlers within the territory were opposed to this change and not only refused to hold an election at the designated place, but also refused to send a chairman to the sessions of the Shawano County Board of Supervisors. The settlers would not recognize the authority of the Shawano County Superintendent of Schools, and they defied the state legislature. During the time this section was a part of Shawano County, the settlers conducted their own government and carried on their own affairs. They declared that their separation from Langlade County was illegal. During the years of separation these three counties were known as the 'Lost Nation.'
In 1883 by an act of the legislature the 'Lost Nation' was again declared a part of Langlade County. Two years followed without any action. Both Shawano and Oconto Counties wanted the territory, and it was not until 1885 that the matter was finally settled. The region was then added to Langlade County and called the township of Langlade.
As the little settlement of Springbrook progressed, matters of law came up which were settled in the small hall over Niels Anderson's store. But the time came when it became almost a necessity to have a court house. Both Antigo, formerly called Springbrook, and Langlade townships were eager to have the county seat. The location of the court house necessarily had to be determined by vote, and, owing to the fact that there were a large number of eligible voters in the county residing in the Wolf River township, the Springbrook voters were fearful lest they should lose the privilege of having the court house.
The vote was taken in connection with the election held at Langlade in the spring of 1879. The voters of the Springbrook region realized if the choice was decided vote for vote, they would be outnumbered by the voters of the Langlade region. They determined, therefore, to use a little strategy; so on election day they journeyed to Langlade; but instead of voting singly at different times throughout the day, they remained hidden from sight in a body on the west bank of the Wolf until late in the afternoon. They then rushed across the river and cast their votes just before the polls were about to close. Many of the Langlade voters, suspecting nothing of this sort on the part of the Springbrook settlers, had deemed it unnecessary to take the trouble to vote at all. It was in this way that the Springbrook voters carried the polls so that Antigo, most favorably located among the settlements which had sprung up by this time and most advantageously supplied with natural resources, might be the county seat of Langlade County.
Among the earliest settlers of Antigo were G.W. Latta, Sam Lesley, John Deresch, and Richard Healy, Sr. Niels Anderson started the first mercantile interests, being soon followed by L.D. Moses. Mr. Dorr and Mr. McDonald came shortly afterward.
Mr. William L. Ackley was the first permanent white settler in the county. His log cabin was erected in the Eau Claire River, four miles west of Antigo on what is now State Highway 64. Mr. Ackley engaged in the fur trade with the Chippewa Indians.
Charles Larzelere established a 'stopping place', as the primitive taverns of northern Wisconsin were called, on the Military Road in 1872. This was the headquarters for the mail carrier. In 1887 Mr. Larzelere and Mr. Charles McFarland began the settlement of Elton.
Members of the French St. Louis family of Little Chute were the first settlers to come to Phlox, and the Menting family, also from Little Chute, was the second to come. This family had been the only one of Dutch origin in the French settlement at Little Chute. The French settlers at Little Chute were originally from the French colony at Green Bay. It is safe to say, therefore, that many of the French people around Phlox today are direct descendants of the old historic settlement of La Baye.
Mrs. F.P. Wedeman was one of the earliest pioneers to settle near the present village of Polar. She and her husband left Green Bay, April 27, 1877, with their eight-weeks-old baby, their household furniture, a yoke of oxen, and two span of horses. It took nine days to make the trip then.
Their first night at their new home was a night of misery spent in a half-finished shanty left on their land by a man who had started a pre-emption claim. The building, about twelve by sixteen feet in size, had neither roof nor floor. Luckily one corner was protected for a space about four feet wide. Mr. Wedeman raked some leaves into a heap, placed a feather bed on it - and this was his wife's bed. That night of misery was accompanied by a pouring rain. For the first time in her life, Mrs. Wedeman saw red toads. Where they came from she never know, but shortly after it started raining everything was alive with them. When a great big warty one waddled up on her pillow, Mrs. Wedeman threw up her hands exclaiming. 'That's about as much as I can stand!' The rest of the night she spent on a perch that her husband put together for her from the slats of a bedstead.
Mrs. Wedeman says that at that time money was of little use because there was nothing to buy. Sometimes one could buy a little piece of pork; flour could be secured only rarely and then usually only twenty-five pounds at a time. Everything had to be hauled from either Wausau or Shawano. A barrel of black flour, called Big Injun, cost $18.00. Butter was out of the question. Mrs. Wedeman states that at one time she was without flour for three weeks. During that time she and her children subsisted on milk and potatoes, which she prepared for dinner by baking, for supper by boiling, and for breakfast in some other way.
One day, just before twilight, says Mrs. Wedeman, an Indian came to the door. I wouldn't let him in but asked what he wanted. 'Me Injun ver' hungry,' he said. I had just baked, and there on the table lay several large loaves of bread. Of course when he nodded toward the bread, I gave him a loaf; and I declare to goodness I would have given him the whole batch if he had asked for it.
Such instances as these were everyday occurrences in the lives of the early settlers.
Among the many handmade necessities that were instituted by the practical pioneer the scoop-roof is probably one of the most interesting. Halves of basswood trees hollowed out formed convenient scoops. Basswood was usually the material used for scoops not only because it could be easily split but also because it was light and could be easily worked. A ridge pole placed high enough to give the roof an approximate pitch of 155 degrees was the first requirement in making a scoop roof. At right angles to this center ridge pole at distances ranging from twelve to twenty inches other poles corresponding to rafters were placed. Scoops were then carefully placed convex side down between the rafter poles. When this step was finished, the roof was covered, but many openings and cracks were still present. To correct this fault and to make a neat looking roof another set of half sections were carefully put on but in reversed order so that the convex side would be up and so that they completely covered the openings formed by the first set. The water could now trickle off the curved faces of the second set into the troughs formed by the first set. A very large scoop was placed, convex side up, on the peak where the scoops met, so that the opening would be well closed. Moss, which was easy to obtain, was used to stuff into the cracks to keep out the weather.
Although the scoop-roofs had their drawbacks, they marked a step forward in pioneer building. As this middle region of Wisconsin was opened up, there arose a need for taverns or stopping places, as they were called, throughout Langlade County. 'Old Dutch Frank' conducted the first stopping place on the Lake Superior Trail near Lily. He later sold this to Henry Strauss. This old stopping place has been only recently torn down. It is to be hoped that a marker will be placed to commemorate the spot. George Gardner, a Stockbridge Indian, owned a stopping place on the Military Road. Charles Larzelere conducted a tavern at Langlade. Brooks was proprietor of the first stopping place at Kempster, which was then engaged in lumbering. George Hill conducted a tavern at the present village of Markton.
The first stopping place for travelers in Antigo itself was in the second log house which Niels Anderson built in 1879. In the same year the Teipner brothers erected Springbrook house. This building, now the Market Square Hotel, was the first hotel in Antigo.
Twin Valley Inn was built by S.L. Waite in 1880. The lake Shore House was built in 1884 on the site of the present Hoffman House. The Vivian Hotel, now the Schneiter Hotel, was operated by R.J. Morgan. The Winn Hotel, for years used as a Y.M.C.A., was opened in 1890 by L.A. Winn. It is now known as the Hanousek Hotel. The Hotel Butterfield was built in 1899 by John Friend.
When Antigo was first settled, it was practically isolated because of its poor means of transportation and communication with the rest of the world. The ox-cart and lumber wagon were the chief means of transportation. The Eau Claire tote road was used by people going to Wausau for supplies. It took five days to complete the journey. There was also a trail between Phlox and Antigo, then called Springbrook. The old Lake Superior Trail ran along the banks of the Wolf from Markton up through Langlade and Lily, north to Kake Ke-Nosheca (Pickerel) and on to Lac Vieux Desert. It crossed the Wolf River at Henry Strauss's trading post about two and one-half miles north of Lily. Mail was relayed along this trail, dog-sleds being used in winter. This route started in Shawano and continued through the county.
In 1864 legislation was begun for the government to construct the Military Road. The ostensible purpose of the Military Road was to have been for transporting soldiers, but it is doubtful whether this was the primary motive. Since its construction was paid for in land, it was declared to be a land steal. However it is true that during the time of the Civil War copper ore was transported by ox teams over this wilderness trail. The Military Road was built from Fort Howard at Green Bay to Copper Harbor, Michigan.
In 1881 the first railroad, the Milwaukee, Lakeshore and Western, was extended through the county. M.F. Crow was one of the first engineers. In 1893 the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad bought the Milwaukee, Lakeshore and Western Road with all its property.
In 1884 the main street of Antigo was a stump-covered piece of land. There is a story about a man named Mr. Snow who would take a pole with a line and hook and would pretend to fish in the puddles in Main street after a rain. His object was to make fun of it and to make people realize how badly Antigo was in need of an improved road.
For eighteen years after the incorporation of Antigo there was no fire department. It was not until 1903 that the paid Antigo fire department was organized with G.O. Palmiter as first chief. The equipment purchased in 1885 consisted of that for the Hose Company, Hook and Ladder Company, and Engine Company. In the same year $500 was appropriated for purchasing a fire hose, and Louis Novotny was engaged at $100 a year as engineer.
The first fire apparatus was a hand suction pump which was called 'the man killer.' This pump was first used the day after its arrival at the Herman, Brecklinger and Herman mill. The city did not own a fire team then, and when the alarm was sounded, the first team that came along was hitched to the fire wagon. In case there was no team at hand, the wagon was pulled to the fire by men.
The American La France steam pump which pumps 750 gallons of water in a minute was purchased in 1911. The eight horse-power Seagrave motor truck was bought in 1916. Since then it has been exchanged for a larger Peter Pirsh truck. A small truck, a Reo, has also been purchased.
During the years which saw the transformation in the type of equipment in the fire department, a similar change took place in governmental, educational, economic, and industrial affairs. Those operating general stores on Superior street and Fifth avenue at the time when Antigo was first becoming a thriving center were: Niels Anderson, Moses and Grey, Shone and Bayley, Zahl and Robinson, and Peter Fishback. Niels Anderson owned the first store in Antigo. His supplies consisted of salted meat, dried foods, and a few bolts of gingham. One day a friend of Niel's, seeing a keg of salt meat in front of the store asked whether it would not be stolen. Niels replied, 'The people of Antigo do not steal.'
As time passed, the frame buildings were changed to those of more modern construction. At the present time the buisiness district of Antigo compares favorably with that of other cities of its size.
The first post-office was a part of the store owned by Niels Anderson, who was the first postmaster. This post-office was established in 1879. Free city delivery was established in 1903. The present post-office was built in 1915 at a cost of $60,000.
The first newspaper in Antigo was founded and edited by George Radcliffe. It was printed on a hand press and was first issued on January 3, 1880. Other Antigo papers have been the 'New Item', the 'Special', the 'Herald Journal and Review', and the Antigo Daily Journal.
As early as 1897 a free library was opened at Antigo in the F.A. Millard building. One hundred seventy-two volumes were then in use. In 1904 a new library building was constructed with 1,529 volumes for the use for the reading public. At the present time the library contains 15,097 volumes.
In 1885, after the city was incorporated, the old skating rink belonging to T.H. Robbins was bought and converted into quarters for the officers of the city and for the fire department. The old frame structure was replaced in 1900 when the present city hall was erected by C.F. Dallman at a cost of $9,000. All the city officials have their offices in this building.
The dingy rooms over Anderson's store served the county as the first courthouse. With the growth of the county there was an increasing need for a courthouse building which was met in May, 1882, when the first courthouse was completed. The present building was erected in 1905.
In the early days Antigo was governed under the aldermanic system. This form of government, however, was changed to the commission system in March, 1914, by an overwhelming vote of the people. At the present time the members of the city commission are: Mayor T.J. Reinert, G.O. Palmiter, and F. Dvorak.
The educational problem was recognized early in the history of the county. The first school in the county, a small one-room log cabin built in 1873, was opened with Miss Addie Wescott of Shawano as teacher, and Elton and Carrie Larzelere, Levi Farrow, and Waldo Yates, as pupils.
The first Antigo school, erected by Joseph Krause, was a cabin built of roughly hewn logs, on what is now the corner of Third avenue and Superior street. Miss Anna Sheriff was the first teacher. Her pupils, totaling twenty-four, were from the following families: Gowan, Olmstead, Legro, Kaplanek, Novotney, Weix, Beemer and Deleglise.
A high school was built in 1885, Mr. C. Marsh serving as principal and Miss Agness Donohue having the distinction of being the first graduate. The high school occupied the first floor of a new building which had just been completed on the southeast corner of what is now the second ward school grounds. The main room seated all the pupils. There was one tiny recitation room with four rows of seats. A Round Oak stove occupied one corner of the room near the teacher's desk. When the high school was established, it had a three-year course, having no foreign languages. After three years it was changed to a four-year course. The school yard had the appearance of a slashing. The students had to follow a path which zigzagged around the stumps and logs to the entrance at the north side of the building. In 1890 a new brick school was built on the present high school site. Mrs. Jessie Peterson tells the story of how her son got lost in the dense forest on what is now the high school campus. This school burned in 1916 and was replaced by our present high school in 1917. During the time after the building burned and until the new high school was dedicated in October, 1917, classes were held in the gymnasium and basement of the Congregational Church and in the Fraternal Reserve Association rooms over Zimmerman's store.
At the present time there are in Antigo six ward and three parochial schools (St. Hyacinth's, St. John's, and Peace Lutheran School) as well as a school for the deaf and a county normal. Provision is also made for a vocational school and for night school classes, which are largely attended.
The Langlade County Normal, for which an appropriation was obtained by A.M. Arveson in 1905, was started in 1906. The second floor of the public library was used for class rooms until 1926 when a new building was erected.
Langlade County's rural schools compare very favorably with those of other counties in the state. There are two union free high schools in the county which offer four-year courses.
It is an interesting fact to note that the first county music memory contest in Wisconsin was organized by Miss Bertha Moss, superintendent of schools in Langlade County.
Many different religious sects have established churches in Langlade County. By 1883, four years after the city was platted, five churches had been built in Antigo: First Congregational Church, Methodist Episcopal Church, Peace Evangelical Church, First Baptist Church, and St. John's Church. At the preset time eight churches have been added to this list: Episcopal Church, 1885, Zion Evangelical Church, 1888, unity Evangelical Church, 1890, Christian Science Church, 1895, St. Hyacinth's Church, 1895, St. Mary's Church, 1901, Seven Day Adventists, and the Kahool Adaas Yesiu (Jewish).
During the last part of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century lumbering was the chief industry of Langlade County. The first mill operated in this territory was started by Louis Novotny and his brothers in 1879 on the present site of the T.D. Kellogg lumbering and manufacturing plant. In 1882 A. Weed of Oshkosh erected a saw mill and planning mill one mile south of Antigo. In 1883 T.D. Kellogg bought out Novotny Brothers.
The value of the timber in Langlade County made Antigo a lumbering center. Forty mills have been built and operated. Now, however, since fire has destroyed several and the changing industries have decreased the number, only five of importance remain: Vulcan Last, the Veneer Mill, Faust Lumber Co., Antigo Building Supply Co., and Faust-Duchac Supply Co.
At the present time, 1928, lumbering is giving way to dairying, which promises Langlade County a future as a dairying center. Among the larger creameries are: Byrne's, Howe's, and the Pacific Ice Cream Co.
The Antigo plant of the Kraft Cheese Co. has the distinction of being the largest Swiss cheese factory in the world. A by-product made from the whey in powder form is manufactured by the Kraft Company also, making Antigo the only place in the United States in which whey powder is produced.
Farming plays an important part in the life of the citizens of Langlade County. In general the land is suitable for agriculture of all types. Dr. Charles Van Hise, eminent geologist and late President of the University of Wisconsin, stated that the soil in Antigo and the territory up to the hills is one of the three best varieties which he found. This soil, known as the Antigo silt loam, is especially good for potatoes, which are raised in abundance. In 1926 there were approximately 1,200 carloads of potatoes shipped from Langlade County, of which Antigo is credited with 900 carloads, an increase of 756 over the 144 carloads shipped in 1908.
Antigo is known as a fur-dressing center throughout the United States and even in Canada. This reputation is due to the work of Karl Boerner, a furrier of international experience, and one of three generations who have pursued this occupation with great ability. The generations in their order are Karl Boerner, furrier to the Royal Family of Hanover and the Duke of Cumberland; William Boerner, who was awarded a diploma at the Exposition of Industry at Hanover in 1876, and Karl Boerner of Antigo. During his extensive experience with buying and handling furs Mr. Boerner acquired many fine specimens, including several freaks. In his collection, now in the possession of Mr. Reckinger, his successor, are a white mink, a white raccoon, a black raccoon, and eight different kinds of fox skins.
In connection with fur dressing it would be well to add that Antigo and the surrounding territory have encouraging prospects as a fur-farming center. Already there are several fur farms in the county, among which the largest are owned by Mr. Koudelka, Mr. Kellogg, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Jeske, Mr. Meinert, Mr. Breitenstein, and Mr. Kieffer.
Although Langlade County has been in existence only a little over fifty years, it already is winning recognition as a progressive territory. The fertility of the soil promises success as an agricultural center, and its thriving dairying ventures presage prosperity from other angles. Such advantages insure a prosperous future to the 'gateway to the land o' lakes,' as Antigo has come to be called.
Acknowledgment should be made of our indebtedness to those who have helped us in our research work: to the citizens of Langlade County for their aid by means of personal interviews and questionnaires, to the public library for the use of filed clippings, to the "Antigo Daily Journal" for access to their files, and to the county officials for the use of records in the Langlade County Court House. The chief source books used have been "The History of Langlade County," by Robert Dessureau and "The making of Wisconsin" by Smith and Calahan. The 1928 Antigo High School Graduate Staff.
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