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Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion : Background Information : D

Background Information



Daffy's Elixir
Aka Elixir salutis. A specific, invented by Rev Thomas Daffy [16??-1680], Vicar of Redmile in Leicestershire, which was popular in the 18th century as a remedy for coughs and colds in children.

It consisted of senna and was commonly mixed with gin.

The word daffy became a slang term for gin

A fine, lustrous cloth made of linen, cotton or wool, and with a woven pattern which is designed with flat patterns and a satin weave to catch and reflect the light. Originally made of silk, it came from China via Damascus, and is one of the oldest and most popular fabrics to be found today. From around 1840, the design was produced on Jacquard looms.

All-wool damask was made in Halifax and Ovenden. Akroyd's records show that they produced the fabric in 1824. H. C. McCrea made his fortune from manufacturing the cloth.

Damask of mohair and alpaca was made in Bradford. Damask of coloured cotton and wool was made in Barnsley.

See Figured cloth

Damask industry
All-wool damask was made in Halifax and Ovenden. In the early 19th century, several mills moved from wool and cotton production to damask.

In 1827, Akroyd's bought a Jacquard loom for the production of damask, but this did not work successfully.

See Figures, Henry Charles McCrea, Industry, Silk industry and John Wilson

A conditioning process used in cloth-making in which woollen cloth is wetted between two layers of fabric which have been soaked in water

A 10th century tax imposed to defend Britain against the Danes, or to buy them off.

See Geld

The area of northern and eastern England which was under the administrative control of the Danes from the late 9th century. It was roughly the area to the north and east of a line drawn between London and Chester

See By, Domesday Book, Finkel Street, Patronymic surnames and Wapentake

Dardanelles / Gallipoli Campaign
A campaign in the Gallipoli peninsula of Turkey [between 25th April 1915 & 9th January 1916].

The Allied powers – Russia, Britain & France – launches a naval attack and amphibious landing with the intention of capturing the Ottoman capital, Constantinople [Istanbul].

After 8 months of fighting, the land campaign was abandoned and the Allied with drew to Egypt.

See Suvla Bay

Darney Society
A group of people – such as those at Heptonstall and Crimsworth Dean – who followed William Darney.

Around 1740, Darney returned to Scotland, leaving the Societies in William Grimshaw's care

Dash wheel
A large hollow drum – divided into 4 compartments – which rotated backwards and forwards and was used for washing cloth


Many 16th and 17th century houses have a stone or plaque with the year and the initials of the owner – and his wife – set into the stone work. This may be over a door, or over a chimney breast. This does not always indicate when the house was built, but it may record when the owner carried out work on the building, or it may commemorate the owner's marriage, or some other significant event.

See Dates of some local buildings

The word was often used to mean daughter-in-law

Day hole pit
Aka Day 'oyle. A local name for a drift mine

See Adit

Daytall work
Day labour with wages paid on a day-by-day basis

A mortuary, room or building where bodies were kept prior to burial, as at a workhouse

Dead Man's Penny
A Memorial plaque – about 5 inches in diameter – which was given to the family of those who had been killed in World War I.

These were frequently affixed to gravestones, such as those of

George Frederick Garside

Death penalty
Capital punishment had long been handed out for many crimes – see Gibbet Law.

In 1823, the death penalty in Britain was dropped for over 100 crimes and offences.

The situation in the armed services is different. See Death penalty in World War I.

On 6th December 1969, the House of Commons abolished the death penalty for murder.

In 1971, the death penalty was abolished for anyone committing arson at a Royal Navy shipyard or harbour.

In 1999, the death penalty was abolished for all crimes.

See Hanging

Death Penny
Aka Dead Man's Penny.

A memorial plaque – about 5 inches in diameter – issued to the families of British & Empire personnel who died as a result of war

Death Rates


Deaths in Childbirth

Debtors' prison
A prison for the detention of people who owe money. There were often privately-run, profit-making concerns.

The inmates were allowed visitors and had to pay for their keep.

These were abolished in 1869.

See Gaol, Hanson Lane gaol, Illingworth Gaol and Sponging-house

Decay of Towns & Houses, Act against the [1597]
Passed to tackle the growing poverty and social distress after many people were dying in the street from want and neglect

In 1971, the old pounds, shilling and pence currency in Britain was replaced by the decimal pounds and pence system. Many old coins were discontinued at the same time

A 10% tax on income from land imposed by Parliament on Royalists and Royalist supporters in 1655. This tax was often imposed posthumously.

Several local men had to pay the tax, including William Blythman, Richard Brighouse, Matthew Brodley, Bryan Cooke, John Crossley, Captain Nathan Drake, Rev Samuel Drake, Edward Fox, Anthony Foxcroft, Colonel Sir Richard Hutton, Bishop John Lake, Tobias Law, Dr Richard Marsh, James Murgatroyd, Rev Jonathan Schofield, Abraham Sunderland, Captain Langdale Sunderland, Robert Waterhouse, George Wentworth, Sir George Wentworth and Joshua Whitley

Declaration of Indulgence
[1672] Permitted freedom of worship and allowed for the cancellation of all penal legislation against and Catholics.

See Act of Toleration

A document which transfers ownership and title of property.

The West Riding register of deeds opened in Wakefield in 1704.

See Title deed

See Deer park and Hunting

Deer park
Parks for breeding and hunting deer were known at the time of the Norman Conquest. Most were created in the 12th/13th century, but they declined until revived in the 17th century. Such parks were enclosed by pales and palisades, banks and ditches. Red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer were kept in the parks.

See Emparking and Erringden Park

Defence of the Realm Act [1914]
Aka DORA. This was introduced in August 1914 and granted emergency powers which gave the Government greater control over civilian life during World War I. It allowed the government to requisition raw materials, to control labour, and to censor foreign correspondence. It was superseded by the Emergency Powers Act [1920]

A term used in mediæval documents meaning

  • the seller
  • someone who withholds or restrains possession from the rightful owner of an estate or property
  • someone who is wrongly fined

Aka delf or delvers. Element used in place names, the word means a quarry and – like the verb delve – comes from the Old English word delfan, to dig.

The word is also used to refer to a drain behind a dyke or embankment on the landward side of a canal

To dig or burrow. A delver is anyone whose work involves digging, and may include coal-miners and quarry-workers.

Many local pubs have names such as Delvers' Arms because the catered for these workers.

The word is frequently encountered in local place names, and – like the noun delph – the word comes from the Anglo-Saxon word delfan [to dig]

A manorial home farm. That portion of a village's fields which were used solely by – or for – the lord of the manor and not occupied permanently by tenants. The land was worked by peasants as a part of their obligations to the lord.

See Ancient demesne, High farming and Thistletack

To convey by will or lease an estate either in fee or for a specified period

Demonstration Parade
A demonstration is a procession, typically as a fund-raising event.

See Brighouse Friendly Societies & Trade Parade, Brighouse Hospital Demonstration Parade, Infirmary Demonstration and Mytholmroyd Demonstration

Also dene. Old English element used in place names – such as Hebden and Ovenden - and in the surname Sugden and Dearden - and means a valley.

The Old English element denn was a woodland pasture – often for pigs

A Roman silver coin. The name means ten asses, a smaller value coin.

See Denier and Penny

Also Den. This Old English element used in place names and means a valley

A small silver coin used in France and western Europe from the 8th to the 19th centuries.

See Denier and Sol

A unit of measurement for measuring the weight per unit length of a fine silk, rayon, or nylon yarn or filament. It is the weight in grammes of 9000 metres of the yarn.

The name was the name of a Roman coin and comes from the Old French / Middle English form of the Latin denarius

A foreign person who received British citizenship by royal letters patent. They were not allowed to inherit or hold public office

A reed wire and the space between adjacent wires

Any instrument – animate or inanimate – which brings about the death of a person. Until 1862, this could be forfeited to the Crown for charitable purposes

Someone who makes a written or oral statement on oath in connection with a legal case

Deputy Lieutenant
Abbr: DL. The Deputy to the Lord Lieutenant of a county.

At least 20 Deputy Lieutenants are appointed for each county by the Lord Lieutenant for the county, and the appointments are subject to the sovereign's approval.

In order to be eligible for selection, the Deputy Lieutenant must be a peer of the realm and must have a place of residence within the county, or he must hold an estate in the United Kingdom, or he must have a specified annual income, or he must be the heir-apparent of such a person.

Except when he is standing in for the absent Lord Lieutenant, the duties of the office are nominal, and may include the swearing-in of military recruits in the county.

See Deputy Lieutenant for the West Riding

Derby Scheme
A system introduced in autumn 1915, by Lord Kitchener and Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby, to meet British military needs by requiring all men aged 18 to 41 years-old (who were not in a reserved occupation) to make a public declaration and join the armed services.

Many such men volunteered, others waited to be called by the local Parliamentary Recruiting Committee

Anyone – such as your children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren – to whom you are an ancestor

Alternative form of Demesne

A machine used for tearing rags and processing cotton waste.

A deviller was someone who operated the machine

Devil's arrows
A stylised arrow / heart-shaped symbol used on several local buildings from the 17th century. These were ritual symbols to frighten evil spirits and ward off bad luck

Devil's Knell
The practice of ringing the church bell at midnight on Christmas Eve

A gift of real property by the will of the donor.

A devisee is the person receiving a devise, and the devisor is the person giving the devise in his/her will

A conditioning process used in cloth-making in which fabric is sprayed with a very fine mist of water

An heraldic term meaning the right side of a coat of arms, from the bearer's point of view (that is, on the left as it is depicted).

See Sinister

Diachylon plaster
A medical dressing made from lead oxide, olive oil and water

A fustian cloth

Aka Profluvium. A viral infection or irritation of the intestines, resulting in frequent or excessive action of the bowels so that the faeces are liquid or semi-liquid. During the 19th century it was the third biggest killer, and today it is the biggest killer of children in the world with an estimated 4·5 million children dying each year in Third World countries.

The name cholera was also used to describe incidences of the disease

Dice duty
There was a duty on dice from 1711 to 1862

Dig for Victory
A government slogan to encourage people to grow what food they could – in their own gardens and allotments – to cope with the shortages during World War II. The campaign was launched in October 1939 when Rob Hudson, Minister for Agriculture, said on the radio:
We want not only the big man with the plough but the little man with the spade to get busy this autumn. Let Dig for Victory be the motto of everyone with a garden
It began at a time when farmers could only produce 30% of the country's food, and by 1945, around 75% of food was produced in Britain.

Adverts featuring cartoon characters Potato Pete and Dr Carrot encouraged people to eat home-grown vegetables.

People were also encouraged to keep chickens for a supply of eggs. By 1945, there were around 1,250,000 people tending 12,000,000 hens.

See Pig Club and Savile Park

A unit of length equal to the width of a man's finger. A 28th part of a cubit

Diminishing the coin
A term used to describe the clipping of coins


A light cotton fabric used for children's clothes, dresses, blouses, bedspreads, curtains, and underwear

Coin issued by Offa in 774.

See Penny

A cheap candle made by dipping a wick into tallow

Aka Bladder in the throat.

An acute and highly contagious disease of children in which a thick grey membrane forms across the air passage, making it difficult for the child to breathe.

This caused fever and severely weakened the heart, often resulting in death.

It was common until the 20th century. Occurs in winter.

See Arthur Nussey

The Foldout collects the entries for some of the diseases and industrial diseases which are mentioned on the Calderdale Companion

Many charitable groups set up a dispensary to provide free medical treatment to the poor in he 18th/19th century. The Halifax dispensary was built in 1807 and originally situated near Halifax Parish Church. Every physician had to be a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, Edinburgh, or Glasgow. Surgical wards opened in 1823 and were extended in 1827. When it outgrew that building, the new Halifax Infirmary & Dispensary was opened in 1838

The dispossession of land, or wrongfully depriving someone of the lawful seisin of lands.

See Seisin

Dissolution of the Monasteries
Between 1536 and 1541, Henry VIII closed the monasteries in Britain and confiscated their property.

See Chantries, Priory of Lewes, Pilgrimage of Grace and Three Nuns, Mirfield

Aka Rock. The cleft stick about 3 feet in length which holds the wool which is drawn off by the spindle during spinning. The distaff was used before the spinning wheel was introduced in the Tudor period.

The task was often performed by women, hence the term distaff side meaning the female line of a family

The word was used as a general term for any illness or disorder.

There was an epidemic in Halifax, Leeds, York, Hull and other places on December 1675.

It is now used for a number of infectious animal diseases – especially in dogs – which have symptoms such as catarrh, cough, and general weakness.

See Jolly Rant

To seize someone's goods and possessions until they answer a charge.

Action often taken against debtors.

See Replevine

Distraint of Knighthood
Henry III required freeholders with land / estates worth £20 or more per annum to take up knighthoods.

Further legislation was introduced by Charles I in 1630, in an attempt to raise revenue outside Parliament, and forced the English nobility to contribute large sums of money to the Crown. This was imposed on anyone not turning up to Charles I's coronation

See Composition

Dobbie loom
Aka Dobby loom, Witch loom. A loom which allowed the weaver to incorporate designs – such as motifs and flowers – into the cloth. A dobby is a pattern.

These were used to produce birds-eye cloth.

The loom was introduced in the early 19th century, and was superseded by the Jacquard loom

A device attached to a loom to select and raise individual warp threads in order to make the pattern for weaving. Some could weave patterns of up to 160 threads.

It was known as a witch or witch engine in other parts of the country.

See Dobbie loom and Drum witch

A stupid boggart

Doctors & Physicians
The Foldout collects the entries for some doctors, surgeons, physicians, apothecaries and dentists with links to the district

To remove a filled bobbin or cheese from a machine, and replacing it with an empty one.

This work is done by a doffer.

The doffers were often child workers who were small enough to crawl beneath the machines

Dog days
The hottest time of the year – 3rd July to 11th August – when Sirius, the dog star, rose at the same time as the sun

Food, money, or clothing – given by local benefactors – which were distributed to the needy by the church after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The word was also used in the names of charitable causes. In some cases, the gifts were made over the grave of the founder of the charity, and were associated with chantries.

See Armytage dole and Dole cupboard

A share of the common land, or a strip of meadow land, as distinct from the ploughed selion

Dole cupboard
A cupboard or a shelf where bread and other food was placed as dole for the poor of the parish. This was done at special festivals and after the Sunday service

Coin worth 60d = 5/-d introduced in 1804 by George III. He had issued the half dollar coin worth 4s/9d in 1797.

The name comes from the German Taler, which is short for Joachimstaler, a coin from the silver mine of Joachimstal, which is now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic

Domesday Book
When the Normans ruled Britain after the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror ordered that an Inquest be carried out to assess the loyalty of the Saxons in any future wars with the Danes and to enable the king to estimate the power of his vassal barons. The results were compiled into the Domesday Book [1086].

See Population statistics

Domestic system
The production of cloth by small manufacturers working from their own homes and farms. This was recorded in the 14th century but predominantly in the period 1750-1780. Home production required minimal capital outlay, and there were plentiful resources – raw materials, water, and manpower. The whole family were involved in the process. This was the forerunner of the woollen industry in the area. The Piece Hall was established to provide a market place for such producers. In a great many cases, there was a dual economy, with the whole family working full time on the cloth production, except at sowing, harvest and other times when farming was busiest. Although the Industrial Revolution and the introduction of water power changed the general pattern of working, by 1856, only half of those working in the woollen industry were employed in factories.

See Pack house, Putting-out, Taking-in and Yeoman clothier

A type of wool from Russia. Sir Titus Salt pioneered a method of processing the material

A judgement, decision, law or ordinance in Old English England

With the Calendar Reform of 1752, England changed from the old style which used the Julian calendar to the new style which used Gregorian calendar, and also moved the beginning of the year from 25th March to 1st January.

For this reason, dates often quote the year in both forms for dates between 1st January and 24th March for years before 1752 – for example February 12th 1719/20 – this is known as double-dating

Double-decker house
Another name for top-and-bottom houses

A combing process used in cloth-making which twists together two single yarns to form a double yarn

A former gold coin of Spain and Spanish America.

See Foreign coins

Aka Columbarium. A place for keeping pigeons. This may take the form of a free-standing structure, or it may be built into the wall of a house with a set of external holes to allow the birds to enter. The birds could be reached from inside the house.

Many local houses – such as

- had these in the roof or attic space to provide food for the family, and were valued for their meat, eggs, feathers, down and dung.

In April 2004, the Mayoress opened a dovecote in Halifax Bus Station. The dovecote, on 15 ft high pole, will allow the birds' eggs to be removed, thus reducing the pigeon population in the town

The rights of a widow – during her lifetime – to a portion (typically one-third) of her late husband's estate for her sustenance and the education of her children. Also the daughter's share of an inheritance.

See Dower House and Dowry

Dower House
A house built for the widow of the lord of the manor after the heir had inherited the title and the manor.

See Wood Cottage, Todmorden

The land, money, goods, and/or personal property which is brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage.

See Dower

Also dram. A unit of weight equal to 1/8th or 1/16th of an ounce = 1·772 grams.

See Ounce apothecaries

See Drawing

An artificial channel – or leat – to drain the water off moorland and direct it to a stream or reservoir.

The element is used in several local names – such as Broadhead Drain and Warland Drain.

See Grip

Draper loom
A loom with an automatic bobbin changer which discards an empty bobbin and replaces it with a full bobbin

A weaver's assistant who stood at the side of the loom and, by means of gearing and harness, raised the correct healds at the right moment. This was a forerunner of the technique which was mechanised in the Jacquard loom.

The cloth produced in this manner was known as drawboy

Draw, hang & quarter
A punishment in which the victim was dragged on a hurdle to the gallows, hanged, cut down and then cut into pieces which were exposed at different locations

A rebate which cloth manufacturers could claim from a tax on soap in the 19th century

Aka Drafting. A process used in cloth-making in which slivers are blended, levelled and then drawn, reducing the fibres to a single fine sliver – known as roving – which is suitable for making into yarn

Also dring. A free, prosperous farmer before the Norman Conquest. The name usually implies that land is held in return for military service. The word comes from the Norse and is found in place names in some parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire

The process of starching or sizing the warp to strengthen it for weaving.

The name is also used for the process of mozing or brushing the finished cloth to raise the nap. This stage was mechanised by the gig mill.

See Cropping

Drift mine
An open coal mine which is cut into the side of a hill.

Local names for these include Breast 'ees, Light hole pits Day hole pits

A durable fustian cloth made of cotton. The cloth is used for uniforms, work clothes, slip covers, sportswear, and industrial uses

Druggists & Chemists

See Ancient Order of Druids, Druids' Arms, Greetland, Druids' Arms, Halifax, Society of Druids and United Order of Druids

Drum witch
A mechanised witch which could weave patterns of about 40 threads

Dry-stone wall
A wall constructed from selected stones and assembled without mortar.

They were first used in the 16th and 17th century with the introduction of enclosures as assarting depleted the supply of hedges and timber for fences.

The stones used in constructing the walls were originally collected as the land was cleared for the fields.

Large stones are used to create the foundation for the wall, then 2 vertical faces are raised – leaning inwards – and the 2 faces are joined at intervals by a through-stone to strengthen and stabilise the structure. Small stones – pinners – are used to steady large stones and stop them rocking. The cavity between the 2 side faces are filled with small stones and rubble. The whole is then finished with a row of single top-stones.

Most of the enclosed land was walled by around 1850.

See Cripple Hole

During the cloth-making process, the wool was dried in the open-air, and cloth was dried in the open-air on tenter hooks or by wuzzing. Later, air-drying was carried out in ventilated buildings, and from the early 19th century by heat in a heated dryhouse, or in a heated machine. For economic reasons, natural drying on tenters continued to be used into the industrial era

Drying house
Purpose-built houses for drying cloth. Some examples were at Old Lane, Boothtown

Dual economy
Many farmers supplemented their income from pastoral and arable farming by the domestic system of manufacturing cloth in their own homes and farms.

This meant that, in winter – when the weather and other factors made farming less productive, then the worker could turn his hand to cloth production – or – in summer – when dried up streams brought machinery to a stand-still, then the worker could turn his hand to the land.

In the stone quarrying and coal mining areas of the district, particularly in the hillier areas where farming was less common, a form of dual economy was practised as small-scale stone delving and cloth making, or small-scale coal mining and cloth making.

In some cases, the non-farming activities included brewing.

Cornelius Ashworth was one of the last people able to make a living from the dual economy.

See Fulling mills and Yorkshire Trade

A gold coin used in many European countries, so called because of the portrait of the doge depicted on one side.

See Foreign coins

Ducking stool
Aka erroneously as the cucking stool.

A chair fixed to the end of a pole which was raised and lowered into water as a form of punishment.

It was used to punish people such as scolds [nagging women], persistent drunks, and brewers of bad ale. A twin-seater version was used to punish quarrelling married couples.

Locally, they are recorded at Elland, Heptonstall, Sowerby Bridge, Halifax, and Stainland

A stage in the cloth-making process – aka willeying – when the dried wool – or other raw material – was beaten to remove dust, to disentangle the material, to open matted locks, and to blend the staples into a consistent material.

The worker who did this was known as a duler, a devil minder, a devil worker, a tuler, or a tueler, and used a dule machine.

In the mid-19th century, a number of mill fires were recorded as having started in the dule room.

See Dule

Dumb boat
A wooden vessel used on the canals. These were steered with a tiller and hauled by a horse on the towpath.

See Horse marine

A coarse woollen cloth.

Records for Akroyd's mill show that they produced the fabric in 1811

Dutch Wars
[1652-1784] In the 17th and 18th centuries, there was a series of wars between the English and the Dutch over shipping and trade routes

Aka Lithairse. A factory – or a part of a factory – where cloth was dyed See Dye works and Dyeing

Dyes & dyeing
In the early domestic system, much of the cloth was plain and uncoloured. Later, the wool was dyed between washing and weaving to produce coloured and patterned cloth.

From around 1850, dyeing became a significant industry in and around Hebden Bridge. There was also dyeing at Brookfoot. The water in the area was said to be good and in sufficient quantities which made it suitable for use in the dyeing process.

See Annatto, Annatto-maker, Archil-maker, Autumn crocus, Blackburn & Sutcliffe, John Bottomley, Bradford Dyers' Association, Brasiler, Brookfoot, Calderside Mill, Hebden Bridge, Copperas, Dan Crabtree & Sons, Cudbear, James Davis & Sons Limited, Drysalter, Dye-house, Dye works, English Velvet & Cord Dyers' Association Limited, Gale, Halifax Dyeing Company, Halifax Legs, Hebden Dyeing Company, Helliwell & Ingham, Isaac Holmes, Hops, Jig, Lister, Lithairse, Logwood, Madder, Robert Nellson, Norland Moor Farm, Joseph Richardson, Thomas Riley, Safflower, Saffron, Slubbing dyeing, Turkey red, Wainhouse Tower, Halifax, Geppe Walker, Nelle Walker, Walshaw, Drake & Company Limited, Nathaniel Waterhouse and Weld

See Industry

Dynastic marriages
There have been many wealthy families in the district, and over the years some of these have inter-married.

I plan to list here some of the marriages which joined the local families. Those already identified include

Mary Edwards & Dr Disney Alexander

Sarah Ann Bottomley & Samuel Watkinson
Grace Appleyard & Jonathan Bracken

Hannah Fryer & William Clay

Sarah Edwards & Daniel Dyson

Anne Elizabeth Waterhouse & John Lea Edwards

Margaret Lacy & William Farrar

Cecily Thornhill & John Gledhill
Sarah Horton & John Gledhill

Janet Gledhill & Thomas Hanson
Rebecca Kershaw & James Hartley
Hannah Judith Turney & George Holdsworth
Alice Lacy & John Holdsworth
Elizabeth Savile & John Holdsworth
Elizabeth Gledhill & William Horton
Isabel de Warenne & Robert de Laci

Elizabeth Walker & John Priestley
Lydia Lea & Joseph Priestley

Emily Holdsworth & Benjamin Currer Rawson
Grace Elizabeth Rawson & John Waterhouse
Elizabeth Marianne Priestley & John Rawson
Mary Priestley & William Henry Rawson

Elizabeth Rawson & Philip Saltmarshe
Margery Gledhill & John Sayvill
Anne Waterhouse and Samuel Sunderland

Margaret de Totehill & Richard de Thornhill
Martha Stansfield & Joziah Tillotson
Thornhill family & The Toothill family of Rastrick

Agnes Rishworth & John Waterhouse
Grace Elizabeth Rawson & John Waterhouse
Charlotte Lydia Edwards & Samuel Waterhouse

Isobel de Eland & Sir John Savile

Question: Can you add any further marriages which joined local families?


Aka Flux, Lask. An inflammation of the large intestine causing pain and loss of blood. The disease is transmitted by unclean drinking water. It was common until the 20th century


© Malcolm Bull 2017 / [email protected]
Revised 12:14 on 21st October 2017 / b113_d / 65