Strong(e)/Strang(e) Research in Britain and Ireland

Researching Strong(e)s and Strang(e)s in Britain and Ireland; 2nd Edition (Rootsweb)


IRISH AND EMIGRANT PLACES AND LINEAGES
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CHAPTER X

IRISH AND EMIGRANT PLACES AND LINEAGES

(N: August 25, 1997

(R:Tuesday, December 16, 2003)

(R:Sunday, February 3, 2008)

The place descriptions contained in this chapter are keyed to various on-line charts, or to some which are to be added at a later date. The discussion is designed to complement the charts by giving some insights into the physiography and local history of the places inhabited by the persons listed in the charts.

The descriptive material concerning the various localities dicussed herein has been accumulated from varied sources, including Samuel Lewis' "A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland"; The Donegal Annual; and reprints of The Irish Ordnance Survey Memoirs. The Memoirs, accounts of localities in the northern half of the country, have been likened to a 19th century Domesday survey of Ireland. 1 These unique records were written in the decade before the Famine (1830-1840), to complement the maps drawn to a 6" scale during the first Ordnance Survey of Ireland by soldiers in the Royal Engineer Corps and also by civilians recruited to help the soldiers.

Following, keyed to the Genealogical Charts in this and other websites, and or the Lineages Directory are discussions of various lineages with brief discussions of the localities or estates in which their origins have been traced. Click on the indicated links to "jump" to particular discussions; (please note, you may have to use your browsers "back" function to return here):
The LeStrange's of Salop, England
TYNAN ABBEY, COUNTY ARMAGH
CUMBERLAND, CARLISLE, and DUMFRIESHIRE
COUNTY ANTRIM & SOUTH CAROLINA STRONGS
COUNTIES DOWN, ANTRIM & ARMAGH:
MONAGHAN STRONGS OF BALLYBAY
STRONGS FROM COUNTY DONEGAL
TANNERY STRONGS OF DUBLIN
STRONGS OF FASSEROE, COUNTY WICKLOW, IRELAND, and the Stonemason Strongs
York County Pennsylvania Strongs and the Mormon Strongs
LANDGROVE VERMONT STRONGS
Footnotes:

CHART: ANGLO-NORMAN STRONGS
The LeStrange's of Salop, England; see: Aracapana Press: The Works of John R. Mayer, by Barbara Way; and see: Lestrange, by Patrick Harris; Researcher, New Zealand. The chart presents descendants of _____ Lestrange, who was a companion of William the Conqueror, including descendents in England and Ireland. Links to many good websites. See also Norman Conquest in England

Certain of the information and data in this discussion has been gleaned from "The Complete Peerage, or a History of the House of Lords and its members from the Earliest Times", edited by Geoffrey M. White; The St.Catherines Press, London, 1953; Vol. "Skelmersdale to Towton" as to the Lords Strange, p.340-357; from Burke's Peerage, p.311-312, "L'Estrange of Hunstanton"; from Veronica Thomas, "The Manx and Their Isle of Man", National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 142, No. 3, September, 1972, pp.426,429; and from The Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Man, Isle of", Vol.14, p.770, and "Atholl, Earls and Dukes of", Vol.2, p.623-624.

The data is important to the present work as it is believed the roots of a number of lineages of Strange/Strang/Stronge/Strong families lie with the LeStrange family. Note that the name "Hamon" which appears numerous times in the lineage is probably an anglicized usage of the Gaelic name "Hamish", which means "James". 2

The progenitor of the LeStrange line, was apparently a Bretton knight from Dol, Brittany, who arrived in England in 1066 with William the Conqueror. He was a tenant of Alan Fitzflaad, Heriditary Steward of the Lords of Dol, who in turn likely owed fealty to William. See the discussion of the Feudalism: the Obligations of Knight Service, and the Role of the Brettons at the Battle of Hastings.

It is clear that Richard L'Estrange of Lestrange is the ancestor of a line of L'Estranges appearing in the records of Moystown, Kings County, Ireland. See inter alia, John Mayer's Hypthesis re descendency from Lestrange of Hunstanton.

The Barons Strange of the Isle of Man spring from the Earls of Derby, who acquired Lordship of the Isle of Man in the period 1405-1765; the present Baron Strange is a descendant of Lady Joan LeStrange (1463-1513). See Lestrange

It seems doubtful that one of the various Nicholas LeStranges may be the progenitor of the Strangs of Balcaskie, Fifeshire, Scotland. The Strangs of Balcaskie were thoroughly researched by the late John R. Mayer in his book Strange of Balcaskie (See: Aracapana Press: The Works of John R. Mayer. Mayer accepted the hypothesis that the Strange of Balcaskie lineage were in turn likely the progenitors of the Stronges of Tynan Abbey, County Armagh, Ireland. See however, Tynan Abbey. However, with the large number of possible progenitors of different lines of English, Scots, and Irish lines of Strongs, it is important to study the Lestrange chart for possible roots for each line at the point of beginning for each lineage.

CHART: L'ESTRANGE OF MOYSTOWN, KING'S COUNTY; see Lestrange

CHART TWO: SCOTTISH STRONGS:

CHART: BALCASKIE, FIFESHIRE; see John R. Mayer's book, "Strange of Balcaskie"

TYNAN ABBEY, COUNTY ARMAGH; see Tynan , and
Carlisle, and
DNA Note #11.

Tynan Abbey is an estate in Co.Armagh, about seven miles from the town of Armagh. The country around is highly cultivated and considered to be remarkably fertile. The estate was at one time possessed by the Echlin family; however the heiress of the last Hugh Echlin, Esq., of Tynan, conveyed it by marriage to James Manson, Esq. The Mansons died without male heirs; their daughter and heiress, Eleanor Manson, became the wife of the Rev. John Stronge, Prebendary of Tynan. In 1711 the estate passed into the Stronge family. 3 This is confirmed by review of the Hearth Money Rolls for County Armagh in 1665. There are no Strongs to be found among the mostly Irish names appearing on the rolls. 4

The following geographical descriptions come from the Prospectus of the Parliamentary Gazateer, published in 1843:

page 433: "Tynan, a parish, partly in the barony of Armagh, but chiefly in that of Turaney, co. Armagh, Ulster. The barony of Armagh section contains the village of Killyleagh; and the Turaney section contains the villages of Tynan and Middleton, see the articles. The length southward 7 3/4 miles; extreme breadth 3 3/4. Area of the barony of Armagh section 4,314 acres, 2 roods, 23 perches; of the Turaney section 12,731 acres, 1 rood, 12 perches of which 80 acres, 2 rood, 30 perches are water. Pop. in 1831 was 11,542; in 1841 was 11,392.

The surface of the quoted civilian parish extends along the western margin of the county, from the vicinity of Archfield-house on the south to a point on the R. Blackwater 2 1/4 miles below Caledon bridge on the north; it is traversed over nearly three fourths of its length, from the northern extremity southward along the west, by the Ulster Canal; and in a general view, it consists of good land, and posesses a very considerable aggregate of demesne-ground and pleasant scenery. The southern part of the eastern district was formerly in a half waste condition, but is now improved and almost wholly profitable. The lands on one side of the village of Middleton are low, flat and marshy; but those on the other side are hilly and tolerably good. The land around the village of Tynan, and eastward thence toward Armagh, posesses a fertile limestone soil, and presents a comparative profusion of wood and other decoration. The principal residences are Tynan Abbey, the handsome seat of Sir J.Stronge, Bart., 3/4 of a mile south west of the village of Tynan; Mount Irwin, the seat of W. Irwin, Esq., 2 miles northeast of Middleton; Fellows-hall, the seat of T.K. Armstrong, Esq., 1 1/4 miles east of Tynan....

Tynan (The), a rivulet of the counties of Monaghan and Armagh, Ulster. It rises in Co. Monaghan, flows through Castle-shane, enters Co. Armagh in the vicinity of the village of Middleton, intersects the small westward wing of co. Armagh which is bounded on three sides by co. Monaghan, flows past the town of Tynan, and falls into the Blackwater in the vicinity of Caledon.

page 434: Tynan, a village in the parish of Tynan, barony of Turaney, Co. Armagh, Ulster. It stands on one of the roads from Armagh to Monaghan, and on the direct road from Monaghan to Claremont, 1/2 mile east of the Ulster Canal; 1 3/4 miles south of Caledon; 1 3/4 miles south west of Killyleagh; 2 1/2 north by east of Middleton; 6 1/2 west south west of Armagh; 7 1/4 north east of Monaghan and 83 1/4 north by west of Dublin... ... Area of the village, 8 acres. Pop. in 1831, 243; in 1841, 177. Houses 30

According to Burke's Peerages, Rev. John Strong was a descendant of a certain Matthew Stronge of Strabane who was a scion of "Strang of Balcaskie", and who had been warden of Lifford, County Donegal. Strabane is in County Tyrone; Lifford is just across the County line in the Lagan Valley of County Donegal. Examination of a Subsidy Roll for County Tyrone from circa 1665 shows a Matthew Strong in Cames Parish. 5 Further, a certain "Jn. Strong of Castlederg" appears in a "Summonister's Roll" for County Tyrone Assizes held 19 March 1624. 6 It is possible this John Strong was the father of Matthew Strong of Strabane. However, see Tynan, for a hypothesis that this John Strong was actually an uncle of Matthew Strong of Strabane.

"Matthew Strong acquired a considerable tract of land in County Derry, by lease from the corporation of goldsmiths of London, and in 1689, in consideration of services done and losses sustained at the memorable defence of Derry, obtained renewal thereof. He also purchased lands in Counties Tyrone and Donegal. In 1688 he was attainted by King James II's Parliament", and died in 1716. His son, Captain James Strong, was also attainted by James II's Irish Parliament, 7 and participated in the defence of Londonderry.

The Parliament called in Dublin by King James II, 7th May 1689, had no representatives from the counties of Derry, Donegal, or Fermanagh; and, as many Protestants from those counties were engaged in the defence of Londonderry then under seige by forces loyal to the king, the protestants are described in the Act of Attainder as being "of Donegal and Derry". Many of the attainted persons listed in the abstract from the Act also appeared in the corporation Minutes or many of the Derry diaries, as participators in the defence of Derry, Sligo, or of the Passage of the Bann (eg., the ford across the River Bann, running through Cames Parish, County Tyrone). A portion of the Writ of Attainder follows:

"An Act for the Attainder of Divers Rebels, and for Preserving the Interest of Loyal Subjects.

"WHEREAS a most horrid invasion was made by your Majesty's unnatural enemy the Prince of Orange, invited thereunto and assisted by many of your Majesty's rebellious and traiterous subjects; and having likewise raised, and levied open rebellion and war in several places in this Kingdom and entered into association, and met in conventions, in order to call in and set up the said Prince of Orange, and the said rebels and traitors, having the imppudence to declare for the Prince and Princess of Orange against your sacred Majesty,

"BE IT ENACTED, that the Persons hereafter named, viz: Hugh Montgomery, Earl of Mount Alexander; ...William Caulfield, Viscount Charlemont;....Captain James Strong,...of Ballycastle; all of the County of Londonderry...(and many others)...whether dead or alive, or killed in open rebellion, or now in arms against your Majesty, and every one of them shall be deemed, and are hereby declared and adjudged traitors, convicted and attainted of high treason, and shall suffer such pains of death, penalties, and forfeitures respectively, as in cases of high treason are accustomed....

"This abstract of the Act, is taken from a copy published in the "State of the Protestants of Ireland under the late King Jame's Government", written by Willliam King, who was Chancellor and Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin, during the Revolution, and afterwards Bishop of Derry." 8

Captain James Strong was the father of the Rev. John Stronge, Rector of Tynan, mentioned above.

Tynan Abbey itself was built in 1750 by Rev. James Stronge, D.D., son Rev. John Strong, upon the site of an older mansion, and was considerably added to and improved over the years. It was a spacious house in the abbey style, and had a picturesque appearance, "bearing a very happy semblance of an ancient edifice, a deception which (was) not a little heightened by the nature of the surrounding country." The park wherein it stood was about 600 acres in extent, and presented some remarkably fine timber of various kinds and ages. A handsome lake added the last feature to complete a perfect picture. 9 See the pictorial reproduction at: Tynan Abbey

In 1980, Tynan Abbey was destroyed in a fire set by terrorists when they murdered Sir Norman Stronge and his son, James Stronge. Incendiary bombs burned the Abbey to a shell, while the assassins fled into the gun sights of waiting police who had been alerted by the blasts. After a fierce gun battle of about ten minutes, the assassins abandoned their cars and escaped on foot across the nearby frontier of the Irish Republic. 10

Following are two photographs, reproduced from 8mm movie film taken by Milton Strong of Hamiliton, Ontario, in Scarva, Northern Ireland on July 13,1959. The first shows Sir Norman Stronge, in Orange Lodge regalia, center, flanked by a Mr. Buller on the left, and Jason Hassard from Toronto, Ontario on the right. The second shows Sir Norman Stronge as second from the left. The photos were taken on Mr. Buller's farm, where a sham battle celebrating the Battle of the Boyne is held July 12th of each year: (to be inserted)

INSERT PHOTOS

Sir Norman Stronge was described at the time of his death, by Catholic Politician Austin Currie as having been, "Even at 86 years of age...still incomparably more of a man than the cowardly dregs of humanity who ended his life in this barbaric way." 11

There are several possible progenitors of other Strong lineages in the Tynan Abbey genealogy. The Monaghan Strongs discussion below explores some of the possibilities. Recently, results in the DNA Study have tended to support the hypothesis that the Monaghan Strongs are indeed descended from the Tynan Abbey lineage, as are certain Strongs of Carlisle, England. See the DNA Results webpage, and Kit #8920 (Tynan Abbey, County Monaghan & Ontario, Canada); Kit #7548 (Tynan Abbey, County Armagh & Carlisle, Cumbria); and Kit #9014 (Tynan Abbey, County Monaghan? & Ontario, Canada). See also the discussions found in DNA Note #11 and DNA Note #16.

CUMBERLAND, CARLISLE, and DUMFRIESHIRE: See: Cumbria Overview, and Strongs of Carlisle
and see the DNA Results webpage, and Kit #8920(Tynan Abbey, County Monaghan & Ontario, Canada); Kit #7548 (Tynan Abbey, County Armagh & Carlisle, Cumbria); and Kit #9014 (Tynan Abbey, County Monaghan? & Ontario, Canada). See also the discussions found in DNA Note #11 and DNA Note #16.

COUNTY ANTRIM & SOUTH CAROLINA STRONGS;

see: A Genealogy of the Strongs of South Carolina, by Roger Dellinger.

As a result of the Strong/Strange/L'Estrange DNA Project, it is becoming apparent that the so-called "Tynan Abbey" DNA group is likely descended from the Christopher Strang of Scotland mentioned here who was executed in 1666 [and who is hypothesized to be the father of Christopher Strang, b. c.1660, below], or at least from the same family, rooted in Lanarkshire, Scotland. See the DNA Results page; Kit #6386; and the linked discussions found in the DNA Notes, #11 and #16. Refer also to the "Tullinisky Discussions": South Carolina links.

The following information has been gleaned the book, "Strong and Allied Families... From the Papers of Miss Esther Strong, of Chester, S.C." which was Edited by Theresa M. Hicks, and Published Privately by Virginia Draffin Waites in Dec. 1980.   The papers upon which the book is based are in the possession of The Caroliniana Library and McKissik Museum at the University of South Carolina. I believe the book is there as well.  Virginia Draffin Waites was apparently the step-daughter of Miss Esther's sister, and asked Theresa Hicks to assist her in compiling the book from the papers as handed to her after Miss Esther's death; and from a typewritten manuscript summary provided to the author by Wm. C. Norman, Jr., of Crossett, Arkansas in 1987. Certain of these materials apparently were researched by Mr. Norman's deceased aunt, (Alice Strong? or Mrs. Jane Strong Smith, St. Petersburg, FL?) who apparently also had reference to "The History of Hopewell Church, Chester District, South Carolina", by Rev. Robert Latham, D.D. See also, "Historical and Geneological Miscellany (Early Settlers of New Jersey and their descendants)" by John E. Stilwell, M.D., 1932, New York,Vol.5, pp.504-505, which apparently contains: "a sketch from "A History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution, 1688", by the Rev. Robert Woodrow Glasgow. In this sketch is mentioned a letter sent from the port of debarkation in Scotland to friends at home. Twenty-eight signed the original letter to their friends. Christopher Strong was one of the signers. Another letter was signed by Jeannette Symington. Letters were sent from Leith Road (Port of Edinburgh), Scotland, August 28, 1685."

The related families discussed in Miss Esther's book include: Simonton, Lowry, McKeown, Chisholm, Weir, Moffatt, Brice, Gaston, Gladney, Grier, Johnston, Lesslie, McCalla, McCreary, McCullough, McDill, McKee, McQuiston, Shirley, Wylie, etc. It contains photocopies of various documents, maps, etc. The compilation is well worth your time!
More re Jennet Gaston, from
p. 13: "Charles Strong.... married Jennet Gaston, daughter of William and Olivet Lemmon Gaston of Ireland...";
from p.113: " John Gaston, b. ~1600, had sons: John, William, and Alexander.  One generation was born in Ireland.  John Gaston had three sons:  William, b.~1680 lived at Cloughwater, Ireland; John b. 1703/4 d. in America 1783; Alexander b. 1714, d. in  America....  William b. ~1680 of Clough Water, m. a Miss Lemon... (several children named, including Jinny Gaston who m. Charles Strong)...."

I make no representations about the accuracy of these materials, and suggest this is all subject to further research, investigation, documentation and verification by interested researchers:

1st Generation:
Christopher Strang, b.~1660, transported to New Jersey ~1683-4, d. where and when?; apparently married Jeannette Symington, also transported to New Jersey.

2nd Generation:
John Strong, b.~1686? New Jersey or Scotland? d. ~1750? Co. Antrim, Ireland, or Scotland? m. a Miss Wier?  Note:  Is there a "Missing Generation" here????

3rd Generation:
1) a daughter, who married a Chestnut in Co. Antrim. Name, birth, death, places all ?

2) Robert Strong, b. ~1707, Co. Antrim.... probably remained there.

3) James Strong, b. ~1709, Co. Antrim.... m. Elizabeth; d. 15 Nov 1779, Chester Co., So. Carolina;  children, Born in Ireland:
        4.1) Agnes Strong, b. ~1751, d. 16 July 1819 in S.Carolina;  m. William Lowery (b.12 Jun 1747, d. 12 Sep 1804)
        4.2) Robert Strong, b. ~1752, d. 20 Oct 1824 in S. Carolina; m. Sarah Simonton (b. ~1752, possibly in New Jersey; d. 19 Apr. 1831, So. Carolina)
       4.3) James Strong, b. ~1760, d 5 Nov 1823 in S. Carolina; m. his cousin, Letitia Strong, daughter of Charles Strong below), b. 1 Mar 1766 in  Ireland, d. 27 Nov 1837, Dickson Co., Tennessee.
4.4) Mary Strong, b. 1764, d. either in 1803 or 1893 ( a significant difference noted by Theresa Hicks but without resolution), m. Capt. hugh Parks, b. 1764, d. 1830.  
4.5) Susannah Strong, m. John Bailey/Bealy  (no dates)
4) John Strong, b.~1711, probably d. before 1770, in Ireland.
5) Charles Strong, b. ~1713, Ireland, d. ~1783, Kershaw Co. S. Carolina; m. Jeannette Gaston (of Huegonot descent... parents named in Miss Esther's book), b. ~1726 in Ireland, d. 28 Apr 1801, Fairfield Co. SC; children, born in Ireland:
        4.1) Jane/Jennet Strong, b. ~1757, Co. Antrim, d. 1833 in S. Carolina; m. M. Richard Gladney, b.~1744, d. 10 Aug.1796 in S.C.
        4.2) Christopher Strong, b. 20 Jan 1760, Co. Antrim, d. 22 Nov. 1850, Charlotte, Dickson Co., Tennessee, m.1st on 28 Dec 1782, Frances Elizabeth Dunn, b.~1760, d. 28 Dec 1826; m.2nd 10 Jul 1828 at Chester, S.C., Rosannah McColloch
        4.3) William Strong, b. ~1763, Co. Antrim, killed in action, 11 June 1780 in  Revolutionary War Battle of Fishing Creek, S.C.
        4.4) Letitia Strong, b. 1 Mar 1766, Co. Antrim, d. 27 Nov 1837 in               Dickson Co., Tennessee;  Note, after the death of her husband, James Strong, in S.C., she moved to the home of her brother, Christopher Strong in Dickson Co.TN, where she died and is buried. Because she m. James Strong, a son of James and Elizabeth Strong, she gives the CharlesStrong lineage a Strong descendency, even though her only brother who married, Christopher, had no sons.
        4.5) Margaret Strong, b. ~1768, Co. Antrim, d. 11 Mar 1828, in SC;              m. John Simonton, b. 1760 in SC? d. 1841, SC.  Some               descendants known.

For further information on descendants of these individuals, see Website GED2HTML: South Carolina
re the Descendants of John Strong and his wife Miss Wier or Thier
and contact Roger Dellinger.
See also: Christopher Strong of Scotland, and the notes, references, and other researchers listed there.

Roger Dellinger writes: "With all that in breeding it is a wonder that there isn't some sort of genetic problem within my family. I have a theory about some of that.  Back in those days, a lot of newborns, young children and even young adults died.  It has been said that most of these deaths were due to inferior medical practices of the day.  However I'd like to postulate that part of these deaths were due to genetic problems due to families in breeding with each other as much as they did and passing along bad genetic makeup to their children.  These children would have a tough time surviving today much less back 200 years ago when the medicine of the day didn't know how to treat these problems.

"A classic example of these families marrying each other is the following: John Weir Strong, who was born 11 March 1885 to James A. Strong and Jane I. Weir.  James' parents are Samuel M. Strong and Letitia J. Weir.  Jane Weir's parents are Charles Weir and Eliza Strong.  Samuel Strong and Eliza Strong are brother and sister, the children of Robert S. Strong and Jennet McKee. Letitia Weir and Charles Weir are also brother and sister, the children of John Weir and Jennet Strong.  Robert S. Strong is the son of Robert Strong, who in turn is the son of James Strong, Sr.  Jennet Strong is the daughter of James Strong, Jr., and Letitia Strong.  James Strong, Jr. is the son of James Strong, Sr.  Letitia Strong is the daughter of Charles Strong and Charles Strong, according to Dave Strong's (information above) is the brother of James Strong, Sr. (I hope everyone can follow that lineage.) With that kind of in-breeding, it is no wonder that John Weir Strong died 15 December 1910 at the age of 25 of an apparent heart attack.  He died in the house that my mother lived in up until my mom was 4 years old, when my mom and her parents moved in October of 1929 from the Bloomington area to Rush Co., Indiana.  A year later after my mom's family moved to Rush Co., her father died leaving my Grandmother to raise my mom by herself.  My grandmother didn't remarry until after my mom married my dad and started a family of her own." Roger Dellinger; rdellinger@argothor.net

Note, however, this brings us to the question : IS THE DESCENDENCY FROM CHRISTOPHER STRANG REAL OR MERELY A STORY?  The Christopher Strang who was imprisoned in Dunotter Castle near Aberdeen Scotland, and subsequently transported to New Jersey.... all of that happened IN SCOTLAND, AND IN 1683-4!!!  How, if at all, is he related to any Strong in Co. Antrim in 1669, when the first Strang/Strong record is found in the Hearth Money Rolls, some 15 years earlier?  IF CHRISTOPHER STRANG AND JEANNETTE SYMINGTON WERE TRANSPORTED TO NEW JERSEY IN 1684, HOW DID THEY GET BACK TO SCOTLAND AND SUBSEQUENTLY TO IRELAND TO PARENT THE LINEAGE WHICH ULTIMATELY EMIGRATED TO SO. CAROLINA IN 1771?????  IS JOHN STRONG, ABOVE, TRULY THEIR SON OR OTHER DESCENDANT?????   WHAT ARE THE ANSWERS??????
For a hypothesis which may provide some of the answers, see: Discussion of the Tulliniskey Lineages of Counties Down & Antrim.

First, please understand the source of Irish Database records number 2803-2806:  The Hearth Money Roll was basically a tax roll.  Freeholders (taxpayers) were assessed a tax based upon the number of fireplace hearths they had in a house.  The more hearths, the higher the tax.  After the Four Courts Fire in Dublin in 1922, these records, which survived the fire, became one of the substitute census documents for the various counties for which the records survived the fire.  In Co. Antrim, the Hearth Money Rolls show NIL or NO Strongs in the Parish of Kilwaughter (which I believe is Kellswater, the Presbyterian name; or Cloughwater, the translitteration of these names which is found in Miss Esther's Papers).  This is Irish Data Base record number 2806. There are three Strongs actually found in the Co. Antrim Hearth Money Rolls:
Cuthbert (#2803) in the Townland of Ballymoney, Barony of Dunluce, Diocese of Conner, Parish of Ballymoney.
Thomas (#2804) in the Townland of Ballyvollen, Baroney of Masserene, Diocese of Conner, Parish of Camlin.
John Strong (#2805) in the Townland of Ballynadrenlagh, Barony of Masserene, Diocese of Conner, Parish of Killead.
These three Strongs may belong to the "South Carolina" Strongs or to a different family... but we can't prove it at this time, one way or the other.

Record # 541, William Strong, may be a relevant record.  It comes from hand written notes by Dale G. Strong, taken while he was researching Ireland under date of 20 March 1982....  Cryptically, the notes indicate: "William Strong, lessee, date 2 May 1756, Townland of Ballywaynoy, Names Index 1758-68, B 302, p.379, doc #135865"  Ballywaynoy MAY be in the Parish of Kilwaughter/Kellswater/Cloughwater? and MAY be related to the South Carolina Strongs.... but all that needs further research!

The records of County Antrim need further research.  We need to verify identification of the various Townlands with the respective Parishes and Baronys.  We need to find out who the landlords were in the respective townlands/parishes/baronys.  We need to research their estate records in Dublin and/or Belfast to see if there is any record of leases to John Strong and his sons in the parish served by Rev. William Martin, who led the protest movement against Lord Chichester, Marquis of Donegals' attempts to raise the rents in 1771; and to verify termination of leases to James and Charles Strong, leading to their emigration with Rev. Martin's group to S.Carolina in 1771.  We need to check for any Parish records and further back in any of the estate records to see if ANY clues can be found leading back to Christopher Strang and Jeannette Symington.   There is a lot of work involved... and time and effort.   An interested, dedicated  researcher would be welcome!

Picking up on what Roger Dellinger said above concerning intermarriage.... his comments go to the results.   I think another very interesting question is "WHY?"....  I think there are several points to be made around this issue.

First,  I THINK the entire community was tied together by religion, both in SC, earlier in Ireland, and possibly earlier still in Scotland.   Again, look to what I have previously compiled re the Cameronians and the Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church.  This was apparently very much a community of people who were tightly knit by their common history of fighting for what they felt was right.... and they tended to encourage their young people to marry within their church and community ... with the consequent intermarriages and results Roger has mentioned.

Second,  because these families were so tightly inter-knit, I think you have an excellent chance of finding them in Ireland.... and using that as a basis for going back in time to Scotland.   Note the info above about Gaston's in "Clough Water" from as early as 1680.  That Gaston name is a real "marker".... if you find any records concerning them... I am quite sure you are likely to find records concerning the other related and allied families.  It would probably be worthwhile to review the history of Hugenot persecution  in France and their subsequent refugee status in England and her colonies.... dates, and flow of immigration, etc.  As I understand it, the Hugenots had a great deal in common with the Presbyterians... so would likely have blended quite easily in a community of same in Ireland.

See the material re Sir Arthur Chichester, Marquis of Donegal, Marquis of Donegal . It is worth reading because it gives some background info about the Donegall Estate which might be useful in tracking these people down, and further some clues about what to look for in any estate records  (length of leases, etc).  Note, if a 61 year lease expired in 1770, it would have been commenced in 1709.  It seems within the realm of possibility that the Associate Reform Presbyterian congregation might have moved en-mass to a certain area in the Marquis of Donegal's estate about the same time.... and there encountered the Gaston family already ensconced.   This may give one a time frame for looking for inmigration of these people to Co. Antrim... The hypothesis then is "Since there are no Strongs in the records before that, and then they show up about 1700.... this tends to confirm that (~1700) is when they came to Antrim....?". See The Tulliniskey Discussions.

I think there MAY be some Presbyterian records which would shed lite on the subject.   Note, the ESTABLISHED Church was the Church of Ireland (Anglican/Episcopalian).  That meant that the Church of Ireland was charged legally with keeping the parish records of Births, Deaths, Marriages.... and the "parish" had "civil" or legal significance as an agency of the government.   BUT, the Presbyterians were dissidents... they did not follow the laws regarding doing what the C of I required.  So, the effect is this: The civil parish records kept by the C of I were sent to Dublin in ~1871. Many of these records were lost in the Four Courts Fire in 1922.  Of those records that survived, there are copies for the six counties of the north, including Antrim, in the Public Record Office, Northern Ireland, (PRONI) in Belfast....  a researcher in Dublin may be able to find copies in the PRO Dublin as well....  It is desirable to try to track down the civil parish records to see if indeed there is any mention of the families in question.... this is one reason why  I have kept emphasizing the Kellswater/Kilwaughter/Cloughwater similarity of names... someone needs to LOOK for the records, and that is a major clue where to look! Another clue where to look is for any records concerning Rev. William Martin. He was the leader of the ARP emigrants who arrived in Charleston, SC ... If one can review Rev. Martin's congregation, one is likely to find his parishioners!

However, there may also be separate PRESBYTERIAN church records which may provide insights as well.... again, looking under the right name for the parish.  The Presbyterian records did not go to Dublin in 1871, and such records as there are likely survive to the present.... it is just a matter of finding them.  Note, since such records were not required, when they exist they serve more church purposes than civil purposes, so may not include the vital statistical info one is prone to hope for... never the less they may hold clues, and I won't speculate on their nature at this point.

One might want to contact the Ulster Historical Foundation and make a formal inquiry... they may be able to expedite finding info. Try to look for clues in John R. Mayer's book, "Strange of Balcaskie"... it is a comprehensive survey of all of the Strong/Strang(e) lineages in lowland Scotland... and with the new edition Barbara Way is about to publish, may contain useful clues...  Look in Lanarkshire... it is where one Christopher Strang lost his head in ~1666 for being a dissenting Presbyterian "Covenanter".... (!)

The following material is from "Back to 'Bonnie Kellswater'", by Eull Dunlop (of the Cambridge House Boys' Grammar School, Ballymena, Co. Antrim), in Familia, the Ulster Genealogical Review, Vol. 2, No.5 (1989), p.87:

"First things first. Where is Kellswater? The name, is unofficial and not found on the maps, is wholly familiar to folk in Mid-Antrim. Local authorities suggest that it is most accurately applied to the district which lies between Ross's Factory, on the Antrim-Ballymena 'line', and Kellswater railway station, truly the 'terminus ad quem'. Here, in other words, is a general name, for an area beginning in the townland of Ballymacvea, but crossing the burn into Tullynamullan. What, then, about Kellswater Reformed Presbyterian church, the Covenanters' meeting-house at 'the back of the Water', above the Shankbridge, in the townland of Carnaughts. This oldest congregation (1760) in its denomination, the 'capital of Covenanting' in the phrase of Principal Adam Loughridge, is some miles distant. As the late Superintendent Robert Buchanan (R.U.C.) pointed out in his recently-published Short History, the congregation of Kellswater (like the sister cause of Faughan, County Londonderry) (SEE NOTE BELOW does date its title from a river, but no fastidious local (as opposed to anyone using 'Kellswater' in imprecise association) would apply the name to that place."

From "Back to 'Bonnie Kellswater, 2'", by Eull Dunlop (of the Cambridge House Boys' Grammar School, Ballymena, Co. Antrim), in Familia, the Ulster Genealogical Review, Vol. 2, No.6 (1990), pp. 91, 94:

"The Presbyterian preponderance in the parish of Connor has already been emphasised, but how many of those who emigrated from Kellswater in the last century (the 19th) were also... members of the Orange Order?.... even today, men of senior years remark how, in their own youth, striplings in a homogeneous community 'rode the goat' (were initiated) as a matter of hereditary course. How much more so in the last century when, despite the transatlantic travel under discussion, the world was small and, as local marriage registers show, many married within their own townlands? What, on the other hand, about the mobility of the privileged class that was the Presbyterian ministry?.... Had not the Covenanting minister of Kellswater, Rev. William Martin, gone to South Carolina in 1772, taking with him five shiploads of settlers? While Jean Stephenson's volume (1971) on Scotch-Irish Migration presumes that Martin's fellow travellers were drawn from north as well as mid-Antrim, inspection of surnames reveals no small number (e.g. Allen, Dunlop, Hanna, McKee, Miller) that are still typical of the parish of Connor. From Maccadoo to Muddy Creek?"

A couple of interpretive notes;

"burn": a small river

"R.U.C.": the Royal Ulster Constabulary

Note also, the Orange Order mentioned above did not exist in Rev. Martin's day. It was formed in the aftermath of the Rising of (17)'98, from the ashes of the United Irishmen movement, discussed below, in which many Ulstermen of both Catholic and Protestant hues participated in an abortive uprising against the British Crown. The discussion does illlustrate the homogeneity of the Kellswater community, however.

I am not sure how to interpret the convoluted discussion about "Kellswater Reformed Presbyterian church, the Covenanters' meeting-house at 'the back of the Water', above the Shankbridge, in the townland of Carnaughts. This oldest congregation (1760) in its denomination, the 'capital of Covenanting' ... the congregation of Kellswater (like the sister cause of Faughan, County Londonderry) does date its title from a river, but no fastidious local (as opposed to anyone using 'Kellswater' in imprecise association) would apply the name to that place." I suspect Faughan is an area much like Kellswater in its Religious beliefs.... But, is the author trying to say that "Kellswater Reformed Presbyterian Church in the townland of Carnaughts" is NOT in the region of Kellswater being discussed? And, if so, does that mean Rev. Martin had nothing to do with one or the other of these Kellswaters(!?)

See separate website re: Rev. William Martin's 5 shiploads of immigrants. The earlist date is 1772, and contains a Christopher Strong only. There is confusion about the identity of this Christopher Strong as relating to the remaining South Carolina Strongs.

This is something that Suzanne Johnson of the Rootsweb Scotch-Irish list server sent Roger Dellinger after he inquired about Rev. William Martin's five ship migration of Scotch-Irish to South Carolina:
..........................................................
" Strong. There was a Christopher Strong, who came in on the ship Lord Dunluce, which left Larne, Ireland, on Oct. 4, 1772, and arrived in Charleston on Dec. 20, 1772. I believe this was the ship Rev. Martin himself was on. Christopher Strong was issued land warrants on Jan. 5, 1773 in Craven County, "on the waters of Rocky Creek." Land bordered that of Henry Isbel, and the Widow Dunseeth (?). There is also a notation that on Sept. 16, 1791, Christopher Strong, a weaver, sells to Samuel Erwin, weaver, land described in survey, at this point in Chester County.

There is also reference made to a Charles Strong, who owned land bordering that bought by Lord Dunluce passenger John Lynn. Charles Strong is not himself listed as a passenger, however.

There is also a James Strong, who owned land bordering that bought by passenger James Stinson. Again, James Strong was not a passenger. There was an Elizabeth Strong who owned land bordering that bought in Craven County by the Rev. Martin. She is not listed separately as a passenger. It could be, of course, that all of these were part of Christopher Strong's family and each being of age, was able to get his or her own parcel of land.
..................................................................

From this, Roger Dellinger says, " it would appear that a Christopher Strong came over with Rev. Martin, and that Charles and James Strong bought property next to passengers of Rev. Martin's exodus, but they were not part of that group.

"Charles and James Strong I believe to be my ancestors, sons of John Strong and his wife Miss Thier or Wier. John was born about 1686 in either Scotland or Ireland. James was born in 1709 in Co. Antrim, Ireland and Charles was born in about 1713 in Co. Antrim.

"I am not sure who the Christopher Strong is. John Strong's parents are reportedly Christopher Strong or Strang and Jeannette Symington, but I doubt that this would be the Christopher listed about. Charles Strong had a son named Christopher who was born in 1760 in Co. Antrim Ireland. It would seem that the above Christopher could be this person."

In response, David B. Strong wrote:

"Miss Esther seemed confused about Christopher Strong's identity as well... but Roger Dellinger's surmise is probably a good one....

"Note, one should also check in Rootsweb... I think there is a Chester, SC website which may have some info as well.. or lead to other clues....

"I suspect James and Charles Strong may have come in an earlier ship... maybe by a year or two... Again, one should look at Miss Esther's book... there is a copy of the original order in council granting land in 100 and 200 acre blocks to numerous Strongs... including Charles and his family; but as my memory serves me, I believe it was BEFORE a separate item in the book which noted that Christopher Strong came over in the Lord Dunluce.... This fits with the "Chain Migration" pattern common in many settlements of Irish (and probably other immigrants)... e.g., someone comes over first, learns "the lay of the land" and writes home, advising friends and relatives who then follow.... with the entire neighborhood eventually being transplanted."

NOTE RE: Faughan, County Londonderry The following material may serve to indicate some possible relationships between Strongs in Counties Antrim, Down and Londonderry, as well as to explain a certain family legend in the Strongs of Albany, Kentucky, to the effect that three brothers "from County Cork" participated in the "Londonderry Massacre" and escaped to America. It seems possible from the following material that they merely escaped from Cork to America; that they were really from Counties Antrim, Down, or Londonderry, and that the "Londonderry Massacre" may really have related to the efforts of Lord Londonderry to put down the rebels in the days of the "Rising of 1798":

From a review by Trevor Parkhill of the Ulster Museum, of a book entitled "Parishes of County Londonderry, XIV, Vol. 36 Faughnvale'", edited by Angelique Day, Patrick McWilliams and Lise English. containing 160 pp, priced at L8.75 Irish Punts, in Familia, the Ulster Genealogical Review, No.13 (1997), p.96: "Most archivists in Ireland would lay a quiet bet that, .... given a decent amount of initial information, they could guide the searcher to sources which would take them back to the post-famine decade.... It is the period before the Famine which is seriously lacking in sources to which the genealogist can reliably turn. The Ordnance Survey Memoirs take their place in the forefront of pre-Famine sources where historians and genealogical searchers alike can find information at the parish level.....

"In the Faughanvale volume there is a transcription of the townland valuation for the parish ...."

There is nothing more about Faughan or Faughnvale known to me at this point; however, noting above the apparent close relationship, at least as to religious beliefs of the residents of Kellswater and Faughan, it may serve as the impetus for further research as to whether those Strong families who are looking for their ancestors in Cork or Antrim, or indeed Down and Londonderry, are all related one to another... separated only by time and events. The following discussion re participants in the 1798 Rising may shed some further light on possible relationships, if only by helping to explain the Albany, Kentucky Strong family's legend related above.

NOTE RE: Relationships between 1798 Rebels in Counties Down and Antrim: From an article by Harry Allen, entitled "'Take the Current When it Serves'--- Did the Rebels of North Down and the Ards Miss their Opportunity in 1797? in Familia, the Ulster Genealogical Review, No.14 (1998), p.13, ff:

"In September 1796, ... a number of Belfast leaders of the United Irishmen were taken up (arrested) on the orders of Robert Steward, Viscount Castlereagh, the son of Lord Londonderry of Mountsteward near Newtownards, (Co ???). The prisoners were immediately taken far from their northern power base to the brand-new Dublin gaol at Kilmainham as political prisoners. Three months later in late December 1796 General Lazare Hoche made his disastrous attempt at a landing in Ireland in Bantry Bay with his French fleet. It was apparent that the focus of disaffection in Ireland had shifted.

"Because of Bantry Bay, it was popularly perceived that County Cork had now become Ireland's soft underbelly, but the intelligence reaching the Viceroy, Lord Camden, was pinpointing a very different area as the hotbed of dissidence and the likely start-site for the inevitable conflagration of revolt--- an area well-known to Camden and his grandson, Castlereagh. They, the Chief-Secretary's Office in Dublin Castle, the Irish Parliament, the aristocracy and the military ... all knew that the core of insurrection had really moved only a few short miles out of Belfast to the fertile fields of the Ards and north Down.....

"January, February and March of 1797 brought Lord Camden and the Castle officials numerous letters of alarm from all over the island. Much of this mail came from County Down. Two of Ireland's most influential landowners, Lords Londonderrry and Downshire, and other gentlemen in the same county were passing on the details ... their regular correspondents were witnessing....

"...when men as pre-eminent as the Marquess of Downshire and with the close family ties of Lord Londonderry deluged the Castle with calls for Martial Law in their area, the Castle listened.... The Castle moved quickly, and in the areas suggested.

"Irelands's Chief-Secretary, Thomas Pelham, sent a Proclamation for the county to the commander-in-chief of the army, Lt.Gen. Gerard Lake, enclosing a letter stating that Dublin had accepted that the Down threats were real, and that only Downshire and Londonderry would have the local knowledge to search out the centres of dissent. Lake began with the Ards and the Parishes on the other side of Strangford Lough.

"...(captured papers, entitled 'Resolutions of the United Societies of Donaghadee and its Vicinity' were passed )... to the House of Lords Commiittee of Secrecy in Dublin for examination. Careful reading of the papers disclosed what had been suspected by some, but had never until that moment been known or detailed on paper. They stated that 22,922 United Irishmen in County Antrim and 16,000 in County Down had sworn to join the armed struggle when called upon. To alarm him further, Pelham's other sources could have told him that Down had 28,577 sworn United supporters.

".... The following month the Lord Lieutenant and Privy Council suspended civil power and gave General Lake the authority to issue a new Procalmation with even greater license to persuade the reluctant to hand in unregistered weapons. The measures introduced a month earlier with the Proclamation were now more vigorously applied. The curfew and the harsh military behaviour was supplemented by the pitch-cap, the triangle, piketing and half-hanging.....

(As a result, many of the leaders of the rebellion escaped ....) By May 1798 the emphasis had largely shifted south , to the Dublin area and County Wexford. The Down rebels, like their brothers in arms in Antrim, still took the field in those hot summer days of June 1798, bu they had missed their moment....."

Question: Where is Donegore Hill?... Apparently the scene of one of the events of the Rising of '98 on 7 June 1798..... From a review of the book, "The Courts Martial of 1798-99", by Patrick C. Power, Irish Historical Press, (1997), 207 pages; found in Familia #14 (1997) at p. 93.

. CHART: COUNTIES DOWN, ANTRIM & ARMAGH: See the Tulliniskey Lineages: Strongs of Down, Antrim & Armagh; and see Philip D. Strong's website, STRONGs of Ulster,Ireland. See also the DNA Results page; Kit #6256, refer to Blue Mountain, Knocknagoney, and see the linked discussions found in the DNA Notes, #11 and #16.

The following information was contributed by Philip D. Strong of Australia, researching the Strong lineages of County Down, some of whom had ties to The Townland of Knocknagoney. Knocknagoney is the townland just south of Holywood, just next to the Belfast City Airport (in modern times), and just east of the Belfast Lough. It is sometimes referrred to as "Knock". Philip D. Strong discusses his Strong family connections with Holywood and Knocknagoney in his website at: http://www.strong-family.org/strongs/index.html#holywood.

Lieutenant G.F.W. Bordes says in the Ordnance Survey in 1834 that:
"The Parish of Holywood is the most north-western parish of the barony of Lower Castlereagh, on the shore of the Belfast Lough. Its mean length is 5 miles and mean breadth is 2 miles. It contains 8,067 acres. There are no lakes or rivers and the streams are generally dry in summer. There are no natural woods.... the shore of the Belfast Lough is much ornamented with young plantations."

H. Patten in 1831 listed the following Townlands for Holywood Parish: Ballycloughlan, Ballycultra, Ballydavey, Ballygrainey, Ballyhackamore, Ballykeel, Ballymechan, Ballymenoch, Ballymisert, Ballyrobert, Craigavad, Holywood (included Holywood and Holywood town, Killeen, Knocknagunney (spelled elsewhere in the Survey as Knocknagenny, Knocknagunny, Knocknagoney), Strandtown. Patten gave a total population for the Parish of 4,637/ 4,693.

Lt G.F.W. Bordes gave details of Holywood village which might also apply to Knocknagoney which is the neighbouring townland. "Employment and earnings: The inhabitants derive their chief support from the profit of their hoses which are let in the summer season to the sea bathers (from Belfast etc). 6 men and 2 women are emplyed fishing. Cod is taken in the channel in the winter and plaice, codling in the summer. It is used in part by the inhabitants. When great quantities are taken they are sold in Belfast but this does not frequently occur. Men do not earn much more than 6d per day by their employment in the fishery. They sometimes earn money by rowing to and from vessels in the channels. Tradesmen earn on average from 12s to 15s per week. Trades and occupations in Holywood (village): House carpenters 8, smiths 7, cartwrights 6, wheelwrights 1, masons 8, fishermen 6, fisherwomen 2, butchers 2, bakers 1, publicans 6, grocers 16, haberdashers 4, shoemakers 6, painters 2, tailors 2."

Lt G.F.W. Bordes' general comments on Holywood Parish included: "Gentlemen's seats: The whole shore of the Belfast Lough in this parish is studded with gentlemen's seats. All these places are ornamented with gardens and plantations. Improvements: The great source of improvement to this parish is its proximity to Belfast, as it is a favourite watering place for the inhabitants of that town and also on account of the constant residence of the gentry. Housing and Fuel: The houses of the peasantry are generally neat and built of stone almost invariably and slated. They have all glass windows and present an appearance of comfort and cleanliness. there is no turf in the parish and the fuel is principally coal which they obtain from Belfast. Handspinning and Weaving: there is not much hand spinning done in the parish. the greater part of what is done is for home use.... there may be 50 weavers in the parish but not more. Size and Rent of Holdings: The size of the holdings varies from 2 to 70 acres. The rent varies from £4 to £1 per acre. Crop Rotation and Cultivation: The rotation of crops is potatoes, wheat, oats, barley with clover and rye grass. The cattle generally used are the Devonshire and Ayrshire breed." [See The Castlereagh Estate; and the The Downshire Estate]

H. Patten included a Census of population for each townland and the information for Knocknagunney (sic) (the adjacent Townland to Holywood village) was as follows: "72 houses, 71 families, 51 employed in agriculture, 5 in trades, 15 in other occupations, 412 total inhabitants, 190 males, 222 females, 28 males above 20; 11 farmers employing labour, 14 labouring farmers, 44 labourers employed by farmers, 7 capitalists, 7 male servants above 20, 3 male servants under 20, 26 female servants, 5 employed in handicraft." The rural figures for Knocknagoney should now be compared with those of Holywood town: "226 houses, 264 families, 39 employed in agriculture, 71 in trades, 154 in other occupations, 1,288 total inhabitants, 513 males, 775 females, 237 males above 20, 1 farmer employing labour, 5 labouring farmers, 50 labourers employed by farmers, 62 capitalists, 8 non-agricultural labourers, 17 males unemployed, 11 male servants above 20, 7 males servants under 20, 103 female servants, 83 employed in handicraft." M.M. Kertland's notes on Social Economy refers to: "Schools: In Knocknagoney is a school having 90 pupils, 45 males and 45 females. They are all Protestants. the school is under the London Hibernian Society and supported also by the contributions of the pupils."

CHART 4: COUNTIES CAVAN, MONAGHAN, AND SLIGO

CHART 4A: CAVAN STRONGS CHART 4B: ESSA TOWNSHIP, SIMCOE COUNTY, ONTARIO

MONAGHAN STRONGS OF BALLYBAY
See the DNA Results page; Kit #8920, and see the linked discussions found in the DNA Notes, #11 and #16.

The following discussion is taken from William L. Strong, "History and Genealogy of the Strong Family of Medonte Township, Ontario, Canada". Dunnville, Ontario: 1989. Edition 1.

In our search for our ancestors, all indications thus far lead us to suspect the area of Bally Bay, County Monaghan. We have indications that enable us to to venture an educated guess that our family originated in the parishes of Aughnamullen, Magheracloone and/or Donaghgmoyne, all in the diocese of Clogher. We may even be so brave to venture a guess as to particular townlands, such as Cortaghart, Greagwhillian or Lisnakeeney. The possibility of a connection to the Stronges of Tynan Abbey cannot be dismissed.

All of these geographical locations likely seem remote to the average reader. Luckily, descriptions are available which were written at the time Michael Strong and his family still lived there. These include the following, taken from the Prospectus of the Parliamentary Gazeteer of Ireland, published in 1843-44:

page 152: BALLYBAY, or Ballibay, a parish, partly in the barony of Monaghan, but chiefly in that of Cremourne, co. Monaghan, Ulster. The Cremourne section contains the town of Ballybay. Length 4 miles; breadth 3; area 8,741 acres, - of which 181 acres are in the barony of Monaghan, and 37 acre in the town of Ballybay. Pop., in 1831, 6,685; in 1841, 6,606. Houses 1,138. Pop. of the Monaghan section, in 1831, 114; in 1841, 138. Houses 25. Pop. of the rural districts in the Cremourne section, in 1831, 4,624; in 1841, 4,700. Houses 826. Though the land is cold, wet and for the most part shallow, its appearance, as to both contour and culture, is greatly superior to that of many a richer district. "The country around Ballibay [town], though intersected with a good deal of bog and marsh", says Mr. Fraser, "is agreably varied by the waving surface, the bold hills, and numerous small lakes which are scattered around.

The bleach-greens with the villas of the proprietors, the neat farm houses, better tillage and the comfortable state of the cottagers, generally considered, as compared with other parts of the country, add much to the appearance of this interesting district." Much of the soil is what Sir Charles Cootes calls "gritty, with much red ochre, and great indications of copper and iron." "The country, at either side of the road toward Carrickmacross," says Sir Charles, " is happily situate for ornamental improvement, having picturesque streams and beautiful glens, and some partial spots of meadow in their banks which have a rich verdure; but those spots are but partial, as, for a considerable distance, the greater part has but a shallow soil, covering a flaggy rotten quarry, not six inches from the surface." A cordon of lakes and loughlets half surrounds the town; and on the banks of one of these, called Lough Major, stands, amidst extensive woods, the modern handsome mansion of Ballybay House, the seat of A. French, Esq., the proprietor of the town and circumjacent estate. The parish is traversed southward by the road from Monaghan to Carrickmacross, and westward by that from Castleblaney to Cootehill. This parish is a rectory and a separate benefice in the dio. of Clogher. Tithe composition, L383 5s. Gross income, L431 5s.; nett, L356 13s 9d. Patron, the diocesan. The church was built in 1798, at an unascertained cost, and enlarged in 1823 by means of a loan of L461 10s 9-1/4d from the late Board of First Fruits. Sittings about 500; attendance 220. Three meeting houses - two of which, and we believe the third also, are Presbyterian - have attendances of respectively 200, 200 and 350. Two Roman Catholic chapels at Ballybay and Ballintruagh, are included in one parochial division, and attended by respectively 230 and 600. In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 1,426 Churchmen, 2,096 Presbyterians, and 3,163 Roman Catholics; 2 Sunday schools of the General Sunday School Society, had on their books 98 boys and 88 girls; and 10 daily schools, 3 of which were guaranteed salaries of respectively L20, L50 and L75, by a committee of management, while another was aided by the London Hibernian Society, had on their books 294 boys and 189 girls.

The town of BALLYBAY stands in the Cremourne section of the parish, at the intersection of the two principal roads which traverse the parish, 5 miles west by north of Castleblaney, 7 1/2 south of Monaghan, 11 north-north-west of Carrickmacross, and 51 north-north-west of Dublin. Sir Charles Cootes, describing it in 1801 says, "The town of Ballibay of late years, since the establishment of its linen market, is greatly improved; and several new houses are building, two stories high and slated. There is also a market house and the weekly market is held on Saturdays. Before these new houses were erected, this town must have had a very miserable appearance, as all the old houses are falling to pieces, and threaten destruction to passengers." As it now exists, the town, aggregately viewed, is comparatively well built and laid out, and contains a fair proportion of good houses. Its progress in population, general trade, and provincial influence has been both considerable and rapid.

In its neighborhood are the extensive bleach-greens and mills of Crieve; and all around it, as well as within itself, are the numerous appliances of a large aggregate of linen manufacture. At its weekly market are sold great numbers of linen webs, a large quantity of flax, and the surplus produce of the farm and the dairy over a wide extent of the circumjacent country. Fairs are held on Jan. 1, Thursday before Easter, July 5, and Oct. 2; and are well attended for the sale and purchase of horses, horned cattle and pigs.

Yet, in spite of all its trade, the town does not seem to have either a banking office, or a stated public conveyance. The streets are clean and orderly. The church and one of the Presbyterian meeting houses are neat structures. A public library contains nearly 1,000 volumes. A dispensary in the town is within the Castleblaney Poor Law Union and has a district of 20,000 acres, with 12,500 inhabitants; and in 1839-40 it received L130, expended L128 18s., and administered to 1,690 patients. A presbytery of the General Assembly has its seat in the town; inspects 11 congregations; and meets on the 2nd Tuesday of May, and the 1st Tuesday of Feb., Aug. and Oct. Pop. in 1831, 1,947; in 1841, 1,768. Houses 287.

Clogher, from page 418, Diocese of Clogher, the diocese of Clogher affects to have been founded by St. Patrick rather earlier than that of Armagh: but the authorities respecting its pretended early origin are even more suspicious than those respecting the city's antiquities. An alleged or obscure early bishopric of the name of South and also the deaneries of Drogheda, Dundalk and Ardee, are said to have been dissevered from it in 1247, and attached to the see of Armagh. The diocese of Clogher very long remained complete, uniform and separate, before the passing of the Church Temporalities Act; but it is now united to the diocese of Armagh. It length from the north west to the south east is 60 Irish or 76 statute miles; its breadth is 20 Irish or 25 statute miles; and its area is 819,574 acres, 1 rood, 37 perches. Pop. in 1831 388,608. Dr. Beaufort, assuming the area to be 528,700 Irish acres, states the proportions of the five various counties within the diocese to be 254,150 acres of Fermanaugh, 179,600 acres of Monaghan, 68,100 of Tyrone, 25,000 of Donegal, and 1,850 of Louth; and assuming the parishes of the diocese to be 41 and part of two, he states 21 parishes to be in Monaghan, 15 in Fermanagh, 4 in Tyrone, 1 in Donegal and part of 2 in Louth.

Clogher, from page 416, Clogher, a parish, occupying all of the southern division of the barony of Clogher, co. Tyrone, Ulster.

...The first nine miles of the basin of the Blackwater from the source of the stream to the mountain boundary within Co. Fermanaugh, is, as to both bottom and hill screens, not very far from being identical with the parish. The immediate vale of the stream is the principal low ground, and varies in cultivation from good to very bad; the hills on both the south and the west are lofty enough to be designated mountains in the usage of even many parts of Ulster...

Among the mansions are Augher-Castle, Sir J.R. Bunbury, Bart., in the vicinity of Augher; Carrick, the Rev. Dr. Storey, about a mile west north west of Augher; the deanery of Daisyhill, in the vicinity of Clogher; Blessinburne Cottage, Col. Montgomery, adjoining Five Mile Town; and Cecil, the Rev. F. Gervais, on the northern frontier, grouped with Knockmany-hill and Lumford-glen.

The road from Armagh to Enniskillen, by way of Aughnacloy, passes up the Blackwater. ...In 1834 the parishioners consisted of 5010 Churchmen, 3681 Presbyterian, and 10,261 Roman Catholic.

The Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (LDS micro-film # 599557) contains further descriptions:

page 96: AUGHNAMULLEN, a parish, in the barony of Cremorne, county of MONAGHAN, and province of ULSTER, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Ballibay on the road to Dublin; containing 18,032 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the ordnance survey, 30,710 statute acres (including 1643 1/4 under water) of which 26,468 are applotted under the tithe act and valued at L 19,323 per annum: there are large tracts of mountain and bog. The mountain of Bannanimma is an isolated mass about six miles in circumference, and its summit, which, according to the above survey, rises 886 feet above the level of the sea, is the highest point of land in the county: the waters flow from this mountain on the south east to the sea at Dundalk, and on the west-north-west to Ballyshannon. On the south-east part of it is Lough Eagish, or Crieve Lough, partly supplied by springs and partly by rain water, which descends from the heights from which it is flanked on the east and west. A stream issuing from it presents by its rapid fall and constant supply, together with the abundance of fuel furnished by the bogs in the neighborhood, such favourable sights for bleaching mills, that not less than fourteen mills are situated on its short course northward to Ballibay water, the tail race of one serving as the head of the one below it: the lake is under the care of an engineer, or waterman, to regulate the flow of water, so that a deficiency is seldom experienced even in the driest seasons.

There are many other lakes in the parish, the principal of which are Lough Avean, Lough Chanitee, and Lough Ballytrain, besides several of smaller size. A battle is said to have been fought on an island in the Lough opposit the glebe-house, where many large bridles and battle-axes have been found: this island comprises several acres of very excellent land, mostly in pasture. Of the entire extent of the parish, 25,008 acres are arable and pasture, and 1,503 are bog and waste land. The soil is an average quality, and the system of agriculture is capable of great improvement: flax of good quality is cultivated to a great extent, and wheat, oats, barley and rye are also grown. There are very extensive bleach-greens at Crieve, near Ballibay, the property of Messrs. S. Cunningham and brothers; also similar establishments at Drumfaldra and Cremorne, respectively belonging to Messrs. Cunningham and Mr. Jackson; and at Chanitee to Mr. Forbes. There are flax mills at Crieve and Laragh, the latter, in which machinery for spinning has been recently erected, the property of Messrs. Davison, and, with a weaving factory and bleach-green, affording employment to more than 300 persons; a large corn mill at Rea, and two others at Derrygooney, all well supplied with water from the lakes. Some slate quarries of an inferior description, and a lead mine were formerly worked, but have been discontinued.

The principal seats are Mountain Lodge, situated in a beautiful demesne, that of Lieut.-Col. Ker; Lough Bawn of W.Tenison, Esq.; Chanitee, in the demesne of which are some fine waterfalls, of J. Tilly Forbes, Esq.; the glebe-house, the residence of Rev. R. Loftus Tottenham; Cremorne Green, of J. Jackson, Esq.; Crieve House, of S. Cunningham, Esq.; Drumfaldre, of John Cunningham, Esq.; Carnaveagh, of Jos. Cunningham, Esq.; Derrygooney, of R.A. Minnitt, Esq.; Laragh, of A. Davison, Esq.; Bushford, of R. Thompson, Esq.; Corfada, of J. McCullagh, Esq.; and Milmore, of the late T. Brunker, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to L 900. The church is a plain neat edifice, with a tower surrounded by four turrets, and occupies a picturesque situation: a grant of L 185 has been recently made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for its repair. Near Ballytrain is a chapel of case, a very neat modern structure, for the eastern division of the Parish. The glebe-house is handsome and commodious and the glebe comprises forty acres. In the R.C. divisions, this parish is divided into two districts, east and west, having separate parochial clergy: there are five chapels, of which one at Luttin, to which is attached a burial ground, was built in 1822 at an expense of L 800; and another at Loughbawn, a spacious slated edifice, was built in 1833 at an expense of L 1,000. There are two places of worship for Presbyterians; one in Ballytrain, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and of the third class; and the other at Crieve, in connection with the Seceding Synod, of the second class.

There are four public schools, in which about 360 boys and 180 girls are taught; and there are fifteen hedge schools, in which about 600 boys and 360 girls; and five Sunday schools. On the summit of a hill overlooking Lough Eagish, about 25 years since, an urn was found in a rude tomb covered with a stone which weighed about two tons, supposed to be the burial place of some prince, or chief. The townland of Cremorne gives the title of Baron to the family of Dawson, of Dawson's Grove, in this county.

The next item of our investigation is to examine certain old family legends which have been handed down over the years. Until now, these have been passed entirely by word of mouth, and while their accuracy may certainly be questioned, this doesn't mean that there is not an element of truth in them. Such stories are very prone to the admission of errors, so care must be taken to verify these legends wherever possible with other primary and secondary sources.

There are three of these old family tales or legends that deserve examination in our quest to determine our Irish origins, all of which have been handed down in the families descended from Michael Strong's three sons, Joseph, James and Robert Michael Strong, discussed re Chart 4D, below.

The first two of these legends have survived in two distinct and separate branches of the family, and are strikingly similar. While examining these legends, one must remember that these branches of the family have had no contact with each other for approximately one hundred years. That stories so similar have survived in these separate branches of the family strengthens their validity. Descendants of Joseph Strong believe that an ancestor fought in the "Irish Rebellion" as a Captain. Unfortunately, the particular time period cannot be firmly established. During Ireland's troubled history there were a good number of rebellions, but none which were known by that exact name. In the James Strong family, of Montana, the legend survives of an ancestor named Joseph Strong who fought in the "Irish Revolution".

This raises the possibility that Michael's father may have been named Joseph. Michael named his first born son "Joseph", which in this case would be in keeping with a common Irish tradition of naming the first male offspring after one's own father. The line of descent under this theory would become Joseph Strong, then Michael Strong and his three sons, Joseph, James and Robert Michael.

To examine these tales from an historical perspective, we find that there is support for both. In 1778, Irish Protestants rose up in an armed rebellion in numbers of about eighty thousand strong. This nationalist rising resulted in the repeal of the Poyning's Laws by the British Parliament. Michael Strong was born in 1804 and his father would have been the right age to have been involved in this action.

Reaching a little further back in history, one finds that in 1688 all of Ireland was dominated by the Catholic forces of King James II, who had been ousted as the Monarch of England. Prince William of Orange, and his wife, Mary, had assumed the Throne in England as a result of the "Glorious Revolution". Overrun by the Jacobites, there were just two strongholds of Protestants left in all of Ireland, one at Enniskillen and another at Londonderry. On August 13, 1689, the forces of William of Orange, under the command of the German-born Duke of Schomberg, Frederick Herman, arrived in Ireland with eighteen regiments, three of which were French and two Dutch mercenaries. Under the command of King William, they defeated the Catholic forces at the famous Battle of The Boyne and James II was forced to flee the is land. There is evidence of Captain James Strong of Londonderry, who in August 1689 declared for William of Orange. Captain Strong had been a participant in the defence of Londonderry in 1688. This same James Strong had been decreed by the Catholic Parliament of King James to be a traitor; convicted and sentenced to death, should he (and others also named) survive the war and be apprehended. Luckily for him, it was James II who was forced to flee for his life when the Orangemen were victorious.

This Captain James Strong, who was attainted by the Catholic Parliament in 1689 has a known genealogy. There are interesting possibilities of a connection with our own Strongs of Monaghan. He was the son of a Matthew Stronge, or Strang, whose father had come to Ireland from Balcaskie, East Fifeshire, Scotland. James had a son, the Reverend John Strong who acquired Tynan Abbey in County Armagh during the eighteenth century. Reverend John Strong had two sons, the Reverend James Stronge and Matthew Stronge, who continued at Tynan Abbey. In 1803 Matthew's son, was made Rev. Sir James Stronge, the first baronet of Tynan Abbey. The lineage continues on down to Sir Norman Stronge, who along with his only son, James Mathew Stronge was assassinated by the I.R.A. in 1981. Because of their baronetage, the Stronges of Tynan Abbey appear in Burke's Peerage.

Obviously, we are not connected to the Tynan Stronges directly. But what is of the greatest interest to us is the other descendants of Captain James Strong, those who did not work their way into a noble position. What has become of them? Unfortunately, these other descendants are not fully accounted for in the Burke's Peerage, as are the Tynan Abbey Stronges. Reverend John Strong had three other children. Besides James and Matthew, there were two other sons: John; William, who became a Captain in the Army; and a daughter, Mary who was the wife the Reverend Arthur Benson, the rector of Monaghan. There are three records of some land dealings in County Monaghan in 1833 and 1834 by Sir James M. Strong, who was by all appearances Sir James Matthew Stronge, the son of Sir James the first baronet. So the Tynan Abbey Strongs offer links to County Monaghan through Mary Stronge and Reverend Arthur Benson, and the land dealings of Sir James Stronge. Captain William Strong is in harmony with our spoken family tradition.

Bill Strong opined, "Unfortunately, what is known of these offshoot lineages ends at this point. There exists no proof of any connection to our ancestor Michael or the other Strongs of Aughnamullen, Donaghmoyne and Magheracloone. If a such connection exists, there are likely to be two or more generations which hold the "missing link"." However, recent DNA evidence tends to support the hypothesis of a Monaghan Strong connection to Tynan Abbey. See DNA Note #11.

The possibility of a Captain Strong in the Monaghan Strong family's history seems quite plausible. If so, was his name Joseph, James or William? One assumes that the names and dates have become blurred over the years, but the underlying fact remains that an ancestor of ours saw duty for his King and possibly attained the rank of Captain. The possibility exists that the ancestor in question was Captain James Strong, who fought for William of Orange in 1689, or one of his descendants.

While these two similar and interesting legends of an ancestor fighting in the "Irish revolution" exist in both the Joseph Strong branch and the James Strong branch, some supporting evidence may be apparent in the branch of the third brother, Robert Michael. An old English short land musket, known as a "Brown Bess", vintage circa 1769 is still in the possession of Gary Strong, a descendant of Robert Michael Strong. This type of musket was commonly used in Canada by the British military, especially during the War of 1812. However,this particular musket bears none of the markings that were normally placed on the British Canadian military arms. It would seem possible that the musket was brought from Ireland with the family in 1846.

The third and last legend which we will examine, exists in the Robert Michael Strong branch, and states that the Strong family originated in Hanover, Germany. These Strongs were supposedly subjects of George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who was the great grandson of James I, King of England. These Strongs presumably spelled the name "Strung", with the umlaut over the "u", and such a spelling would be readily anglicized to the current Strong. George Louis was called to the Throne in England in 1714 to prevent it from again falling into the hands of another Catholic heir. According to this legend, the Strongs also came to the British Isles at this time when George became King George I, the first of the Hanoverian Kings. There was a large emigration of German Palatinates to England and Ireland about 1709-12, which roughly corresponds with the date in this last legend. To date, however, no evidence of Strongs has been uncovered in this migration. So this third legend remains largely unsupported by any fact.

As is typical of genealogical research, more questions have probably been raised than answered. The Captain James Strong of 1689 discussed earlier is still of no proven relationship. It is interesting that the forces of William of Orange were commanded by a German in 1689. Does this suggest a link to the Hanoverian legend? This family appears to have come from the county of Monaghan in Ireland, where the given names like Joseph, James and Clifton appear, as they do frequently in the Medonte Strong family tree, while names which are common in other Strong families are missing, such as the numerous George Strongs of Donegal.

Again, these Strongs appear not to be native Irish. The single most compelling evidence is their Protestantism. Ireland's native population was and still is staunchly Roman Catholic. The Protestant religion and peoples were introduced primarily during the seventeenth century from England and Scotland, with some minor immigrations from other countries like Germany. Assuming that the family came to Ireland during the seventeenth century, it becomes apparent that the Strongs who emigrated to Canada in the 1840's had been rooted in Ireland for something less than two centuries.

This is approaching the same amount of time that the family has now been in North America. Thus we may say that these Strongs were, at the time of their emigration, as much Irish as they are today Canadian or American. Consider the tremendous growth of the family since its arrival in Canada in 1846. Today, there are over three hundred descendants. Was this Strong family that left Ireland part of a similarly large group, all descended from a single immigrant of a century or more earlier? Was this family concentrated in County Monaghan, or spread throughout the whole of Northern Ireland, with ties to the other known Strongs in Cavan, Fermanagh, Donegal, Sligo and Down? Were the different branches of the family in Ireland even aware of their cousins living in the other counties? Were the Irish Strongs originally Scots? or English? or perhaps German?

Only continued research will provide the answers to these questions. This research is difficult, but not impossible; many records for Ireland were destroyed in 1922 in the Four Courts Fire, but there are other resources that can be checked. The process is slow and is sometimes frustrating. Recently, results in the DNA Study have indicated the hypothesis that the Monaghan Strong lineage is descended from William Strong, a son of Rev. James Strong of Tyan Abbey may be correct. See DNA Note #11.

At this point, we may only speculate that this Strong family originated in the aforementioned miserable conditions of County Monaghan; that they were indeed part of a larger overall family which may or may not have been spread across Ulster; that they knew their cousins, probably better than we today know ours. They were likely able to recite their ancestry back a number of generations solely from memory.

People in those days relied on their memories more than we, today, who live in a technological world where it seems everything is automated for us. Although not wealthy, these Strongs were probably educated to some modest extent. Ireland had one of the finest public education systems in the world and the Strongs likely benefitted from it. Michael Strong was certainly taught to read and write. Given the description of the social condition of County Monaghan, it seems only reasonable that these Strongs would take the opportunity when presented, to venture to a new and promising land called Canada.

CHART: The Strongs of Medonte Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada

This family likely originated in County Monaghan, Ireland. See the discussion above and other links compiled by William L. Strong. The unknown progenitor had a son, Michael Strong. Michael married Margaret, probably in County Monaghan, on 4 June 1835. Together with five of their children, they emigrated to Canada in June, 1846. After first settling for a time in York Mills just north of Toronto, Ontario, they moved on to Oro Township, Simcoe County, Ontario in January 1862.

Ultimately, Michael and three of his sons, Joseph, James, and Robert, purchased 200 acres of land in Medonte Township, Simcoe County. Michael died in 1876, and the family fortunes went various ways. Today there are members in Ontario and in the State of Montana, where son James took his family in 1889.

Much of the history and genealogy of this family has been compiled into a privately published manuscript entitled "The Strong Family History, Medonte Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada", published in 1989 by William L. "Bill" Strong, culminating an effort that extended over nearly a decade. 12

CHART: SLIGO STRONGS; see SFAA Vol 5. See also the DNA Results page; Kit #6822, and see the linked discussions found in the DNA Notes, #11 and #16.

STRONGS FROM COUNTY DONEGAL;
See the DNA Results page; Kit #13952; Kit #6761; and see the linked discussions found in DNA Note #7 and Chronological Framework for Hypothesis; Irish Narrative. See also David B. ("Dave") Strong's manuscript, titled "Book Two: The Donegal Strong Puzzle".

Geographically, County Donegal is on the western end of the waterways comprised of the River Erne and Upper and Lower Lochs Erne. The Erne waterway has often in the past been a strategic obstacle in the military line of march between the north and south of Ireland. Flowing westward for about half the width of the country, the Erne system has three principal passes, marked by Crom Castle in the east, Enniskillen between the two lakes, and Ballyshannon and Beleek in the west. 13

In 1597, Ballyshannon was the site of a Castle held by Gaelic chieftain Hugh O'Donnell. An English army, commanded by Sir Conyers Clifford, Queen Elizabeth I's governor of Connacht, amounting to 4000 men organized into twenty-two regiments of infantry and ten of cavalry, laid seige to the Castle of Ballyshannon. They crossed the River Erne at a ford, and succeeded in establishing their headquarters at the Monastery of Asharouagh. They met with strong resistance, with the defenders of the castle under Owen Crawford stubbornly resisting the siege for three days. Many of the best English officers and men were either killed or wounded. 14

The English besiegers retired to the hill of Mullaghnashee, now the site of the Cemetery of Saint Anne's Church of Ireland in Kilbarron Parish. Following a council of war, they decided to retreat. In crossing back over the Erne, many soldiers were drowned; O'Donnell's garrison followed them as they retreated toward Sligo. The English lost about 600 killed and most of their supplies. It was not until five years later, in 1602, that Ballyshannon was finally taken by the English. 15

Over the next 40 years, many English settlers were established in the area around Ballyshannon. However, it appears many of them may have been killed or displaced in the 1641 Rising. Enough of the English and Scots Planters rallied to defend the area, and it was held against the Irish during the ensuing years of the civil war. Major defenses were apparently established at Ballyshannon, Donegal-town, and at Castle Murray, also known as Castle Rahan, near Killybegs. 16

Following the Restoration, the nearest extant thing resembling a census was the Hearth Money Roll, prepared in 1665 to establish a basis for taxing the households in Ireland for the support of the Established Church of Ireland. Review of the Hearth Money Rolls for County Donegal reveals much by way of elimination: In all of County Donegal, the only Strongs in 1665 are George and Thomas Strong, in Killaghtee Parish, between Ballyshannon and Killybegs; there are no Strongs in Drumholm, Killbarron, Killysbegs, Inver, or Inishkeel Parishes. In Drumhome Parish, there are a majority of native Irish names, intersperced by those of Thomas Farrell, Richard Dudgeon, William Lamond, James Crawfford, Walter Mitchall, John Hamilton, and James Freebirn. These names become important in the present work because the surnames are those born by many women who later married Strongs. 17

It may be inferred from the foregoing that the Strongs found in later records in County Donegal either descended from George and Thomas Strong of Killaghtee, or they were later immigrants, arriving circa 1696-1702. The latter possibility is based on the knowledge that many Scottish immigrants were brought in as tenants by the gentry following the 1689 Revolution. Refer to the discussion concerning "William Conolly's Ballyshannon Estate"".

In March, 1689, Patrick Sarsfield led a Jacobite army with the intention of seizing Ballyshannon. The town was strongly garrisoned under the command of Henry Folliott, who received assistance from the 27th Inniskillingers, based at Enniskillen. Sarsfield was unable to take the town, although the Duke of Berwick, an illegitimate son of King James II, did attack past Ballyshannon against Donegal-town with a small force of about 1500-2000 horse and dragoons. With the approach of 700 reinforcements from Ballyshannon, Berwick was forced to withdraw, leaving Donegal-town burning and about 100 of his men dead. 18

It is only following the 1689 Revolution and the reallocation of many lands seized from Catholic landowners that other Strongs begin appearing in any great numbers in the records of County Donegal. This may be explaned by either the lack of extant records from the period, or by the few number of Strongs (see George and Thomas Strong of Killaghtee, discussed above), or by the fact there simply were no Strongs present until about 1696-1702. Unfortunately, the 18th century presents many gaps in the records, and it is very difficult to trace lineages through this period.

Ballyshannon did not suffer much by the disturbed state of the country in 1798. A strong military force, both calvary and infantry were stationed there. During this time, a Star Fort with cannon emplacements was constructed on Mullaghnashee outside the wall of Saint Anne's church. Since that time, Mullaghnashee has been known to many locals as "The Fort Hill". 19

Ballyshannon was described in an 1839 Commercial Directory as being: 20

"A Seaport and Market town, in the Province of Ulster, Dounty of Donegal, 102 miles (N.W.) from Dublin, about 20 miles from Sligo, and 47 from Londonderry...

"It is situated at the head of the harbour at the mouth of the River Erne, across which is a bridge of fourteen arches, dividing the Town into two Parishes, that on the South is called the Port of Ballyshannon---The town comprises three streets, and its situation is favourable for commerce and manufacture, having an increasing population and a fertile country around, and is also with in a few miles of Lough Erne, which embraces more than fifty miles of inland navigation through the interior of the country. The surplus waters of the Lough are formed into a beautiful river named the Water of Erne, which, for several miles has a succession of falls, and affords numerous sites for millls and manufactories.---Imports are Timber, Coal, Slate, Iron, &c.--Exports Grain, and fresh, salted and pickled Salmon, of which are taken in the River Erne from 60 to 80 tons annually.

...The entrance to the harbour was formerly obstructed by the bar, but under the direction of Colonel Conolly, who advanced a large sum for the purpose, it has been rendered accessible to vessels of 250 tons burthen...A Seneschal's Court is held here once in the three weeks, under the Lord of the Manor, having jurisdiction to the amount of forty shillings. Population, 3,000 to 4,000. Market days, Tuesday and Saturday. Fairs are held on the 2d of every month, except September, when it is held on the 18th."

The nearby town of Donegal is described in the same 1839 Commercial Directory as being: 21

"A Sea Port and Market Town...113 miles (N.W.) from Dublin...

"The Town of Donegal is situated in a valley at the mouth of the River Esk. In the middle of the Town is a large triangular Market-Place, called the Diamond, from which the three principal streets radiate. The Main-street is that which leads to Derry and the interior of the country. Bridge-street leads to the River Esk, across which is a handsome and secure bridge, with three arches--to the right is Waterloo-place, where is a Tanyard belonging to Mr. J.Scott--a little above, by the side of the River, is the Corn Mill and Spade Foundry of Mr. Wm. Graham--a little to the left is a mineral well named the Spa Well, its water is excellent, and has been highly beneficial to invalids who have resorted to this place, especially those infected with scorbutic disease. A few years ago, Mr. Graham, architect, erected a house over the well, were the water is drawn by means of a force pump, annexed to which are convenient pipes, sisterns, and a marble bath, which cost L(?) sterling, where visitors may receive hot, shower, and cold baths. Close to the Diamond is the remains of an old castle, said to have been built by the Chieftains O'Donnell in the 12th century. To the left is the third street, which leads to the Quay and Sligo-road. On the rising ground to the left of the Bay is the remnants of the Abbey, said to have been built by Hugh Roe, son of O'Donnell, in 1474--its remains bespeak its former grandeur....

"The trade of this town is rapidly increasing--the Bay can admit vessels of 300 tons burthen. Imports are Timber, Coal, Ironmongery, Groceries, &c. Exports--Grain, Butter and Eggs. The market is well supplied with Oats, Meal, Butter, Potatoes, &c; there is also a Shambles well supplied with Butcher meat, and a Fish Market, where the inhabitants are supplied with different kinds of Fish in their season.

"There is a Session-house, where Petty Sessions are held every alternate week, and the General Quarter Sessions for the County are held in January, April, October, and December. There is also a Dispensary, and annexed to the Sessions house is a Bridewell. The places of worship are a Parish Church, two Meeting houses for Presbyterians--Synod of Ulster and Secession--one Independent Chapel, and one belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists--The Roman Catholic Chapel is about one mile and a half from the town...Donegal was formerly a Parliamentary Borough, incorporated by a Charter of James I, dated 27th February, 1612, in pursuance of the plan of forming a new Plantation in Ulster..."

Application of the Oliver "six fold test" and the negative tests of no Strongs in records for adjoining parishes and no Strongs in records earlier than 1665 leads one to believe that many of the Strongs found in the records of the parishes surrounding the Bay of Donegal must be related. See: Irish Strong Database for County Donegal and County Fermanagh. Reference to Griffith's Valuations for the identity of the Landlords of the County Donegal townlands, by Parish, occupied by Strongs suggests relationships. If it is true, for example, that sons of an existing tenant might be given priority in taking up tenancies on other lands belonging to the particular landlord:

Thos. Conolly:
Ardeelan , Drumholm Parish
Durnesh , Drumholm Parish
Upper Rossnowlagh , Drumholm Parish
Coolcholly, Kilbarron Parish
Meenanery , Glencolmcille Parish
Town of Killybegs, Killybegs Parish

Rep. Col. Dickson:
Carnhugh, Templecarne Parish
Glaskeeragh , Templecarne Parish

John Hamilton:
Aghadowey , Drumholm Parish
Ballydermott , Drumholm Parish

Rev. Edward Hamilton:
Shannagh , Drumholm

Rev. John Kincaid: Drumchory Glebe, Drumholm

H.G. Murray-Stewart:
Altadoo, Donegal
Ballyara, Killybegs Parish
Shanaghan, Inishkeel Parish

It seems logical to believe those Strongs renting from the respective landlords listed above were related to each other. So too, were those in adjacent town lands, eg. the geographical relationships are such that family relationships seem likely, as grouped below:

Ardeelan, Coolcolly, Aghdowey, Ballydermott, Durnish, Rossnowlagh, Shannagh, Drumchory Glebe, Glasskeeragh/Carnhugh.

Ballyara, Shanaghan, Altadoo, Meenanery, Killaghtee.

The problems in tracing the relationships are those typical of Ireland in the aftermath of the Four Courts Fire...lack of sufficient records, and lack of contemporary knowledge of any coherent theory of origin. However, it seems clear the Strongs in the area were generally adherents of the Established Church. Many were longtime members of Drumholm Parish...with a few showing up in the extant records from surrounding parishes. The authors believe these Strongs were of Scots descent, likely brought in to take up tenancies in the wake of dispossessed native Irish tenants. The origins of the various "Donegal Bay" Strong lineages , so far as known and sorted out, are discussed below. Recent DNA Study Results tend to substantiate the relationships as hypothesized. See: DNA Note #7

CHART 5A: ARDEELAN TOWNLAND These Strongs were discussed briefly in Chapter VI, Estates, wherein it is speculated they leased this townland in sucessive tenancy terms from the Thomas Conolly Estate.

CHART 5B: AGHADOWEY and BALLYDERMOTT TOWNLANDS CHART MORGAN COUNTY, OHIO STRONGS; see SFAA Vol 5, and see Nancy Conn's "From Drumholm, Donegal to Cartwright, Upper Canada: the Dinsmore-Freeborn-Strong Families", copyright © 1998, Nancy H. Conn. ISBN 0-9699321-1-1.

The Morgan County, Ohio Strongs emigrated from the vicinity of Ballintra, County Donegal, Ulster, to the United States in the period between 1823 and 1837, apparently following a "chain migration" pattern. The family traces its genealogy to John Strong (1770-1837) and his wife, Martha Watson (1772-1852) who lived at Aghadowey, near Ballintra. John may have had a brother, William, who actually emigrated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, some time earlier than 1823. He remained there but never married.

Dale G. Strong, in his 1983 book, "The Descendants of JOHN STRONG and MARTHA WATSON of Drumhome Parish, Co. Donegal, Ireland", states that emigration information is sketchy, but that the sons came to the U.S.A. and established themselves before their mother Martha and the girls came. When this family was emigrating to the U.S. the country was still young, and homestead land was still available in the Ohio River valley. James worked in Harrison County, Ohio, where he met and later married Elizabeth Wilkin, 1 November 1832. In 1829 he had bought U.S. Government land in Bristol Township, Morgan Co., Ohio, and built a farm and home.

Alexander Strong and his wife, Eliza McCullough, emigrated in 1826, first to an area near St. John, New Brunswick. There is speculation whether they may have known the Donegal Strong family who settled at Carleton, in Woodstock County. See CHART 5E below. Not staying long in New Brunswick, they traveled on to Philadelphia, arriving aboard the ship Little Cherub on 30 Sept 1827. Apparently, there they were met by his uncle, William Strong. In 1832, Alexander and Eliza purchased land near his brother James Strong in Morgan County, Ohio, and developed a farm.

The third son, John, married Mary Lane, July 8, 1833, but we can find no other facts concerning this couple. John lived out his days in the home of his sisters, Ellenor and Esther, none of them leaving any descendants.

Their father, John Strong, died about March 29, 1837, record of his burial being recorded in the parish records of the Church of Ireland, Drumhome Parish, Ballintra, County Donegal. An extensive review of the history and genealogy of the Morgan County Strongs was compiled by Dale G. Strong in 1983. It is available in the Library of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah; the Library of Congress; Library of the Daughters of the American revolution; Archives of the State of Ohio; the Morgan County Library; and the archives of the Strong Family Association of America.

CHART 5D: DURNISH TOWNLAND CHART 5E: NEW BRUNSWICK STRONGS:

See SFAA Vol 5.
(Discuss these Strongs based upon Rupert Strong correspondance)

CHART: ARDARA/AUSTRALIAN STRONGS:

The "Australian" Strongs emigrated from Ardara, near Killibegs, County Donegal, to Broughton Creek, near Sydney, Australia, arriving in January, 1864. James Strong and Henry Strong, sons of one Patrick Strong, together with their wives and children, took up the life of homesteaders in the "land down-under". These Strongs probably used good judgment in emigrating to Australia at the time. Eastern Canada was filling up; the west was not yet open. The United States was embroiled in the Civil War; no family man in his right mind would likly have taken a wife and family into such turmoil at the time, especially when they could go to a peaceful English speaking country with no requirements for visas or passports. Their history and extensive progeny were chronicled by descendant Alec Strong, in 1984, in a booklet entitled, "The Strongs From Donegal".

Alec Strong states that his family came from Ardara, Shanaghan Townland, which is in the Parish of Inishkeel, Raphoe Diocese, County Donegal. Reference to Griffith's Valuation records for the Townland of Shanaghan, in the Union of Glenties, lists Henry Strong on Lot 3B, and James Strong on Lot 3A. Also listed is their sister, Margaret Lamond.

Ardara is described in Lewis' 1837 Topographical Dictionary thusly:

"This place is situated on the river Awinea, at the bottom of Lockrosmore bay on the northern coast, and on the road from Narin to Killybegs. The village consists of eighty-five houses. It is a constabulary station and has a fair on the first of November...On an island in the lake of Kiltorus, off Boylagh, near Mr. Hamilton's of Eden, are the ruins of an old fortified building, near which were formerly some rusty cannon." 22

Alec Strong also points out in a 1988 letter to the author that Sir James Walker, born in 1883 and descendant of some of the people who emigrated from Ardara on the same ship with these Strongs, stated in a history of his ancestors written for the Pioneers' Hall of Fame in Longreach, Australia, that his people "were born in Scotland during the reign of King James....They went across to Ireland and the people who came to Australia with them, went first to Ireland with them, including the Boyds, Hanlons, Strongs, Irwins, and Lamonds". Query whether they were born in the time of James I (1603-1627) or James II (1685-1689); however, it seems most likly that they went to Ireland between 1696 and 1740. As mentioned before, during this period many other Scots emigrated to Ireland to take up tenancies on lands recently confiscated by the crown from forfeiting Irish Catholic partisans of James II. Also, the largely Scottish landlords of the area imported Scots tenants to take up and improve the leased lands.

The Ardara Strong family may have been related to the Ballyara Strongs (see below), who lived in the adjoining Killibegs Parish, although there is no presently known direct proof. Both families were tenants of the H.G. Murray-Stewart Estate in Boylagh and Banagh Barony.

CHART 5G: BALLYARA STRONGS

The townland of Ballyara, Killybegs Parish, was described in 1730 in a "memorandum" by Thomas Addi, apparently an accountant auditing the rent rolls, reporting to landlord Alexander Murray, as follows: 23

"This farm is adjoining the upper end of Fintragh and ranges on the mountains above Fintragh. It is coarse rocky ground and but little grain, but the farm contains 8 Ballyboes (a measure of area), as I am informed. Yet it has no sort of manure and the houses are very bad. They bring sea wrack (sea weed) from the Point in boats to set their potatoes and draw it from the shore on carrs to the farm. Sanders McIlvane, the present tenant, says he will refer the rent to Mr. Murray of Broughton. As this ground lies pretty dry, I think it is a tolerable good farm for grazing (but rocky)."

It will be noted that in 1730, there were apparently no Strongs in residence at Ballyara. Further, it may be inferred that since there were Strongs at Ballyara in Griffith's Valuation in 1857, they must have taken over the leasehold sometime in the interim. Since the Murrays were Scots, apparently from Annandale in Dumphrieshire, (See discussion at Chapter VI, Estates) it may be that these new Strong tenants may have come from that part of Scotland.

Then again, Ballyara is in close proximity to Killaghtee Parish and these Strongs could be descended from the George or Thomas Strong found in the 1665 Hearth Money Rolls. The recurrance of the name Thomas in this lineage implies the latter may be true.

Dr. Connal Cunningham, of Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland, who is collaterally related to this branch of the Strong family, suggests in a letter dated 11 Sept 1987, that the Thomas Strong who appears in the Rent Rolls of Thomas Connoly's Boylagh and Bannagh Estate in the years 1773, 1774, and 1785 as holding the tenancy of Meenanery Townland in Glencolmcille Parish, 24 west of Killybegs, was probably of this lineage. Dr. Cunningham believes Thomas Strong lived at Ballyara, and acted as a middleman in the leasing of Meenanery.

Apparently the Ballyara Strongs operated a "Pub" in the mid-19th century. The lineage also included sea-going members. The Killybegs Parish register indicates that Albert Strong, married on 16 January 1820 to Jane Cuscaden, was a "seaman of Whitworth Burma Cruises." 25 It is tempting to suppose that the Alexander Strong listed in the 1839 Commercial Directory of Donegal-Town as being a "Master Mariner, (of) Ballyweel" 26 was also of this lineage, and that this same Alexander Strong may have been master of one of the vessels described in the following description of departure of emigrants from the Donegal area in the early 19th century, related by Mrs. Lettie Morrow, Registrar of Drumholm Parish, to Mrs. Betty M. Ashley in September, 1987: 27

" ...ancestors during the emigration time...would book passage through Cooke or McCorkle lines. The voyages were advertised in the newspapers. All the companies records have been destroyed but some can be found in old newspapers...When the time came to sail, the families would go down to the beach near Murvagh to wait. Eventually a little boat would come to the bay and pick up the people to take them to the sailing ship. All the neighbors had baked hard oatcakes. Others sold straw for the voyagers to use for their beds. Their potatoes were placed in nets which were then placed in barrels on the ship. They tried to bring enough for the trip which would take about thirteen weeks. The cost was around three pounds for the family.

"Each time a group sailed, the neighbors had a big party with lots to drink. One man, the story is told, became so drunk that when he saw the ship approaching, he began to wade out into the bay. Unfortunately, he never made it and was drowned."

It not only seems likely that Alexander Strong, Master Mariner, might have been master of one of these ships (possibly a timber schooner), but also that he might have been instrumental in arranging passages to North America for several different groups of related Strong families. Note the discussion re the New Brunswick Strongs from Durnish Townland, County Donegal, CHART 5E, and the fact that Alexander Strong of the Morgan County, Ohio Strongs descended from Aghadowey Townland, County Donegal, migrated first to New Brunswick in 1826 before going on to join other family members in Ohio. Refer also to the discussion in Chapter VIII, "The Scots-Irish... Patterns of Immigration" concerning emigrants passage on timber ships in the early 19th century. See also reference in R.J. Dickson to emigration from "smaller ports on the western coast of Co.Donegal" as being one of the sources for "non-presbyterian" but never-the-less protestant (and therefore likely Anglo-Irish) emigration from Ulster in the 18th century. 28

CHART 5H: DRIMHORY TOWNLAND:

CHART 5I: HILTON, ONTARIO STRONGS:

In September and October, 1986, the authors engaged in correspondence with 86 year old Earle Strong of Toronto, Ontario, which established that he was a member of a Strong family which had emigrated from Ireland to Hilton, Ontario in about 1840-1850. Earle Strong stated that his grandfather, one Hugh Strong, had emigrated with his brothers Robert and William Strong. William, who never married, and Robert went on to settle near London, Ontario. Reference to the telephone directory for London, Ontario reveals a considerable number of Strongs living there today; perhaps not a few may be descendants of this Robert Strong.

Reference to "The Descendants of John Strong and Martha Watson", at page 45, lists a family of Strongs descended from one Thomas Strong of Kilgowell and Ballybulgan, adjacent to Drimhory. Included in this line are cousins Hugh Alexander Strong of Drimhory, baptised March 21, 1830; and Robert Strong of Drimhory, baptised August 3, 1834, both in Drumhome Parish of the Church of Ireland. The 1858 Griffith's Valuation for the Union of Ballyshannon lists no Strongs in Ballybulgan and Drimchory Glebe townlands, but does list a Robert Love. In 1789, one John Strong, apparently the grandfather of Hugh and Robert Strong of Drimhory, apparently took as his first wife one Jane Love of Rah. The absence of Strongs in Ballybulgan by 1858 is consistant with Earle Strong's family tradition of emigration in 1840-1850, and the names of the brother/cousins are consistent.

Another piece of evidence is a conversation related by the late Robert Edgar, formerly Drumholm Parish treasurer, in a 1983 letter to Dale G. Strong, wherein he states that an old gentleman named Harron said that the last Strong in Drimhory was a certain "Sandy" Strong, who died long years ago. The IGI reveals that an Alexander Strong died in Drimhory in 1873. Apparently some time in the 1920's a Strong from Canada visited Mr. Harron's mother, who was a Strong. Earle Strong did visit Ireland many years ago, according to one of his letters. It seems reasonable to impute a relationship between the Hilton, Ontario Strongs and Drimhory Strongs. An Australian branch of the family may be in the offing, as Earle Strong's son, Thomas, now resides in Queensland, Australia.

CHART 5J: TULLYWEE TOWNLAND:
CHART 5K: THE STRONGS OF FENELON FALLS, VICTORIA COUNTY, ONTARIO, CANADA:

This family likely originated in County Donegal, Ireland. The progenitor is likely one George Strong; born in Ireland in 1810, he died in Ontario in 1918 at age 108. According to one account they came from Drumhome Parish. (see Betty Ashley). There were apparently four sons: James, who settled in Manitoba; Joseph, of Ontario; George Norman Strong of Stonewall, Manitoba; Hugh Strong of Ontario; and two daughters.

Another family which may have been related was that of Hugh Fraser Strong, born in Donegal in 1865, apparently to William Strong of Tullywee, near Donegal-town. Donegal is described in 1837 as follows: 29

"The town is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the River Eske and consists of three streets, comprising one hundred and fifty houses and a large, triangular market-place. The market is held on Saturday, and fairs on the second Friday of each month. Here is a constabulary police station.

"The harbour is formed by a pool on the east side of the peninsula of Durin, where at a distance of two miles below the town, small vessels may ride in two or three fathoms of water, about half a cable's lengh from the shore. There is a good herring fishery in the bay, in summer..."

Polly Strong Baumer of Alexandria, Virginia is researching this family.

CHART 5L: CARNHUGH STRONGS "The Strong Family", as compiled by Tom Strong, Jr., of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. (discuss based upon Robert Edgar letters and Thomas Stronge of Drumbarron letters.)

CHART 5M: COOLCHOLLY STRONGS

CHART SIX: STRONGS OF COUNTY FERMANAGH

CHART 6A: DRUMHIRK TOWNLAND, BOHO PARISH
CHART 6B: The Strongs of Tuckersmith Township, Huron County, Ontario, Canada

This family may have originated in or near Petigo or Ederny in County Fermanagh, Ireland. Other evidence indicates proximity to Beleek, in County Fermanagh, but closer to Ballyshannon. The unknown progenitor had at least two children, George Strong (here referred to as George I) and a daughter, Jane Strong. George I married Mary Harron, probably in Drumhome Parish, Raphoe Diocese, County Donegal, in 1820. The latter event raises two possibilities. First, that George Strong was related to the various Strongs of Donegal, and traveled, possibly via the Erne Packet boat, to Drumholm Parish where he met and married Mary Harron. An educated guess is that if this is true, he was likely related to the George Strong of Drumhirk Townland, Co. Fermanagh discussed above. The second possibility is that both George Strong and Mary Harron were originally from Drumholm Parish, but migrated on to Fermanagh, settling and raising a family there.

George Strong I apparently died about 1839. In 1842, Widow Mary Harron Strong and her four children, George Strong II, Ellen, Mary and Ann, emigrated to Canada to join George I's sister, Jane, and her husband, Matthew Devitt, who had emigrated to Pickering Township, Ontario in about 1827. 30 There is a record of a William Devitt at Drumbeggan Townland, in the 1788 Co. Fermanagh Elector's Poll. 31 There were also a number of Devitts in County Donegal, dating at least to an Alexander Devitt, born in Donegal in 1784, some of whose family settled near the Morgan County, Ohio Strong family from Donegal discussed above under CHART 5C. 32

Mary Harron Strong died Dec.27,1856, and is buried under a common headstone with her daughter Mary Strong; sister-in-law Jane Strong Devitt, and other members of the Devitt family under a common headstone in Salem Cemetery, Pickering Township, Ontario. 33

In 1861, George Strong II married Eliza McCullough, also of Pickering Township, and they moved to Tuckersmith Township, where they took up the West half of a concession lot previously acquired by George's sister Ann and her husband, Andrew Story. Tuckersmith Township is a rural farming community around Seaforth, Ontario. The family has members still residing in Tuckersmith, with scions spread across Canada and into the United States.

Much of the history and genealogy of this family has been compiled into a 1987 privately published manuscript entitled "The Strongs of Tuckersmith Township, Huron County, Ontario, Canada", by David B. Strong, representing an update and revision of an earlier work prepared in 1975 by Dan Jerrol Strong. 34

CHART 6C: ROSSCALTON TOWNSHIP
CHART 6D: HOWICK TOWNSHIP, HURON COUNTY, ONTARIO

(discuss based upon Jeannette Strong letters)

CHART 7: DUBLIN AND WICKLOW

THE TANNERY STRONGS OF DUBLIN

This discussion is based upon copies of correspondance, and other materials forwarded by the late Bechel Doil Strong, of Indianapolis, Indiana, to the late Dale G. Strong, circa 1982. Bechel Doil Strong was descended from a family of leather tanners in the State of Kentucky, who in turn were descended from a family of tanners in Dublin, Ireland. The earliest documented member of the family was Michael Strong, who lived at 7 Marrowbone Lane, Dublin. He died May 12, 1791, according to a gravestone found in the Cloghran-Hidart churchyard, in Dublin. The gravestone marks the burial of Michael Strong, his wife, Ann, and eight of their children who died young; and was erected in 1791 by his surviving son, George Strong, "Tanner of Marrowbone Lane, Dublin". Interestingly, included in Bechel Doil Strong's letters is a photocopy of a clipping from a Dublin newspaper, given to him in 1973, which states "... As a Dublin family name, we find the Strongs here as early as 1674, when Widow Margaret Strong had her will proved in the Courts, her late husband had been a cordwainer (or leather-worker) in the city. The leather tradition was long lasting with the Strongs; nearly a century later, in 1752, we have note of Charles Strong making coach harness, in Dame Street."

According to an article which appeared in the Casey County (Kentucky) News, dated March 12, 1970, entitled "The Early Days of the Tannery", and based on information provided at the time by Bechel Doil Strong, Michael Strong was survived by two sons, the aforementioned George Strong, (b. circa 1770-d.1865), and Michael Strong (b.1782-d.1856), and at least two daughters. In 1815, the two brothers left Ireland for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Michael Strong the younger died in Philadelphia in 1856. He was the ancestor of Bechel Doil Strong. Brother George stayed only a while in Pennsylvania, before returning to Ireland, where he founded a line of Strongs who survived in Dublin into fairly recent times. It is not presently known whether any survive now, but it is possible. Bechel Doil Strong and certain of his family members, including Alice Ellison Pitts and Minnie Pitts Champ, visited with some of George Strong's descendents in Dublin in September, 1973.

Michael Strong the younger lived at 40 Cork Street in Dublin before emigrating to the United States. Minnie Pitt Champ has provided the jpg image accompanying this discussion, which was taken during the family's 1973 visit to Ireland. After coming to America, Michael Strong established himself in Blairsville, Indiana County, Pennsylvania, apparently following the tannery craft. His son Thomas Strong, b.1803 in Ireland, "left home at about 17 years of age. He worked at various jobs in the Tan Yards of that day. He then settled for a while at Harrodsburg, Kentucky where he went into partnership in a Tan Yard with a man named Reed. In 1844 he sold out his part of this Tan Yard and moved to Liberty, Kentucky, where he owned and operated a Tan Yard until 1861.

(Thomas Strong) sold out and bought 220 acres of land at Gilpin, Kentucky about 8 miles east of Liberty. He moved because the soldiers of the Civil War were taking horses, food, and etc. from the people and he wanted to get away from it... He operated a Tan Yard .. at Gilpin until his death in 1890.... (His son) Perry Doil Strong (b.1855-d.1939) lived here (Gilpin) all of his life." Perry Doil Strong married more than twice, and had children by his first two wives, including three sons by his first wife, Nancy Helen Hogue, and two sons by his second wife, Susanna Tartar.

Bechel Doil Strong (b.1916) died in about 1988. During the course of his correspondence and research of relations in Ireland, he exchanged letters with the late Arthur Strong, descended from a line of Strongs centered for at least two hundred years at Fasseroe Townland, Powerscourt Parish, County Wicklow. Arthur Strong (in his letters) expressed his understanding that the Fasseroe Townland Strongs were descendants of the "Stonemason" Strongs who had a large part in the construction of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England. Arthur Strong also indicated that "in his youth" he had heard that the "Tannery" Strongs and the Fasseroe Strongs were related. If so, the presently living descendants of the Tannery Strong lineage would also be related to the Stonemason Strongs. On the other hand, certain other researchers, including Jennifer Self and Dell Maw, have research information which may lead to the conclusion that the Fasseroe Strongs were an "offshoot" of the Strange family of Waterford, which can be traced to the 14th century in Irish records, and for which there is an indication they were descendants of the LeStrange family of Norfolk, England.

Given that there are living male members of the Tannery Strong lineage, it is possible we may yet be able to prove out one or the other of the foregoing hypotheses through Y-Chromosome DNA testing. Research interest in the Tannery Strongs is being carried on by Minnie Pitts Champ, younger cousin of Bechel Doil Strong. Her website may be accessed at Collin County Book Co.

THE STRONGS OF FASSEROE, COUNTY WICKLOW, IRELAND; see Fassaroe

This family likely originated in Bristol, England. It may or may not be related to the Tannery Row Strongs researched by Alice Ellison Pitts and her cousin, Bechol Doil Strong. In a 1955 letter to Bechol Doil Strong, Arthur J. Strong, then about 75 years of age, stated that in about 1889 he had heard that the two families were related. Arthur J. Strong provided information about the Bristol heritage of the Strong family which was detailed in Alice Ellison Strong's 1976 book, "Henderson-Ellison-Strong Families of McKinney, Texas".

Much of the information in the chart is based upon correspondence between Bechel Doil Strong and Arthur Strong which took place in the period 1959-1970, copies of which are in the possession of the author. Arthur Strong provided a copy of a case summary which had been prepared by a lawyer in the period ~1830, which gave some of the history of the family in the period 1800-1830.

An interesting account of the earlier history of the Stone Mason Strongs, of Bristol and who supplied the stone for St. Paul's Cathedral in London, England, was prepared by Nicola Jenkin, and is presented here with her permission:

David, thank you very much for forwarding me archived material regarding previous enquiries and discussions on the Strong stonemasons and possible links with the Wicklow Strongs. To date I have not made a connection with the latter, but that does not mean there is none - I am possibly a different off-shoot.

The main purpose for this e-mail is to very briefly introduce the Strong stonemasons. The aim of doing this is to assist anybody trying to trace their family to them. I know a lot of us have missing links between them and our immediate ancestors. Yet a couple of us have grown up being told we are related to the Strong stonemasons who built St Pauls etc - but how!! Well I have been delving very deep and have come up with an idea on how any Strong descendents could be related to these masons.

I have recently written to a great-aunt of mine (a Strong) to find out more about her immediate family in the hope that I can turn 'myth' into 'reality' and find the missing link. In writing the letter, I gave a brief description of the Strong masons and how any 21st Century Strongs could be DIRECTLY related to them. Below is an extract from this letter, which I hope will be of interest to any of those wishing to find a link:

"... My most interesting finds, to date, have been on the Strong's. Coming over here Mum had told me that we are supposedly related to the Strong's who built St Paul's Cathedral. Myth or not I decided to find out. I have found lots of information on the Stone-masons who built St Paul's. They actually lived in a little town called Taynton - just outside Oxford!! [Where Nicola has been living and working] Fate or what! They owned a quarry here, as well as one in the neighbouring Cotswold town of Little Barrington (where they also lived). It was from these quarries that they supplied stone and their skills to a number of colleges at Oxford University, the Sheldonian Theatre and the extravagant Blenheim Palace. The main Strong was Timothy, who came from Wiltshire. He lived during the late 16th Century. He built a variety of manors in the Cotswolds. His son, Valentine Strong (don't you love the name!) moved to Taynton/Little Barrington where he built the family home, which still stands today! He also built a number of manor houses in the area. He and his wife, Ann, had six sons and five daughters!!

It is from these six sons that come the infamous stone-masons. The eldest being Thomas (b. 1632- d. 1681). Whilst working in Oxford he became acquainted with Christopher Wren, who was a lecturer at the University at the time. Wren asked him to build his design of the Sheldonian Theatre, and obviously liked what he saw.

After the Great Fire of London (1666) Sir Christopher Wren was asked to lead the reconstruction programme of the many destroyed churches. Upon which, amongst other stone-masons, he called upon Thomas Strong. Thomas' first work, and supposed test work for St Paul's Cathedral, was St. Stephen's (Walbrook). He was assisted by the well-known and other Cotswold stone-mason, William Kempster. Thomas then signed a contract to do St Paul's and laid the foundation stone in 1675. In order to practice his trade in London he was admitted to the Company of Masons and made free in 1671. He was involved in the construction of a number of other London churches, as well as providing stone for their reconstruction. He also employed a number of apprentices and labour. He died, unmarried, in 1681, passing all his contracts, apprentices and estate onto one of his younger brothers, Edward (bp 1652 - d 1723/4).

Edward is seen as the most prominent stone-mason, highly regarded by Wren, and made free in 1680, becoming Master of the Company of Masons in 1696 [this is now debatable as I have discovered contradictory facts from original Company records][NOTE: not a link to freemasons]. He mainly worked on St Paul's Cathedral but worked on other churches in London, Greenwich Hospital and Blenheim Palace. As with Thomas, he had a number of apprentices and a vast team of workmen. He became a very wealthy man - signing contracts with Christopher Wren, Hawksmoor and Vanbrugh. With his earnings he brought property in London and in out-lying areas. Eventually retiring to Hide Manor, Hertfordshire, to live the life of a gentleman. Here he wrote his memoirs (which I am trying to trace). He died at the age of 71.

Edward had two or three sons. The records are confusing, and I think one daughter. One of Edward's sons (the other's being Thomas and/or John) was also called Edward (referred to as Edward jnr). Hence the confusion in many records as to which Edward lived where and their number of children! Edward jnr followed in his father's footsteps and is known for placing the final stone on the dome of St Paul's Cathedral (33 years, spent as a family, working on the Cathedral). Edward jnr was also a well respected mason and became Master of the Company of Masons in 1718. Edward knew Christopher Wren's son well and it is said that they visited Paris together in 1698. In 1699, he married Susanna Roberts, daughter of the King's plumber - an esteemed position in those days! They also had a son called Edward. Unfortunately he died of smallpox at the age of 20, while studying at Cambridge University.

Edward jnr also owned property in London and Hertfordshire, although records seem to muddle up his properties with Edward snr. However, it does appear as if he and Susanna had two daughters who inherited his wealth and property.

In terms of tracing our family history, and to find out whether we are direct descendents of either Thomas, Edward snr or Edward jnr - the only possibility is through one of Edward snr's other two sons - Thomas or John. It appears as if the former son, died unmarried. However, John died in 1757 and appears to have been married. He could possibly be the only link (what with the original Thomas (1st Strong to work on St Paul's) dying unmarried, and Edward jnr's only son also dying unmarried).

However, we could have come from one of Valentine Strong's many sons. It is said that descendants of his moved, lived and practiced the skill of stone-masonry and owned a quarry in Box (Wiltshire) and Stanford-in-the-Vale. Strong's also owned a quarry in Warminster, with Egerton Strong living there until his death at the age of 83 in 1964. ..."

If anyone can shed any light on 'missing links' - our present day Strong's living in South Africa and the above I would love to hear from you (as requested in a previous e-mail).

If anyone would like to ask me any further questions relating to the stone-mason Strong's I would be glad to assist. I would like to think that my records are pretty accurate. Accuracy being based on original 17th & 18th Century sources, and reading many 20th Century books on architecture etc in England. The latter information sometimes being contradictory, hence the need to refer to as many original sources as possible to validate claims.

Best wishes, Nicola Jenkin, Projects Manager
Best Foot Forward Ltd, The Future Centre, Oxford, England
E-mail: nicola
Website: www.bestfootforward.com
See also:Stonemason Strongs of St.Paul's

CHART 8: LONDONDERRY
See above NOTE RE:Faughan, County Londonderry

CHART 8A: CLINTON, ONTARIO:

CHART 9: CORK See above NOTE RE: Relationships between 1798 Rebels in Counties Down and Antrim:

WATERFORD/OSSORY CHART 9A: KILL, ST.NICHOLAS:

CHART: CANADIAN SCOTS-IRISH or ENGLISH WITHOUT IDENTIFIED PLACE OF ORIGIN

CHART 11A: KINGSTON
CHART 11B: STREETSVILLE
CHART 11C; LINCOLN
CHART 11D: BRANTFORD
CHART 11E: BRADFORD
CHART 11F: PETERBORO
CHART 11G: NEWFOUNDLAND: See: Newfoundland Strongs by Charles Strong, indicating origins in Hampshire, England
CHART 11H: COBOURG
CHART 11I: NEBRASKA/ALBERTA

CHART: AMERICAN SCOTS-IRISH WITHOUT IDENTIFIED PLACE OF ORIGIN

York County Pennsylvania Strongs and the Mormon Strongs. See: YORK COUNTY, PA. STRONGS

This is actually one extended family, springing from James "Schim" Strong, an indentured servant apparently from Ireland who married Maria Magdalena, the daughter of his master, Adam Ihmenheiser, on November 2, 1763 in York County, Pennsylvania. One of his grandsons, Jacob Strong, born October 9, 1799 in Little York, York County, Pennsylvania was, with his wife Sarah Hill and five children, converted to the Mormon faith on October 20,1836. They embarked on the Mormon epic journey through Nauvoo, Illinois and on to Salt Lake, Utah with Brigham Young.

Information herein on the early history of the family and the origins of James "Schim" Strong was provided by Miss Grace Williams, formerly SFAA Associate Historian for York County Strongs. In a letter to the author, she states: 35

"I am enclosing a chart on my James Strong. This was worked on by a cousin in Indiana, Penna. who was working on genealogy about 30 years before my time of 1955 when I became seriously interested. She was very accurate..., as I have been going back and obtaining proof on these items, I have not found any errors...I have rechecked the places she found marriages and baptisms, etc., and they are all correct...

"...the tradition that she found by visiting the area of York County back in the 1940's and 1950's ...The son of Adam Strong's farm was and is still there...they repeated to her the same tradition. He (James) was of Scotch-Irish descent, became indentured to Adam Ihmenheiser and later married the daughter. He learned the language also. He had two tombstones, one in English and one in German and these are copied in the York County cemetery records that were done in the 1930's. I have been to the cemetery, but they were gone by that time so no pictures could be taken.

"...March 7,1769 Anna Margaret Strong married Michael Peyrot (Beyrot, etc.) and James and Mary are married in November of that same year. There is a child baptised in 1771 for Anna Margaret and Michael... I feel there might be a connection between the two.

"A lot of people have become confused in the LDS Strongs. The Jacob of (the LDS Strongs) is a son of my James Strong, Jr., of Indiana Co., PA. The town of Strongstown in this county was named after James Jr..."

For further information concerning the LDS Strongs, readers are referred to "The Descendants of Jacob Strong, And His Wives' Sarah Hill and Alice Fish Bury Walsh", published in 1980 by The Jacob Strong Family Organization, Lewis Strong President, 2715 E. Banbury Road, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121.

Obviously, there are a considerable number of non-Mormon York County Strong descendants. Much of the genealogy of this family has been gathered by Emmett Bratt. See: The York County Pennsylvania Strongs , by Emmett Bratt. Note, there is some indication James "Schim" Strong may have had a sister, Anna Margaret Strong; she appears in the records of York County, PA, in the same time frame. Hypothetically, it is thought she may have joined him in York County after coming over from Ireland.

LANDGROVE VERMONT STRONGS:

According to J.R. Strong, of El Cajon, California, this line of Strongs springs from one James Strong, also known as James Robert Strong, who was born in Ireland in February, 1816. He married Amy Bolster, of Winhall Township, Bennington County, Vermont, in Pawlet, Vermont on April 3,1844. After the birth of their first child, Louisa Elisabeth Strong, March 23,1845 at Landgrove, Vermont, the family moved in the spring of 1846 to Haysville, Waterloo Township, Canada West, as Upper Canada, now Ontario, was known at in early times. Their next four children were born in Haysville, Wilmot Township, Waterloo County, Ontario. The family remained there until September, 1856, when they returned to Landgrove, Vermont. The couple's last child, Levi Julius Strong, was born in Landgrove, Vermont, April 7,1857.

The 1851 Canada Census indicates all family members were adherents of the Church of England while resident in Haysville, Ontario. James Strong was a wagon maker. The 1860 census of Landgrove, Vermont indicates that James Strong owned real estate valued at $250, and Louisa was a school teacher.

James Strong enrolled in Company A, 175th Regiment of New York Infantry on September 15,1862, at Troy, New York, to serve for a period of three years. He was mustered into service as a private on November 20,1862, at Newport News, Virginia. He was detached for temporary duty with the 2nd Battery, Vermont Light Artillary by order of General Gooding on March 9,1863. It seems likely he was ordered specifically to service the Gun Carriages in use by the Union Army during the Civil War when General Gooding learned of his skills as a Carriage Maker. He was reflected as a "gain" by the 2nd Battery on March 11,1863, serving with the 3rd Division, 19th Corps, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

In November, 1863, he was reported absent and sick in U.S. General Hospital at Port Hudson, Louisiana. On December 5,1863 he was reported as a "loss", having died in the hospital of chronic diairhea. James Strong is buried in Section 40, Grave 2664, Baton Roughe National Cametary, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He was described in his service record as follows:

Age_________44
Height ____ __5 feet, 8 inches
Complection__ Fair
Eyes_______ Grey
Hair _______ Dark
Where Born___ Ireland
Occupation ___Carriage Maker

The second child of James Strong and Amy Bolster was James Robert Strong. Born in Haysville, Ontario, April 3,1847, he moved with his family to Langrove, Vermont in the fall of 1856. Apparently while working as a young man in a woolen factory in Bennington, Vermont, he was disappointed in a love affair. He left Vermont, and moved to Sioux City, Iowa in 1871. He settled in Westfork Township, Woodbury County, Iowa in 1872, and on November 3, 1872, married Charity Adeline Bayne. They had ten children (see chart).

James Henry Strong received a very limited education in the common schools. In 1891, he was described in a history of Woodbury and Plymouth Counties Iowa, as being a "stock raiser, and large feeder and breeder of fine horses". He engaged in raising and shipping stock on his extensive farm, "Crescent Lawn Stock Farm", near Climbing Hill, Iowa. James Henry Strong died Sept 7, 1918, in Sioux City, Iowa.



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The LeStrange's of Salop, England
TYNAN ABBEY, COUNTY ARMAGH
CUMBERLAND, CARLISLE, and DUMFRIESHIRE
COUNTY ANTRIM & SOUTH CAROLINA STRONGS
COUNTIES DOWN, ANTRIM & ARMAGH:
MONAGHAN STRONGS OF BALLYBAY
STRONGS FROM COUNTY DONEGAL
TANNERY STRONGS OF DUBLIN
STRONGS OF FASSEROE, COUNTY WICKLOW, IRELAND, and the Stonemason Strongs
York County Pennsylvania Strongs and the Mormon Strongs
LANDGROVE VERMONT STRONGS
Footnotes:


Footnotes : A few words about the footnotes in this Webpage are in order. When I first began writing the book that became "Researching Strong(e) and Strang(e) in Britain and Ireland", 2nd Edition (Rootsweb) , I was writing for the traditional print format, and intended the documentation to be in the form of footnotes appearing at the end of each chapter. When I subsequently published the various chapters on the above website, the footnotes were presented in that format. However, as time went on, I found that it was easier to present the documentation of particular points immediately in the screen-text. Simply, it was easier to navigate to the documentation if it was immediately at hand, rather than having to go to the end of the webpage to find the documentation relied upon. Consequently, as my webpages have been added to and updated there are two different means of documentation provided: the "on-screen" text variety, and the traditional footnotes. Anyone curious as to the context in which the material was found may consult further with the references in the Bibliography.


1 Angelique Day, "Computer based index to the Irish Ordnance Survey Memoirs", Donegal Annual (1986), p.78.
2 D.J. Steel, "Sources for Scottish Genealogy and Family History", Phill- imore, London and Chichester (1970), p.47.
3 John Bernard Burke, "The Seats and Arms of the Noblemen and Gentlemen of Great Britain and Ireland"; Hurst and Blackett, Publishers,London, 1854; p.19-20.
4 County Armagh Hearth Money Rolls, appearing to be quite complete, are found on LDS film number 258572.
5 Subsidy Rolls for County Tyrone, LDS film number 1279356.
6 Summonister's Rolls for County Tyrone Assizes; Roll number 11, 19 March 21 James I, 1623/24. See LDS Film number 1279356.
7 "Burke's Peerage and Baronetage", 105th ed., London, 1978; p.2564.
8 Charles A. Hanna, "The Scotch-Irish Families of America", p.610-611, footnote 6.
9 John Bernard Burke, "The Seats and Arms of the Noblemen and Gentlemen of Great Britain and Ireland"; Hurst and Blackett, Publishers,London, 1854; p.19-20.
10 Time Magazine, February 2,1981; p.71.
11 Time Magazine, Feb.2,1981; p.71.
12 William L. Strong, "The Strongs of Medonte Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada" (1989). RR 7, Dunnville, Ontario, Canada N1A 2W6
13 John Cunningham, "The Role of the Caldwell Family in the Williamite Defence of the Erne and Donegal, 1689-1690", Donegal Annual (1978), p.254, 255ff.
14 Anthony Begley, "Graveyard Inscriptions at St. Annes Church of Ireland, Ballyshannon", Donegal Annual (1978), p.320, 321; "Towns of Sligo and Enniskillen, incld.Ballyshannon, Donegal", Londonderry Std. 1839.
15 Anthony Begley, p.321.
16 C. Conaghan, "The Antiquities of St. John's Point", Donegal Annual (1977), p.53-55.
17 Hearth Money Rolls for County Donegal, as reproduced on LDS microfilm number 1279356, part 5.
18 Anthony Begley, p.321.
19 Anthony Begley, p.321.
20 Commercial Directory, published by "The Londonderry Standard Office", Derry, 1839; p.90-91. See LDS Film number 100179.
21 Commercial Directory, published by "The Londonderry Standard Office", Derry, 1839; p.107-109. See LDS Film number 100179.
22 Samuel Lewis, "A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837", Vol.I, p.476, per Donegal Annual (1981), p.42.
23 W.H.Crawford, "The Murray of Broughton Estate, 1730", Donegal Annual (1977), p.22, 36-37.
24 Carew manuscripts, Connoly Estate; as transcribed by Dale G. Strong. See DGS, "The Descendants of John Strong...", privately pub. 1983; p. 44.
25 Killybegs Parish Records, as transcribed by Dale G. Strong. See "The Descendants of John Strong....", privately pub., 1983; p.50.
26 Commercial Directory, published by "The Londonderry Standard Office", Derry, 1839; p.116. See LDS Film number 100179.
27 Letter from Betty M. Ashley to David B. Strong, with enclosures, dated 15 February 1989.
28 R.J. Dickson, "Ulster Emigration to Colonial America, 1718-1775"; Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd,(1966); reprint Graham & Sons, Omagh, Co.Tyrone, N.Ireland, (1988). p.4.
29 Samuel Lewis, "A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837", Vol.I, p.476; per Donegal Annual (1981), p.92.
30 Rev. William R. Wood, Presbyterian Minister, Claremont, Pickering Township, Ontario, "Past Years in Pickering", 1911; p.234.
31 Co. Fermanagh Elector's Poll, 1788, p.21. See LDS Film number 1279356, part 7.
32 Letter from Dale G. Strong to David B. Strong, Feb., 1989. See also "History of Morgan County, Ohio", % Morgan County Library, Morgan County, Ohio.
33 Letter dated 5 Nov. 1988, from William E. Britnell, Mississauga, Ont- ario, author of "County Marriage Registers of Ontario, Canada, 1858- 1869".
34 David B. Strong, "The Strongs of Tuckersmith Township, Huron County, Ontario, Canada" (1987). Contact through the Rootsweb Strong-List.
35 Grace Williams, Strongsville, Ohio; letter dated Nov.2,1988.



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Created: Monday 25 August 1997, 6:15:58
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