Egyptian calendar

Egyptian calendar

Isis myths and rituals ruled Egypt over time we may say. It started with the ritual suite Follow Her. Calendars and astronomy were their guide and World Order. Scandinavia have got more than a third of the symbols from Egypt concerning ritual astronomy

Egyptian wisdom, House of Life, African heritage, Follow Her, Senenmut's calendar, Khufu's pyramid, dating, Sphinx or Leo, predynastic time, Astarte, Ishtar, hero, Sothic year, portal, palm-leaf, ritual suite, Egyptian ritual year, djed-pillar, Toth the moon, Atum

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My essays on Egypt

My main issue is to get explanations to cultural loans/ influence to European megaliths and society as seen in our rock-carvings. I am also searching for explanations "How did civilisation start?" Present science does not answer such questions since it is almost petrified. Just to draw it to the point. Public Egyptology is either about the pyramids or about the noble families in Middle Kingdom. If I ask about real astronomy, myths and organisation I do not get an answer. And if I ask how it began approximately in 4th millennium or maybe earlier no one knows much. So in these essay I explain what I see in the early astronomy and symbolism in Egypt.

The academic definition of civilisation is "refine, educate and enlighten" people understood that they come out of barbarism. I think we can leave out snobbish pseudo-values and see all people as equal. But we can name the point when people start to act in suite and follow some plan/ program as the state when people step from unorganised to organised settlement/ people.

We get the first evidence from stony monuments that imply order and organisation. Other evidences are drawings/ paintings showing the suite or "Follow Hor" se below. Peoples fairs and meetings are also kinds of suite and organisation and that is surely the oldest however it is hard to prove and find places for early meetings. In Egypt we find pictorial evidence that we can compare to European early ideas. Since there is much more we get help in interpreting our ideas

First essay should maybe be Time law ideas and here I define the Egyptian calendar and underlying practical astronomy as we see it in symbolism. We should add the ancient way of seeing wholeness and spacetime. They used the ingenious concept of showing life as journey on the Time River so they show what happens in time and space or as a plan they expect what should happen. We use the same view only on some occasions and cannot feel how our environment lives and affects us during the spacetime.

In the essay we also look at the macehead or the club that early yearmen / Horus' used as sign of leadership of the yearly ritual. On some of them they engraved the program for the season. Already in early symbolism we see the archetype Toth as scribe also incarnating the moon since it was used as counter during the season from February to the evening sun in autumn. We need to know about resurrection to understand myth and ritual in sowing as well as at funerals. The Isis' Songs and Sunsong are late but make us understand the ecological myth.

Alison Moroney has a good short explanation of the Egyptian astronomy from the beginning of Ritual Age. This website features information on the alignment of the shafts of Khufu's pyramid with the ecliptic, celestial equator, and lunar orbital planes; a dating of the Great Pyramid to 4420 BC by a double alignment with Alpha Orion; the original Giza masterplan; the development of the Osirian mythology in association with a changing Egyptian perspective of Orion throughout the ages; an explanation of how the Egyptians came to know the value of Pi; the celestial sphinx and the stellar capstone.

Under symbols and icons I have gathered the pictorials/ glyphs for Farmers' year. Academic scientists usually avoid telling us about ancient everyday life and the sources of food. Farmers' year include practical knowledge about very many things and that is maybe too difficult for scientist who never tried to rise plants and follow the natural year. I see that some people give the name "alternative" when I try to understand the natural life of ordinary people those days. That valuation is theirs and not mine.

Egyptian wisdom

Do not boost yourself for what you know.

Learn with the ignorant as well as the wise.

The art has no limits,

no artist creates the perfect.

Pthahotep ca 2500 BC.


True wisdom has less preconceived ideas than the false.

Wise men often doubt and change their conclusions.

Akhenaten ca 1375 BC.


We need especially the last wisdom before the Egyptian mightiness takes us. The first stages are the programmes I see in TV shown by Discovery and National Geographic. It is perhaps natural that they are in the Hollywood style about famous dynasties and mysteries far from the normal life. Many Egyptologists and archaeologist want to make scoop out of everything in aim for money and to be famous or be "the first" to discover something. That is like bias put to the issue and it is not true science.

My interest is not Egyptology as such but I have to know about the influences from Egypt, Mesopotamia and Indus I see in European megalith building and rock-carvings. At the same time it is an opportunity to see the simple models that is the core and base of civilisation

The past decades there have been guys like Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock questioning the "truths told by early Egyptology". They are right old Egyptologists do not know too much about geology, astronomy and the world outside Egypt. I can support the questioning since I see a lot of faults in the material and as said I do not get answer to crucial questions. I think every generation should look over "old truths". that does not mean I agree with mentioned guys since I have found faults in the reasoning and some of their evidence could be better.

Naturally it is hard really to imagine the mighty pyramid. In my mind I compare with the Danish Himmelbjerget on Jutland, I have climbed it a couple of times. The mountain is about 158 metres above sea level or about the same as Khufu's pyramid. I live at 50 metres and our nearest height is about 150 metres above sea level. I try to see them with the Khufu's pyramid in front. Another comparison builds on a calculation made by someone who said that the bricks from a pyramid could form a wall as long as the coast of Sweden. To that come that we have no machine that could manage to lift the biggest bricks.

During the eighties was much fuss about the submarines in our archipelago. I suggested they should buy three pyramids and make a wall as high as three bricks around Sweden. To me the whole thing was a joke and I thought about a local fellow being a pilot on the air force base on the other side of Lake Vaenern.

They said he often took a round over our town to impress his girl with his star-fighter. It was the time before the mobile dummy with easy access to Mamma or the fiancée. Then I thought that our own submarines were defending the Swedish girl wanted by Russian and NATO'S submariners and perhaps some of our own too.

Anyhow imagining the ingenious work of the Egyptians is hard. It goes worse if I listen to all the questions about this building. The questions fill the spacetime so at the end there is no room for questions about the history that lead to these mighty buildings. Scientists rather complicate things and "problemise" as they say. I am more like the ancient people that simplified so they could grasp their world

Three season boats on pot from Naqada middle 4th millennium

Flinders Petrie made the sketch when he excavated the tombs in Naqada. He saw a harpoon, a crocodile and a crescent above the boats. From later symbolism we know that the crocodile symbolised together with Taweret the New Year and both are at Ramadan on the sky map. Taweret probably means "running time" The beast eat the moons and it is replaced with a small one at Ramadan see section from Seti's tomb below.

On the lower boat we see the crescent that is sign used in agriculture that began with the new moon getting the lead. Observe the "hut" above the lower boat. Maybe that is the real original idea of the pyramid. It is the idea of shelter for survival and resurrection. We see Toth, scribe and moon already at Narmer's palette and he keeps track of spacetime. For the Nile Valley three seasons would be natural division in agriculture. From the images we see the symbolism of the year and trisection was in use at that time.

We do not exactly know when they invented this kind of organised pictorial "script". We have to see the glyf in pictorials and early small signs and that means all 4th millennium. Flinders Petrie made a list of 32 signs from the standards at the vase paintings and we can understand at least some of them. There is Sun, Neith watering, Min engender, elephant, bird (Falcon Hor) on crescent, bullhead, 2 bullheads, 4 bullheads, harpoon, resurrection, club and embracing. All these was used for symbolising moments in agriculture

We can go to next millennium and make more sophisticated questions, "Why and for what purpose they made pyramids? Fortunately we have some lines from the pyramid texts giving us a glimpse:


I have stepped on these your beams,

like on a stairway of light.

On that I walk to my mother,

the living Jaret on your brow.


For You the heaven reinforced the sun beams,

so that they may rise to the heaven as the eye of Ra.


These lines tell about the beam towards the star Osiris/Orion and also Ra, the sun as understood. We shall later look at the saying "Ra and Osiris unite in the field". In the texts about the scrutiny just after dead the soul is transformed to the KA-soul, while the BA-soul stays in Duat the underworld and in the mummy. The KA can then meet Osiris/Orion as the judge. That is if we simplified the crucial moment.

In life the KA seems to be much more than the soul. Maybe we should understand it as "to have go" in every sense. In northern myths it is perhaps "the shadow" or the fylgia.

In the pharaohs case he was of course the companion of Osiris and his wife was that of Isis and the deities have incarnations as stars in the sky. Pharaoh and his wife were only for the time being instead of the gods on earth.

I think the Egyptologists could give us much better translations of many texts. If only they understood the real connection between the heavenly objects and idols in mythology even that pharaohs were instead of the gods. The people were legs or tools for the gods. In poetry they call them the tears of Ra, the Sun. ... We say in the end at funeral that we are born of soil and forget the contribution of sun in a lifetime.

Samivel in his book Trësor de l'Egypte tells that the pharaohs left only descriptions of resurrection for higher beings like pharaohs, while everyday myths and astronomy we have to guess. Of course temples and other institutions have given us a picture of the yearly rituals.

They tell the world of ordinary people in many reliefs and papyruses because those who could afford it wanted the afterlife be as it was in their life. I doubt we really want to understand resurrection?

Anyway my essays go to the very beginning of civilisation

House of Life

I think everyone forget "The House of Life", which has left no records at all. The concept means the scientists and other specialists who carried the real life of engineering, astronomy, science and so on. Fortunately for some known Greeks they seem to have been secret as many fraternities always have been. That is why I think that some Greeks learned higher mathematics and other things from The House of Life, but why tell others? However, I am tired since childhood to hear that the Greeks invented everything?

Anyhow very few Egyptologists have been interested in these things. I want to know because I need to see the structures and the roots of everything. If they cannot tell me, I have to search for the answers by myself.

There are other puzzling questions as about the sphinx with a very eroded body and an almost intact head. They must have made the head later.

Egyptologists believe they have discovered everything at the Giza plateau. Still, it is covered with sand perhaps 30 metres at places. Who knows what is under that cover. To know demands for more work than making the pyramids. The simplest explanation to the sphinx is that the body was a natural rock until the head was set on made by a different material.

However, the engineers and modern astronomers have a point in asking about directions and perhaps also channels in the pyramids. For religious people orienting everything after stars would have been natural, as stars were gods.

If they were meant as tombs, it should be according to what we know about the resurrection ritual of course. That is about the real night sky and not by the guiding stars for the day. They believed the corpse to make a journey in the underworld like when sending crops beneath with the BA-soul. But the KA-soul beamed to the stars aiming at resurrection, since in next step at last for corn the sunbeams created new life.

The other assumption is about the night sky up to the precession. We cannot measure with our day's look. The dating of the pyramids have varied in my lifetime as many other dating in archaeology. Relative dating is nothing to lean on. The modern method of measuring with C14, pollen curves and dendro-chronology is far surer within their ranges.

Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock are not Egyptologists but from other disciplines. They ask if they oriented the pyramids to catch the spring equinox when it was in Orion. That is of course a difficult question for the Egyptologists because it could make the pyramids a thousand years older than expected today. That is if they made them to follow the spring equinox, which would be natural. We have to look for when was the equinox in Orion. However, we see later in history that the fix-stars could be lagging behind in the rituals. That we se in Senenmut's grave ca 1460 BC and later graves that the fix-stars were from the third millennium.

Another question about the sphinx as symbol of Leo or is it a pure sphinx we see on the Egyptian night ceiling? In Dendera the lion is set on a votive snake which shows they thought it to be a sphinx. The lion was a symbol of summer and heat in Egypt ... In Europe we see they oriented some smaller parts of the ritual stony establishments after the solstices.

Unfortunately Bauval and Hancock must have made a mistake in calculating. Khufu's pyramid orients towards Al Nathin/Alnilan in the belt of Orion. It would have been actual star of spring equinoxes about 3800 BC.

We easily see it as the difference between an equinox in Capella 3100 BC and Al Nathin is about 10 degrees or seven hundred years earlier in precession. This would be at the same time as the Jew's calendar started said to be 3761 BC.

The Sphinx or Leo in the round was fix-star of summer solstices approximately from 3800 to 1350 BC. ... That is if we use Koschab as the pole star. It is more useful in the era we know about than Thuban some archaeologists suggest. If we use opposite stars and crosswise we need no pole.

The period is longer than a normal twelfth of the zodiac because the Head is added to the constellation like the head on the Sphinx. That means that the Osiris/Orion pyramids together with the Sphinx/Lion could have been ritual stars at the same time but in different quarters.

But, observe that the Egyptian ritual year begins at the winter solstice ... see later. There are no arguments against that under the sand or the pyramids can be remains of an earlier establishment used to follow the stars. The place is versatile for astronomic observations since there is a zero horizon the entire horizon around. We have to leave many questions open for later generations to explore.

I do not like that they gave an impression that they were standing under a ceiling with the Egyptian zodiac. Then they made me believe it was a room in a pyramid. Exactly the same I copied from a book. The texts say it is from Dendera in last millennium BC and that is many alike another versions made on plates from Dendera.

Many inventions have been made by mistake or by analysing mistakes. In twenty years I have made many mistakes. They gave me a push to write this section and have helped me in my analysis. Usually my unconsciousness knows about them and find them in time. Otherwise I find them when mirroring them with others. I have waited and not published my results just because I want to sort out all faults and give the best possible description to my Afterworld. But, I have to do it now before I am growing too old and start to make mistakes of that reason.

About the Egyptologists is more to say that the confusion of languages is at a high level when reading about Egypt too. Partly it depends on the mixing of Greek with many Egyptian names and concepts.

My special interest is of course astronomy at the time. Some Egyptologists deny it existed before the second millennium BC. Others see it only as a curiosity. Yet alike in Sumer the main gods had their real aspect as star constellations in the sky. Obviously, they followed the physic aspect of their god?

To make it easy I only investigate the period from ca 3100 BC to 500 BC. Most of the writers tell about the predynastic time with no specific dating. Getting the impression that they do not want to investigate "primitive Africans" is easy, while they can dig for gold in the tombs of the half-gods?

To me predynastic can mean about 3300 BC as well as 4500 BC. The normal picture in published books is as in Sumer that all time lines begins at 3000 BC. Before that they believe there were only primitive Africans along the Nile. Still, they have found pollen from corn from 5500 BC. To me it sounds like a very late dating in an area with that fertile soil and not far from Anatolia. In the painting at Catal Hüyük we see them have a dance with a bull. Among the hunters are several with a skirt seen also on early Egyptian hunters. Some of the spectators are looking like Africans? Then we can ask if there were some interaction between Anatolia and Egypt?

African heritage

It looks as if existence of African intelligence may be a red coat for some scientists. Nevertheless the fact is that some of the early remarkable pharaohs are looking very African. The hypothesis may be that a mix in roots is increasing intelligence. During the entire history of Egypt were steady expansions southwards and then mixing with Nubians all the time the secret is naturally that they found minerals there. Especially at the palettes we see the Nubian influence

However when we go farther back than 4000 BC we should realise that the climate more like savannah in the now dry valleys near the Nile. Signs of this we have for instance the stone circle at Nabta near Sudan dated to perhaps 5000 BC. Then there are all the rock carvings showing animals typical for savannah. Egyptologists suffer from the French Syndrome, that means they are only interested in high culture of the kind they robbed to the Louvre and in British Museum. That caused the French do no want to see Azillian culture in S France and in Egypt the culture before the dynasties however some change is going on now around 2005 AD

Other evidence is the undated pots from the area near Giza in Faiyum and Gerzeh. From the paintings we see they had a full "vocabulary" of symbols picturing the yearly ritual and other things. In the section about Sumer I already mentioned the interaction between the two cultures in the Delta.

Osiris they say has roots in the Delta, but the structure of the myth is much like the Sumerian. They also say that the funeral rites of the early Thinitian dynasty at Abydos were like the Sumerian. Surely they had trade in the southern cities in the area of Thebe and the Wadi Hammamat lead to the Red Sea. There are rock carvings on the rocks and some of the boats are Sumerian. We have to know that the dynasties had their long prehistory too.

Having a good picture of the Egyptian world to understand growth of civilisation is essential. Then we can see what has influenced us in Europe. We have to scale down and see more simple structures than the complex mysteries of Egypt.

Their culture seems stable however it was a land in expansion depending on what kind of pharaoh was ruling. At first they expanded mostly along the Nile southward, but later towards Anatolia and Mesopotamia. They never tell us about their unsuccessful operations we have to discover by ourselves. Mostly they tell us the history of New Kingdom and less than a thousand years of the dynastic history.

Many of our scientists and writers try to give a "normal" as explanation. Getting a red line and structures that we could easily understand is almost necessary. Everywhere should be a hidden clause meaning that they tell us usually only a narrow history mostly about the pharaohs and the upper class. That is about few percent of the population.

Mostly the old traditions lived their own life when established. However as a manifold in cultures the tolerance was high. In time they adapted foreign deities also in Egypt as for an example Astarte from the Levant and Ishtar from Babylon. However these two were much alike. Our dynastic feudal scientists try to see family clans and dynasties everywhere on earth and also among gods.

I noted lately that Wolkstein & Kramer have adopted that style in their book about Inanna. Originally Kramer told that Inanna was the goddess in Uruk with no special family or clan than by marriage. Other city-states had their own pantheon but with no comments about families. Remembering a family of gods is maybe easier than many individual gods, but how was it those days?

I prefer to see it the way the Greek Kerenyi tells that every landscape had its own assembly of gods with no special bonds of family. At the same time the myths were specific for the landscape as the known Thessalia, Argolis, Boeotia, Sparta, Macedonia to mention the most known.

That is the Mesopotamian style. Egypt had also independent cities mostly around temples that became very rich as time passed by. They had only some yearly rituals and perhaps some taxation in common. In the critical period around Tutankhamun the Amun temples at Karnak and other places were the real power in Egypt.

From most cultures we have only myths about heroes left. Young boys from eight to seventy need always to keep the heroic tradition in mind for some reason.

Still, what is it to be a hero? Much of it was the dirty work exemplified when Heracles cleaned the Augean stable ... and the end was a disgusting shirt. Another hero got a sting in his heel. The employee and the people are eager to get work done, but when the hero comes home they want him away again. Having a hero in a peaceful society demanding for pay and honour with a place among the local gods is difficult. Heroes are against the law "You shall not think you are someone" ... and they need a war to be someone.

Follow Her

Egypt has given me a mixed choice of elements in my argumentation and story about what become ritual laws in Scandinavia. Some of it perhaps in analogy also in other parts in the Celtic world, but I have to concentrate on what is easily kept together.

Some tells that Sothic/Sirius was star of Isis, but that is mostly a dog. So it could not be Isis at the same time? The Greeks are on a bicycle when they talk about the Sothic year. It is against the physic fact of precession that a fix-star could be used as eternal symbol at spring equinoxes. That is all explanations from Greek time and not in phase with precession and the symbolism we see from early times.

They can use it much of the year if they follow it around the vault during the year. To follow is a different myth compared with being in a myth of suite. Observe to express it we must say they were in the middle of the suite, myth and reality.

"Follow Her" is a predynastic myth and perhaps older than Auriga as fix-star of spring equinoxes.

This symbolism is from middle 4th millennium when there was much influence from Mesopotamia and we see the Egyptian version of Sumerian myth. It is more likely that Auriga and Orion were a pair and the "bull" between them were the connection. I suppose they sometime called the ugly Bez, since in cold he is very shrunken, but in the bead he is a real bull. The old cultures had their old pair and ruling pair in that corner. Orion is an easily found constellation and themselves give the important fix-stars see more about Time Law and Animal Round

We do not have sufficient evidence exactly to tell what was involved in following the Maid, surely mostly symbol of fertility and rain. However we se her in different situations and with varying symbols in the entire picture. They picture her with a man and we may understand it as marriage. Sometimes twins follow her and sometimes goats were her assist.

Another symbols are the portal for beginning of year, palm-leaf for end of year, a hut for the inundation, a sail for travelling. In ritual sense it could be many things, but also be a sign of the connection between the two lands. The symbol "mountain" seen as three peaks and the same is seen in Sumer, China and surely in many other places.

We have to know the ritual to give it the meaning of the ur-hill. Together they tell us about the ritual of the year and an organised society. Later on the timeline we get more explanation and can better imagine their world.

We get the myths of Isis with the special structure that she is searching for Osiris spread in pieces. Understanding what is behind that part is difficult. Nevertheless, we maybe find this detail in the myth of Demeter. In Scandinavia we have some place names which indicate "asking or searching".

This vase is important since we see "the first" standard with Falcon on Crescent Moon

That gives the time of year and the portal to Underworld gives us the myth. The Crescent Moon, Time-bird and the "sisters" at the portal associate to Sumerian Inanna - Ershkigal with the helpers that could be Fertiliser and Watering. One of them has a herd's staff and the other could be a sickle and that is the merge of cattlers and cultivators. Later we have Neith as watering and Selket with the big-step on her head showing she goes down and pick the soil. Isis at left with hands over head "I am ready"

We see a mix of Egyptian design and idol with Sumerian myth see also Early time boats. The Sumerians were present in Egypt at the same time as the flowering Uruk with Inanna myth and in West Europe we have the moon temple and passage tombs indicating "going beneath". Not to forget that megalith builders had their heyday 1000 years and more before the great pyramids.

It is hard to find evidence of "meeting and fair places" in early Stone Age. The megaliths give us evidence that people have gathered to mutual work and organisation so we can speak about civilisation. The idea of organisation we see in the ritual suite and we have to understand that people in a row are organised and delegated for different functions in spacetime ...The make-up palettes indicate that the members of the suite put on their "mask" to separate them from people and from reality. That is what it is about even in our days when high society appears on the rostrum.

Cut from another vase with an early ritual suite in boat.

I do not know how spread the flamingo was. Maybe it was common only in the Delta. It is frequent on the vases and could be only "fill up". But here it seems to symbolise a season - inundation perhaps? It is difficult to separate antelopes and goats from paintings. In Indus the He-goat symbolised the beginning of the year, but also the beginning of the three seasons began with the He-goat that originally is Capricorn. The mountain symbol is also frequent in the symbolism and means perhaps the dry season here. In these early days we can not expect that symbolism be always used consequently.

They have suggested that it is a harem boat. But I think that expresses Victorian moral applied on ancient Egypt. It would not be the first time. They are always looking for immorality at the same time as they look for "Hieros Gamos = Holy Marriage". I do not buy labels from Greek and later interpretators.

However we know that they animated what happens when the see grow by the mythic marriage shown by the real ritual at spring equinox. In Mesopotamia it was and is still the Akitu festival. In ancient times it implied a journey on the river with some idols on the boat. The same we know from Egypt where for instance Hor / the Bull from Edfu visited Hathor the cow in Dendera. That was during the month long Opet-festival in autumn and during inundation waiting for fertile times. In the beginning these journeys along the river was surely a mean of uniting the land.

Greedy Westerners have robbed Egypt not knowing their own history then trying to rob feathers, preferably golden ones. Worst of all they have destroyed much good evidence that could have given us a good explanation to our questions. Lately I saw pictures on TV from the ceiling of the tomb of Ramesses IV. It is the most magnificent explanation of the Egyptian night sky we ever will see. Half of it is the daily sky with stars of the gods and other fix stars and the entire animal circuit with explanations.

The other part is the real night sky or their view of the underworld and afterlife. But, it has begun to flake off. Partly the natural ageing and surely also because of visitors and modern pollution. We can only hope that they manage to accomplish a good documentation before it is too late ... but it is a very big job with numerous temples and other places in the entire Egypt ... and I say does not forget "the old Sumer".

People with much to lose are most anxious about afterlife and resurrection. This simple statement we may decide from history in the culture of the graves. When we are investigating culture, it is mostly about the "upper class". The concept is easily under-stood in the Commonwealth but awkward to Scandinavians.

I have no doubt that we would have had a real upper class if only we had a much bigger population. In Egypt it took about a thousand years before there was some problem with the feudal nobility including higher officials.

We can say it was something like that in the beginning of this century but between the people and the nobility. However, we had never people enough to form a real nobility. Erik "The Thinker" XIV could only find 12 counts and 120 noble families about 1540 when he tried to impress an English girl with a great noblesse in Sweden.

It is natural that people working daily with intellectual matters or religion and its ritual begin to think about the afterlife. The present fades out when they strive to live as long as possible.

Even today seekers and intellectuals are looking for new evidence about resurrection when they are studying the ancient solutions ... "Could there be some truth in it?" is the unspoken question. If they want to know about that and the manners about nobility, they should study the Egyptian funeral and all the speculation and myths about that.

If they are interested in work and days a ritual calendar like this is the issue. The Egyptians aimed at a new life. We can only thank them for their striving, because that gave us enormously many facts about everyday life. We find the description in all the tombs with remains and paintings. The Egyptians become alive again.

Myth of resurrection

No need to be an admirer of urban cultures. Urban people seem predestined to destroy most of the worlds. It has accelerated in our generation with lack of ability to control our technology. Many earlier urban cultures have left only ruins wasteland and pollution. It sounds more like sticking up to nature, when men call themselves homo sapiens sapiens. This is of course in Latin so very few understanding it, ... See the Wittgenstein solution above. Seeing any reason in destroying our own living room is difficult.

One aspect of ritual was to educate coming generations. Another was to prepare for next season. The third was preparing for an afterlife. They saw no fundamental difference between regeneration of plant, animal or man. Of course they knew that the individual could not be regenerated to same shape ... but it was a hopeful thought and a beautiful way to leave this life.

You need not know all about how animals and herbs regenerate either to cultivate or to make ritual forecast a season of breed or harvest. The ingenuity is the simplifying all aspects of life in only one myth.

The ritual of funeral was a copy of that of cultivation.

A bird left and an iset hieroglyph on head guard the Corpse. Iset stands for the step to the underworld. On right the bird carries a beaker or the sign water of life. Iset stands also for Isis and her stars the Auriga on the Watergate. The Sothic was also one of her stars in the myth

Resurrection has two aspects and the common among citizens is afterlife. Many people have much concern about dead and afterlife. It is only natural that we want to live it is the desire and force that keep us alive. It seems that wealth leads to much effort to longer life even beyond the biological deadline. All high cultures put many expenses to the funeral and whatever they can do to at least be remembered after the dead.

In a religious culture there is the establishment of priest and those who know the texts. Generation after generation makes new messages and rituals. For those outside it looks very magic and is part of the secret in mysteries. Maybe the real benefit is that it helps dying people in their preparation and the remaining family in their sorrow.

Then it is also a sort of ancestors' cult to remember those who have done much for society. We laugh at those who use the ancestor's skull as symbol. We have other symbols and means to keep in memory deeds of Michelangelo, Marconi, Graham Bell and Einstein to mention a few.

Time of practice in the real resurrection was of course in the spring or the moon of Khoiak our February. In the temple of Isis they made mould in shape of Osiris. They filled with a blend of sand and seed, then wrapped up with rush and sprinkled the mould with water. They laid the Corpse in a shallow basin. This was a method of testing germination of seed in practice.

The stars of Osiris were Orion. He is here in the incarnation of the djed-pillar or the growing corn. Isis is on the left and Nephthys the humidity on the right side.

During next ten days they sprinkled it and on the 2lst basin were placed in sun a short while before sundown. Then they sent it for a trip until the 25th. On that day it was placed in a coffin and laid in a grave. The last day of festivities was the 30th and funeral was over. This was last day of inundation and new seed had germinated. On this day the djed-pillar was set up as sign of the "Kid" on his/her way.

They dealt funeral and mummifying with much the same way. Some Egyptians have got a new eternal life.

Heron standing on Hill of Origin an icon of resurrection. In Scandinavian languages we have a little word UR for oldest origin.

For the farmers year see Egyptian neight sky #Farmer's year

Birth giving

Another aspect of resurrection is birth giving as the success. The poetic picture of giving birth to a New Moon Year we see in the tomb of Seti I

The hippopotamus Taweret was normally a symbol of pregnancy.

This is about one fourth of the ceiling in the tomb of Seti I about 1300 BC. One fourth is to the left with eleven moon carrying idols. There is also a lion with stars all over the outline to the end of the tail. That shows they used some star in Leo as fix-star and that was the all-important constellation. The other half I have only seen shortly and much of it has flaked off.

In front of Taweret we see also a lion, what a pity I cannot decipher the text. However, Leo could at that time still be used as fix-star for summer solstices. Behind Taweret is an idol perhaps Isis since we see the iset-step above.

The other half must be a night-sky of the same kind as Book of the Dead. There is no sun wandering. Since there are many beds in some sections and they usually belong to night activities.

I am almost glad I did not see the entire ceiling from the tomb of Ramesses IV from the beginning, it would have distracted me. (The understandable day-sky is in a separate file slightly shortened). In colour we see the wandering sun through the heaven Nut. Some of the lines are warped depending perhaps on the vaulted ceiling.

Here there are special attributes as the crocodile on the back eating the moons of the year. The little one in the hand was the new one set in at Scorpio/Serket the midwife.

... if we see points/cupmarks picture Scorpio we know for sure that they new about it. If we see a pictured real beast we ask "Where there scorpions those days in Bohuslaen?" Likely we perhaps ask if there were crocodiles in Skepplanda? We are almost forced to seek in the night sky or ritual myths for the origin.

Natural birthgiving

The separating midwife Scorpio of three also in Celtic-German culture.

The natural birth they symbolised with the same deities of course

In the following pages some smaller sections of the day-sky are analysed with explanations to symbols of summer seasons. It could be an example how symbolising the whole year with relatively few symbols is possible if we know the myths. For the late night skies see the Dendera zodiac from time of the Greeks in the end of this chapter.

I have not yet figured out which method they used in observing the stars and then using the sequence of the ritual year at same time. Here the point is that the Egyptian year began approximately at our Christmas. It was about a quarter of the ecliptic round earlier than the myth and idols on the round. That means that the fix-star in east must have been either "the field", i.e. Pegasus or the Fishes as seen on the Dendera sky. Do not let it stop us in defining the symbols.