|THE REFORMATION, COVENANTERS, AND THE CIVIL WAR|
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THE REFORMATION, COVENANTERS, AND THE CIVIL WAR
|N: (Monday 25 August 1997, 6:15:58)|
R: (Wednesday 7 January 2004)
Stewart Dynasty on the English Throne:
The Bishop's War & The Solemn League and Covenant:
The 1641 Rising in Ireland:
The Defence of Derry in 1641:
Royal Response to the Irish Rebellion:
The Adventures for Land in Ireland:
The English Civil War:
Cromwell and The Commonwealth:
The Down Survey:
Strong of Cork (?):
Ulster Tenant Right:
While the Protestant Reformation was sweeping Europe, Scotland was little touched. However, Mary, Queen of Scots, had succeeded to the Scottish throne in 1542 while still a child. Scotland had long been allied with France and Mary was betrothed to the Dauphine of France in 1548. She was sent to the French court to further her education, and in her absence the queen mother, Mary of Guise assumed the regency in 1554. Mary of Guise was a strong Francophile and Catholic. In consequence of her policies, a widespread anti-French sentiment developed in Scotland. With the return of John Knox from exile in 1559, the Reformation took fire in Scotland. Knox ignited a religious civil war which lasted about a year, called the "Riot of Perch". The Scottish Parliament put an end to the Church of Rome as the National Church in 1560. The Presbyterian Church was established as the "Kirk of Scotland" in 1561. 2
With the advent of the Reformation, the leading adherents in Scotland bound themselves to maintain the evangelical movement with a first religious covenant in December, 1557. A quarter of a century later, in 1581, "the King's Confession" came into vogue as the outcome of a widespread fear of a Romanist reaction to the Reformation. 3 Mary, Queen of Scots had returned to Scotland in August, 1561, following the death of her husband, the French king, Francis II, less than a year after his coronation. She quickly became the central figure of the Counter Reformation in Scotland and later in England. She was forced to abdicate in 1567 in favor of her infant son, James VI of Scotland, and for almost fourteen years thereafter, Scotland was ruled by regents. The King's Confession was adopted about the time James VI actively assumed his throne. Mary met her death on the block in 1587 at the hand of her cousin, English Queen Elizabeth I, in part because she was feared as a Catholic with first claim to succeed to the English throne. 4
Stewart Dynasty on the English Throne:In 1603, with the death of the "Virgin Queen" Elizabeth I, the Tudor line of English sovereigns came to an end. The son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, known as King James VI in Scotland, came to the English throne as James I. James, who had been raised a protestant, was accepted by the English, and ruled until 1625. 5 He was succeeded by his son, Charles I, who was much under the influence of his French Catholic wife, Queen Henrietta. As did his father, Charles I believed in the divine right of Kings, and refused to accept the advice of his Scottish and English Parliaments.
In 1629, Charles I dissolved Parliament and attempted to rule autocratically without it. During the interval between the dissolution of the Parliament of 1629 and the assembling of the Long Parliament in 1640, Charles, who disliked the puritans and presbyterians, determined to impose a new liturgy on the Church of Scotland without asking the consent of the Scottish parliament. This new liturgy was episcopalian in nature, and was designed to stamp out presbyterianism and the puritans. In 1636, Charles I gave William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, full ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Court of High Commission, the Court of Star Chamber, and the Council of the North over any who dared oppose his actions. 6
In both England and Scotland, Archbishop Laud attempted to force the use of the Church of England's episcopal Book of Common Prayer upon all of the presbyterians and puritans. Laud's ecclesiastical tyranny led to a large Puritan emigration to New England. Twenty thousand Puritans had migrated from Old England to New England between 1629 and 1640. This coincided with some of the heaviest Scots and English emigration to the Plantations of Ulster.
In Scotland, the attempt of the Dean of Edinburgh to use the Episcopal liturgy in St. Gile's Church of July 16,1637 produced a violent tumult. A riot ensued, with the Dean and the Bishop of Edinburgh being driven from the "kirk" by an enraged mob, amid cries of "Pope!", "Antichrist!", and "Stone them!" In every part of Scotland, petitions were addressed to the king, asking for relief from the oppressive imposition of the new liturgy. The king ignored the petitions, and issued a threatening proclamation against a committee known as the "Tables", representing various factions in Scottish life, who had attempted to gain the king's ear. 7
The Scots then renewed the Covenant, this time containing a provision for the overthrow of the Episcopal bishops. The previous Covenants had been signed by the nobility of Scotland only; this "National Covenant" was signed by nine-tenths of the Scottish people of all classes, rich and poor, noble and peasant, in the year 1638. The tenor of the Covenant and the temper of the Scottish people is revealed in the closing paragraph of the National Covenant: 8
"We promise and swear, by the name of the Lord our God, to continue in the profession and obedience of the said religion, and that we shall defend the same, and resist all the contrary errors and corruptions, according to our vocation and the utmost of that power which God has put into our hands, all the days of our life."
The Bishop's War & The Solemn League and Covenant:The Scots mounted an invasion of England in the summer of 1640, as part of what was called the Bishop's War, to enforce acceptance of the Covenant by the king. Charles I was forced to summon the English Parliament in an attempt to raise money for an army to resist the Scots. However, the King's arbitrary treatment of the Scots had aroused a strong sympathy in England for them, as the English saw that the Covenanters were fighting for religious freedom against arbitrary royal perogative. Instead of affording the King assistance against the Scottish insurgents, the Long Parliament entered into a secret league with them. This Solemn League and Covenant stipulated that the Anglican Church should be reformed according to the Word of God and the example of the best Reformed Churches. 9 Charles was forced to promise to honor the Covenant in what was called the Treaty of Berwick.
The 1641 Rising in Ireland:In the meantime, a dangerous rebellion was brewing in Ireland, as a result of the tyranny inaugurated by the Earl of Strafford as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1633. His tyranny had lasted seven years, until his execution in 1641. It was then that the Irish chose to assert their freedom by a rising to overthrow English Authority. Religious zeal added bitterness to political animosity. 10 Following the "Flight of the Earls" in 1607, and the subsequent confiscation of their estates and the Plantation of Ulster that followed, the Gaelic Irish had been nursing their hurts in the mountains and in the few lands left to them. 11
On October 23,1641, 8000 swordsmen of the Earls rose out of the bogs and mists, striking savagely at the settlers for their land and property. The English colonists of Ulster, who were totally unaware of the existence of the dreadful conspiracy, suddenly found themselves surrounded by mobs of infuriated armed Irishmen brandishing their weapons aloft with the most frightful yells. One of the most barbarous and brutal massacres recorded in the history of that time ensued, sparing no age, sex or condition. Houses of settlers were set on fire or leveled to the ground, often with their occupants still inside. 12
Sometime around the beginning of the twentieth century, twenty-four English silver coins were found in a deposit on the land of a farmer named Kee at Laghey, in County Donegal. The latest coin in the group is a shilling of Charles I, dated from its mintmark to the period 1639-1640. It is quite likely the concealment of the coins was occasioned by the 1641 Rebellion, or by some event in the long drawn-out war which ensued. The violence, dispossession and changing fortunes of the period obviously encouraged such hoarding and concealment of coins. 13
Due to the nationality of the principal grantees, Tirhugh by 1626 was one of only two areas in Donegal (the other was around Lifford) where English rather than Scottish planters were predominant. Assuming that the 1641 Rebellion followed the same pattern locally as it did throughout Ulster generally, the English rather than the Scots planters bore the brunt of the initial Irish attacks. The resulting violence would have provided ample reason for the hurried burial of money. 14
When first they rose against the English, the Irish rebels spared the Scottish settlers; apparently on the theory of divide and conquer, and also thinking that the Scottish Covenanters had sufficient grievances with the English crown that they would not help the English planters. The delay in striking at the Scots gave them time to organize a defense in concert with the surviving English. Refugees, Scots and English, fled to Protestant-held enclaves, and began to organize a resistance, training men, supplying food, arms and ammunition. County Antrim, northern Down and Londonderry, together with isolated castles and forts scattered throughout western Ulster in Donegal, Tyrone, and Fermanagh, remained in loyalist hands. 15 The settlers formed themselves into what has been called "The Old Scots Army", also known as "The Army of the Laggan", refering to the Laggan River Valley leading southerly from Londonderry into Donegal,Tyrone and Fermanagh.
One isolated castle held by the local planters was Castle Rahan, in Killaghtee Parish, Banagh Barony, Co.Donegal. Originally the stronghold of the Gaelic MacSuibhnes, it was among the domains confiscated in 1608. Granted to Scots planter William Stuart, it was regranted in 1620 to John Murray, later Earl of Annandale, for whom one Herbert Maxwell was an active agent. See the Murray of Broughton Estate. During the 1641 rising the castle was garrisoned and held by planters who were part of Sir Ralph Gore's regiment of the "Old Scots" Army. 16 In 1641, Gore raised the regiment of 500 men by commission from King Charles I. 17
The Defence of Derry in 1641: Possibly it was in the defense of Derry during this period that Mathew Stronge of Strabane, a "scion of Strang of Balcaskie" (in Fifeshire, Scotland) first made his mark with the Corporation of Goldsmiths, of the London Companies, such that he obtained a lease to a considerable tract of land in Co. Derry. Certainly he was present in Londonderry on Jan. 29,1654 when his son Edward Stronge was baptised at Derry Cathedral, and again on May 14,1657 when his son James Stronge was baptised. Perhaps he was also related to the John Strong who witnessed a lease in Derry some years earlier, on April 10,1637. 18 See The Strongs of Tynan Abbey, and the Irish Strong Database re County Armagh.
In the border area between Counties Donegal and Tyrone lies the Lagan Valley, one of the most effectively planted regions in Ulster in the period 1607-1641. Here in the west, what soon became known as the "Laggan Army", dominated by "Old Scots" planters but including many English settlers, emerged. Among its leaders were the Scots Sir Robert Stewart, Sir William Stewart, and Sir Frederick Hamilton. In Antrim and Down the leading Scots commanders were Lord Montgomery of the Ards, his brother Sir James Montgomery, and Lord Claneboye. 19
The Old Scots Laggan Army of Sir Robert Stewart fought one of the first successful battles against the rebels at Glenamquin, in the Lagan Valley in June, 1642. The site of the battle gave its name to a tributary of the Keenaghan river, known today as the "Battle Burn". 20
In a transcription of the original handwritten "Muster Rolls of the Ulster Army of 1642" prepared by D. Stewart in about 1911 from the lists found in Public Record Office, London, we find one James Strange, "mustered at Rafowe in the County of Dunagall, the two and twentieth day of August 1642", with Captain William Hamilton's "Company of Foote", in Sir Robert Stewart's Regiment. 21 Query whether this James Strange was related to the Mathew Strang who in 1616 was "of Lifford and Strabane", in the Lagan Valley, and who, in baptising his son James in 1657, gave origin to the Stronges of Tynan Abbey? 22
The flames of rebellion spread from Ulster to every part of Ireland. In the provinces of Leinster, Munster and Connaught the English and Scots who were not massacred were driven from their homes, robbed of their clothes, and left exposed, naked and defenseless to perish by the winter frosts and storms. In the south, only Dublin remained to the English. The failure of the plot there preserved in Ireland the remains of English power. The number of English and Scots Protestants who fell victim to the Irish rebels was variously estimated at the time from forty to two hundred thousand. The war which followed the rebellion continued ten years and reduced Ireland to extreme poverty and misery. Famine, pestilence and the plague ravaged Ireland. 23
Royal Response to the Irish Rebellion: News of the Irish rebellion reached Edinburgh on October 28,1641, in letters to the king from Ulster. Charles I immediately told the Scottish parliament of the rising. At his request the parliament appointed a committee to discuss the matter with General Alexander Leslie, newly created Earl of Leven. An Irish Catholic rebellion in Ulster was a potential threat to the covenanters and their countrymen in Ireland, but the political situation in Scotland and England was too tense and confused for the covenanters to immediately agree with the king's proposal to suppress the rebellion. 24
It was just over a year since the king had recruited a largely Catholic Irish army and threatened to invade Scotland with it. The Scottish Parliament was suspicious; the committee was led to conclude initially that delay was in order. Charles I indignantly urged that the situation was serious and warranted immediate action. The Parliament therefore conceded to consider preparing 10,000 men in eight regiments, and supplies, in readiness if the English parliament asked for them. Word of the Irish rebellion reached London November 1,1641, with word of the Scottish offer of assistance following soon after. The English Parliament too was suspicious of the motives of both the king and the Scots, but then decided on November 10 to accept the Scots offer. 25
In the work of sending immediate help from Scotland to Ireland, the king played a leading part. He persuaded the Scots parliament to agree to his buying arms and ammunition to be sent to Carrickfergus. He signed commissions to many of the leading Ulster Scots to raise and lead forces. Colonels set about raising regiments of men who had lately served in the Covenanter's army in the Scots "Bishop's War" of 1638-1640 against Charles I and his Archbishop, Laud. 1500 fighting men were soon dispatched to Ireland. The military survival of the Ulster Protestants in these critical early months owed much more to the efforts of the king than to those of either the English or the Scottish parliaments. 26
The Adventures for Land in Ireland: For the next three months the Scottish Commissioners and the English Parliament haggled over the terms for a treaty providing for the support by the English of the Scottish Army to be sent to Ireland. 27 On Feb.11,1642, an Act of the English Parliament "for speedy reducing of the rebels in Ireland," was passed whereby Adventurers for land in Ireland were promised the spoils of war to the extent of 2,500,000 acres to be confiscated when the Rebellion should be ended, in return for £336,000 Sterling which they subscribed, 1642-1646. to support an army and sea forces for service against the rebels, independently of the king. The money was paid to a private fund, administered by a committee, half of whom were members of Parliament and half representing the subscribing Adventurers. While designed to support the Scots in Ireland, the funds were actually diverted to support the army for the Civil War in England against the king while only token amounts were sent to Ireland. 28
The Adventurers were each issued a receipt guaranteeing some future allotment of land for the amount of the subscription, at the rate of 1000 acres in Ulster for £200 Sterling and at successively higher rates, £300 Sterling in Connaught, £450 Sterling in Munster, and £600 Sterling in Leinster. Lands were to be assigned by lot following the Rebellion. 29 Quite apparently, the rocky hills and valleys of Ulster were not as valuable as the lands in the southern provinces. See Names of the Cromwellian Adventurers for Land in Ireland , reproduced from "Irish Pedigrees" by John O'Hart, vol 2.
Scottish occupying army in Ulster under General Munro Over the next five years, the "New Scots" army waged a war of suppression against the Irish rebels. Poorly supplied at best, on lean rations and foraging over the land against the cattle, crops and supplies of the native Irish, they struggled under Major General Robert Munro to defeat the enemy. However, they were lost in the whirlwind of the conflict between King Charles I and the English Parliament known as the English Civil War. Munro's "New Scots Army" became bogged down in a stalemated occupation of parts of the north of Ireland.
The English Civil War:From 1642 through 1646, the Civil War raged through England, with Royalist Cavaliers pitted against Roundhead Puritan Independents. 30 On the condition that the English Parliament would honor the Solemn League and Covenant, the Scottish Covenanting army took an active part under General Leslie in the great Civil War which ensued. Charles I surrendered to the Scottish Army in May 1646. Upon his refusal to accept the Solemn League and Covenant, the Scots handed him over to the commissioners of the English parliament. 31 English Presbyterians in control of Parliament then proceeded to establish presbyters throughout England and to reform the English Church. The puritan independents under Cromwell's command in the Parliamentarian Army refused to disband, however, demanding payment of arrearages due them and an assurance of religious toleration. 32
Cromwell and The Commonwealth: Despite the English Parliament's commitment to the Solemn League and Covenant with the Scots, the independents seized Parliament, executed Charles I, defeated the Scots, and greatly weakened the presbyterian puritans who had treated with the Covenanters. 33 A military dictatorship was set up under Oliver Cromwell. The Round-heads then moved quickly to crush the aristocratic Cavaliers who resisted the Puritan Republic. 34
One of the first objects of the Commonwealth Government of England, after executing Charles I, was to defeat the Rebellion in Ireland. The Catholic rebels were organized under a Confederate Government in 1642, with which Charles I had treated when in need of aid in the Civil War. By 1647, many Protestant royalists had joined with the Confederates for the king and against the Parliament. When Cromwell's forces came to Ireland they broke the main strength of the rebels by May, 1650, and his officers and army were left to complete the conquest in 1650-52. 35
The Scottish had been shocked by the execution of Charles I. He was, after all, a Scottish Stewart, and independently King of Scotland. The Scottish had pledged to support him when he had surrendered to them in 1646. After his execution, the Scottish proclaimed his son, Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, but refused to allow him to rule until he signed the covenants in June 1650. The Scottish army then fought losing battles at Dunbar on the Border and at Worcester in England before being crushed by Cromwell. 36
Cromwell and the English Parliament set about ruling the united countries of England, Scotland and Ireland, under what is known as "The Commonwealth". An "Act for Settling of Ireland," was passed in the House of Commons on August 12,1652, whereby all of Ireland was deemed guilty of rebellion, excepting only those who could prove that they had supported the Parliament against the King, and who actively demonstrated their loyalty to Cromwell and his army in Ireland. It was virtually impossible for a Catholic to prove constant good affection to Parliament and the Commonwealth. Only Protestant landlords who could prove their "constant good affection" were exempt from confiscation of their estates. Lands totaling 11,000,000 acres were in due course confiscated to satisfy the Adventurers, to pay arrears of £1,550,000 Sterling to army officers and soldiers, to discharge debts of £1,750,000 Sterling advanced for army supplies, and to provide for the benefit of government officials and supporters. 37
Much of Leinster, Munster, and Connaught was allocated to the Adventurers in satisfaction of their claims. In addition, sufficient land for their arrears were provided in the counties of Cavan, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Tyronne, and elsewhere. Counties Donegal, Leitrim, Longford, and Wicklow were reserved for officers who fought before 1649 in Ireland, after which time they joined Cromwell's forces. 38 Probably more than coincidentally, it is in 1654 that we first find a record of a William Strong holding land in the Townland of "Tawlaght" in County Cavan [see database].
Margaret Dickson Falley states:
"The officers and soldiers acquired their lands by a series of lotteries whereby the regiments drew lots for the province and county, and thereafter the baronies where their companies were to locate. At various times the companies were marched to their respective baronies where they disbanded and the officers and soldiers were assigned their plots according to the amount of land allowed for their arrears of pay indicated on their debentures." 39
The Down Survey: The Act of Sept.26,1653 for the "Satisfaction of Adventurers and Soldiers", directed the Commissioners of Irish Affairs to have a perfect survey made by inquisition in preparation for the enormous transfer of the forfeited lands to the various interests. The Civil Survey was begun in June, 1654, and included all of Ulster and most of the rest of Ireland. Prepared as a preliminary step to the subsequent "Down Survey", surviving records of the Civil Survey cover Donegal, Londonderry and Tyronne in Ulster, Tipperary, Limerick, Waterford, and part of Kerry in Munster, Dublin, Kildare, Meath and Wexford in Leinster, and portions of Kilkenny, Cork, Carlow and Louth. 40 The Down survey (so named because it was the first survey put "down" on maps) was completed by Sir William Petty in 1656. 41
The Restoration: Following Cromwell's death in 1658, chaos reigned until virtually all political and religious groups joined in restoring the monarchy under Charles II in 1660. 42 Shortly there followed "The King's Declaration" of November 30,1660, which provided that: 43
(1) lands in the possession of Adventurers and soldiers on 7 May 1659 should be confirmed to them;
(2) all commissioned officers of regiments raised in Ireland or in English regiments sent out of the country in the service of Charles I, or of Charles II before 5 June 1649, should be paid their arrears;
(3) all commissioned officers, who had gone without pay since 1649, should be satisfied with land;
(4) forfeiting Protestants should be restored the full amount of their estates, and any occupying Adventurers or soldiers should be reprised with other land of equal value;
(5) Innocent forfeiting Irish proprietors dispossessed for being Catholics should be restored to their former estates;
(6) soldiers from Ireland who had served under the King's ensigns abroad should be restored their estates;
(7) some thirty-four named noblemen and gentlemen were to be restored their forfeited estates at once.
Various of these provisions included the remnants of both the Old and New Scots Armies who had been dispersed to the continent following Cromwell's victories over the Irish and the Scots. (The Scots having generally followed the banners of Kings Charles I and II after the surrender of the former to General Leslie's Scottish army in 1646.) 44
Various Acts of Settlement , Acts of Explanation, Courts of Claims, and a Commission of Grace followed over the next 30 years trying to adjust the competing interests and to reallocate lands. In the end, two-thirds of the land in Ireland had been parceled out to soldiers and followers of Cromwell. All of western Ulster, including Donegal, Tyronne, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Cavan, and Monaghan, plus half of other counties in the rest of Ireland, Limerick, Tipperary, Waterford, King's and Queen's, Meath, Westmeath, Louth, Kerry, Kilkenny, Wexford, and Sligo had been assigned to the officers and soldiers of the Civil War. 45
In betwixt all the soldiers were a scattering of holders of restored estates gained in the Acts of Settlement. The division of the counties in which half went to soldiers and half to holders of the Adventurers certificates issued by Parliament was by baronies.. The allotment of baronies was by baronies, determined by lots drawn by a committee which sat at Grocers' Hall, London. A guide to the existing records of the allocations made may be found in Margaret Dickson Falley's book, "Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research", at Vol.1, pp. 567-579. 46 The Irish Registry Office holds the originals of the Books of Survey and Distribution, and indexes and registrations of all deeds dating from 1708 to the present.
Strong of Cork (?): It may be in this period that the ancestors of certain Strongs in County Cork acquired their lands. In Benjamin Dwight's "History of the Strong Family", there is a discussion of the descendants of a certain John Strong of Albany, Kentucky. Related therein is the following account: 47
"My grandfather (John Strong) was born in Cork, Ireland, but of English descent, was a Presbyterian, and an intense hater of popery. He claimed descent from some of the conquerors of Ireland, who came thither after the Londonderry massacre..."
This description is consistent with the profile of the members of Cromwell's army who received lands in Ireland in the period 1652-1659. However, there is much reason to believe this Albany, Kentucky family may actually have originated in Counties Antrim or Down as descendants of Christopher Strang/Strong, and managed to escape to the United States at a much later date following the 1798 Rising. It is hoped that one or more members of the Albany, Kentucky Strong family will participate in the DNA Study in an attempt to resolve the issue.
Ulster Tenant Right: It should be noted that the titles to lands were given to the commissioned officers. The common soldiers were allotted lands as tenants of the officers. This was a vestige of the feudalism which had ruled English law since the time of William the Conqueror. However, it appears these soldiers had a special claim on the land which came to be known as "Ulster Tenant Right". Under this concept, the soldiers could not have their rents raised unreasonably, and could not be deprived of their tenancies without compensation ranging in amount of from five to fifteen years rent. 48 This right was a source of considerable stability and loyalty to the Ascendancy on the part of the Ulster yeomanry in the next two centuries.
The Restoration of 1660 was followed in Scotland by the abrogation of all the acts in favour of Presbyterianism, the restoration of episcopacy and the execution of it's most obnoxious opponents. Thereafter came 25 years of the most brutal repression, during which the more extreme Covenanters rose three times in rebellion, and ultimately, in a couple of declarations renounced allegiance to Charles II, who had perjured himself in several promises to them. So embittered and fanatic did a section of them become that they refused to recognize the ecclesiastical settlement of the Revolution of 1689, which reestablished presbyterian church government but did not renew the Covenants. 49 See Chapter V - Tests, Dissent, and the 1689 Revolution.
Stewart Dynasty on the English Throne:
The Bishop's War & The Solemn League and Covenant:
The 1641 Rising in Ireland:
The Defence of Derry in 1641:
Royal Response to the Irish Rebellion:
The Adventures for Land in Ireland:
The English Civil War:
Cromwell and The Commonwealth:
The Down Survey:
Strong of Cork (?):
Ulster Tenant Right:
1 George W. Page, "The 'Scotch-Irish' of North America", ABT PAF News-
letter, Capitol PAF User's Group, Inc., Bowie, Md.; Vol.2,#4, July-
August-September 1988; p.17; Univ. Stnd. Encyc."Scotland",Vol.21,p.7575
2 Page, "The Scotch-Irish of North America", p.17; Universal Standard Encyclopedia (1956), "Scotland", Vol.21, p.7572-7580.
3 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Covenanters", Vol.6,p.615
4 The Universal Standard Encyclopedia (1956), "Scotland", Vol.21,p.7572, 7580-7581
5 Universal Standard Encyclopedia (1956), "Scotland", Vol.21,p.7581.
6 Israel Smith Clare, "The Standard History of the World" (1927), Vol.VI, p.2829-2830.
7 Israel Smith Clare, "The Standard History of the World" (1927), Vol.VI, p.2832-2833.
8 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI,p.2833
9 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI,p.2834-35; Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Covenanters", Vol.6,p.616.
10 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI, p.2837;
11 Robert Kee, "Ireland, a history", Little, Brown and Company (1982) p. 42-51.
12 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI,p.2837-2838; Key, p.42-51.
13 M. Kenny, "English Silver Coins, 1560-1640", Donegal Annual, Vol.XIII, No.4, 1980, p.491-492.
14 M. Kenny, "English Silver Coins, 1560-1640", Donegal Annual, Vol.XIII, No.4, 1980, p.491-492.
15 David Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", Ulster Historical Foundation, Belfast, 1981, p.82-98.
16 C.Conaghan, "The Antiquities of St.John's Point", Donegal Annual (1977) p.53,54.
17 "The Army in Ulster", from the Ormonde M.Ss., Vol.I,p.123, et.seq., per D.Stewart, "The Muster Rolls of the Ulster Army of 1642", LDS film No.897012, Part 3, p.4.
18 "Burke's Peerage and Baronetage", 105th ed., p.2564; IGI records of the LDS Church, Salt Lake City, Utah; Prior-Wendsford Papers, MSH 178.
19 Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", p.98.
20 Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", p.115-116; Leonard Roarty, "My own place--Maigh Itha or the Lagan Valley", Donegal Annual (1986), p.80ff.
21 From microfilm number 897012, Library of the Church of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. See page 179. See also p.237 for mention of John Heron as an original English planter of Armagh, ~1607-41.
22 "Burke's Peerage and Baronetage", 105th Edition, Burke's Peerage, Ltd., London, 1978, p.2564.
23 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI,p.2838; Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", p.98. Modernly some scholars reduce the numbers to about 12,000. See Key, "Ireland, a History", p.42-51.
24 Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", p.44.
25 Stevenson, p.44-51.
26 Stevenson, p.51-52.
27 Stevenson, p.54-61.
28 Margaret Dickson Falley, "Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research", Shenandoah Publishing House, Strasburg, Virginia (1962), Vol.I,p.560- 561.
29 Falley, Vol.I,p.561.
30 Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", Chapters 3 and 5; Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Cromwell, Oliver", Vol.6, p.740-741.
31 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Covenanters", Vol.6,p.616.
32 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI, p.2847; Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Cromwell, Oliver", Vol.6,p.741, and "Presbyterian", Vol. 18, p.441.
33 Clare, "Standard History", Vol.VI, p.2849; Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Presbyterian", Vol.18,p.441.
34 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Cromwell, Oliver", Vol.6, p.742.
35 Margaret Dickson Falley, "Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research", Shenandoah Publishing House, Strasburg, Virginia (1962), Vol.I,p.561
36 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Cromwell, Oliver", Vol.6,p.742.
37 Falley, p.561-567
38 Falley, p.565-566
39 Falley, p.566
40 Falley, p.572
41 Encyclopedia Britannica (197.), "Ireland", Vol...,p.558.
42 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Presbyterian", Vol.18,p.440-441
43 Falley, p.579
44 Stevenson, "Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates", p.265ff.
45 E.J. Collins, "Irish Family Research Made Simple", Summit Publications (1974), p.6; Margaret Dickson Falley, "Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research", Shenandoah Press (1962), Vol.1, p.565.
46 Margaret Dickson Falley, "Irish and Scotch-Irish Ancestral Research", Shenadoah Publishing House, Strasburg, VA (1962).
47 Benjamin Dwight, "The History of the Descendants of Elder John Strong of Northampton, Mass.", Gateway Press, Inc., Baltimore (1984 reprint), Vol.II, Appendix III, p.1535.
48 Rev. H.C. White, "Sixty Years'Experience as an Irish Landlord, Memoirs of John Hamilton,D.L., of St. Ernan's,Donegal", Digby, Long and Co., 18 Bouverie Street, Fleet Street, E.C., London (18..), p.162.
49 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Covenanters", Vol.6,&p.616
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