M113 series of full-track armoured vehicles



In January 1956 ATAC initiated a programme to design and build a lightweight armoured personnel carrier for the US Army to replace the M59 and M75 tracked apc's. It had to be amphibious and capable of air-drop operations with a good cross-country performance, and also be adaptable to other purposes. Within 90 days after the preliminary drawings had been completed, ATAC had a test bed built and running. It was powered by an Ordnance air-cooled engine, with rolled aluminium plate armour for the hull. Being a lot lighter than steel, for aluminium to gain comparable ballistic qualities it had to be produced 3 times thicker than it's steel equivalent. This however, was a small price to pay as aluminium is much stiffer than steel and structural supports could be eliminated, thus increasing the internal volume. This in turn reduced the overall weight and height of the vehicle, and also significantly cut down on the construction and welding times during manufacture. After extensive tests by ATAC and a number of problems had been solved, the project was put out to tender in June 1956.

In September 1956, FMC Corp was announced as the winner and contracted to build the new APC. Five prototypes, designated T113, were built using aluminium armour and powered by Continental air-cooled engines. A further five prototypes, designated T117, were also built using steel armour and driven by a Packard water-cooled engine. By 1957 ATAC had received one of each of both types of hull.

During testing of the T117 the Packard engine proved to be unsatisfactory and was replaced by the Ford 368UC engine. However even this engine was found to overheat and required an increase in engine compartment space to help it cool. As well as the problems faced with the Packard and Ford engines on the T117, the Continental air-cooled engine was also giving problems on the T113.

By late 1957 FMC had developed two new prototypes, these were designated T113E1 and T113E2. Both types were termed "austerity" vehicles as they were designed to keep costs down to a bare minimum. With this line of thought in mind it was decided to adopt cheaper commercially available powerplants and transmissions. This led to the Chrysler A710B petrol engine being chosen because of it's performance, good cooling characteristics, and the fact that it would be in production for a lot more years. The transmission adopted was the Allison TX-100, again, because it was in widescale production, and it had an excellent track record in the truck industry. Two different hulls were developed which looked identical, but differed only in their armour thickness and weight so that ATAC could determine, through ballistic and durability tests, which of the hulls to adopt. At the same time the tracks were widened from 12" to 15" to improve on the vehicles reliability and performance.

After successful testing the T113E2, with the thicker hull, was chosen as the basis for the M113 APC. FMC received an initial contract to build 900 examples and the first production M113 rolled of the FMC assembly lines at San Jose, California in June. 1960.

These first M113s were powered by a 209HP Chrysler 75M petrol engine but attempts were made to develop a gas-turbine version under the designation M113E1. In June 1959 FMC were awarded a contract to study the feasability of fitting a diesel engine in place of the petrol one. The test vehicle was known as the M113E2 and was standardised as the M113A1 in May 1963. By 1964 the M113A1 was in production fitted with a GM 215HP Diesel engine which gave it an improved performance over the earlier M113.

The M113 had a crew of two, a commander and a driver, and could carry eleven passengers and their equipment. The driver sat on the front lhs of the vehicle and had a single piece hatch cover that opens to the rear with four M17 pericopes around the hatch and an M19 periscope in the hatch roof. The commander was situated centrally in the vehicle with a fully rotating cupola containing five M17 periscopes. The commander also acted as the gunner and operated the .50 calibre machine gun, this had an 360° field of fire with an elevation of +53° and a depression of -21°. The ammunition for the .50 calibre was stored in boxes behind the infantrymen's seats. While a hatch is provided in the roof of the troop compartment the normal means of entry and exit is the large hydraulically-operated ramp in the hull rear, which is provided with an integral door on the left side in case the ramp should fail to open.

The cold rolled alloy hull of the M113 was made from Aluminium, Manganese and Magnesium. It's armour thickness varied from ¾" to a maximum thickness of 1 ¼". This thickness provided protection from small arms fire and shell fragments, but would not stop a round from a LAW nor withstand the blast from a land mine.

The M113 was constructed as a watertight unit, with all hatches and doors fitted with rubber seals to make them watertight. The front of the vehicle was fitted with a hinged splash plate which helped to stabilize the vehicle during operations through water. In the amphibious role it was propelled by it's tracks and aided by the rubber track shroud on each side of the hull which gave the M113 a top speed of 3mph while swimming.


    AIFV [Low Profile Weapon M129] - 20mm cannon
    AIFV [Low Profile Weapon KBA] - 25mm cannon
    AIFV [Low Profile Weapon Rh 202] - 20mm cannon
    AIFV [Low Profile Weapon .50] - .50 calibre MG
    AIFV [Turreted 25mm Cannon] - Final development vehicle
    AIFV-B-25 - Belgian Army MICV version
    AIFV-B-50 - Belgian Army IFV version
    AIFV-B-ATK - Belgian Army Milan ATGM armed version
    AIFV-B-CP - Belgian Army command post version
    Arisgator - M113 modified for the seaborne landing role
    ARV(L) - Recovery variant of the M113 family used by Canada and Australia
    Atilgan - Turkish M113 fitted with stinger missile mount
    Battar - Fitted with twin recoilless rifles in an overhead mount
    CM-21 - Series of Taiwanese produced versions
    Composite Hull Project - Experimental hull construction
    EIFV aka Egyptian Infantry Fighting Vehicle Light - A hybrid vehicle utilising the two-man Bradley turret
    Elevated TOW System - Danish experimental TOW mounting
    FeurleitPanzer 63 - Swiss artillery fire control vehicle
    Fire Support Combat Vehicle - Modified M113 fitted with 105mm howitzer in casemate mount
    Fire Support Combat Vehicle [Graztl concept] - Original concept with 105mm mounted over lhs track
    G-5 - Israeli Army variant
    G-6 aka Zelda - Israeli Army variant
    G-7 aka Zelda II - Israeli Army variant
    Geniepanzer 63 - Swiss M113 with dozer blade
    Hovet - M163 in israeli Army service
    IAFV [Version 1] - 0.50 & 7.62mm machine-guns
    IAFV [Version 2] - 0.50 in remote control mount
    IAFV [Version 3] - 20mm in remote control mount
    IFVL aka Infantry Fighting Vehicle Light - light infantry fighting vehicle featuring a one-man turret
    K-200 aka KIFV - Series of Korean vehicles based on the AIFV
    Lynx - M113 C&R in Canadian service
    Luchs - M113 C&R in Netherlands service
    M106 - 4.2inch mortar portee
    M106A1 - 4.2inch mortar portee
    M106SP - Spanish Army mortar vehicle
    M106A1IT - M106A1 in Italian Army Service
    M113 [7.62mm minigun]
    M113 [20mm HS820]
    M113 [25mm Upgrade] - M113 fitted with Delco turret [USA]
    M113 [A-Frame] - Vietnam field modification
    M113 [AN/TPS-25]
    M113 [AN/TPS-33]
    M113 [AN/MPQ4] - Fitted with AN/MPQ4 mortar locating radar
    M113 [AN/PPS-4]
    M113 [AN/PPS-5]
    M113 [Armoured Assault Vehicle]
    M113 [Dart] - Dart ATGM system fitted
    M113 [Dozer] - Fitted with a dozer blade
    M113 [Fitters vehicle] aka M579
    M113 [Fox] - Fitted with Fox turret
    M113 [Gas Turbine] - fitted with gas turbine engine
    M113 [Green Archer]
    M113 [Integrated Command Station] - aka Stoner Turret
    M113 [Knappich HS-30 turret]
    M113 [LCTS90 turret]
    M113 [Rarden] - Fitted with Peake 30mm turret
    M113 [Rh10 turret]
    M113 [SS-11 variant 1] - Rear of hull built up
    M113 [SS-11 variant 2] - Right-centre rotating missile mount
    M113 [Waterjet Propulsion kit]
    M113 [XM175] - grenade launcher in pot-belly open turret
    M113 [ZU-23] - Lebanese modified fire support vehicle
    M113 ACAV
    M113 AVLB [1] - 33' span front-mounted bridge
    M113 AVLB [2] - 30' span rear-mounted scissors bridge
    M113 C&R - Series of smaller vehicles utilising M113 components
    M113 Grasshopper
    M113 Porcupine
    M113A - Australian armoured personnel carrier variant
    M113A [Milan] - Milan portee variant of the M113A
    M113A [Recoilless Rifle] - Rcoilless rifle portee version of the M113A
    M113A1 - New diesel engine
    M113A1 [Air Defence - Pakistan] - Fitted with a combined gun/missile-launcher mount
    M113A1 [Ambulance - Denmark]
    M113A1 [Blazer] - Fitted with General Electric's Blazer air-defence turret
    M113A1 [Stretched]
    M113A1 [T50-NZ] - Ex-Australian Army M113A1LRVs modified for service in the Balkans
    M113A1 [TC-13] - Fitted with the Santa Barbara TC-13 turret
    M113A1-B - Belgium variant of M113A1 APC
    M113A1-B-AMB - Ambulance version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-ATK - Three hatch version of M113A1-B optimised for the anti-tank role
    M113A1-B-CP - Command Post version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-CRANE - Recovery/repair version fitted with HIAB crane
    M113A1-B-ENG - Engineer version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-GN - Engineer version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-GN-BULL - Bulldozer blade equipped engineer version
    M113A1-B-MOR - Carries 120mm mortar
    M113A1-B-MTC - Repair version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-REC - Recovery version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-MIL - Milan armed version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-SVB aka M113A1-B-SCB - Radar version of M113A1-B
    M113A1-B-TRG - Driver training version of M113A1-B-MIL
    M113A1-P1 - IFV version
    M113A1/Vulcan A
    M113A1/HS-820/665 Triple 20mm with partial shield
    M113A1B - FSV with Cockerill Mk IIM turret
    M113A1DK - Danish Army version of the M113A1
    M113A1DK [Variant 1] - Uparmoured M113a1DK
    M113A1DK [Variant 2] - Modified for use in the Balkans
    M113A1G - M113A1 modified for use in the Bundeswehr
    M113A1G [Command] - M113A1G modified for the command role
    M113A1G PzM - 120mm mortar portee
    M113A1G BeoBPz - Artillery OP
    M113A1IT - M113A1 in Italian Army service
    M113A1IT [TOW Armed] - ATGM launcher equipped vehicle
    M113A1PO - Portugese army version
    M113A1 EVESV - Combat engineer version of M113A1
    M113A1 Fire Support Vehicle - Saladin turret fitted
    M113A1 Fire Support Vehicle PI - Australian fire support version with scorpion turret fitted
    M113A1 Light Reconnaissance Vehicle - Australian reconnaissance version
    M113A1 Visimodbmp - M113A1 used in OPFOR role by US Army
    M113A2 - M113A1 with mainly mechanical improvements
    M113A2 [ADATS - Canada - Preproduction] - APU moved to glacis plate
    M113A2 [ADATS - Canada - Production] - Smoke grenade dischargers
    M113A2 [ADATS - Prototype] - Dual-purpose-missile launcher
    M113A2 [Ambulance] - Ambulance version
    M113A2 [Delco 25mm] - Fitted with turret from M1047/LAV
    M113A2 [Eureka] aka TUA - Canadian version fitted with Eureka atgm launcher
    M113A2 [HVMS] - Israeli 60mm gun armed fire support vehicle produced by IMI
    M113A2 [Kader] - Egyptian armour upgrade by Kader
    M113A2 [SM-4] - Fitted with 4 barrel 120mm salvo mortar
    M113A2 [Tactical Command Post] - Company-level command vehicle
    M113A2 [TS90] - FSV with Giat TS90 Turret
    M113A2 [M2 turret] - Fitted with turret from Bradley MICV
    M113A2 [RO120] - Fitted with Royal Ordnance 120mm mortar turret
    M113A2 Tactical Command Vehicle
    M113A2E1 - Extended version of M113A2
    M113A3 - Upgraded M113A2 with new engine
    M113AS3 - Australian upgrade to their M113A's
    M113E1 - GE gas turbine engine
    M113E2 - Diesel engine
    M113G - Original version in use with Bundeswehr
    M113G [Hot] - HOT armed tank destroyer variant
    M113G [Rasit] - Bundeswehr Rasit radar
    M113G Beobachtungspanzer - Forward observation officers vehicle
    M113G Radarpanzer - fitted with 'Green Archer' mortar locating radar
    M113G1 KRKW GEP - Ambulance version
    M113G2 KRKW GEP - Ambulance version
    M116 - Steel version of M113
    M116 [Davy Crocket]
    M125 - 81mm mortar portee
    M125A1 - Improved M125
    M132 - Flamethrower variant
    M132A1 - F/T variant on M113A1
    M162 - aka M113A1/HS-820/665
    M163 - 20mm vulcan armed SPAAG
    M543 - Recovery with 5t crane
    M548 - Cargo carrier
    M548 [AN/MPQ-4A] - Radar version
    M548 [Skyguard] - Radar version
    M548 [SLUFAE] - Mine clearing system based on M548 chassis
    M548 [Welder] - Vietnam modification
    M548A3 - Tracked armoured load carrier
    M577 [Command] - Initial production versionwith a prominent weld line
    M577A1 - Improved M577 with one-piece sides and diesel engine
    M577A1 [Ambulance]
    M577A2 - Tracked armoured command vehicle
    M577A4 - MTVL Based Command Post Vehicle
    M579 Fitters/recovery version
    M667 - Lance Launcher/transporter
    M730 aka Chapparel - Bubble type canopy on fire unit
    M730A1 - Flat canopy on fire unit
    M730A2 - Vision device on lhs launcher arms
    M732 - 20mm vulcan armed SPAAG
    M741 - Base vehicle for M163
    M806A1 - Winch equipped recovery vehicle
    M901 aka ITV - ATGM variant
    M901A1 - Improved ITV vehicle
    M981 aka FISTV - Artillery OP
    M1059 - Smoke generating vehicle
    M1064 - 120mm mortar portee
    M1068 - Command post version
    Machbet - Modified M163 with missile launcher in Israeli Army service
    Minenwerferpanzer 64 aka Mv.Pz.64 - Swiss M106 fitted with local 120mm mortar
    MTVC - Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light, Cargo Carrier
    MTVE - Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light, Engineer
    MTVF - Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light, Fitters Vehicle
    MTVR - Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light, Recovery Vehicle
    MTVL - Mobile Tactical Vehicle Light
    MTVL Hybrid-Electric Track Technology Demonstrator
    MTVL-UC aka XM1108, Universal carrier - MTVL Based Universal Carrier
    Nile 23 [Gun] - Modified air defence version gun system for Egyptian Armed Forces requirement
    Nile 23 [Tracker] - Modified air defence version tracker system for Egyptian Armed Forces requirement
    NM 113 - Basic M113 in Norwegian Army service
    NM 125 - Mortar Portee version of the NM-113
    NM135 - Norwegian MICV fitted with Hagglunds 20mm turret
    NM 142 aka Rakettpanserjager - NM113 fitted with the Kvĉrner Eureka TUA turret
    PaNsret MaskinKanon aka PNMK - Danish fire support vehicle
    PaNsret MaskinKanon M/92 - Upamoured PNMK
    Ruag LMCT - light mine clearing tank
    SAM-D Launcher - Rear-mounted six rocket projector on M548
    SAM-D Radar - Rear mounted radar on M548
    Schutzenpanzer 63 - Swiss version of M113
    Schutzenpanzer 63/73 - Swiss M113 fitted with Pbv.302 turret
    Schutzenpanzer 63/89 - Uparmoured Schutzenpanzer 63/73
    Schutzenpanzer Kommando 63 - Swiss M113 fitted for command
    Schutzenpanzer Kommando 63/73 - Swiss command variant of SPz.67/73
    Schutzenpanzer Kommando 63/89 - Uparmoured Schutzenpanzer Kdo Spz 63
    Schutzenpanzer Kran 63 aka Kranpanzer 63 - Swiss Fitter's vehicle
    Sher - Modified Pakistani variant
    Sidam - Italian air-defence version armed with 4x25mm cannon
    Sinai 23 - Modified air defence version for Egyptian Armed Forces requirement
    Skorpion - M548GA1 fitted with mine laying device
    T113 - Prototype with 4 roadwheels and trailing idler
    T113E1 - Prototype with trailing idler removed
    T113E2 - Final prototype for M113
    T116 - Cargo carrier prototype
    T117 - Steel version of aluminium T113
    T149 - M113 with rear mounted SS-11
    T195 - 105mm howitzer carriage
    T195 [Modified] - Missile projector
    T195E1 - Diesel engined version
    T196 - T195 with 155mmm howitzer
    T249 aka Vigilante B - Air defence vehicle with vulcan gun in large turret
    T257 - Prototype for M125 mortar carrier
    T257E1 - Prototype for M125 mortar carrier
    T257E1 [AN/MPS30] - Ground surveillance radar
    T257E2 - Diesel engined prototype for M125A1 mortar carrier
    TIFV - Turkish Infantry Fighting Vehicle
    TIFV [AAPC] - 12.7mm machine gun turret
    TIFV [81mm Mortar]
    TIFV [120mm Mortar
    TIFV [TOW] - aTGM launcher
    Ubermittlungspanzer 63 - Swiss radio vehicle
    Ultra - SAF adaption of the M113 to an IFV
    VCC-1 aka Camillino - Italian infantry fighting vehicle based on modified M113A1 hull
    VCC-1 [Saudi Arabia]
    VCC-2 - Italian infantry fighting vehicle based on standard M113A1 hull
    VCC-80 - Italian MICV based on M113A1 components
    XK10 - Resupply vehicle based on an extended version of the K200A1 chassis
    XM166 - M42 mount on M548 chassis
    XM233E1 - Fitted with TOW atgw system
    XM474 - Hybrid radar carrier
    XM474E1 - PERSHING missile carrier
    XM474E2 - PERSHING warhead carrier
    XM501 - HAWK loader/transporter
    XM501E1 - HAWK loader/transporter
    XM501E2 - HAWK loader/transporter
    XM501E3 - HAWK loader/transporter
    XM546 Mauler - Air defence missile system
    XM546E1 Mauler
    XM548 - Unarmored cargo carrier
    XM548 [AA] - Twin HS820 mount
    XM548 [Ammunition Carrier] - Fitted with hoist
    XM548 [Recovery Vehicle]
    XM548E1 - Unarmoured cargo carrier
    XM577 - Prototype command post
    XM577A1 - Diesel engined CP prototype
    XM579 - Fitters vehicle
    XM667 - LANCE launcher/transporter prototype
    XM667E1 - Amphibious prototype
    XM688 - LANCE loader/transporter prototype
    XM688E1 - LANCE Loader/transporter prototype
    XM696 - Light armoured recovery vehicle
    XM727 - HAWK missile launcher
    XM729 - LACIC vehicle
    XM729E1 - RACI vehicle
    XM733 - RACI vehicle
    XM733E1 - RACI vehicle with gunners cupola
    XM734 - M113A1 modified to MICV
    XM734 [Variant 1] - Firing ports on side modified and ACAV kit fitted
    XM734 [Variant 2] - Recessed firing ports fitted
    XM734E1 - FMC cupola turret fitted
    XM734E2 - Firing ports on side reduced to three
    XM741 - M548 with M163 gun system
    XM742 - ARV variant of XM803
    XM743 - AVLB variant of XM803
    XM745 - CEV variant of XM803
    XM752 - Improved XM688
    XM765 - IFV prototype
    XM806 - Recovery version based on M113
    XM806E1 - Recovery version based on M113A1
    YPR-765 - Dutch series based on the AIFV

    Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Germany, Guatamala, Greece, Haiti, Iran, Israel, Italy, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Somalia, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Uruguay, Vietnam


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