From "History of the Seven Churches of Asia"
by T. Milner, 1832 (Holdsworth and Ball)
Google Books Online - Oxford University
The Temple of Diana and St. Paul's Church, London
"The Stately church of St. Paul," says Seymour (page 652), "stands in or near the place where once had been a temple of Diana, the goddess worshipped by the Londoners, as Apollo was by the people of Thorney, or Westminster. This appeared from the tusks of boars, horns of stags and of oxen, and from the representation of deer, and even of Diana herself, upon the sacrificing vessels found in digging the foundation of it, which was hegun by Ethelbert king of Kent about the year of Christ 610. It appears from classical antiquity, that stags and oxen were frequently offered to Diana; and Dr. Woodward observes, in a letter to Sir C. Wren, that he had in his collection, horns of oxen and stags, which were dug up near che church, with a small image of the goddess. An ancient manuscript in the Cotton Library, informs us, that in the time of Melitus, the first bishop of London, Ethelbert, king of Kent, built a church to the honour of St. Paul, on the site of a temple of Diana; that certain ceremonies were performed afterwards in the church allusive to her worship; and that manors were held on condition of offering a doe or buck at the high altar of the church* ..."
* This was done in the reign of Edward the First. Stowe writes as follows:
- "Sir William Baud, knight, the third of Edward the First, in the yeere 1274, on Candlemas-day, granted to Harry de Borham, deane of St. Paul's, and to the chapter there, that in consideration of twenty-two acres of ground or land by them grante within their manor of Westley, in Essex, to be inclosed into his park of Curringham; he would for ever upon the feast-day of the Conversion of Paul, in winter, give unto them a good doe, seasonable and sweete; and upon the feast of the Commemoration of St. Paul, in summer, a good bucke; and offer the same at the high altar, the same to bee spent among the canons residents; the doe to be brought by one man at the houre of procession; and thorow the procession to the high altar, and the bringer to have nothing: the bucke to be brought by all his meyney in like manner, and they to have paid unto them, by the chamberlaine of the church, twelve pence only, and no more to be required.
- This grant be made; and for performance bound the lands of him and his heires to be distrained on: and if the lands should be evicted (resumed by a court of judicature) that yet he and his heires should accomplish the gift.
- Witnesses, Richard TILBERIE, William de Wockendon, Richard de Harlowe, knight, Peter of Stamford, Thomas of Walden, and some others."
From "The History of the Worthies of England"
by Thomas Fuller, Peter Austin Nuttall, 1840 (T. Tegg)
Google Books Online - Harvard University
Worthies of Essex - Reign of Edward II
Walter de Baud
"This ill-sounding surname is both ancient and honourable. Some do deduce it from Baden, a marquisate in Germany; and most sure it is, that they here have flourished twelve generations, as followeth:
1. Sir Simon Baud, or Bauld, knight, died in the Holy Laud, 1174.
2. Sir Nicholas Baud, knight, died at Galicia in Spain, 1189.
3. Sir Walter Baud, knight, died at Coringham (in this county) 1216.
4. Sir William Baud, knight, died at Coringham, 1270.
5. Sir Walter de Baud, sheriff this year, died at Coringham, 1310.
6. Sir William de Baud, died at Coringham, 1343.
7. Sir John de Baud, knight, died in Gascoigne, 1346.
8. Sir William Baud, knight, died at Hadham Parva, 1375, thrice sheriff under king Edward III.
9. Thomas Baud (the first esquire of his line) died at Hadham aforesaid, 1420.
10. Thomas Baud, the second esquire, died at Hadham, 1449.
11. Sir Thomas Baud, knight, died in London, 1500.
12. John Baud, esq. died at Coringham, 1550.
The Bauds held land in this county of the dean and chapter of Saint Paul's, by paying a fee-buck and doe in their seasons. They were brought (alive, as I take it) in procession to the high altar in the church, where the dean and chapter met them, apparelled in copes (embroidered with bucks and does, the gift of the Bauds to their church) with garlands of roses on their heads; and then the keeper who brought them blowed their deaths, which was answered by the company of Horners in London resounding the same. Other ceremonies were used, better befitting their mouths who cried out
'Great is Diana of the Ephesians,'
than the ministers of the Gospel. Some seemed to excuse it, as done in commemoration of the property of that place, altered to a Christian church, from a temple of Diana.
I suspect the Bauds extinct in Essex, and understand them extant in Northamptonshire."
From "A Survey of London"
by JOHN STOW, ed. William John Thoms, 1842 (Whittaker and co.)
Google Books Online - Stanford University
"Of London" - another account of the ceremony
"Now what I have heard by report, and have partly seen, it followeth.
On the feast day of the commemoration of St. Paul, the buck being brought up to the steps of the high altar in Paul's church, at the hour of procession, the dean and chapter being apparelled in copes and vestments, with garlands of roses on their heads, they sent the body of the buck to baking, and had the head fixed on a pole, borne before the cross in their procession, until they issued out of the west door, where the keeper that brought it blowed the death of the buck, and then the horners that were about the city presently answered him in like manner; for the which pains they had each one of the dean and chapter, four pence in money, and their dinner, and the keeper that brought it, was allowed during his abode there, for that service, meat, drink, and lodging, at the dean and chapter's charges, and five shillings in money at his going away, together with a loaf of bread, having the picture of St. Paul upon it, &c.
There was belonging to the church of St. Paul, for both the days, two special suits of vestments, the one embroidered with bucks, the other with does, both given by the said Bauds (as I have heard). Thus much for the matter."
From "The Every-day Book"
by William Hone, Hunt and Clarke, 1827
Google Books Online - New York Public Library
January 25, Conversion of St. Paul
St. Paul's Day: Buck and Doe in St. Paul's Cathedral
"Formerly a buck's head was carried in procession to St. Paul's Cathedral. This by some antiquaries is presumed to have been the continuation of a ceremony in more ancient times when, according to certain accounts, a heathen temple existed on that site. ... [followed by an account of the ceremony]
The translator of Dupre's work on the 'Conformity between modern and ancient ceremonies,' also misled by other autorities, presumed that the 'bringing up a fat buck to the altar of St. Paul's with hunters, horns blowing, &c. in the middle of divine service,' was of heathen derivation, whereas we see it was only a provision for a venison feast by the Romish clergy, in return for some waste land of one of their manors."
From "Notes and Queries"
by W. J. Thomas, (J.) Doran, H. F. Turle, J. Knight, V. H. Rendall, F. Hayllar, 1850 (Oxford University Press)
Google Books Online - Stanford University
Little Hadham, Hertfordshire
"Hadham Hall, Herts was owned by the Baud family from the reign of King Henry III till 1505, when the estate was sold to Sir William Capel. Several memorial slabs remained in the chancel of Little Hadham Church, and Salmon, in his 'History of Herts', gives the inscription existing in his time on the memorial slab in the middle of the chancel to Sir William Baud who died at Hadham Hall, and was buried in Little Hadham Church in 1376. This slab and others, if not still there, were in the chancel till last year."
From "The Beauties of England and Wales, Or, Delineations,..."
by J. Britton, E. W. Brayley, J. Nightingale, J. N. Brewer, J. Evans, J. Hodgson, F. C. Laird, F. Shoberl, J. Bigland, T. Rees, T. Hood, J. Harris, 1814 (Thomas Maiden, for Vernor and Hood ...)
Google Books Online - Stanford University
"The popular tradition, that a Temple, dedicated to Diana, once occupied the site of St. Paul's Cathedral, has already been mentioned ... as well as the small degree of credit which Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of the present structure, was inclined to give to the common report. His language is precise and strong, and his authority ought to be regarded as decisive; for his opinion was not taken up from rambling argument, but from the most complete examination of the ground to a great depth; all his researches, however, did not yield the least indication of any Roman building having ever stood upon this spot. His words are,
'I must assert, that having changed ALL THE FOUNDATIONS of old St. Paul's, and upon that occasion RUMMAGED ALL THE GROUND thereabouts, and being VERY DESIROUS to find SOME footsteps of SUCH A TEMPLE, I could not DISCOVER ANY; and therefore can give no more credit to Diana than to Apollo.'
Though Sir Christopher thus controverted the tale of Diana's Temple, he was of opinion that a Christian Church had stood upon this spot at a very early period, agreeably to the statements of different Ecclesiastical Writers ..."
(February 2007) (fonts: Technical, Times New Roman)