Guadeloupe Azimuth

The following is a computer program translation of the
French web page:
 http://www.outremer.com/~rhann/guadeloupe/html/histcomplete.htm

 
Passed historical of the Guadeloupe in details (9 pages): 

 October 12, 1492 : Believing to unload in Asia after having made it tower of the ground, Christophe Colomb puts the foot on the sand of a small island of the Bahamas, called San El Salvador, accomodated by the Caribbean terrorized with the sight of the three enormous Spanish vessels, Pinta, Santa-Maria and the Nina.

November 3, 1493 : Become admiral and viceroy of the Indies, Christophe Colomb reached at the time of its second voyage beyond the Atlantic, the "Désirade" that it baptizes thus, so much the sight of a ground was wished by the crew. A second island is in sight, it names it "Marie-Gallant", of the name of the flagship. A third, finally, is presented at the horizon, it will be the "Domenica" since it appears one Sunday morning.

November 4, 1493 : Spanish drops anchor in front of a "island with beautiful water" to which Christophe Colomb gives the name of "Guadeloupe" in remembering a pilgrimage that it had made with the Spanish convent of the Guadeloupe.

June 15, 1502 : Ten years later, at the time of a fourth voyage to the Western Indies, Christophe Colomb discovers Martinique. Wearied to see itself regularly eaten by the terrible warriors cannibals who were the Caribbean, the Spaniards give up the Lesser Antilles with their enemies, the English and the French. The conquistadors consequently prefer the richer grounds of Mexico and Peru.

1629 : A French colony develops in Saint Christophe (Saint-Kitts).

1635 : Started from Dieppe, of the men of Saint Christophe and new come unload in Guadeloupe and Martinique for the Company of the islands of America created by Richelieu. The two islands are placed under the General Government of the Commander of Poincy.

1640 : The plantations of cane with sugar require labour more and more. The first "triangular voyages" are organized between the Atlantic ports of France, Guinea and the Antilles. The ships slave traders pile up in their holds of the thousands of unhappy exchanged with the African kings against pacotilles, they then resell them in the islands like cattle, at the end of an inhuman and fatal voyage, then they regain Europe charged with spices and exotic food products... Trade repugnant and without scruple, but profitable.

September 4, 1649 : Charles Houel of Small Pre buys for his account the Guadeloupe from which he was already the governor.

1666 : French joins Dutch in their war against English. The British seize the archipelago Holy, August 22, and are on the point of attacking the Guadeloupe... But a providential cyclone of a rare violence comes to the rescue from French and destroyed the English fleet while carrying nearly 8000 men.

July 31, 1667 : The peace of Bréda, in Dutch cheese, puts an end to this war.

July 16, 1674 : Fleet Dutch, directed by famous admiral Ruyter, which fights the French forces in the Antilles since Louis XIV attacked Holland in 1672, however attacks without success the Royal Fort (Extremely-of-France) in Martinique defended by a handle of men under the orders of theSainte-Marthe Governor.

1674 : The Guadeloupe is annexed to the royal field. Colbert institutes the "Colonial Pact". until the Second Empire, the French colonies will trade exclusively with the metropolis. Thanks to the Antilles, France acquires in Europe the monopoly of sugars, called at the time: "white gold", and connait one period of great economic prosperity.

1685 : The statute of the slaves is defined by the "Black Code". Always regarded as personal estate, they obtain nevertheless on paper of the rights: Sunday rest, protection counters the inhuman treatments inflicted by certain large growers, right to a sufficient food, the religious instruction and a normal family life, assistance with the patients and the old men, etc... But also regulation of the punishments which remain severe for revolted and the fugitive ones ("maroon negros").

1697 : "a good commercial treaty is better than the acquisition of some fortified towns...". Such is the currency of Louis XIV who will govern the fate of the French colonies in America. The economic importance of the Antilles was even at the origin of many conflicts between European France and its neighbors, England and Holland.

1759 : After three months of heroic resistance, the Guadeloupe is taken by English.

1763 : The treaty of Paris overpowers France. England devotes its colonial supremacy and obtains Canada, Senegal, the American valleys of Ohio and the Mississippi, the islands of the Domenica, of Grenade, the grenadines, Saint-Vincent and Tobago... But recovers in against part the Guadeloupe and Martinique to preserve the French monopoly of sugar!

1782 : Since the war of independence of the United States of America, the Antilles are again the theatre of naval operations between English and French. April 12, the French fleet ordered by the Grasse Count is destroyed in the channel of Holy by the English buildings directed by the admiral Rod Ney. the 1783 treaty of Versailles recognizes the independence of the United States of America. France grants the islands of Tobago and Sainte-Lucie.

1784 : July 26 and August 10. Louis XVI exchanges the island of Saint-Barthélemy in Sweden counters warehouses with Gâte Borg. September 7, 1785 the king of Sweden Gustave 111 declares by royal decree the island "Free port".

1789 : The French revolution spreads in its colonies the great levelling ideas which conquered the people of the metropolis.

28 Mars 1794 : Convention abolishes "the slavery of the negros in all the colonies". But since the beginning of the revolution, republicans and royalists clash in the Antilles and install their modes of terror in turn. To the French princes, the English take possession of Martinique then of the Guadeloupe. Wearied by the bloody revolution of the mountain dwellers, Guadeloupéens resist to the British little when they unload, April 10, in Gosier...

June 2, 1794 : Victor Hugues, sent by France to take again the Guadeloupe, unloads in his turn with Gosier. The 7, it enters to Point-with-Clown and makes known with the population the vote by the convention of the abolition of slavery. The growers continue to support English, and flee to escape the revolutionary tribunals. The Guadeloupe misses provisioning, the connections with the metropolis are rare. Victor Hugues calls upon the corsairs to intercept the foreign trading vessels of the area.

1801 : Lacrosse is named with two other magistrates by the consulate to control the Guadeloupe after the terror imposed by Victor Hugues. It founds a mode of reaction quite as pitiless and causes an insurrection with Point-with-Clown. It is stopped but escapes thanks to the intervention from Pélage.

May 6, 1802 : General new the Richepance General as a head of the Guadeloupe, arrives to Point-with-Clown. Fear to see restoring slavery causes the revolt of the colonel mûlatre Delgrès to Low-Ground.

May 25, 1802 : At the end of ten days of seat, Delgrès is cut off in Matouba and prefers to be made jump with its men rather than to go to the troops of Richepance.

July 6, 1802 : The law of February 4 1794 which had abolishes slavery is cancelled by Bonaparte.

1808 : The English occupy Marie-Gallant and Désirade. The following year, they also take the Holy ones, unload once more in Gosier, gain Point-With-Clown then move towards Low-Ground.

February 5, 1809 : Low-ground capitulates. The Guadeloupe is again occupied by English.

1812 : Foundation with Saint-Claude of the Camp Jacob, sanitary facilities intended to fight against the yellow fever.

May 30, 1814 : The treaty of Paris returns the Guadeloupe to France.

1825 : A terrible cyclone falls down on the Guadeloupe. 900 houses are cut down in Saint-Claude.

1833 : England issues the first the abolition of slavery. In Paris, men like Tocqueville, Broglie, Lamartine, Bissette and Schoelcher carry out the same free trade combat. Under the monarchy of July, any man who was useful the republican ideas served to some extent the interests of the West-Indian slaves. A poinfois of the name of Armand Barbès contributed by his revolutionary action to Paris to the emancipation of its Guadeloupéens resist to the British little when they unload, April 10, in Gosier...

March 4, 1848 : The French law abolishes in its turn slavery. Victor Schoelcher, after years of fight baited in favour of abolition, succeeds in forcing the decision of the provisional government of France. Thanks to him, the official decree of abolition is published on April 27 of this same year. 87 000 guadeloupéens become French citizens with whole share.

1854 : For stage with the crisis of labour in the plantations which results from the emancipation of the blacks, the immigration of workers originating in the Indies is organized in the Antilles. The first convoy of Indians unloads in Guadeloupe of Aurélie. The last will unload of "Nantes Bordeaux" in 1885. It will arrive from there 45 000 to Guadeloupe between these two dates.

1865 : A fatal cyclone devastates the Guadeloupe.

1867 : The French West Indies are directly related to the metropolis by creation in Extremely-of-France of a stopover of the Transatlantic General Company.

August 10, 1877 : The island of Saint-Barthélemy is reassigned in France by Sweden, the condition desired by its the Swedish inhabitants and government which it remains free port.

1911 : West-Indian requires like a right to follow the red white blue military service.

1914 - 1918 : 52 000 West-Indian will leave to take again Alsace and Lorraine with German. 20 000 soldiers of this quota only will be able to testify after the armistice to the horror of this "Large War".

1928 : The Guadeloupe is devastated by a cyclone.

1936 : Felix Eboué becomes the first black governor of the Guadeloupe.

1939 - 1945 : Under the administration of the admiral Robert, with the orders of the Vichy government, many guadeloupéens succeeds in gaining the English islands at the time of the second world war and joins the Free French Army of General de Gaulle.

March 19, 1946 : the Guadeloupe and Martinique become French departments integrated into the national community. A wish of long date is carried out finally for the West-Indian population.

1976 : La Soufrière est fiévreuse au dessus de Saint-Claude. Les populations de la région et de la ville de Basse-Terre sont accueillies par les Pointois par mesure de sécurité. Les déclarations apaisantes d'Haroun Tazieff défrayent la chronique... Pourtant le volcan cesse sa quinte de toux et se rendort.

1989 : La Guadeloupe est meurtrie par l'Ouragan Hugo.