CHAPTER I: WHAT'S IN A NAME?
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WHAT'S IN A NAME?
|N: (August 25, 1997)|
R: (Thursday, December 18, 2003)
|The title of this chapter, "What's in a Name?", is indicative of the questions underlying this book. Who are the people named Strong? Where did they come from? What is their heritage? What distinguishes them from other people? Why did they emigrate to new countries; when, and how? We will survey available information about Strongs in Northern England, Scotland and in Ulster, the northern province of Ireland, as well as the rest of Ireland , and attempt to answer these questions.|
Click on the indicated links to "jump" to particular discussions; (please note, you may have to use your browsers "back" function to return here):
Occurances of the Name: In exploring the roots of the name Strong as it occurs in Scotland and Ireland, it is helpful to briefly examine other occurrences of the name. There are several different Strong family groups in the United States and Canada, as well as other lands. On the basis of prior knowledge and his torical research, it has been assumed by most interested people that the name is predominately English in origin.
Indeed, it has been asserted that perhaps sixty percent
of the Strongs found in the United States are "New England"
Strongs, descendants of Elder John Strong of Northampton,
Massachusetts, and another twenty percent are "Virginia"
Strongs, descended from various possible early English colonial settlers of Virginia. The remainder
of Strongs, or another twenty percent, are claimed to be either descendants of
Black Slaves, a few Irish emigrants or of other origins. 1
Whether these percentages are accurate or not is not known,
nor is the information of much importance, other than to
point out the fact that there are different origins for
various families of Strongs.|
There are apparently about six main groupings of Strongs
in the United States and Canada:|
1) The descendants of Elder John strong, as detailed by Benjamin W. Dwight
in his book, "The History of the Descendants of Elder John Strong, of Northampton, Mass." 2,
recently updated under the auspices of The Strong Family Association of America. 3|
| It is clear that the New England Strongs are of English
descent. There is some degree of confusion as to the exact
lineage of the family before Elder John Strong. Benjamin
Dwight asserted that Elder John was born in Taunton, Somersetshire, England, in 1605, the son of one
Richard Strong, a descendant of a Shropshire (or Salop) family dating to 1545. 11|
It has also been asserted that Elder John's father was
one John Strong, and that his grandfather was George Strong
of Chard, Somerset. 12 There is a record of an English family
of "Nether-Strong", descended from George Strong of Chard,
through another son, Thomas. 13 It appears that Elder John
Strong and Thomas Strong may have been brothers, and
gave rise to two distinct lines of Strongs; one in America,
and one in England. See the Strong Family Association of America's website under "Ancestries" for the latest information sorting these relationships. It has been hypothesized that these Strongs of Somerset and Salop are possibly descended from scions of Anglo-Norman knights and aristocrats
named L'Estrange. A further hypothesis is that the English Strongs may be distantly related to Strongs claiming Scots and Irish descent. These hypotheses have recently been cast in doubt by the DNA Study. See the tenative DNA Findings and Conclusions.
2) The Virginia and Southern Strongs, as detailed
by James Robert Rolff in a privately published book entitled
"Strong Family of Virginia and Other Southern States". 4|
3) The Mormon Strongs, as detailed in "The Descendants of Jacob Strong", published
in 1980 by the Jacob Strong Family Organization, Salt Lake City, Utah. 5 There are elements
of confusion in researching the Jacob Strong family.
The name is certainly British, but discussion in the book
seems to indicate a German background. 6 The American origins
of the family are in York County, Pennsylvania. York County
is one of the Counties of Pennsylvania which was heavily
settled by Scots-Irish emigrants from Ulster in the mid 18th
century. 7 Jacob Strong's father, James Strong, may have been
Scots-Irish, or he may have been descended from one of Elder
John Strong's sons. 8 Alternatively, a name change from a
German origin may have been involved, or marriage to a German
family may have led to the confusion factor.|
4) Certain black Strong families believed to be
descended from former slaves owned by members of the Virginia
and Southern Strong families, to be mentioned later in the
5) Other sources: Some Strong families are believed to trace
their ancestry to immigrants from England, Wales, Scotland,
what is now the Irish Republic, and Germany who are not directly involved in the groups discussed above. 10|
6) Certain Strong families of "Irish" or
"Scots-Irish" ancestry. Available writings and findings discussing these families will be discussed later
in this work. It is believed most of these families emigrated to the United States, Canada, and other
countries from the province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland. The heritage of this last
group of Strongs is the main focus of this website and "book".|
Origin of surnames: The evolution of the name from
L'Estrange to Strong did not happen instantaneously, nor was
the evolution uniform. There are presently several different
surnames which apparently come from the same root, "L'Estrange".
These names include Strange, Strang, Strain, Straing, Storange,
Straunge, Strounge, and Stronge. It is instructive to examine
the derivation of these names.|
Great Britain was successively invaded by Celts, Angles,
Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and Norsemen before the Norman Conquest. There is a theory that
the name Strong was originally Gaelic in origin, having gone through an evolution from
McStrachan, to Strachan, and Strachn and Strahin, to Strong. 14 Certainly, the foregoing
names are often pronounced similarly to Strong, and there may be some Strong
families so derived. However, it seems most likely that this theory is based in the wishful thinking
of those who would have all good things be Gaelic in origin.|
The raven flag represents the Vikings reverence for the raven. When making long voyages
Vikings took along ravens and released them. They would fly in the direction of land leading
the Viking to safety. Thorifinn Karlsefini, brother of Leif Ericson, probably carried this banner
to the new world in 1003 A.D. Long before that, the appearance of the raven flag on Viking
long boats struck terror into the hearts of coastal dwellers in all of the British Isles, along the
French coasts of Brittany and Normandy, as well as else where throughout Europe.|
Professor George F. Black points out that "Strangi" is an
old West Norse given name. 15 This is striking information
when it is realized that many occurrences of the name Strong
are found in places touched by the Vikings. However, it is
probably too simple to attribute the name to this root alone.
The use of most surnames did not arise until about the
mid-1400s, long after the Vikings had assimilated into the
general Anglo-Saxon majority in Great Britain. 16 Nevertheless, this information may give some clues
as to the origin of the Strong surname.|
Obligations of Service: The French word, "lestrange", means "the stranger" or
"the foreigner" 17, and apparently was appended to certain
Bretton knights who visited or became tenants of William the
Conqueror. It seems logical that these strangers from the
Celtic region of Brittany would be so described by their
Norman hosts. They were likely welcomed because of their
status as allies of the Normans. Alternatively, as we will
see below, they may have been of Viking stock and vassals of
the Celtic lords of Brittany. They may originally have been
described as "the strangers" by the Brettons, with the name
being picked up permanently by the Normans.|
A brief discussion of the principles of feudalism is
perhaps appropriate to understand the relationships between
William the Conqueror and his followers. The chief relationship was one of lord and vassal. All land
tenure was derived from the paramount tenure of the supreme lord or king. Every subordinate holder
of land was a tenant and not an owner. The tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of
honorable service, not intended to be economic, but rather moral and political in character. 18|
There were mutual obligations of loyalty, protection
and service binding together all ranks of society from the
highest to the lowest. The contract of service between lord
and tenant determined all rights, controlling their modification, and formed the foundation of all law.
The foundation of the feudal relationship was usually land, but might be any
desirable thing, as an office, revenue in money or kind, or
the right to collect a toll or operate a mill. In return for
the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before the lord and promised him fealty
and service. The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted
the vassal's right and title to his fief. So long as these duties were fulfilled, he held the fief as his
property, practically and in relation to all tenants under
him as if he were the owner. 19|
Thus, a knight held his lands by right of "knight's service" to his over-lord, who might be a vassal
in turn of further over-lords, and thence upward to the king. The king could call upon all of his
vassals, and they upon their vassals, for service according to the nature of the contract
whenever affairs of state required. In it's purest and earliest form, the fief was not hereditary,
but dependant upon renewal of the oath of fealty by the deceased tenants heirs
to the over-lord. This discussion will be brought to mind again in future discussion of the relationships
between landlords and tenants in Scotland and Ireland in later chapters. 20
See Chapter II, sub-topic "Feudalism" for additional discussion of the meaning and legal consequence of certain feudal terminology.|
Role of Brettons at the Battle of Hastings: In Great Britain, the L'Estrange name can be traced to the invasion of England by William the Conqueror in 1066. As
Duke of Normandy, he included in his retinue a number of subordinate nobles and knights
from Normandy and neighboring Brittany. 21|
As will be seen in the following .gif images reproducing pages
from Setton, "The Norman Conquest", National Geographic
Magazine, August, 1966, p.206ff, the Brettons formed an
important element in the left flank of William the Conquerer
at the Battle of Hastings in 1066:|
Strange Origins: Together with Wales, Ireland, and the Scottish Highlands, Brittany was and is one of the surviving strongholds of the Celtic people who once ruled much of Western and Northern Europe. 22 Dol is a city or town located in Brittany, near the border with Normandy. 23
In the time of William the Conqueror, one Alan Fitzflaad
was hereditary Steward of the Lords of Dol in Brittany. 24
The occurrence of a name such as "Alan Fitzflaad", ringing
with Gallicism, in Celtic Brittany seems logical. Note that the
prefix "Fitz" used in this context indicates that Alan was "the son
of Flaad". Not long after the Norman Conquest, in 1122,
Fitzflaad's tenants in his English estates in Salop included
Roald L'Estrange. 25 The name "Roald" sounds Scandinavian
in origin, and this may indicate a Viking origin for the L'Estrange
line. As noted above, "Strangi" was an old West Norse given
name. 26 This is again consistent with what is known about the
origin of the Normans in France...they were descended from
Vikings who invaded what is known as Normandy in the 8th
through 10th centuries. 27 Query whether the L'Estranges were
"strangers" to the Celts or to the Normans, or really descendants
of a Viking named Strangi? We will probably never know. However, recent DNA evidence suggests the Lestranges of Brittany and England were strangers with a background in the Middle East... possibly dating to Roman times. See particularly DNA Notes #1 & 2 and DNA Note #6.|
Roald L'Estrange was probably the ancestor of Guy
L'Estrange, younger son of the Duke of Brittany, who together
with his older brother attended "a great joust or tournament
held at Castle Peverel, in the Peak of Derbyshire". 28 It is
known that the Brettons formed an element of William the
Conqueror's left flank at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. 29
Quite apparently they were rewarded well for their services
to the victor. As vassals of Alan FitzFlaad, the L'Estranges
received a large estate at Hunstanton, in Salop, as Shropshire was anciently known.
The relationships established by feudal law in Normandy remained in effect in the new domain
From this root came a long line of L'Estranges, including many who assumed the title of "Lord",
by writ from the English king. 30 The title is now extinct, but there are
tracings of the name in descendants in Scotland and Ireland
within recent history. 31 These Scots and Irish descendants
are probably distantly related to the English Strongs who
trace their roots to the L'Estranges of Salop. Further discussion will be found in the following pages. See also Volume 1, Books 1 and 2 of John R. Mayer's work entitled,
"Extraneus" for what is known of the genealogy of the
L'Estrange line. See Outline of Extraneus. Further see the John R. Mayer Memorial Web Page
for a discussion under the heading "Significance of his writing"
on the origin and development of the surnames in both England
and Scotland at:|
"John R. Mayer message, 6 Jul 1997 06:49:24 -0700
From: "John R. Mayer"
Subject: Devolvements Strange"
In a message dated 20 October 1998, Stuart Baillie Strong
writes as follows:|
From: Stuart Baillie Strong
(CONTACT through Rootsweb Strong-List)|
To: David B. Strong (CONTACT through Rootsweb Strong-List)
Date: Tuesday, October 20, 1998 1:18 PM
Subject: Re: Origins of STRANG/STRANGE of Scotland: A comment.
I think your ideas below that the origins of the Strangs of Balcaskie might be in Brittany are well worth investigating.
Does this mean that we Strongs are originally Vikings and
One source I tried researching was William McTaggart who
wrote in 1789 in his "Sketch of the History of Strang or
Strange of Balcasky..":|
"..it appears highly probable that the first person of this
family [Strang] was some eminent Warrior under the famous
King Robert Bruce, who for his signal services had been
rewarded with these lands;..."|
He also wrote:|
"...it is presumed that Thomas de Balcaskie had forfeited the Estate by his adherence to Balliol's, or King Edward's party, for John Strang had become proprietor of it, about the end of Robert's reign or the beginning of his son David's..."
McTaggart therefore paints a picture of the Strangs coming
into possession of the Balcaskie estate in the fourteenth
century backing the right horse among the contenders for the
throne of Scotland. The de Balcaskie family lost their
estate by backing the losers - Balliol and his patron King
Edward of England.|
Robert the Bruce was himself descended from Robert de Bruis
a Norman knight who came over with William the Conqueror and
then settled in Yorkshire in Northern England.
So maybe it is not impossible that the Strangs followed the
route you suggest below, the same route as the De Bruce's -
Normandy to England to Scotland.|
Unfortunately McTaggart dilutes the above story a bit by
proposing a second theory - that the Strangs got hold of the
lands of Balcaskie by marrying an heiress. McTaggart
writes about John Strang who married Cecilia de Anstroyther,
"..obtained, it is presumed as her Dowry, a Charter from the
said Richard [de Anstroyther of that ilk - brother of
Cecilia] of certain lands.... confirmed by King David 2d,
4th April 1362, in which Charter John is designed of
Stuart Baillie Strong
CONTACT through Rootsweb Strong-List
Stuart Baille Strong was writing in response to another theory which has
come to mind, as set out in the following message:|
|Recently, while reading a historical fiction novel by Nigel Trantor, a theory occurred to me regarding the origin of the name "Strange" in Scotland, which I thought might be worth sharing with interested researchers on the Strong-List.|
As many of you may know, the name Strong seems to be derived in Scotland
from an evolution of the names Strange > Strang> Strong, with little or no
known occurance of the name Lestrange. This, of course, contrasts with the
situation in England, where it can be shown that the surname Lestrange
occurs following the Norman Conquest, and thereafter apparently evolves into
Strange, Straunge, Strong, etc. Our late compatriot, John R. Mayer, carried
this so far as to theorize that although the English and Scottish names were
similar, they in fact did not have a common origin. He pointed out that
there is no evidence that Norman knights from England stayed in Scotland and
thereafter gave genesis to the Strange name. See: "Part III- Comments
regarding the significance of his work" in the John R. Mayer Memorial Web
"Thus, even if we discover specific routes of migration across the Atlantic,
we still must solve these questions about ultimate origins. Throughout
British history, we can trace the separate and parallel activities of
(1) Extraneus of England and (2) Strange of Balcaskie, and our extant
records seem to show us that these two families distributed themselves in
overlapping patterns. Thus, we may fairly easily detect a dichotomy
between Extraneus and Strange of Balcaskie in such places as London,
Ireland, and Wessex. Elsewhere and otherwise, the two families were
consistently distinct and exclusive of one another. "|
The research theory which has occurred to me arises out of the following
discussion by Nigel Trantor (for those who are unfamiliar with Trantor, he
is a remarkably well informed Scottish author of "historical faction"...
popularizing the history of Scotland from the days of St. Columba through
the "Rising" of Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1745 in some fourty novels...
probably largely based on factual knowledge he gained while writing a
multi-volume discourse on the history and architecture of the Castles of
In "The Lion's Whelp", published by Hodder and Stoughton, London (1997), at
page 163 ff, set in the years between 1437 and 1460, Trantor writes:|
|"Thanks to Bishop Kennedy.... the situation improved for members of the
royal family... (the minor King James II being held in close control by
contending political factions in the Scottish court)... Oddly enough,
troubles at the Vatican itself aided in this, especially increasing the
(Scottish) Primate's power and influence. A schism developed in the papacy,
a faction amongst the cardinals rebelling against (Pope) Eugenius and
setting up, at Basle, Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, as Pope Felix the Fifth. A
majority at Rome itself supported Eugenius, but a number of important states
favoured Felix, for political reasons. So there was now the scandal of two
Popes. This had its impact on Scotland, and Kennedy, for Eugenius, seeking
to strengthen his position, sent special nuncios to various lands, one not
unexpectedly to his friend (Kennedy) in Scotland. This was one Bishop
William Croyser, a Scot himself from Rome, and with him two aides named
Turnbull and Lithgow. These were to remain with Kennedy more or less
permanently, not just on any visit, but to counter efforts by Felix from
Basle. They took up residence at St. Andrews, and greatly enhanced
Kennedy's position. To have a papal nuncio as his constant support was as
highly advantageous as it was unusual... Now (King) James was allowed to
visit his family frequently,....|
" So the Church in what Eugenius was calling his loyalest northern kingdom
was very much in the ascendant, and its Primate (Kennedy) in a position to
exert major weight and sway. His nephew King James was a primary
".... one such opportunity occurred. This was the arrival of envoys from
France to interview and more or less inspect the Princess Isabella as bride
for Francis de Montfort, heir to the Duke of Bretagne, this match mooted for
"The Frenchmen brought satisfactory assurances and conditions, also gifts,
and themselves went away satisfied. Isabella was the quietest of the
family, but very pretty. She would go to Brittany in the autumn. The
envoys would also report back to the King of France regarding the other
daughters of (Dowager Queen) Joanna as an alternative wife for his heir the
dauphin (or heir apparent of the French crown)."|
There is, of course, much more to the story, and I recommend it, along with
Trantor's other novels, as an interesting read for anyone interested in
Scottish history. The point for us here, as Strong genealogists, is that
this scenario gives us the real possibility that the Strange family of
Balcaskie may have had origins in BRITTANY... which is the source of the
Lestrange family of England! |
The leStrange name apparently came to England born by Breton knights in the
service of the Norman, William the Conquerer. (This is why I display the flag of Brittany in my website)!
Balcaskie is located in Fife, [See Balcaskie area map] not far from the ancient seat of the Catholic church in pre-reformation Scotland:
St. Andrews (yes, where they play golf, too). The Strange family seat of
Balcaskie was acquired in the 15th century... in the time period being
discussed by Trantor above. |
|Could it be that the Strange progenitor of the Balcaskie line came over to Scotland (and stayed) as part of the entourage of the envoys from the "Duke of Bretagne (Brittany)"???? Could this be the missing link tieing the Scottish and English Strange families together????|
|Perhaps the DNA Study now underway will help answer this and other questions
concerning the origins of the various Strong, Stronge, Strang, Strange and LeStrange surnames.
See the DNA Results
and related web pages for further insights in this regard.|
I invite your further comment, RESEARCH, and investigation!!!|
Evolution of Surnames: As the official language of the English court
changed gradually away from the Norman French, so words and names
such as L'Estrange were absorbed into and corrupted into
various pronunciations of Anglo-Saxon English. 32 The various
forms of English speech prevailing in differing regions of
England and Lowland Scotland in turn gave rise to varying
spellings of words and names in the years before spelling became
uniform sometime in the 18th or 19th century. 33 As a
L'Estrange moved to Lowland Scotland, his name likely became
"Strange", and later "Strang", but pronounced with a broad
rolling "a". 34 To the English ear in early 17th century Ireland,
the name likely sounded like "Strong", and according to
the whim of the writer was variously spelled Strang, Strange,
Straunge, Stronge, or Strong.|
In all of this, we should not forget the very real possibility that the name Strong sprang from several different
roots. If the L'Estranges of Brittany sprang from one Viking
named Strangi, it is quite likely that there were sons of
other Strangi's to be found elsewhere the Vikings
touched...in their Scandinavian homelands, in Ireland, Scotland,
the Orkneys, the Isle of Man, and England. In these events, it is
likely the names evolved similarly.|
The story of how the descendants of the Viking Strangi's
or the Anglo-Norman L'Estrange's came to inhabit Scotland and
Ireland must involve a discussion of geographical relationships, and of the political and historical
context of Great Britain and Ireland in the period from roughly 600 A.D. to
the present, which will shortly follow.|
The outline of this book is along the chronology of historical events involving Strongs which
we can trace in Great Britain and Ireland. As we walk forward in time and explore
the footsteps of these people, references will be made to the
Genealogical Charts to be appended to the book. While we
have attempted a broad survey of the available material, we
do not represent that the work is complete. There are undoubtedly
references and sources as yet untapped. We hope the material
set forth here will give some guidance and prompting in searching
out more of the story.|
We also hope this work will provide a guide for those
attempting to devise a method of tracing their ancestors in
Britain and Ireland. The task is a formidable one. We found
it difficult to learn even the parameters of the problem.
While much has been written about the location of records,
and the lack of available records, little has been written
about methods of sifting through what is available, and how
to evaluate what is found. We believe the method we have set
out here is useful in "solving the puzzle!"|
|Our method is simply to try to massively and exhaustively examine the existing primary records for data concerning Scots-Irish and Anglo-Irish Strongs, making note also of significant absences of data, and then to place that data in the context of history. From this, we to try to impute the answers to the questions of who, what, where, when, why, and how concerning the Strongs of Ireland and Great Britain. It is necessary to rely heavily upon the use of existing secondary sources for the written material which gives us the "stuff" of history, and we do not claim much originality in what is written here. We have tried to give credit where ever appropriate. However, we do believe this work represents a fairly unique attempt to integrate in one work a comprehensive discussion of the family history of those people ethnically known in Canada, America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and elsewhere as English, Scottish, Scots-Irish or Anglo-Irish surnamed Strong, Stronge, Strang, Strange, leStrange, L'Estrange, LesStrang, deLestrange, D'Estreng, d'Estreng, String, Streing, Strain, Strangeways, Strangman, Strongman, and more!|
A few words about the footnotes in this Webpage are in order. When I first began writing the book that became "Researching Strong(e) and Strang(e) in Britain and Ireland", 2nd Edition (Rootsweb) , I was writing for the traditional print format, and intended the documentation to be in the form of footnotes appearing at the end of each chapter. When I subsequently published the various chapters on the above website, the footnotes were presented in that format. However, as time went on, I found that it was easier to present the documentation of particular points immediately in the screen-text. Simply, it was easier to navigate to the documentation if it was immediately at hand, rather than having to go to the end of the webpage to find the documentation relied upon. Consequently, as my webpages have been added to and updated there are two different means of documentation provided: the "on-screen" text variety, and the traditional footnotes. Anyone curious as to the context in which the material was found may consult further with the references in the Bibliography.
1 James Robert Rolff, "Strong Family of Virginia and Other Southern States", privately published (1982), introduction p.ii.
2 Benjamin W. Dwight, "The History of the Descendants of Elder John Strong, of Northampton, Mass.", Albany, N.Y., 1871; Gateway Press, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland, reprint 1984.
3 See the Update program, Strong Family Association of America, % Daniel C. Strong, 140 James Street, Franklin Square, N.Y. 11010
4 Rolff, "Strong Family of Virginia and Other Southern States", 1982.
5 "The Descendants of Jacob Strong" (1980), published by the Jacob Strong Family Organization, Lewis W. Strong, Pres., 2715 E. Banbury Road, Salt Lake City, Utah 84121.
6 "The Descendants of Jacob Strong", p.1,2.
7 George W. Page, "The 'Scotch-Irish' of North America", ABT PAF news- letter, Published by the Capitol Personal Ancestral File User's Group Inc., Bowie, MD, Vol.2,No.4, July-Aug-Sept 1988, p.16,20.
8 Dwight, "The Descendants of Elder John Strong", Appendix, Vol.II, p.1532-1533.
9 Virginia Draffin Waites, "Strong and Allied Families...from the Papers of Miss Esther Strong, Chester, S.C.", privately published, 1980; Rolff, "Strong Family of Virginia and Other Southern States".
10 Dwight, "Descendants of Elder John Strong", Vol.II, Appendices, II and III.
11 Dwight, "Descendants of Elder John Strong", Vol.I,p.15.
12 Burton W. Spear, "Was John Strong on the 'Mary and John' in 1630?", SFAA Newsletter, Volume XIV, Issue iii, October 1988.
13 Sir Bernard Burke, "A genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland", London, 1871, Vol.II,p.1333-1334
14 Dwight, "Descendants of Elder John Strong", Vol.I,p.15.
15 Prof. George F. Black, "The Surnames of Scotland", p.753.
16 Robert McCrum, William Cran, & Robert MacNeil, "The Story of English", Elisabeth Sifton Books/Viking, 1986, p.83-84.
17 Prof. George F. Black, "The Surnames of Scotland", p.753.
18 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Feudalism", Vol.9,p.202,204.
19 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Feudalism", Vol.9,p.202,204.
20 Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Feudalism", Vol.9,p.202,204.
21 Kenneth M. Setton, "The Norman Conquest", National Geographic Magazine Vol.130, No.2, August, 1966, p.206ff.
22 Howell Walker, "France Meets the Sea in Brittany", National Geographic Magazine, Vol.127, No.4, April,1965, p.470ff.
23 Walker, "France Meets the Sea in Brittany", p.474-475.
24 Geoffrey M. White, ed., "The Complete Peerage, or a History of the House of Lords and its members from the Earliest Times", The Saint Catherines Press, 29 Great Queen St., Kingsway W.C., London, 1953.
25 White, "The Complete Peerage", Vol.'Skelmersdale to Towton,p.347
26 Prof. George F. Black, "The Surnames of Scotland", p.753.
27 Setton, "The Norman Conquest", National Geographic Magazine, August 1966, p.206ff; Encyclopedia Britannica (1959), "Normandy", Vol.16, p.493.
28 Burke's Peerages, p.311-312.
29 Setton, "The Norman Conquest", National Geographic Magazine, August 1966, p.206ff.
30 White, "The Complete Peerage", Vol. Skelmersdale to Towton, p.340ff.
31 Black, "The Surnames of Scotland", p.753; Burke's Peerage
32 McCrum, Cran & MacNeil, "The Story of English", p.75-81.
33 McCrum, Cran & MacNeil, "The Story of English", p.85ff.
34 McCrum, Cran & MacNeil, "The Story of English", p.141-161.
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Please let us know if this chapter has been helpful! We would also appreciate being advised of any possible additions or corrections to the directory set out here. Contact David B. Strong through the Rootsweb Strong-List.
Created: Monday 25 August 1997, 6:28:56
Previous Update: Monday, May 12, 2003 - 1:50 PM
Last Updated: Thursday, 18 December, 2003
Copyright ©1997, 1998, 2003
David B. Strong. Click for contact information.