Ground grooves at Flyhov West Gautland
Except some double axes it is difficult to see a ritual in the passage graves. Slab cists have given evidence since we have got the normal suite attributes one amulet, two daggers, two sickles and maybe an axe. The shape of the sickle is normally the crescent moon.
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For me taking a trip toFlyhov was nearest and I got a picture of what it is about.
I counted to 55 grooves and if each has been used for 19 years it continued for about 1045 years. Probably they made them at the same time as on Gotland and then from 3150 BC to 2100 BC.
The stroke drawn with chalk is south to north. That indicates that they may have made them following the extremes of the moon. On several places along the line of grooves there are rock carvings. We cannot tell for sure that they made them synchronised with the grooves.
Cardinal directions for sun and moon during the year
… From the Indus symbolism I found these symbols that look like "going beneath" and eventually ritually grind a groove in the surface. The symbol at right shows maybe the North Pole in Koschab at the time and lines are drawn outside and into soil/ earth outside the observation space. Obviously this ritual is going beneath or to the otherworld/netherworld. These are naturally also monumental art and of the eternal kind.
This picture shows about two thirds of the field at Flyhov West Gautland
Now we can have a closer look of the results from the astronomer G. Henriksson's investigations when he and others found 660 grooves on Gotland. Totally they have found more than 3000 including the nearby landscapes In his article he tells that grooves are also found in Skaane, Halland, Austergautland, Luxemburg, France, Fiji Islands, Australia and we have to add Flyhov and Bornholm too. Australia puzzles me and it is a real question for archaeologists, I think.
We can expect many grooves still to be found, because we easily overlook that sort of remain if there are no other remains near them. Some of the picture-stones from Gotland 700 - 900 AD have grooves, which have followed them from the quarry.
The series of ground grooves at Gotland begins 19th March 3152 BC and that lasted for around 1000 years. They surely knew about the cycle of the moon then.
Fortunately on Gotland are many finds in hoards of big flint chisels suggesting they were ground in the grooves. Most of them are too big to be practical for real work. All over East Dal we have single finds of big ground chisels made of flint from Skaane.
We have to mention the boat type axe they tell is a battleaxe with heydays about 3000 to 2800 BC. But why don't they say that the double axe was a battleaxe. In northern Europe there was plenty of space and no need for battle. Instead I think that they were ritual axes of different fashion. On Dal they aped the shape in local production. They are found as singles in few places and that too speaks for ritual purpose.
The biggest chisel is 44,5 centimetres found in Tussbo and together with other chisels bigger than normal they might have imported them for cult purposes. The same is case with a few big pickaxes, but some of them have been in pair. All these are physic evidence of a ritual using axes as symbol.
We should not forget the other physic part, which is the sun, moon and the stars. They have ground most of them at the first full moon after a spring equinox and in relation to a fix-star. When they began ca 3150 BC Antares in Scorpio was exact the right. They ground a smaller part at solstices reminding that we never may categorise about the past.
They have made the grooves during in periods of 19 year and as the moon is an active part it is just its cycle. The moonrise moves 12,5 degrees at the horizon every day. It comes back to exactly the same point in 235 turns or nearly 19 years. They made them for more than a thousand years as real science. We can suggest they also learned what experts in our days call Meton's cycle as well as the Saros cycle. That is how often the eclipse occurs.
In my encyclopaedia they tell that Chinese made their earliest observations 2300 BC ... making records I think. The Babylonian priest made their from 2000 BC. If that were true, we are far ahead in Scandinavia? However our are not in plain English but grooves in hard rock.
This cut is from Rock 1 at Haugsbyn on Dal
Rock 1 seems to have been carved on for a long time the pillar stone seems to be from 4th millennium BC. That indicates they followed Capella in Aurigae frequent 3100 BC together with Antares.
There is a corner on the rock with many cupmarks as for symbol acts and there is also a clear asterism Little Bear with Star Koschab marked. That must have been suitable as Pole Star about 2300 BC. The wavy line shows Time or the moon year with typical two halves plus a little bit, i.e. 6 + 6 moons plus 11 days to get a year. The right symbol tells about the reference line "direct". The double footprint is marked in the toe meaning the spring's quarter and on the quarter line is the mark for alignment.
The moon is the circle with a dot sailing away in the beginning of the wavy line and at the root of the sight stone it is going underground. The moon is aligned with the star via the line over the sight stone.
Once we know about the grinding we can also understand the figure in left lower corner. I call it "the Corpse" being in a weighing position. On another rock-carvings we se symbols for alignment and that the Corpse is in the corner of a squared starmap. From the head is a wedge against the ground and it is maybe symbol for "going beneath" like the ground groves.
If we compare with theOsiris ritual they made a Corpse according to these cuts from Egypt, but it seems be later addition to the rock-carvings.
"On the 12th day began the Osiris rites for the growing season. They made a mummy of corn and sand in a basin and wrapped with rush. The djed-pillar was set to slanting position. It was watered daily until 21st and was then set in the sun and perhaps on a journey until 25th of the month and they buried it in a cist."
"The last period was a feast until 30th when they raised the djed-pillar to vertical. At that time the pharaoh celebrated the journey to the valley. That means valley temples or tombs maybe as a search for afterlife for the death. We do not know how popular this was among people and if they also went to Underworld ceremonies."
Further lefts are chaotic figures telling about the rituals in forecasting the season. The difference in climate made that in Scandinavia the season began at spring equinox and the sowing time was in beginning of May. Another thing is that some were searching for metals and that have to be done in summer and that is also "going beneath" Another difference is that in Europe the earth is female. We see they had to adapt all they learnt from the South before it was practical and usable.
Little detail of the rock-carvings on three places along the 55 grooves
There are three areas near the groves with rock-carvings. One is in the beginning and another near the middle and this around 45 - 50 grooves form the end. Most of the petroglyphs are not intelligible but some of them belong to the time symbolism. WE can count 11 strokes on the boat that is days between a sun year and of 354 days and the moon year 354 days.
Unfortunately I have no good pictures from the place. Both my friend and I had trouble in getting pictures since the cameras did not work properly.
Here we see the sun year with "going beneath" at Flyhov
The "boat on the boat" seems to be the type of "orbit in orbit" between ecliptic and moon orbit, i.e. Ramadan. We have another much like that in Norway. In nearby Sparlausa is an early rune-stone ca 800 AD with a symbol like that and in the text we can readVI that was the place where they aligned the two calendars.