Strongs of Donegal: The Website! with directions to: Book I "Strong(e)/Strang(e) Research in Britain and Ireland", and Book II "The Donegal Strong Puzzle"

The following Standards of Proof and Disclaimers apply to all parts of this website, including:
Strongs of Donegal: The Website!:
Book I "Strong(e)/Strang(e) Research in Britain and Ireland", and
Book II "The Donegal Strong Puzzle".

STANDARDS OF PROOF: The standards of proof applicable in Irish Genealogical Research may be somewhat different than those in most genealogical research. The catastrophic loss of records in the "Four Courts Fire" of 1922 left us with a pure and simple lack of many of the usual records upon which genealogists love to rely. There are few if any records which are "certifiable"... so you are unlikely to get Birth Certificates, Death Certificates, or Marriage Certificates for most events prior to 1864. There are few headstones in a nation where most people were too poor to afford the like. Additionally, many people emigrated aboard ships, the passenger manifests of which are missing. One is often left with circumstantial evidence and inferences based upon various elements.

Reference to some legal principles may be of assistance:
"Proof" is the end-result of the evidence introduced.... it is the establishment of a requisite degree of belief in the mind of the trier of fact as to the facts in issue. It is the cumulation of evidence which persuades the trier of fact.

In general, the burden of proof in civil cases requires proof by a "preponderance of the evidence"... such evidence as, when weighed with that opposed to it, has more convincing force, and from which it results that the greater probability of truth lies therein.

An "inference" is a deduction of fact made by the jury from the evidence presented. It is the reasoning process by which the trier of fact comes to conclusions as to the significance of the evidence. The drawing of inferences is largely a matter for the discretion of the trier of fact. If an inference is drawn, it must be logical and reasonable, based on the facts in evidence.

For a fact to be received in evidence, it must be relevant; i.e., it must have probative value.... logically tending to prove the proposition for which it is offered. The only test of relevancy is whether the offered evidence is logically of probative value. If the evidence is relevant, it must be admitted for consideration by the trier of fact unless it is subject to exclusion because it is hearsay, or privileged, or the like.

In presenting the material in this website, certain hypotheses have been proposed. Webster defines a "hypothesis" as "a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences... a formulation of a natural principle based on inference from observed data"; "theories" are "the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another.... an unproved assumption: conjecture.... a plausible principle offered to explain phenomena... "

This website represents an attempt to gather as much evidence as possible and to develop hypotheses which explain the history and genealogy of various Strongs and related families. It remains for the reader to determine whether by a preponderance of the evidence the facts gathered and considered in this website rise to the level of "proof" sufficient to establish these inferences, speculations and hypotheses as conclusory of the issues involved.

DISCLAIMER: No guarantees, either express or implied, are made about the accuracy of the information that appears on these web pages. The Site Manager is not responsible for errors in the data, nor from faulty analysis thereof. All data should be verified from original or primary sources, whenever those sources are available.

Go to: "Book I: Researching Strong(e) and Strang(e) in Britain and Ireland"; 1st Edition (Geocities)Copyright 1997-2001; David B. Strong; All Rights Reserved.
Go to: "Book I: Researching Strong(e) and Strang(e) in Britain and Ireland"; 2nd Edition (Rootsweb)Copyright 2001; David B. Strong; All Rights Reserved.

Go to the Donegal Strong PuzzleCopyright 1999-2001; David B. Strong; All Rights Reserved.

Please let us know if this page has been helpful! We would also appreciate being advised of any possible additions or corrections to the information set out here. Email: David B. Strong
Created: Wednesday, September 19, 2001 - 3:45:15 PM
Last Updated: Wednesday, October 10, 2001 - 9:22:04 AM

Copyright 2001 David B. Strong

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