MTDNA Haplogroup tree



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Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to  determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.



There are only two lasting  bequests we can  hope to give our children


One of these are roots

The other wings

           Hodding Carter





MTDNA - Haplogroup tree

Copied from - Global human mtDNA phylogenetic tree 

For convenience the tree is divided into eight subtrees. They can be accessed by clicking on one of the links in the scheme below. 
Alternatively, the entire tree can be downloaded as single file: mtDNA tree Build 13 (28 Dec 2011) 
Nucleotide positions are relative to the rCRS (GenBank accession NC_012920). Mutations are transitions unless an exact base change is specified.
Coding region mutations (np 577-16023) are shown in black; control region mutations (np 16024-576) in blue. 


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Revised Cambridge Reference Sequence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ( )


The Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) for human mitochondrial DNA was first published in 1981[1] leading to the initiation of the human genome project.
A group under Dr. Fred Sanger at Cambridge University sequenced the mitochondrial genome of one individual of European descent during the 1970s, determining it to have a length of 16,569 base pairs (0.0006% of the total human genome) containing some 37 genes.
When other researchers repeated the sequencing, some striking discrepancies were noted. The original published sequence included eleven errors, including one extra base pair in position 3107, and incorrect assignments of single base pairs. Some of these were the result of contamination with bovine and HeLa specimens. The corrected revised CRS was published by Andrews et al. in 1999.[2] (The original nucleotide numbering was retained to avoid confusion.) The reference sequence belongs to European haplogroup H2a2a. The revised CRS is designated as rCRS.
When mitochondrial DNA sequencing is used for genealogical purposes, the results are usually reported as differences from the revised CRS. The CRS is a reference sequence rather than a record of the earliest human mtDNA. A difference between a tested sample and the CRS may have arisen in the lineage of the CRS or in the lineage of the tested sample.


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