||Finland was buried under a sheet of ice. (4)
||Relics of human culture dating to this period have been
||The Comb-Ceramic Stone Age culture spread throughout
Finland. Artefacts include pottery. (4)
|1800 -1600 BC
||The Battle Ax or Cord-Ceramic culture moved into Finland,
possibly from Baltic migration. Artefacts include distinctive axes,
burial relics and pottery. (4)
|1600 -1200 BC
||A hybrid culture of the Battle Ax people and the original
stock became known as the Kiukainen culture. By this time agriculture
was well-established. (4)
|1300 - 500 BC
||Bronze was introduced to Finland but was an imported
||Tacitus describes "the Fenni" as a wild and
very poor people; he may have referred to the Lapps (1) (4)
|100 - 400 AD
||Migrations from the southern
Baltic occur, particularly from Estonia
to Finland. (4)
|400 - 800 AD
||Finland strengthened ties with Scandinavia. An
independent Iron Age culture developed. (4)
|1155 - 1809
||Part of the Kingdom
||Crusades were made by Sweden into Finland by order of the
Pope to establ;ish Roman Catholicism. (6) Finns lived in clans at this
||Finland became incorporated into the Kingdom of Sweden.
Finland was treated equally and had Parliamentary representation (2) (6)
Scandinavian legal and social systems became integrated into Finland.
Monastic orders developed in Finland. (2)
Iceland, Sweden and Finland came under one rule under the Union of Kalmar
when Eric of Pomerania became ruler of all these kingdoms. (5) (2)
|1495 - 1497
War" occurred when Russians destroyed large areas of Ostrobothnia.
||The Treaty of Kalmar
was broken by Gustav Vasa and Sweden revolted from the union with
Denmark and Norway. (5) (2)
||Relations with the Pope
were broken off.
Gustavus Vasa (King of Swede, 1523 - 1560) established the Lutheran
Church in Sweden and Finland. (5) (6)
||Translation of the New Testament into Finnish and
development of a Finnish grammar was made by Mikael Agricola (1510-1557), Bishop
of Turku, leader of the Reformation in Finland. (6)
|1563 - 1570
Years War when Denmark-Norway defeat Sweden. (5)
||Augsburg confession adopted as the doctrine of the Church
of Sweden-Finland. (6)
||"Mallet War" -
the farmers of Ostrobothnia and
Central Finland revolted against the nobles. (6)
|16th, 17th & 18th centuries
||Intermittent conflicts with Russia
|1611 - 1632
||Thirty Years War during
the reign of Gustavus Adolphus II. Sweden and Finland were involved. (5)
||Establishment of the University at
Turku (Abo), brought about by
Per Brahe, the Governor-General of the time. (6)
||Ability to read became a condition under Church Law for
marriage and Holy Communion. (6)
||Finland was preserved
from serfdom by the restoration of estates which had become the property
of the nobles; this broke the nobles' feudal power. (6)
||Devastating famine; population dropped from 500,000 to
||"The Great Northern War".
From 1713-1721, during the "Great Wrath" Russia invaded
Finland and maintained a long reign of terror. (6)
Sweden lost significant power and territory. (5) (7)
|1741 - 1743
War". In 1743 the Peace of Turku concluded another war with Russia
at the price of considerable Finnish territory. (7)
||Population was 430,000.
||Finnish separatist movement
was developing. (6) An influential
person in this was Henrik Porthan (1739 - 1804), the "father of
Finnish history". (2)
||War with Russia; a bid
for Finnish independence was made by the Anjala league, an officer
conspiracy in 1788. (6)
War" was fought between Sweden & Russia. (7)
Under the Treaty of Hamina, Sweden ceded Finland to Russia. Tsar
Alexander I became the constitutional monarch of Finland, assuring
limited self-government to Finland as a Grand Duchy of Russia. A
State Council of Finns was appointed. (6)
||Autonomy under Russia
|1825 - 1853
||Under Tsar Nicholas I a new capital for Finland was
developed at the fishing port of Helsinki with neo-classical buildings
designed by C.L. Engel. (2)
||National movement awoke.
The impetus to adopt Finnish as the mother-tongue developed,
particularly influenced later by Snellman, the great Finnish statesman.
||The Kalevala, the national epic of Finland, was collected
and published by Elias Lönnrot. (6)
||The tales of Ensign
Stahl, a body of heroic patriotic poems by J.L. Runeberg and based
on the stories of Carl Gustav Polviander, were very influential in
keeping alive the memory of Russia as an enemy. (6)
|1853 - 1881
||Under Tsar Alexander II Finnish autonomy continued.
Local government was developed; elementary schools were established and
a national army was permitted. (6) In
1864 Finnish peasants were allowed to buy land. (2)
||Aleksis Kivi published Seven brothers.
|1879 - 1880
||The first ship is taken
through the Arctic via the Northeast Passage by the Finnish explorer,
A.E. Nordenskiöld. (5)
|1881 - 1894
||Under Tsar Alexander III
some of Finland's earlier rights were encroached upon. (6)
Rural poverty led to large-scale emigration to the United States. (5)
|1894 - 1917
||Under Tsar Nicholas II Finland lost much of its autonomy.
A policy of russification of Finland was initiated. (6) Censorship & conscription were introduced.
|1865 - 1957
||Jean Sibelius, the
late- Romantic composer, became a significant part of the "renaissance" of culture in the north.
||Finns were able to
secure their modern parliament after the disruption
caused by the 1905 revolution in Russia and the Russo-Japanese War. (2)
However, there was a second period of Russian oppression between 1908
and 1914. (7)
||Universal suffrage for all men & women was introduced.
The four estates of nobility, clergy, burghers and farmers were
abolished. (6) This was "the most radical parliamentary reform in
||Finland - an
||Finland became independent from Russia on 6 December 1917
after Lenin seized power and the Russian army collapsed. (6)
||From 18 January to 15 May a civil war took place in
Finland between the "Whites" and the "Reds", Soviet
sympathisers and radical socialists. The "Whites" won under
the leadership of Carl Gustav Mannerheim. The first regent of Finland
was P.E. Svinhufvud followed by Field Marshal Mannerheim. The first president of Finland
was K.J. Stahlberg. (6) (2)
||The Peace of Tartu formalised peace with Russia and
Finland's independence. (6) (2)
Finland became a member of the League of Nations. (6)
|1929 - 1931
||The Great Depression.
Many Finns emigrated.
||The Lapua movement led
to the great peasants' march to Helsinki, followed by armed rebellion
in 1932. (2)
|1939 - 1940
||On 30 November Russia attacked Finland leading to the
start of the Winter War; this lasted 100 days. Peace negotiated with Russia.
|Finnish soldiers living
in the forest during the Winter War, at the entrance to their
"home". Heikki Bäckström, second from right.
||"Operation Barbarossa" - Hitler attacked Russia.
Finland was bombed and had to enter the war alongside Germany. (7) (2)
||"The Continuation War" with Russia in which
65,000 Finns died and 158,000 were wounded. Finland paid huge war reparations
in full. Peace was negotiated in September 1944. (7) (2)
||Finland fought against
Germany in Lapland. (7)
||Finland & the Soviet Union signed the Treaty
of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance. This formed the basis
of what became known as the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line, a neutral foreign
policy attempting to balance east and west. (7) (2)
||The Olympics were held
||Finland joined the Nordic
Council and the United Nations. (7)
||The Conference on Security
and Co-operation in Europe was held in Helsinki bringing together east
and west in a climate of diplomacy and neutrality. (7) (2)
||Finland became a member
of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme. (2)
||On 1 January Finland joined the European Union.
||Finland changed its currency to the Euro.