Henri V le Blondel
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Luxembourg Postage Stamp Honoring Henri V le Blondel Who Ruled the Roman Empire in the 13th century.
Henri V le Blondel
Luxembourg Postage Stamp
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History of Luxembourg: the Middle Ages
(A computer translation of French text)
Early middle ages
1.German and franques invasions
the county of Luxembourg to the Middle Ages
1.beginnings of the house of Ardenne
2.the house of Luxembourg-Ardenne
3.the house of Luxembourg-Namur
4.the house of Luxembourg-Limbourg
5.Luxembourg on the imperial throne
Early middle ages
German and franques invasions:
During IIIe and from IVe S., the German ones pass the Rhine and move about the South of France. The raids are transformed into true invasion of Suèves, Alains and Vandales, themselves pushed by the arrival in Occident of Huns. Resistance vis-a-vis German is low: Trier, old capital of the Gratien emperor, is destroyed several times and is conquered definitively into 460. It is the end of the Roman domination on these territories.
The German ones continue on their impetuses to Spain and Africa, while
Huns are stopped with
the Fields catalaunic by Ætius. The local populations, they, remain on the spot. Alamans and the
Francs ripuaires are established definitively and are based in the populations autochtones. They
bring with them a new language, Möselfrankisch : a border is established between the Germanic
speeches and the Romance speeches. They also bring a new territorial organization: they divide
their territory in cantons. The Luxembourg future is shared in four cantons, the canton native of the Moselle region, the canton of Bitbourg, the canton of Woivre, and the Ardennes. Regional counts are placed at the head of these territories.
During this time, the Francs saliens build the future honest empire:
Chilpéric makes Turned its
capital, his/her Clovis son conquers all Gaule in about thirty years, subjects Alamans, rejects the Visigoths. After Clovis, Pippinides ensure the franque expansion by stopping the Arabs in
particular in Poitiers and by integrating Burgundy and Aquitaine.
The organization of the Church was already led to the end of Antiquity.
Christianity, on the basis
of Trier, had been propagated in the cities then more slowly in the campaigns. The arrival of the
Francs does not arrange the things for the Church: admirers of Odin, those do not join immediately after the baptism of Clovis towards 496... The franque Church will reorganize really only under Carolingiens.
The arrival of Aquitanian, Irish and English missionnaires is determining
for the christianization of the area. Many monasteries are founded: Saint-Maximin
of Trier by Dagobert Ier, Andagium
(future Saint-Hubert, when one transfers in it into 824 ashes from Hubert from Liege, owner of the Ardennes) by Bérégise, the chaplain of Pip II of Herstal. The Willibrod Benedictine, come from Northumbrie, become bishop of Utrecht, melts the abbey of Echternach, one of the most powerful bénédictines abbeys, and one of the cultural headlights of the Occident, thanks to his work of copy and enluminure.
The Church reorganizes according to the old Roman districts. The territory of old Belgica PRIMA is attached to the archbishop's palace of Trier, and that of old Germania secunda to that of Cologne.
The majority of the fields of Carolingiens extended to the Luxembourg
future. Their inheritance
included/understood Liege, the south of Belgium and the future Grand Duchy. With died of Louis
the Piles, these territories are included in Francia media , controlled by Lothaire, which preserves the imperial title. In 855, Lothaire is withdrawn with the monastery of Prünn and
division its States between its three sons. Lothaire II takes possession of the territory to which it
will give its name, Lotharingie, between the Meuse and the Rhine. With died of Lothaire II,
Lotharingie, object of covetousness of the brothers of late, is divided by the treaty of Meersen
between Charles the Bald person and Louis the Germanic one. Part of the diocese of Trier, the
abbeys of Esternach and Prünn, the area of Metz return to the Germanic one, while Woëvre, the
Alzette and Bastogne return to Charles. The line of demarcation cuts Luxembourg, along the
Meuse, of Ourthe, of Clerf, Wiltz, the Sure one, the Alzette and the Moselle.
The Low Middle Ages
In 987, the arrival on the honest throne of Robertien, Hugues Capet, signs the end of Carolingiens. Lotharingie is attached to Germanie by the treaty of Ribémont into 880. Arnulf de Carinthie, king de Germanie, in fact gift in its bastard Zwentibold. This one disappears into 900 and its throne is allocated to the duke Régnier to the Long Collar Into 925, in spite of the great families lotharingiennes, the county of Luxembourg returns to the Empire, in the person of Henri Ier of Germany.
Beginnings of the house of Ardenne
Wigéric, count d' Ardenne and of Trévirois, is regarded
as the founder of the house comtale of
Luxembourg. Born in a powerful family originating in the Moselle average, it marries in second
weddings Éva, Carolingienne. In leave the count Gozlin, Adalbéron, bishop of Metz, Frederic,
count of Barrois and duke High-Lotharingie, Giselbert, count d' Ardenne, and Sigefroi, count de
Luxembourg. The clan of Ardenne will dominate Lotharingie during one century and half: he
extends from Laon and Rheims in Trier and Cologne, of Metz and Verdun in Liege and Antwerp.
The house of Ardenne will give a pope (Étienne IX), two happy (Ida of Boulogne and the
impératrice Cunégonde), king de Germanie (Herman de Salm), two dukes of Bavaria, and a king
of Jerusalem, Godefroi de Bouillon. Lastly, Sigefroi, first count de Luxembourg.
At the time when Sigefroi appears, Otton Ier the Large one restores centralization carolingienne. It imposes his brother Brunon, archbishop of Cologne, like duke of Lotharingie. This one divides its territory into Low-Lotharingie and Lotharingie Mosellane. The dividing line, once again, crosses the Luxembourg future: OEsling, in north, concerns Liege, while Gutland in the south are entrusted to Frederic the Palatine one, brother of Sigefroi and lieutenant de Charles the Simple one, sign which the clan of Ardenne adopted the dynasty saxonne. Sigefroi, Lorraine count, follow an expansionist policy. It fails in front of Stavelot and, reticent to approach Trois-Évêchés, it turns to a meander of the valley of the Alzette. In 967, it settles in the locality Lucilinburhuc (small refuge) and there builds a castle. It dies into 998 and is buried Saint-Maximin of Trier.
The house of Luxembourg-Ardenne
Starting from Sigefroi, seven male descendants follow one another on
the seat comtal of
Luxembourg. The count Henri of Luxembourg will be made duke of Bavaria, becoming thus prince d' Empire. To his death the count passes to his nephew Henri II of Ardenne, then with the younger brother by this one, Giselbert de Salm. The son of this one, Conrad Ier, adapts the goods of the abbeys of Echternach and Stavelot and extends his grounds for Trier. Faithful to the family tradition of alliance with the Emperor, it supports Henri IV against the Pope in the quarrel of the Nominations. The male line of Sigefroi dies out after death without posterity of Conrad II, grandson of Conrad Ier.
Simplified genealogy of Luxembourg-Ardenne
The house of Luxembourg-Namur
To died of Conrad II, the feudal rules apply and the county of Luxembourg
turns over to the
Lothaire emperor of Saxony. Its successor, Conrad III of Hohenstaufen, invests Henri de Namur,
cousin of the late count. This one becomes count de Luxembourg under the title of Henri IV. He
inherits the counties Namur and Longwy, then that of Durbuy and Laroche. Unfortunately, eager to continue its territorial expansion, it attacks the archbishop of Trier, fails, and is rejected of the average Moselle. Without descent, it makes an agreement with its nephew Baudoin V, count de Hainaut, who must inherited the crown comtale. Frederic Barberousse approves the will in 1184, but fearing an alliance between Baudoin V and Philippe Auguste, son-in-law of Namurian, the Emperor promises to set up Namur in marquisat joining together the counties of Namur, the Rock, Durbuy and Luxembourg.
Anxious, the archbishop of Cologne Philippe de Heinsberg, the count
of Flanders Philippe de
Hainaut and the duke of the Brabant Godefroi II invade Hainaut. They fail, but manage to persuade the old count Henri to take again his 3rd wife: he is born small Ermensinde from it. In spite of his engagements, Henri promises Ermesinde in marriage with Henri II of Champagne, first cousin of Philippe Auguste. The emperor Henri VI, dissatisfied, decides to yield to Baudoin V the marquisat of Namur cut down by Luxembourg, intended to become ground of Empire. Henri de Champagne ravise vis-a-vis the drastic reduction of the succession of its promised in marriage and leaves in crusade where it will marry Isabelle of Jerusalem. Henri of Luxembourg dies in 1196 without to have found a husband for his daughter. The county fallen in déshérence returns to the Empire. Philippe de Souabe, regent of Germany, give the territory in Otton, Count Palatine of Burgundy and younger brother by Henri VI Otton the inféode with Thiébaut de Bar, wire of the count de Bar, who marries at once Ermesinde of Luxembourg in 1197. The new count de Luxembourg repurchases in Otton his rights on his grounds, but he dies in 1214, leaving Ermesinde widow with a girl. Ermesinde marries a few months later the marquis of Arlon Waléran, wire of the duke of Limbourg, which brings to his wife the marquisat of Arlon: from now on Luxembourg extends from the Moselle in Ourthe in a compact block. Waléran admits the existence of the Council of ten vassal. With died of Waléran, Ermesinde takes its succession on a purely personal basis. It is one period of peace and interior consolidation. Ermesinde follows a policy of stamping by granting letters of frankness Echternach, Thionville and Luxembourg. A series of religious houses are founded.
The house of Luxembourg-Limbourg
The heritage of Ermensinde goes to his/her children: Henri Blondel, the elder one, receives Luxembourg, Arlon and Laroche, Gerard, the junior, become count de Durbuy. Thionville and Namur are taken by the girls. Was the dynasty of Luxembourg-Limbrourg going to count 8 sovereigns? Henri V Blondel followed a policy of expansion. Husband of Marguerite de Bar, it enters in conflict with his brother-in-law Thibaut II for the seigniory of Ligny. Captive fact, it owes its delivery only with the intervention of the pope Clément IV near Louis Saint and with the payment of a strong ransom. Saint Louis referee the conflict and Ligny returns in Waléran, wire of Henri V, who melts the French branch of Luxembourg. Henri V manages to obtain sovereignty on considerable seigniories bordering. To its death in 1281, Luxembourg extends from the Moselle in the Meuse. Henri VI succeeds his father. He takes again the fight against Trier in 1286 and wants to control starting from the free city of Grevenmacher the river traffic of the Moselle. The archbishop of Trier excommunicates it. Henri VI embourbe also in the war of succession of Limbourg where it is opposed to his Brabant relative. It fights in Worringen in 1288 and dies the weapons with the hand with three of his brothers. The defeat of Worringen leaves impoverished and weakened Luxembourg. With died of his father, Henri VII is thirteen years old. His/her mother Béatrice d' Avesnes ensures regency until the marriage of Henri VII and Marguerite of the Brabant, which seals the reconciliation between the two houses. Raised carefully at the court of the queen of France, speaking French, German and Latin, it takes example on Saint Louis and tries to maintain peace in the county. However, from the very start of its reign, the problems with Trier begin again, primarily on commercial questions. In 1307, after an agreement of peace with Trier, Henri makes elect his brother Baudoin archbishop. Luxembourg on the imperial throne In 1308, the Diet meets to elect a new Emperor. Henri VII, prince d' Empire, are entitled to vote. The Diet pushes back the Habsbourg choice and the Valois choice, and chooses finally Henri VII. It is crowned in 1309. In addition to the imperial crown, Henri gains for his son the throne of Bohemia, vacant since the assassination of Wenceslas III Jean, wire of Henri, marries the sister of Wenceslas III Henri VII gives to Jean the government of the county of Luxembourg while it is devoted to the Empire. With its death in 1313, the princes voters prefer with Jean, considered to be too young and too powerful, Louis, duke of Bavaria. The election is disputed: Frederic the Beautiful, duke of Austria, arrived second except for a voice. The house of Luxembourg brings its support to the duke of Bavaria in the conflict, but this one appears tyrannical and not very respectful commitments entered into with Luxembourg. Those are combined to the pope and Charles IV, wire of Jean, are elected king of the Romans after the dismissal of Louis of Bavaria. Jean remains count de Luxembourg. At 41 years it becomes blind. It attempts to consolidate its territory and to increase its defensive capacities, thus beginning work of the third enclosure of the town of Luxembourg. It removes the taxation of the traffic of the goods and concludes a commercial agreement with the Brabant. October 20, 1340, it institutes a large annual fair, existing still today, Schobermesse. In 1346, when the One hundred year old war bursts, it will fight at the sides of king de France Philippe VI. It dies in Crécy. From a second bed was born Wenceslas, to which Jean the Blind man allotted the Luxembourg succession. When his/her father dies, Wenceslas is 9 years old. The Emperor his half-brother manages the county. Educated in the Frenchwoman, fine well-read man, Charles VI hardly likes to fight. He controls the Empire with the voters and promulgates in 1356 the Gold Bubble to ensure a political stability the Empire. The same year, it grants to Luxembourg the Luxembourg Gold Bubble which protects the middle-class men against the exactions from the lords. It confirms in Luxembourg its old frankness, but sells to his uncle the archbishop of Trêves Echternach, Bitbourg, Remich and Gravenmacher to finance its States of Bohemia. In 1353, Charles returns in Wenceslas Luxembourg, confers the rank of prince d' Empire and the ducal crown to him. Wenceslas launches out in a policy of consolidation of its duchy: it repurchases the territories engaged by Charles and extends his grounds. It convenes for the first time an assembly of the States. It dies in 1383 without posterity, and the duchy passes to its nephew Wenceslas II, wire of Charles VII This one, not very gifted for the policy, succeeds his/her father on the imperial throne but is relieved with the profit of his/her Sigismond brother. Remained king de Bohême and duke of Luxembourg, Wenceslas II ignores its Luxembourg possessions and engages the duchy with his/her cousin Josse de Moravie, which never goes there, and engages in its turn the duchy with Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI This one tries to control Luxembourg but is assassinated little afterwards: the duchy turns over to Josse, then in Wenceslas II. It is unable to bring back there peace and yields it to his/her young brother Jean de Görlitz. To died from Wenceslas II, the possession of the duchy and the title pass to the girl of Jean, Élisabeth of Burgundy, under the supervision of Sigismond, king of the Romans, wire of Wenceslas II With died of Sigismond, the duchy passes to his/her Élisabeth daughter, to wife of the duke of Austria. This one sold the duchy in 1441 to Philippe the Good against 120.000 guilders, by the treaty of Hesdin. Luxembourg is thus from now on included in "The Burgundian Empire".
To read an the original historical record
(which is in french)
that was translated to English above
concerning Henri V le Blondel click on the medallion:
Count de Luxembourg
Coats of Arms
Henri V Blondel , Count de Luxembourg
1236-1240: Of money to the lion of mouths armed, lampassé and crowned with gold.
The duplicated tail being the symbol of its double sovereignty.
Henri V Blondel , Count de Luxembourg
1240- 1280: Burelé of 10 azure and silver coins, lion of mouths, armed, lampassé and crowned of gold stitching on the whole.
Henri VI, Count de Luxembourg
Burelé of 14 azure and silver coins,
with the lion of mouths with fourchée tail, armed, lampassé and crowned of gold stitching on the whole.
Henri VII, Count de Luxembourg and Empereur
Burelé of 20 azure and silver coins, lion of mouths, armed, lampassé and crowned of gold stitching on the whole.
This is the Family Line of
the "Count of Luxembourg"
Généalogie simplifiée des Luxembourg-Ardenne
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