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Background: Who were the Black Seminoles?

The Black Seminoles were Africans - often run-away slaves - who were members of the Seminole tribe, a group of Native Americans who had left the Creek tribe and settled in Florida. The Native Americans and African Americans became closely intertwined as they fought against the US government to keep their land and their freedom. After several wars, the majority of the Seminoles were forced to move to Indian Territory (today's Oklahoma), where most still live to this day. Other Black Seminoles can be found in Texas, the northern parts of Mexico, and the Bahamas.

There are many excellent websites online that cover the different aspects of the Black Seminoles in great depth. So rather than trying to write yet another article on the Black Seminoles, here are some links that are a good introduction to the Black Seminoles.

History of the Black Seminoles

Culture and Language of the Black Seminoles

Black Seminoles (Seminole Freedmen) in Oklahoma

Black Seminoles (Seminole Scouts) in Texas

Black Seminoles (Mascogos) in Mexico

Black Seminoles (Black Indians) in the Bahamas