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JOHN



SHIELD and
DUPREY


SPENCELEY,
MOODY and
SWORD

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WINCKWORTH

TILDEN

PREBBLE
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TRIPP

SLADE & STEVENS

KAINES

CLAVELL
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WOODCOCK
inc. CROCKETT
HEATH
DAVIS
SANDEFORD
and MOURBY

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OLIVER
inc.GUEST and BOWATER

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WIGG
inc. CANDY
and MORGAN

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WILLS
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Research Sites




Welcome to my website. I am an amateur genealogist and I have been researching the histories of these families since 2000.
Alexander Anthony John and Vera Mary Winckworth were married for over 50 years, I was lucky enough to know them for a while,  I hope you enjoy reading about their ancestry.

 The Paternal families




The JOHN Family, I have traced their history back to India starting in the early 1800's. They were wealthy Merchants of greek origin, they lived mainly in Agra but they educated their sons at Public School in England.


The SHIELD family were Irish, from Dublin and the DUPREY Family were from London.


The SPENCELEY family were from Yorkshire, the MOODY and SWORD families from Cumbria and Scotland
These families were all mostly Merchants and Tradesmen






The Maternal Families



The WINCKWORTH family were from London.

The TILDEN and PREBBLE families who were from Kent.
These families were wealthy land and property owners. Many left detailed Wills which I include here.



The TRIPP,  SLADE and STEVENS, KAINES and CLAVELL families were from Dorset.
All of these families were also wealthy, with land and property and several of them also left detailed Wills.








The WOODCOCK family were from London, their origins appear to have been more humble, tradesmen for the most part.



The SANDEFORDS, MOURBYS and HEATHS, who are all from Oxfordshire.




The OLIVER family were from the Midlands and included the GUESTS, and BOWATERS, these families were generally labourers and simple tradesmen.
 



The WIGGS were from Hampshire.

The CANDYS, from Wiltshire and Hampshire and the MORGANS from Somerset, were Gentlemen Farmers and land owners. 

WILLS

These are my transcriptions of Wills all relating to the Winckworth side of the family, offering a tantalising and sometimes fascinating insight in to their lives.
The Wills were written by hand and very often extremely difficult to decipher. There were generally no discernable paragraphs, sentences or even a full stop in the originals,  'and' or 'item' seem to have been the customary words used to indicate the start of a new paragraph or sentence, I have changed this in order to make them easier to read.



RESEARCH RESOURCES
One of the primary sites I have used is Ancestry.co.uk and it has given a great deal of the information contained here.
Other online resources have also proved to be invaluable, and I have provided a listed them.


PARISH  REGISTERS

Until civil registration began in 1837 there was no central registration of births, marriages and deaths in England and Wales.

Parish registers were introduced by Thomas Cromwell in 1528. At that time every church was required to store their records in a Parish Chest and Church officials were responsable for entering details of Births, Marriages and Burials.
In the beginning these were often written on loose leaves of paper so have only rarely survived.
In 1598 Queen Elizabeth I agreed to an order that stipulated that every church had to use registers made of parchment. The order stipulated that they were to copy any old surviving records into the parchment registers and then copy each years register of baptism, marriage and burial entries and send these copies to the relevant Bishop for safekeeping. These are known as 'Bishops Transcripts'. Some of these records are available today when parish registers are not.
Queen Elizabeth I was particularly concerned that records covering her reign be preserved, which is why so many parish registers date from 1558


The Paris Registers show that baptism could take place any time after birth and before death, many families baptised all their children on the same day although they clearly had different birth dates and sometimes both these dates are recorded.

Prior to 1929 a girl could marry at the age of 12 and a boy at 14 although parental consent was required, since 1929 the lower age has been set at 16 years of age

Burials usually take place between 3 to seven days after death where possible, but there are exceptions to this rule, frozen ground or contagious diseases for example, or foul play, when a Coroner can delay a burial,  so a death date can be an approximate guess.

Until the passing of various bits of legislation during the 18C and 19C the quality and extent of the information was entirely dependant on the official who maintained the register.  Most early registers were written in latin, the official use of which was not abolished until 1733. In practice though, english had been used for some time.  However even when registers were written in english sometimes it was with inconsistent spelling and barely legible handwriting, this has made them very difficult to decipher.
Often the Clergy were the only members of a community who could read or write and they would use their preferred spelling.
During my research I have found surnames written in different ways, Wynckeworth, Wodecocke, Clavelle for example, given names too have changed according to the writer of the document.

Until Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act came into force in 1754, baptisms marriages and burials were usually recorded in one volume, sometimes on separate pages but often all jumbled together, only in chronological order.  After 1754 marriages were recorded in separate volumes, sometimes including banns.
It was not until George Rose's Act of 1813 that baptisms and burials were also recorded in their own volumes which were pre printed and standardised.


CENSUS

In Tudor and Stuart times Bishops were responsible for counting the number of families in their diocese but there was no official census of England and Wales apart from the Domesday Book in the 11thC until 10/03/1801 following the passing of the Census Act in 1800.
The Act also applied to Scotland but this was taken separately.
Information was statistical and collected on a parish basis, the information was mainly numbers of houses and whether they were inhabited or not, the number of people per house, types of trades, numbers of births, marriages and deaths etc. and was mostly collected by landowners and the clergy. The document had to be sworn by a Justice of the Peace before being sent to the Home Office to be collated then laid before Parliament. The count revealed the population as 8.7 million.
The military, seamen and convicts were not included in the census but their numbers were added in so bringing a total of around 9.4 million.

The Modern Census
Since 1841 a census has been taken every 10 years except for 1941
The information is provided by the head of the household and includes much useful information regarding the inhabitants.


A note about the Modern Calender

The first time the new year was celebrated on January 1st was in Rome in 153 B.C.  [ the month of January did not exist until around 700 B.C.]
The new year was moved from March to January because that was the beginning of the civil year, when two newly elected Roman consuls, the highest officials in Rome, began their one-year tenure. But this new year date was not always strictly and widely observed, and the new year was still sometimes celebrated on March 1.
Then from 40BC the Julian Calender was in use and January 1st was considered the start of the new year.
During the middle ages in medieval Europe however, the celebrations accompanying the new year were considered pagan and unchristian, and in 567AD,  the Council of Tours in France, abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year.
At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on Dec. 25, the birth of Jesus; March 1; March 25, the Feast of the Annunciation; and Easter.

In 1582, the Gregorian Calendar Reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar almost immediately.
The British did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752, up until then the British Empire and their American colonies still celebrated the new year in March.

Some records are written with 2 birth year dates to to reflect this.


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