See also

Family of Wladislaw I + HERMAN and Judith of SWABIA

Husband: Wladislaw I + HERMAN (1043-1102)
Wife: Judith of SWABIA (1054-1118)
Children: Sophia (c. 1091- )
Agnes (c. 1093- )
Adelaide (c. 1095- )
unknown (c. 1097- )
Marriage 1089

Husband: Wladislaw I + HERMAN

picture

Wladislaw I + HERMAN

Name: Wladislaw I + HERMAN
Sex: Male
Father: Casimir I + (1016-1058)
Mother: Maria + DOBRONIEGA (aft1011-1087)
Birth 1043 Krakow, Poland
Occupation Prince of Poland
Title Prince of Poland
Death 4 Jun 1102 (age 58-59) Plock, Poland
Burial Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedrak, Plock, Poland

Wife: Judith of SWABIA

Name: Judith of SWABIA
Sex: Female
Father: Henry III + (1017-1056)
Mother: Agnes + (1025-1077)
Birth 9 Apr 1054 Gosler, Germany
Occupation Duchess Consort of Poland
Title frm 1063 to 1074 (age 8-20) Queen Consort of Hungary
Title frm 1089 to 1102 (age 34-48) Duchess Consort of Poland
Death 14 Mar 1118 (age 63) Regensburg, Bayern, Germany
Burial Admont Abbey, Styria
Austria

Child 1: Sophia

Name: Sophia
Sex: Female
Birth 1091 (est)

Child 2: Agnes

Name: Agnes
Sex: Female
Birth 1093 (est)

Child 3: Adelaide

Name: Adelaide
Sex: Female
Birth 1095 (est)

Child 4: unknown

Name: unknown
Sex: Female
Birth 1097 (est)

Note on Husband: Wladislaw I + HERMAN

Wladyslaw I Herman (ca. 1044[1] – 4 June 1102) was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.

 

He was the second son of Casimir I the Restorer by his wife Maria Dobroniega, daughter of Vladimir the Great, Grand Duke of Kiev.

 

As the second son, Wladyslaw was not destined for the throne. However, due to the flight from Poland of his older brother Boleslaw II the Bold in 1079, he was elevated to the rank of Duke of Poland. Opinions vary on whether Wladyslaw played an active role in the plot to depose his brother or whether he was handed the authority simply because he was the most proper person, being the next in line in the absence of the king and his son Mieszko Boleslawowic.

 

In 1080, in order to improve the relations between Poland and Bohemia, Wladyslaw married Judith, the daughter of the Duke (and first King from 1085) Vratislaus II. After this, the foreign policy of the Duke levitated strongly towards appeasement of the Holy Roman Empire.

 

He accepted overlordship of the Empire, and when in 1085 while in Mainz the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV announced that his father-in-law Vratislaus II to be King of Bohemia and Poland, Wladyslaw did not object. He also never pursued the Royal crown due to his subservient status. Soon after, he was forced by the barons of Poland to recall from exile in Hungary his nephew and rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Boleslawowic. The young prince accepted the overlordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claims in exchange for becoming first in line of succession. Wladyslaw was forced to accept the terms of his nephew, because his eldest and only son at that time, Zbigniew, was illegitimate because he had been born from a union not recognized by the church. Wladyslaw's relations with the Emperor were considerably improved after his second marriage with his sister Judith (also Dowager Queen of Hungary) in 1089, who took the name Judith of Swabia after her wedding in order to distinguish herself from the late first wife of Wladyslaw (Judith of Bohemia).

 

Wladyslaw abandoned the alliance with Hungary favored by his deposed brother, and joined the anti-Papal camp. Also, he resumed paying tribute for Silesia to Bohemia. In addition Kraków and Cieszyn were ceded to Bohemia, Lubusz Land was lost to Germany while Przemysl Land in the east was lost to Halych-Ruthenia. Wladyslaw did make attempts to regain the control of Pomerania, and through numerous expeditions was temporarily (1090–1091) able to do so.

 

Although Wladyslaw was formally Dux and an Overlord of Poland, in reality the barons who banished his brother used this victory to strengthen their position. It's not surprising therefore, that within a short time the Duke was forced to give up the government to his Count Palatine, (Polish: wojewoda) a high born noble named Sieciech. Sieciech's administration of the realm was negatively perceived by those of the barons who were not the beneficiaries of the power shift.

 

The birth of the future Boleslaw III completely changed the political situation in Poland. Mieszko Boleslawowic was already seventeen at that time and was, by the previous agreement made after his return, the first in line to succeed. In 1089 Mieszko died under mysterious circumstances, probably poisoned on the orders of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia. Almost immediately, Zbigniew was sent to Germany and placed in the Quedlinburg Abbey. With the idea of forcing his first-born son to take the holy vows, Wladyslaw intended to deprive him of any chance of succession.

 

In 1090 Sieciech, with help of Polish forces under his command, managed to gain control of Gdansk Pomerania, albeit for a short time. Major towns were garrisoned by Polish troops, the rest were burned, in order to thwart any future resistance. Several months later, however, a rebellion of native elites led to the restoration of the region’s independence from Poland.

 

Sieciech's tyrannical rule reflected negatively on Wladyslaw, causing a massive political migration out of Poland. In 1093 Silesia rebelled, and the comes Magnus with the assistance of the Bohemian and Polish knights welcomed Zbigniew after he escaped from Germany; however, soon Sieciech captured the prince and imprisoned him. The increasing dissatisfaction in the country forced the release of Zbigniew in 1097. Immediately after this Wladyslaw (after an unsuccessfully retaliatory expedition against Silesia and forced to recognized Zbigniew as the legitimate heir) appointed his sons as commanders of the army which was formed in order to recapture Gdansk Pomerania.

 

Simultaneously a great migration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland began circa 1096, around the time of the First Crusade. Wladyslaw, a tolerant ruler, attracted the Jews into his domains, and permitted to settle throughout the entire country without restriction.

 

Soon Zbigniew and Boleslaw decided to join forces and demanded that the reigns of the government should be handed over to them. Wladyslaw agreed to divide the realm between the brothers, each to be granted his own province while he himself kept control of Mazovia and its capital at Plock. Wladyslaw also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz. Zbigniew’s province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, Leczyca and Sieradz. Boleslaw’s territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land.

 

However, Sieciech, alarmed by the evident diminution of his power, began to intrigue against the brothers. Wladyslaw decided to support him against his own sons. Defeated, in 1101 and after the mediation of the Archbishop of Gniezno Martin, the Duke was forced to confiscate Sieciech's properties and exiled him.

 

Wladyslaw died on 4 June 1102, without resolving the issue of succession, leaving his sons to struggle for supremacy. His body was interned in the Plock Cathedral

Note on Wife: Judith of SWABIA

Judith-Maria of Swabia (b. Goslar, 9 April 1054 – d. 14 March ca. 1105?) was a German princess, a member of the Ottonian dynasty and by her two marriages Queen of Hungary and Duchess of Poland renamed Sophia in 1089.

 

She was the daughter of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor by his second wife Agnes, daughter of William V, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou.

Judith (also named Maria in some sources) was the youngest of the six children born to Emperor Henry III and Empress Agnes. Her older five siblings were: Adelaide (later Abbess of Quedlinburg), Gisela (who died in infancy before her birth), Matilda (later wife of Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia and Antiking), Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Conrad II, Duke of Bavaria (who also died in infancy). In addition, Judith had an older half-sister, Beatrix I, Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim, born from her father's first marriage with Gunhilda of Denmark.

[edit] Queen of Hungary

 

Soon after her birth on 9 April 1054, Judith was betrothed to Philip, eldest son and heir of King Henry I of France. However, the engagement was broken in September of 1058, when her brother Emperor Henry IV concluded a peace treaty with Andrew I, King of Hungary; as a part of the alliance, she was engaged to the Hungarian King's son and heir, Solomon. When King Andrew I died in 1060, his widow and sons took refuge in the German court. With the support of his powerful brother-in-law, Solomon could recover the Hungarian throne after the death of his uncle Béla I in 1063 and soon after married with Judith in (Stuhlweißenburg) Székesfehérvár.

 

The marriage proved to be unsuccessful, and apparently both the King and Queen had love affairs. Although it is generally believed that the union was childless, some sources[1][2] state that Solomon and Judith had a daughter, Sophia, who later married Poppo, Count of Berg-Schelklingen. If this parentage is correct, Judith was the great-grandmother of Salomea of Berg, second wife of Boleslaw III Wrymouth (her later stepson).

 

During the 1070s, a struggle for power commenced between King Solomon and his cousins (sons of the late Béla I). On 14 March 1074 at the Battle of Mogyoród, the King's forces were decisively defeated by his cousins and their allies, the Dukes of Poland and Bohemia. Judith fled to Germany while Solomon continue his fight for the Hungarian throne; in 1077 he accepted the rule of his cousin King László I, who gave him in exchange extensive landholdings after his formal abdication (1081). Despite this, Solomon never gave up his pretensions and began to plot against King László I; however, his plans were discovered and he was imprisoned by the King in the Tower of Visegrád until 15 August 1083, when on the occasion of the canonization of István I, the first King of Hungary, Solomon was released.

 

In the meantime, Judith remained in Germany and settled in her residence in Regensburg (with short breaks) from May or July 1074 until 1088. After his release, Solomon went to Germany and tried to reunite with his wife, but she refused to receive him. After a long wandering, Solomon made an alliance with Kuteshk, the leader of a Pecheneg tribe settled in the later principality of Moldavia. Between 1084-1085 he married his daughter, committing bigamy with this act.

 

Solomon promised to hand over parts of the kingdom of Hungary in exchange for his new father-in-law's military assistance. In 1085, Solomon led the Pecheneg troops against Hungary, but King László I defeated them. Two years later, in 1087, Solomon took part in the Pechenegs' campaign against the Byzantine Empire and was killed in a battle near Hadrianopolis.

[edit] Duchess of Poland

 

In 1089, Judith married with Wladyslaw I Herman, Duke of Poland. This union considerably benefitted German-Polish relations; on the occasion of the wedding, Emperor Henry IV commissioned to the St. Emmeram's Abbey the creation of Gospel Books to the Polish court, now kept in the library of the chapter in the Kraków Cathedral.

 

After her marriage, Judith changed her name to Sophia, perhaps to distinguish herself from Wladyslaw I's first wife, Judith of Bohemia. She bore her husband four daughters: Sophia (by marriage Princess of Vladimir-Volynia), Agnes (later Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim), Adelaide (by marriage Countess of Vohburg and Margravine of the Northern March),[3] and an unnamed daughter (later wife of a Polish lord).

 

She probably had a big impact on Poland's political life. It's believed that she was the mistress of Sieciech, the Count Palatine and true governor of the country. Judith actively aiding Sieciech in his schemes to take over the country; the death of Mieszko Boleslawowic under mysterious circumstances was, in all probability, caused by orders of the Count Palatine and Judith. With the help of Sieciech, Judith convinced her husband to postpone the return of Wladyslaw I's first-born son Zbigniew, who seems to be a strong candidate to the succession despite his illegitimacy; also, they wanted an eventual alliance with the only legitimate son of Wladyslaw I, Boleslaw, born from his first marriage with the Bohemian princess.

 

After discovering the plans of Sieciech and Judith to take over the country, Boleslaw and Zbigniew became allies. Both brothers demanded that the reigns of government should be handed over to them. Eventually, after some attempts to break the alliance between the brothers, Sieciech was defeated, deposed and exiled (ca. 1100-1101). On 4 June 1102 Duke Wladyslaw I died. The country was divided between Boleslaw III and Zbigniew.

 

Judith's date of death was disputed among historians and web sources. Although 14 March is stated as the correct day in almost all the known sources, in the case of the year is more difficult to ascertain. Sources established that she died between 1092–1096, but this seems improbable, because is known that in 1105, Boleslaw III entered into an agreement with her, the so-called Tyniec Accord. In exchange for a generous grant, Judith guaranteed her neutrality in the Duke's political contest with his half-brother Zbigniew. Thus, she died after that date. Gerard Labuda stated that Judith spent her last years of life in Regensburg with her (supposed) daughter Adelaide, wife of Count Dietpold III of Vohburg and Cham; since the date of the marriage between Adelaide and Count Dietpold III was ranked between 1110–1118, it's assumed that Judith died after the latter year, in a relative advanced age.[4] Her place of burial, Admont Abbey in Austria, apparently confirm this theory.