Charles CHRISTOPHER (c1705-1791)
Agricultural Labourer
of Fordington

©Compiled by Michael Russell OPC for Fordington 2009 - Last updated February 2017

Link to House of CHRISTOPHER Master File

1. Ancestry:

The recent release of digital images in 2011 of parish registers for most of Dorset together with their indexation has meant that we have now been able to identify previously unknown records that take us back another four generations. Charles is now thought to be one of the surviving sons of Humphrey and Anna CHRISTOPHER and born at or close to Hazelbury Bryan in Dorset around the year 1705 when there is a convenient gap in the otherwise regular baptisms for their children (1). More information about this family can be accessed via the link provided.

The church of St Mary and St James - Hazelbury Bryan
where Charles Christopher grew up

© Picture Copyright Trish Steel and licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons Licence.
[More pictures of the Church and Font can be accessed via this link.]

Hazelbury Bryan is situated in the Blackmore Vale and lies 12 miles north east of Dorchester as the crow flies, but today is more like 16 miles by road. Even this would have been considered easy walking distance in 17th and 18th Centuries. His father Humphrey Christopher (junior) was baptised in Hazelbury Bryan on 14th July 1665 the son of Humphrey Christopher (senior) by his wife Ann Scamell. His grandfather had settled in the parish in 1658 and died there in 1703 followed by his father in 1724. Indeed we believe that it was the death of Humphrey Christopher junior in 1724 that led to his surviving sons Charles and Joseph leaving the parish, probably in search of work. Charles came to Fordington and his brother Joseph settled at Cheselbourne. The brothers families however remained in close contact and this led to Charles son John eventually marrying and settling in Cheselbourne to live in 1760. Unfortunately a lot of the burial records for Cheselbourne are missing so we don't know when Joseph died, but Charles son supported his widow Joan Christopher after Joseph's death and when she became very ill in 1781 he was even paid by the overseers of the poor to nurse her for 7 weeks prior to her death, but we are getting ahead of ourselves.

2. Charles CHRISTOPHER (1705-1791) & Elizabeth ALLEN (1705-1792)

Charles was still a young boy when George I became King in 1714 and the war of Spanish Succession came to an end with the signing of the treaty of Utrecht. This treaty among other things forced Spain to accept the loss of Gibraltar, something they are still seeking to recover today some 300 years later. George I died in June 1727 a couple of years after Charles arrived in Fordington and just six months prior to his marriage. His successor George II was to reign for the next 34 years but his ascendancy to the throne in 1727 was no doubt of little direct consequence to Charles who like the majority of the population at this time worked on the land as an agricultural labourer.

Dorchester was the largest market town in the area and a major crossroads for trade and Charles would have been hired by one of the local landowners at the annual fair there. Dorchester had a vibrant history being a center of non conformity in the 17th Century and many of its wealthy patrons directly involved in the major events of the day. Fordington, by contrast, was at that time a separate village but its parish surrounded Dorchester on three sides and its high street ran on from that of Dorchester. Although there were some wealthy people within the parish this was on a different scale from Dorchester and to a large extent the parish housed the less well off, particularly agricultural labourers who often worked in nearby Fordington Fields.

Marriage to Elizabeth ALLEN 1727:

The church of St George - Fordington as it looked
when Charles Christopher & Elizabeth Allen married there on 27th Dec 1727

© Copyright Michael Russell FIPD - Picture taken prior to 1905

Fordington is shown as Charles home parish when he married Elizabeth ALLEN (1705-1792), in St Georges church on 27th December 1727, so he had been resident in Fordington long enough to obtain settlement there (i.e. in excess of 12 months). Elizabeth was 22 years old at marriage and a native of Fordington having been baptised in the church on 16th July 1705, as were her later siblings. She was the daughter of James ALLEN (c1675-1729) and his wife Anne TOMMS (1679-1750) who had also married there on 19th May 1702. St Georges Church had therefore been very much at the center of their lives for many years and had not changed much over that time, looking very much as it did when the above photograph was taken in 1905. The much more extensive version of the church we recognise today came about as a result of the efforts of the Rev RG Bartelot who was Vicar there from 1906 to 1936. Over the next 20 years after their marriage, Charles & Elizabeth (who was better known to family and friends as 'Betty'(2) ) raised a family of 8 children in Fordington and they remained firmly entrenched in the parish throughout their long life together.

3. Baptism of 8 Children:
St Georges Church Fordington

15th Century Font in which they were baptised

The Parish Baptism Registers show that Charles and Elizabeth had the following eight children baptised in the above font in St Georges Church Fordington by the vicar the Rev. John JACOB BCL (1690-1759) who was vicar there from 1714 until his death in 1759.

    3.1 Charles CHRISTOPHER (1728-1814) named after his father he was baptised on 30th June 1728. Like many others in the family when he grew to adulthood he moved around the area in search of employment and was working in nearby Broadway when he met and married Ann GAPE (1731-1787) the eldest child of Andrew GAPE of Cerne Abbas . They married on 12 June 1755 in the tiny church of St Nicholas in a small hamlet to the west called Buckland Ripers. They raised a family of 4 children in Radipole and Kimmeridge(3) before Ann was buried on 22 Aug 1787 in St Peters church Winterbourne Came . Many of the family ended up in this parish where Charles lived until he was over 86 being buried there on 16th Feb 1814.(4)

      3.1.1 Elizabeth Christopher (1755-1842) born at Radipole we know she was baptised at St Ann's church in the village on 27 May 1755 as an entry to that effect survives in the parish Registers for Melcombe Regis of which St Anne's was a chapel at that date. She married James Buckler in Winterbourne Came 25 Nov 1777 and raised a family of 4 children at Thornford (1779-1784) before moving to West Stafford where their firth child Charles was baptised in 1788. In 1789 they claimed poor relief at West Stafford and the Overseers demanded he come in for a settlement examination which he refused to do. A warrant for his arrest was therefore issued and he was brought to jail on 12th Dec 1789. As a result a removal order for James Buckler Junior and his wife and 5 children was issued from West Stafford to Thornford. Thornford appealed but the order was upheld on 12th Jan 1790 and removal took place. Elizabeth died in Sherborne Workhouse in Dec 1842 when they recorded her age as 97 (it was actually 87). Her body was returned to her home parish of Thornford where burial which took place on Christmas Eve 1842.

      3.1.2 James Christopher was born about 1757 at Radipole but no baptism has been found in the Melcombe Regis parish register. By the mid 1770's his parents had moved to live at Winterbourne Came which was still his place of settlement when he married his first wife in 1789. After Banns were read he married Martha Winzar (1774-1802) at St George's church in Fordington on 19 Oct 1789. Martha was the third of 7 children of John & Elizabeth Winzar and had been baptised at St George's church on 30th Oct 1774. She may have been born a year or so earlier as her nearest elder sibling, Samuel Winzar, had been baptised there in May 1771, but was clearly only around 15 to 17 years old. She must have had the permission of her father John Winzar however as he acted as one of the witnesses. They had 3 children as shown below in Fordington before they returned to Winterbourne Came. She died there giving birth to their 4th child, John Christopher, Martha being buried at St Peter's church in the parish on 24th Sep 1802.

        ( James Christopher (1792-1840) bap Fordington St George's church 17th June 1792 he married Elizabeth Coward (1791-1853) at Hampreston on 10th Jul 1820 and was buried at Blandford Forum 30th Sep 1840
        ( Ann Christopher (1794-1864) bap FStG 14th Sep 1794 married an agricultural labourer Henry Adams at Blandford Forum 3rd Sep 1818 and had 7 children. She was buried at Spetisbury 25th Nov 1864

        ( Mary Christopher (1799-1833) bap FStG 21st Apr 1799 married a basket maker Charles Tucker Stainer (1797-1869) at Blandford Forum 10th Oct 1819 and had 6 children being buried there 2nd Oct 1833. Her husband remarried in the parish to Elizabeth Rideout 21 Mar 1860.

        ( John Christopher (1802-1847) he was born abt Sep 1802 at Winterbourne Came when his mother died and was not baptised until 5th May 1805. He married 3 times. Firstly to Rebecca Lucas (1800-1831) when he was described as a sojourner in the parish at Puddletown on 16th Aug 1825. Rebecca was buried at Winterbourne Came aged 31 on 20th Oct 1831. Now described as a widower he married secondly to Mary Norris (1802-1839) at FStG 29th Jan 1832 and they lived in the parish until her death aged 36 and burial there on 28th June 1839. His third, and much more successful marriage, as they had 5 children as shown below, was to Anne Holloway (1813-1871). After marriage they lived in Fordington, mainly in Mill Street where John died at the age of 44 being buried at St George's church on 27th Jan 1847.

      James Christopher married 2ndly Mary Bishop in Fordington on 23 Feb 1803 and moved to Winterbourne Came where another daughter Sarah was born. Mary Bishop came from a relatively well off family. Her father was Philip Bishop (1750-1836) a Yeoman who owned at least two dwelling houses in Fordington, one in Holloway Row. He father had married her mother Martha nee Bott (1749-1834) at Winterbourne Monkton on 12th May 1772 and they had 5 children in Fordington, Mary being their 4th child and baptised at FStG on Christmas Eve 1787.

        ( Sarah Christopher (b.1804) bap Winterbourne Came 29 Jan 1804; she married a sawyer by trade called married Robert Sansom (1833-1919) on 9th May 1829 at Winterbourne Came. They had a daughter Fanny Samson bap at Owermoigne in Dorset on 6th Jan 1833. Sarah died young, circa 1832, as Robert Sanson remarried to Ann Lucas at Lyme Regis on 16th April 1833 when he described himself as a widower. She is probably the Sarah Christopher? aged 28 buried at Wyke Regis on 18th Apr 1832.

      3.1.3 Joseph Christopher (1759-1793) born about 1759 at Radipole as far as we know he remained a bachelor and was buried at St Peters Church in Winterbourne Came on 12th March 1793.

      3.1.4 Charles Christopher (1761-1791) He was baptised at Kimmeridge on 6th Dec 1761. He remained a bachelor and died at the young age of 29 being buried at St Peters Church in Winterbourne Came on 21st Nov 1791. He appears to have died in the nearby parish of Whitcombe as the the Coroner George Andrews was paid for carrying out an inquest upon him at the Easter sessions in 1792.

    3.2 James CHRISTOPHER (1732-1818) was baptised on 26th April 1732. In 1758 he was listed along with 75 other individuals by the parish constable as being fit for service in the Militia and a labourer living within the parish. He also married that year(5) to a lady known throughout the family as 'Holloway' and they produced a family of 9 children all baptised in Fordington between the years 1759 and 1779(6) . James, also an agricultural labourer, lived with his wife in Fordington until her death in 1794 her burial being in the graveyard at St Georges Church Fordington on 18th May that year. He acted as a witness at the wedding of his grandson John Dart in the church of St Michael in nearby Stinsford on 9th April 1810. Towards the end of his long life when he became too old to work, he moved to Upwey to live with his son James and his wife Hannah where he died, but his body was returned to Fordington for burial with his wife on 11 Nov 1818 when his age was given as 93 although in reality it was nearer to 86.

      James and Holloway Christopher had nine children baptised in St Georges Church Fordington:-

      (3.2.1) Mary Christopher (1759-1833) bap FStG 25 June 1759; She married an agricultural labourer called James Dart (1751-1791) in Fordington on 26th Jan 1777. At the time he was serving in the Dorset Militia having enrolled at the 'Kings Arms Hotel' in Dorchester on 13th May 1776 for a period of 3 years. They raised a family of 4 children in Fordington between 1777-1785 and the three more in Stinsford between 1778-1790 before her husband James died and was buried at St Michael's church in Stinsford on 5th Oct 1791. Mary also died in the hamlet of Bockhampton in the parish of Stinsford at the age of 74 and was buried with her husband on 12 Sep 1833;

      (3.2.2) John Christopher (1761-1764) bap FStG on 14 Sep 1761, he died in infancy being buried there on 13 Sep 1764.

      (3.2.3) Thomas Christopher (1763-1827) bap FStG on 23 Oct 1763; he married Elizabeth Fumage (1764-1850) at Melcombe Regis on 8th April 1792 and died at Lytchett Minster in 1827 (Follow link for more information about research into his life)

      (3.2.4) Elizabeth (Betty) Christopher (1765-1833) bap FStG on 10 Nov 1765 she married William Lucas (1761-1835) in Fordington on 31 May 1787and had 11 children in Fordington and Puddletown where she was buried 18 Dec 1833. Her husband only survived her by 2 years joining her in St Mary's graveyard on 17th Dec 1835

      (3.2.5) Ann Christopher (1768-1791) bap FStG on 14 Apr 1768 she married William Harden 13 Jan 1788 and had at least 1 child before her burial in Fordington on 16 July 1791), William Harden remarried at FStG to Sarah Toop on 21 Aug 1792

      (3.2.6) Sarah Christopher (1770-Bef 1779) bap FStG on 24 June 1770 although we have not been able to locate a burial she appears to have died an infant as they name another child Sarah in 1779

      (3.2.7) Holloway Christopher (b.1772) bap 21 FStG on June 1772 (no subsequent trace);

      (3.2.8) James Christopher (1775- 1848) bap FStG on 4 June 1775. As a young man he moved to Upwey obtaining settlement there some time prior to 1797.

      St Lawrence Church - Upwey
      © Picture Copyright Nigel Mykura and licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons Licence.

      He married Hannah White (1778-1832) in St Lawrence church in the parish on 18th January 1798. Hannah had been baptised in the same church on 21st Jun 1778 and was the third child of of William White (1741-1832) and Hannah Taylor (1746-1832). James occupation by 1815 was being described as that of a 'pig jobber' , 'pig herder' or 'pig dealer'. James & Hannah raised a family of 10 children in Upwey before Hannah died there at the age of 54. Her mother Hannah nee Taylor had died in the village when she was aged 76 in 1822, and I think her aged father came to live with them at that time. Hannah Christopher was buried at St Lawrence church on 15th July 1832, and joined a week later by her father William White who was by then aged 90. A few years later James Christopher moved to nearby Broadwey renting a house and garden with an orchard from Benjamin House. This is shown as lots 103 and 104 on the 1840 tithe map and the 1841 census shows us James living there working as a pig dealer with the help of his 15 year old son Enoch. James presumably moved again as he was buried at St Martins church in the parish of Broadmayne on 22nd Sep 1848 aged 73. Their 10 children were:-

        ( William Christopher (1800-1812) he was baptised at Upwey on 23rd June 1800. An article in the Salisbury and Winchester Journal published for Monday 27th July 1812 states " On Thursday evening William Christopher a lad of about 12 years of age was by some accident caught in the gear of the dressing Mill of J & B Hopkins of Upway Dorset and killed in an instant" He was buried under a coroners warrant in St Lawrence churchyard on the 19th.

        ( James (alias George) Christopher (1802-1858).
        Born as James Christopher he was baptised at the above church of St Lawrence in Upwey on 12th December 1802 and grew up with his siblings in the village. From a young age he worked in the surrounding fields as an agricultural labourer and married there on 27th December 1830 to Ann Green (1812-1869). Ann had also been baptised at St Lawrence Church on 27th December 1812 so she was 18 years old at marriage and the certificate confirms that she had the consent of her parents. They were to raise a family of 7 children as shown below between 1831 and 1851, but for over a decade we could not locate anything about James life after he married, apart from the baptism of his children. These showed that he had become a coastguard in late 1840 - early 1841 but there was still no trace of him as he was not with his family or anywhere else in any of the census returns. I am grateful for the research carried out by Susie Hall as our first clue came by tracing the lives of his children, when we discovered their daughter Hannah Christopher (1832-1884) and suddenly married on 22nd Jan 1854 to William David Spiller (1827-1904) another coastguard and gave the name of her father as George Christopher. This of itself was not straightforward as they married not in Dorset, but at Minster on the Isle of Sheppy in Kent, but we were helped by William and Hannah maintaining a family bible into which they faithfully recorded subsequent births, marriages and deaths of their children and investigations into George Christopher and William David Spiller's lives. Final confirmation that James Christopher had used the alias George Christopher came after his death from a document held at the Admiralty.

          Background: The Coast Guard was formed in 1822 by the amalgamation of three existing services: The "Preventative Water Guard" had been established in 1809 and may be regarded as the immediate ancestor of HM Coastguard. It's primary purpose was to prevent smuggling but it was also responsible for giving assistance to Shipwrecks. This service was combined with the shore based "Riding Officers" formed to prevent the movement of smuggled goods inland, and the sea-going "Revenue Cruisers" in 1822. Later in 1831 "The Coastal Blockage, which was a string of Martello Towers on the Kent and Sussex Coast, also became a part of the Coast Guard bringing the combined complement to 6,700 men. The new Coastguard inherited a number of shore stations and watch houses as well as several coastal vessels and these provided bases for it's operations over the following years.

          With a heavy emphasis on the prevention of smuggling it was concentrated most heavily along the Kent and Sussex coast where in the early years most organised smuggling activity occurred. Coast Guard Officers were therefore always experienced seamen, and often ex Royal Navy and it was usually a Royal Navy Lieutenant that became the Chief Coast Guard at a station. With Admiralty type organisation and discipline the force gradually became a valuable reserve of experienced sailors that could be drawn upon in times of National emergency. It was often dangerous work with coastguard's being unpopular with the locals who benefited from smuggling and many men deliberately kept their wives and children away from the area where they worked for their protection. This appears to be what happened with James Christopher, who left his wife and family in Dorset, but also adopted the alias of George Christopher as an additional protection whilst he lived away.

        James (alias George) Christopher is not with his family in 1841 and does not seem to have been included in the Census at all. Possibly because he was in the Royal Navy, although we have not traced him in any of the surviving records which are few and far between for this period. As stated above however the baptism certificates of his children from 1842 all record his occupation of that of Coast Guard. We have managed to locate him under his alias in the 1851 Census at the Coastguard station at Minster on the Isle of Sheppy in Kent recorded as George Christopher married aged 44 (1807?) born in Dorsetshire (no town given) where he is recorded as one of the Commission Boatmen.

          Newspaper Reports: The following have been extracted from the Times Newspaper and relates to the coastguards in the Parish of Minster.

          • 26 May 1852 men belonging to the coast guard are practiced every Thursday at Minster in the great gun and small arms' exercise, by the Inspecting Commander Webb, assisted by Lieutenant Baker, according to the mode at present in use on board Her Majesty's ships and vessels of war. (on 27 May Commander WH. Webb pointed out that the day selected for training was not fixed, but varied, so that smugglers did not use this training day as an opportunity to take advantage !)

          • 8 June 1853 Sheerness - A number of Coast Guard men, selected for service in the navy, being late men-of-war's men who have entered the Coast Guard, and now in this district, have received orders to hold themselves in readiness for being immediately draughted to ships in commission and fitting at this or any other ports. It is reported that 8,500 seamen, serving at present in the Coast Guard in the united kingdom, are under similar orders. These alone it is calculated, will man 10 sail of the line with first rate experienced seamen accustomed to all naval discipline and customs.

          • 11 June 1853 There is a reference to the Coast Guard exercises at Sheerness (see above), which ends "These Coast Guard men, 30 in number, return to their respective districts in England, Ireland and Wales, during the week, for the purpose of instructing the whole of the force employed in the Coast Guard service. They appear to be very orderly, and their proficiency goes far to prove how valuable this branch of the navy may be made for the defence of the country, afloat, or ashore, when properly instructed.

        HMS Waterloo in 1877 at Greenwich when she was renamed HMS Warspite

        We have also managed to locate George Christopher on 10th February 1854 when he was aboard HMS Waterloo being trained. This makes it clear that he was a part of the force called up because of the exigencies of the Crimean War. He is shown as having been given the rank of Able Seaman [i.e. a rank above that of ordinary seaman] and that he received “£1-1-3d 2 months advance £9/6/0d”. Also on that course with him on HMS Waterloo was another coastguard called William David Spiller who had recently married in the Parish of Minster on Sheppey on 22nd January 1854 to a Hannah Christopher his daughter. She names George as her father on the marriage certificate and was baptized 14 April 1833 in Upwey Dorset. We can be sure of her lineage as William & Hannah Spiller eventually return to Dorset to live at Chickerell and Hannah’s daughter is present at the death of her mother Ann nee Green.

        His death Certificate as George Christopher 28th Feb 1858         and The Admiralty Record dated 21st May 1858

        George Christopher died from disease of the heart at Scrap Gate in the Parish of Minster on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent on 28 February 1858 after suffering for 2 months from Dropsy. Unfortunately the informant was a William G Bishop, a shipwright who originated from Pembrokeshire in Wales and lived with his wife Ellen in East Lane Minster and was presumably just a friend. There was probably an attempt to inform relatives as the registration was not until 1st March and burial 2 days later in the parish church at Minster where the service was conducted by Charles Cobb.

        The second document was located in Admiralty Records at The National Archives ADM 45/39 and is difficult to read and interpret so I have spelt it out below. Basically on 21st May 1858 Ann Christopher (nee Green) his wife claimed from the Admiralty his outstanding pay, amounting to £1.18s and they relied upon his death certificate as George Christopher and her marriage to James Christopher as sufficient evidence to make the award.

          Notice of Death received 21st May 1858 - D.D.[Deceased died] 28th Feb 1858 per attached certificate. [Although the Certificate itself is not provided this is his death certificate also reproduced above which confirms his date of death] Amount reputed to be due £1.18s 0d residue [of pay due] : Officers etc Number 10/663 C (Coastguard). Name of deceased George [crossed out and] James [inserted above] Christopher on PL [presumably refers to the pay list or pay ledger ] Jas [crossed out] Geo [for George inserted above ] Christopher Commissioned Boatman. Name and address of Claimant Ann Christopher - widow - of Bincombe Dorset. [Bincombe is a tiny parish just one and a half miles due east of Upwey] - Underneath By will 21st May 1858 [He did not in fact leave a will so they used the date of her application] Decls Inst [possibly declared and instructed?] 25th May 1858; Audit office 4th June 1858 ; to returning Mar [marriage] certificate

        Their seven children were:-

          ( James Christopher (1832-1838) Baptised at Upwey 4th March 1831, died aged 6 being buried there 8th Feb 1838

          ( Hannah Christopher (1832-1994) Born on 21st Dec 1832 she was baptised at St Lawrence Church on 14th Apr 1833. As already mentioned above she married at Minster on the Island of Sheppey in Kent to William David Spiller (1827- 1904) on 22nd Jan 1854. William had been born on Boxing day 1827 and baptised at Melcombe Regis on 27th Jan 1828 the son of a mariner George Spiller (1796-1832) by his wife Frances Lock (1801-1838). He does not appear to be in the 1841 or 1851 Census returns, presumably at sea. They raised a family of 12 children (14) the first six whilst William was stationed at the coastguard station at Seasalter in Kent between 1857 and 1865. The family was in Faversham in 1867 before William retired on a superannuated naval pension about 1869 and lived at Chickerell in Dorset. In the early 1880's they moved to live at 3 Waverley Terrace in Westham Wyke Regis. Hannah died there aged 52 on 4th May 1884 from chronic bronchitis and heart disease. By March 1901 William was living at 2 Oxford Terrace Weymouth. According to the family bible he died 10th Jan 1904.

          ( Enoch Christopher (1835-Aft 1841?) Baptised at Upwey 19th April 1835 he was aged 6 years in the 1841 Census but there is no trace of him after that date.

          ( Joseph Christopher (1837-1893) Baptised at St Lawrence Church Upwey 26th Feb 1841 he lived with his mother and siblings until he married in the village at the age of 20 to Judith Beuley Summers (1836-1913) on 26th July 1857. His father, presumably on leave, was one of the witnesses at his wedding. Judith was the daughter of a shoemaker Robert Summers (1798-1880) by his second wife Susannah nee Roper (1802-1875). They were to have three children (15) , the eldest Enoch James Christopher (1858-1930) was born at Upwey but by 1861 they were living at Maiden Well in Portland where their daughter Elizabeth Ann Christopher (1861-1934) was born. He must have done well throughout as by 1865 when their son Joseph Summers Christopher (1865-1916) was born, Joseph had already established himself back in Upwey living at at Elwell Cottage, which according to Jury listings he owned Freehold, working as a market gardener. By 1888 this property was known as Elwell's Nursery's. Joseph died aged 55 on 9th Feb 1893 leaving a Will dated 24 Oct 1887 which was proved after his death in Blandford on 14 Apr 1893. He left his capital, house & Elwell Nurseries to his wife for her life and then to his son Joseph; a house at Broadwey occupied by George Strange + his house Walcroft + 2 houses at Upwey occupied by Wightman & his daughter to his daughter Elizabeth; Royston Villa and Montrose Villa in Broadwey occupied by Miss Bennett & Rev Watson + Grocers shop & Post Office in Upwey occupied by son Enoch he left him. Judith lived to the age of 77 and died on 12th April 1913.

          ( James Green Christopher (1840-1909) Baptised at Upwey 8th March 1840. His father died when he was 18 and he moved with his widowed mother and younger brother to live in the nearby hamlet of Ridgeway in the parish of Bincombe where he worked in a local stone quarry. He married Elizabeth Tanner (1839-1914) in her parish of Buckhorn Weston on 28th Dec 1863. She was working as a dairy maid at the Manor House in Upwey when they married but she had been baptised at Buckhorn on 22nd Sep 1839 the daughter of a stone mason James Tanner (1797-1882) by his wife Sophia nee Blackmore (1800-1887). They raised a family of 4 children (16) at Maidenwell in Portland, James working as a labourer. By 1881 they had moved to live at Watery Lane in Broadway where James worked as a market gardener. He died there on 1st Dec 1909 leaving an estate of £1,634 6s 9d to be administered by his son-in law's Robert William Curtis and Alfred Curtis Pitfield. Elizabeth died 22nd Apr 1914 aged 74 being buried with her husband at Broadwey 5 days later. She left an estate of £1909 to be administered by her daughter Laura.

          ( Sarah Ann Christopher (1842-1883) She was born on 19th April 1842 at Upwey her birth certificate confirming her father as James Christopher a coastguard. She married at Bincombe when she was aged 18 on 21st Jan 1861 to a Royal Navy Seaman called James John Broadway (1835-1911). They had a daughter Eva Ann Broadway (1877-1919) born at Upwey who was baptised at Upwey on 16th Jan 1877 and married in 1901 to William Spanner. Sarah Ann died aged 41 being buried at Upwey on 1st Nov 1883. James now a widower remarried to Maria Loveless abt Jan 1885 and they lived at Alverstoke in Hampshire where James died on 12th Sep 1911.

          ( Frederick George Christopher (1851-1925) was born at Upwey on 28th Oct 1851 and was recorded as George Christopher in the 1871 Census when he was staying with his married sister Sarah and working at Elwell as a market gardener. He married when he was aged 21 to Sarah Townsend (1851-1927) by which time he had moved on to become a Railway Policeman and living at Maiden Newton. Sarah had been living next door to Elwell Nursery run by his bother Joseph and his wife Judith so it's easy to see how they met. They had 2 children Frederick James Christopher (1874-1888) and Eva Christopher (1876-1970) . Frederick and his wife both died at Crewkerne in Somerset, Frederick on 22nd Feb 1925 when he left an estate of £1412 to Sarah who died on 21st Feb 1927 aged 77.

        ( Sarah Christopher (1805-1836) baptised at Upwey 9th June 1805 she married a carpenter by trade when she was aged 26 on 26th April 1832 to Charles Biles ( 1803 1876). She died at the age of 36 being buried at Upwey 6th April 1836. Charles remarried to Eliza Davis in 1842 at Buckland Newton and they raised a family at Piddletrenthide before he died there aged 72.

        ( George Christopher (1808-1887) baptised at Upwey 27 Jan 1808 he married twice. Firstly to Emma Lock (1814-1858) at St Peters Church in Winterbourne Came on 12th March 1834 when the marriage was witnessed by his brother-in-Law Charles Biles. Emma had been baptised at Winterbourne Monkton on 2nd July 1815 the daughter of a labourer James Lock by his wife Ann [alias Hannah] who remained in the parish until after 1822 when they appear to have moved to the adjacent parish of Winterbourne Herringston. George Christopher like his father was a pig dealer by trade and he raised a family with Emma of three children (17) at Broadmayne in Dorset before they moved in 1852 to live at a farm of 110 acres in West Knighton in Dorset. Emma died there at the relatively young age of 44 and was buried on 2nd Sep 1858 in St Peters Churchyard. In April 1861 George Christopher was still running the farm and had employed a young 24 year old servant called Sarah Dare to look after the household. On 20th January 1863 George Christopher, who was now 55 years old, married Sarah Darr (1838-1920) who gave her age as being 28. The two witnesses to the wedding were William Bascombe who was his son-in-law by his eldest daughter Hannah Lock and Caroline Christopher his daughter-in-law by his son Henry Christopher.

          There is some confusion over Sarah's ancestry. Both George and Sarah were illiterate but she gives her father as being Thomas Darr at marriage and consistently gives her birth place on census returns as Mosterton a small village in Dorset on the border with Somerset. The only possible family living there had the surname Dare, not Darr, and there is a GRO Birth registered for Sarah Dare in the 2nd qtr of 1838 and it would be necessary to obtain this certificate to check parentage. There is no baptism for a Sarah Dare at Mosterton around her birth date but a Sarah Dare is in the 1841 Census for Mosterton. This records a James Dare aged 60 and it is clear that the 30 year old Charlotte Dare with him is his daughter bap at Mosterton the daughter of James and Ann Dare on 3rd June 1810. The five children listed with her (which includes a 2 year old Sarah) are all Charlotte's illegitimate children so it's possible that her unknown partner was called Thomas? If this is our Sarah she has be marrying an older widower provided a much better life still for herself and her children.

        By 1871 George Christopher's farm is recorded as being of 120 acres and he was employing 4 men and a boy to help him run it. By the 1881 Census George who his now 73 years old has retired and they appear to be living on their own means. George and Sarah had two children together (18) both of which became school teachers. George Christopher died at West Knighton being buried at St Peters church on 18th March 1887. After his death Sarah lived on her own means in a private house in West Knighton with her son Walter and married daughter Mary Ann who was married to a Brick and Tile maker called George English. By 1901 she had moved with Mary Ann and her husband to live in Tolworth Surrey and by 1911 onto Harting in Sussex. She died at Midhurst in Sussex abt Sep 1920.

        ( Charles Christopher (1810-1879) Baptised at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 2nd Dec 1810 he was a witness at the wedding of his sister Sarah to Charles Biles at St Nicholas Church in Broadwey on 26th April 1832. An Agricultural Labourer he married Sarah Guy (1809-1868) at her parish church of St Nicholas in Buckland Ripers on 18th Sep 1833. Sarah was the daughter of Ralph Guy (1768-1842) by his wife Elizabeth nee Bragg (1766-1849) and had been baptised at Buckland Ripers on 8th Dec 1809. After marriage they lived at Broadwey in a small cottage with a garden which was owned by John Roper and is shown on the 1840 Tithe Apportionment map recorded as plot 45f. Here they raised a family of 5 children between 1834 and 1842 and remained in the village all their lives. Sarah died aged 58 being buried there on 24th April 1868 followed by Charles aged 68 who joined her in St Nicholas Churchyard on 14th May 1879.

          ( Harriett (Guy) Christopher (1834-1901) Baptised as Harriet at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 12th Jan 1834. By the time of her marriage at St Nicholas church in Broadwey on 17th Dec 1860 she had adopted her mothers maiden name as a second name. She married a railway labourer from Portland called Richard Young (1834-1885) and they lived at Breakwater cottages in Portland where Harriett took in lodgers and worked as a laundress to supplement their income. They had a son William Christopher Young in 1862 and moved locally to live at Mallams part of Fortunewell Castleton in Portland. Richard died at the age of 49 being buried at Portland on 14th May 1885. After his death Harriett with her son moved to 139 High St Portland where she died aged 67 being buried 12th April 1901.

          ( Thomas Christopher (1835-1900) Baptised at Upwey 7th July 1835 he married aged 20 at St John the Baptist Church in Portland on 5th July 1857 to Elizabeth Mears (1835-1919) the 19 year old daughter of a quarryman Robert Thomas Tigby Mears (1815-1847) by his wife Hannah nee Allen (1816-1888). They had 4 children (19) in Portland by 1861 and by 1868 had emigrated to Cape Town in South Africa. They lived at 25 Coleridge Road in Salt River where Thomas died on 2nd Sep 1900 aged 65 joined by Elizabeth when she died on 20th Jun 1919.

          ( William Christopher (1838-1860) baptised at Upwey 7th Jan 1838 he remained a bachelor and died at the young age of 23 being buried at Broadwey on 27th May 1860

          ( Dorcas Christopher (1840-1885) baptised 26th Apr 1840 Broadway she lived with her parents working with her mother as a laundress until her marriage aged 23 to a stonemason called Joseph Mitchell (1842-1894). They lived at Portland where they raised a family of six children 1863-1878 before Dorcas died there aged 45 being buried at Portland on 16th Nov 1885. Joseph joined her on 31 Jul 1894.

          ( Elizabeth Christopher (1842-1864) baptised at Upwey 26th Sep 1842 she was still unmarried when she died aged 22 being buried at Broadwey on 5th Nov 1864

        ( William Christopher (1812-1901) baptised at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 14th Dec 1811 he moved with his father in the mid 1830's to live at Broadway in the house with a garden and orchard that they rented from Benjamin House and helped his father and brother Enoch run the pig farm. This is shown as lots 103 and 104 on the 1840 tithe map of Broadway. One and a half miles east of Broadway is the small parish of Bincombe where he met Catherine Cooper (1812-1881) the daughter of an agricultural Labourer John Cooper (1771-1845) by his wife Joan nee Wiltshire (1770-1822). They raised a family of 6 children at Bincombe where they were remain throughout their lives William being described as an agricultural labourer until the 1870's when he is a market gardener. Catherine died at the age of 70 being buried at Holy Trinity Church in Bincombe on 11th Aug 1881. William lived to be 88 years old before he joined her on 1st May 1901.

          ( Jane Cooper Christopher (1841-1930) Born at the beginning of May 1841 she was baptised at Bincombe on 30th of that month and aged 1 month in the 1841 Census. By the March 1851 census she was already living with her aunt Mary Ann Cooper at Preston and Sutton Poyntz in Dorset where she went to school and learnt to be a dressmaker. Her aunt took in a lodger called John Preston Hilton the younger (1832-1883) who was ten years older than Jane having been born on the Island of Jamaica in 1832. Jane married him at St Andrews church in her parish of Preston in Dorset on 20th May 1866. John Preston Hilton the younger was the son of a Jamaican Planter John Preston Hilton the elder (1808-1838) by his wife Elizabeth nee Fayle. He was probably sent to England as a young boy to be educated and avoid the unhealthy climate.

          His father had been baptised together with his brother Allen Hilton at St Ann's on the Island of Jamaica on 28th Oct 1808. In 1829 the two brothers became joint owners of the 'Enfield Plantation' in St Ann's inheriting it from Sarah Hilton nee Fayle. The Jamaica Almanac for 1833 shows that they owned 48 slaves. When slaves were freed the slave owners applied to Parliament under the Act for compensation and under their claim 758 they were awarded £726. 10s for 33 freed slaves on 29th Feb 1836. They appear to have continued to employ most of these under what were termed apprenticeship contracts. Allen Hilton wrote his will on 27th June 1837 which was proved on 12th Feb 1838. He left his estate including the services of apprentices to his wife Frances for life and then to the children of his brother John Preston Hilton senior, after providing one cow and calf for each of his two natural children with Mary Allen. John Preston Hilton senior also died in 1838 leaving a will under which he left his interest in the Enfield plantation to his wife Elizabeth nee Fayle for life and they to his children. John Preston Hilton the younger became an accountant but also had a sister Sarah Hilton. I have not discovered what happened to his mother or sister but there is no evidence that he returned to Jamaica. In April 1871 he was a practicing accountant living with Jane at Vincent Street at Millbrook Southampton but by 1881 he has moved to live at 2a St Georges Road in Millbrook where he is working as a builders assistant. He died there aged 51 abt August 1883 and does not appear to have left a will.

          John and Jane had three children namely:- Christopher Fayle Hilton (1871-1914); Catherine Eliza Hilton (1874-1958) and Allen Percival Hilton (1879-1917) who was unfortunately on board HMS Lauentic when it struck a mine and sank on 25th Jan 1917. His widow Jane stayed in Millbrook moving by 1891 to 41 Queens Road living on her own means supported by her children the boys working for a grocer and Eliza becoming a nurse. By 1901 she was living at Shirley Southampton at 41 Foundry Lane with her 30 year old son Christopher a messenger for a soap factory and Eliza who has tuned her hand to dressmaking. Her son Allen has left joining the Navy. I have not been able to locate the family in 1911 but Jane lived to be 89 and died at Southampton abt Jun 1930.

          ( Robert Christopher (1842-1915) was born on 25th Nov 1842 at Bincombe and baptised at Holy Trinity Church in Bincombe on 1st Jan 1843. As a young teenager he went to sea and when he was aged 18 in 1861 we find him on board the 132 ton ship "Peacock" birthed at London at the Regents Canal and listed as an ordinary seaman. We know he was discharged from his next ship the "Catherine Jane" out of Whitstable at Chatham on 28th Sep 1863 when he appears to have returned home. He joined the the 150 ton "David" at Weymouth under the master Thomas Watts on 18th Feb 1864 as an able seaman. The 'David' then sailed on 22nd Feb for Guernsey; on 1st March to to London; on 22nd March to South Shields; on 16th April to Portsmouth ; on 2nd May to Hartlepool and on 12th May back to Weymouth where he was discharged on 2nd June 1864. He then signed onto the sip "Hector" as an Ordinary Seaman at Poole on 5th July 1864 sailing to Newcastle delivering clay and retuning with coal to Poole where he is discharged 1st Sep 1864. Some crew lists have probably not survived but we know that he served on the "Mary Edey" out of Falmouth being discharged at London on 28th Aug 1867 as it is shown as the last ship he had served upon when he signed up as an able seaman on the 156 ton "Belinda" out of Weymouth which was docked at London on 19th Feb 1868. He sailed on this ship to Jersey - London - Guernsey - London when he was discharged on 7th May 1868. Up to this point he had always signed up for home trade around the coast of England but he then, according to family legend, signed up on a ship bound for Australia and jumped ship when he got there. We have not however so far located any surviving records appertaining to this ship.

          Marriage Certificate Robert Christopher to Emily Andrewartha - St Kilda Victoria Australia - 8th Jan 1870

          I remain indebted to Helen Ogg his granddaughter for making contact some years ago, carrying out most of the research in Australia
          and providing most of the documentation available on about him and his descendants. Also Lizzie Laing on ancestry for the picture of Emily.

          Above is Robert Christopher's marriage certificate dated 8th Jan 1870 and given his known travels in England he could not have arrived in Australia earlier than late in 1868. As can be seen above however he married in the Wesleyan Parsonage at St Kilda Victoria to Emily Andrewartha (1848-1939) who had been born on 18th May 1848 at Breage near Helston in Cornwall the daughter of a copper & tin miner called William Andrewartha (1806-1870) by his wife Jennifer nee Richards (1807-1883). The picture left shows Emily later in life.

          Emily having been baptised on Christmas day 1849 two and half miles west of Breage at St Germoe Church lived with her parents at nearby Kenneggy Downs. Emily's father William Andrewartha in all probability worked at the 'Wheal Vor' mine (20) which lies just a mile north of Breage and was rich in both tin and copper. The years between 1812 and 1848 were the mine's most successful period and it was for a time the richest mine in Cornwall raising tin for example from 501 meters below ground. In 1840 it was employing 1,174 people but it was never really profitable with a number of closures and new ownership. The 1851 Census apart from her father also shows that both Emily's brothers Joseph and John Henry were employed as copper miners, presumably working with their father down the same mine. By 1861 however her brother Joseph Andrewartha was married and had left to work in nearby Helston described as a 'gas man'. Production at 'Wheal Vor' clearly waned rapidly from 1865 leading many miners to seek work elsewhere.

          Emily emigrated to Australia from Plymouth in Devon boarding the 'Charlotte Gladstone' (picture right) on 10th Sep 1869 in the company of her brother Joseph Andrewartha (1831-1871) & his wife Sarah nee Rodda (1831-1882) whom Joseph had married at Breage in Cornwall in 1853. The 'Charlotte Gladstone' was conveying emigrants with assisted passage to Australia and delivered them to Melbourne arriving on 27th Dec 1869. She married therefore only 11 days after arriving in Australia? Her elder brother Joseph is one of the witnesses to their marriage and given the conventions of the day must have supported the match. Whilst we have the passenger list for the 'Charlotte Gladstone' we do not have that of the crew listing and this makes me wonder whether Robert Christopher was actually one of the sailors and an on board romance developed over the protracted 3 month voyage. This would certainly explain why he jumped ship and the early marriage.

          Robert and Emily Christopher were to have nine children in Australia as shown below. After marriage Robert Christopher, encouraged by his brother-in-law Joseph Andrewartha, headed for Wallaroo Mines a suburb of Kadina on the Yorke Peninsula which was taking on employees, especially those with experience of mining copper. The mine reached it's peak in production between 1870 and 1875 when it had 1,000 employees and it paid well. Unfortunately conditions were hard and Emily's first child William only lived for 6 months being buried on 11th April 1871. Tragedy followed 17 days later with her brother Joseph, still only aged 40, also dying and being buried there on 27th. As an aside his wife Sarah was later to remarry to a James Cole at Victoria in 1875. Things did not improve with Emily's second child Joseph Andrewartha Christopher, named after her brother and born on 13th Sep 1871, also only living for 6 months being buried at Wallaroo on 18th April 1872. Thankfully her next three children all survived with Robert working at the mine until 1878 when the mine temporarily closed because of low copper prices the family living at 27 Ewing Street in Kadina. I know little about Robert's later life although the South Australian Sand Directory shows him working as a labourer still living at Ewing Street in 1902. The Post Office Directory states that he is working as a mason in 1903. He died at Kadina on 4th Jan 1917 aged 72. Emily lived to the grand old age of 90 passing away at Kadina on 12th April 1939.

            ( William Christopher (1870-1871) He was born on 12th Oct 1870 at Wallaroo Mines but died on 11th Apr 1871 being buried at Kadina Cemetery
            ( Joseph Andrewartha Christopher (1871-1872) He was born on 13th Sep 1871 at Wallaroo Mines and also only lived for 6 months being buried there on 18th April 1872.
            ( William Christopher (1873-1961) Born a Walleroo Mines on 28th May 1873 he married Susan May Pearson (1878-1980) at Sunny Vale, Daly South Australia on 25th Dec 1900. They had eleven children (21) William living to the age of 88 when he died at 52 Hay Street, Kadina on 20th Aug 1961.His wife Susan May Christopher nee Pearson lived to be 102 passing away at Sunset Lodge Kingswood, Kadina on 14th July 1980.
            ( Catherine Jane Christopher (1876-1913) born at Wallaroo Mines 20th Dec 1876 she married at Bundarra in New South Wales to Richard William Lyal Gilhome (1877-1962) and they had seven children before Catherine died at the relatively young age of 36 on 12th Jan 1913. Her husband remarried in Tasmania in 1915 to Margaret Marion Patterson. Richard who died 14th June 1962 aged 85 and his second wife are buried at Oberson Cemetery in New South Wales.
            ( Mary Elizabeth Christopher (1878-1961) born at Walleroo Mines 1st Sep 1878 she married at the Methodist church at Manse Kadina on 14th Dec 1901 to Alfred Henry Brown (1876-1942). Mary died 11th July 1961
            ( Florence Emily Christopher (1882-1900) born at Wallaroo Mines 30th June 1882 she died aged 17 on 6th Feb 1900 at Unley South Australia.
            ( John Henry Christopher (1890-1965) Born at Walleroo Mines 18th June 1890 he married Elizabeth Morgan (1888-1970) at Moota, South Australia on 17th May 1911 and they had 5 children.(22) John Henry died on 10th Sep 1965 aged 75 and was buried at The Centennial Park Cemetery, Passadena, Mitcham City, South Australia. His widow Elizabeth died 25th Aug 1970 and was also buried at Passadena.
            ( Charles Leslie Christopher (1892-1915) Born at Kadina 12th Feb 1892 he lived with his parents at Ewing Street in Kadina and as a young man worked as a miner until the outbreak of WWI. He enlisted as a private in the Australian Army on 16th Sep 1914 into the 16th Infantry Battalion 4th Brigade (Soldier 1249) when he was 22 years 8 months old and described as being 5 feet nine and a half inches tall weighing 166 lbs with fair hair, green eyes and black curly hair. His religious denomination was recorded as Methodist. He embarked at Melbourne on the "Ceramic" on 22nd Dec 1914 as a part of the 2nd expedionary force and died on 2nd May 1915 killed in action by the Turks at Gallapoli at Dead Mans Gully through being shot in the chest during a charge.
            ( Robert Clyde Christopher (1895-1965) Born at Kadina 12th Feb 1895 he married there to Delia May Gale (1889-1970) on 25th March 1916 and lived to the age of 69 passing away on 6th Feb 1965. Delia died aged 81 on 16th March 1970. They had 8 children (23)

          ( John Christopher (1845-1907) He was baptised at Holy Trinity Church in Bincombe on 24th August 1845 and as a teenager worked as an agricultural labourer with his father in the fields surrounding the village. Despite our best efforts we have no trace of him between April 1861 aged 14 when he was with his family in Bincombe and when he arrived in Victoria Australia which according to his death certificate was around the year 1870. It is possible therefore that he may even have come to Australia with his elder brother Robert but there is no trace of him as a seaman or on surviving passenger listings available so far on line. He married in the Wesleyan church at Gawler in Victoria to Arabella Allen (1850-1922) and his marriage certificate (see below) shows that by then he was already working at Wallaroo Mines as a miner, as did his brother Robert. Her father Thomas Allen was one of the witnesses and was later to die in Gawler at the age of 66 on 5th Jan 1890.

            Arabella had been baptised at Winfrith Newburg in Dorset in England on 5th May 1850 the daughter of an agricultural labourer Thomas Allen (1823-1890) by his wife Mary Ann nee Toms (1828-1901) . Her farther was born in the village of Wesleyan parents Charles and Sarah Allen and had been baptised in the Wesleyan church in Conygar Lane at Winfrith on 25th Nov 1823. Her father and mother also married at Winfrith on 16th Jan 1850 and the family lived there until 1853 when they decided to accept an offer of free passage to Australia arriving on the ship 'Calabar'. The 'Calabar' was owned by the Australian Government and left Southampton on 4th May 1853 arriving at Port Adelaide on 1st August 1853. One of the conditions of the assisted passage was that they had to remain in the colony for 4 years or they would have to reimburse the Government £3 for each adult and half that for each child.

          Marriage Certificate John Christopher to Arabella Allen - Wesleyan Church, Gawler, Victoria Australia - 2nd Oct 1872

          After marriage John Christopher worked at Walleroo Mines with his brother until, as already explained above, the mine temporarily closed in 1878 because of low copper prices. During that period Arabella gave birth to three children as shown below. Their final two children were born in Adelaide in 1880 and 1885 before John Christopher obtained work as a miner at Silverton at Broken Hill in New South Wales. In 1875 two men drilling a well on a station south of the town hit a rich seam of silver. As a result of mining operations the population of this tiny station escalated to a peak of around 3,000 by 1890. The family were certainly settled there prior to 1889 when their son Henry died there and the 1891 Census though sparse shows them living at Proprietary base Silverton, Yanevwima Broken Hill. A decade later John and Arabella were still there with their youngest son having moved to live in Suplhide Street, Silverton. John died there aged 62 on 9th Dec 1907 and was buried in the Methodist Cemetery at Broken Hill. After his death Arabella moved back to live in Victoria with her youngest son Robert a decorator by trade living at 360 Montague Street in Albert Park Fawlkner by 1912. From 1914 she had settled at 94 Bridport Street in Fawlkner and was still there in 1919. Her death is recorded at the age of 72 on 5th September at Cauldfield Victoria South Australia

            ( William Thomas Christopher (1873-abt 1928) Born at Wallaroo Mines 3rd Aug 1873 he married at Broken Hill to Emily Treberth (1876-1913) and they had 3 children Elsie May Christopher (1895-1977) who married Kenneth Thomas Martin (1893-1970) and Nellie Christopher (1901-abt 1966). The only record that I have so far located refers to the deceased estate of a William Thomas Christopher resident at Broken Hill whose occupation was that of an engine driver (Entry 34468) unfortunately the date is illegible.His widow Emily is recorded as having died at Broken Hill in 1913.

            ( Henry Allen Christopher (1876-1889) Born Wallaroo Mines 30th May 1876 died Broken Hill 1889

            ( Albert John Christopher (1878-1961) Born at Wallaroo Mines 15th July 1878 he married Mary Jane Summers (1879-1955) at Broken Hill in New South Wales in 1899. They had 3 children :- May Christopher 1900 and Winifred Christopher 1905 both born at Broken Hill in New South Wales before they moved to live at 37 Ashford Road, Keswick Bouthby in South Australia where John Christopher (1914-1995) was born 1914 and Winifred died in 1920. Mary Jane nee Summers died at Adelaide 27th Dec 1955 followed by Albert John Christopher on 7th Mar 1961.

            ( Elizabeth Ann Christopher (1880-1952) Born at Adelaide 16th Oct 1880 she married about 1901 at Broken Hill in New South Wales to William Frederick Hawke (1876-1938) a painter and decorator by trade. They were living at 154 Booran Road, Cauldfield Victoria in 1936 and her husband died there 24th Sep 1938. Elizabeth Ann Hawke died 23 Dec 1952 at Brighton, Adelaide, South Australia

            ( Robert Cooper Christopher 1885-1962) Born at Crafters South Australia 15th June 1885 he became a decorator by trade and married about 1912 at Victoria to Hanora Burr (1886-1975). Hanora, the daughter of Richard Burr (1861-1955), had been named after her mother Hanora Elizabeth Foster (1866-1941) and was initially called Norah, the name under which she was married. After Marriage however she was generally known as Noreen. Robert died at Springvale Greater Dandenong in Victoria on 27th Feb 1961 but Noreen lived to be 89 passing away in 1975 at Glenhuntly Victoria South Australia

          ( Elizabeth Christopher (1848-?) Born in the 2nd quarter of 1848 at Bincombe she does not appear to have been baptised. She remained a spinster working with her father in his market garden and after his death in 1901 looked after and lived with her debilitated spinster sister Mary in Bincombe until her death in 1917. I have not been able to locate her death or burial and she does not appear to have left a will.

          ( Catherine Christopher (1850-1850) Born in the 3rd quarter of 1850 she only lived for 5 months being buried at Bincombe on 31st Dec 1950

          ( Mary Christopher (1850-1917) Born in the 3rd quarter of 1850 she remained a spinster living with her parents throughout and after their deaths with her spinster sister Elizabeth. At some point after 1911 she was referred to the County Asylum at Charminster where she died on 27th March 1917. She was buried at Bincombe on 31st of that month.

      ( Ann Christopher (1815-1872) Baptised at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 9th July 1815 the daughter of James Christopher (1775-1848) a pig farmer by his wife Hannah White (1778-1833) she married in the nearby church of St Nicholas at Broadwey to a harness maker by trade called William Shepherd (1815-1870). They had a family of five children between 1839 and 1855 all born and baptised at Broadwey. Her husband William died aged 55 in 1870 being buried at St Nicholas church graveyard on 21st Dec 1870. After his death Ann needed the support of the Overseers of the Poor and she entered the Union workhouse at Weymouth where she died aged 58 in 1872. She was buried at Broadway with her husband on 2nd Oct 1872.

      ( Thomas Christopher (b.1817) Baptised at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 22nd Dec 1817. The only possible reference we have to him is in the 1851 Census when he is recorded as Thomas Christopher a Visitor staying at East Street Corfe Castle in Dorset unmarried aged 31 (1820) a general labourer born at Upway. It's possible that he went to sea like his younger brothers.

      ( Joseph Christopher (1821-1882) Baptised at St Lawrence Church in Upwey on 12th Jan 1821 he went to Gosport with his younger brother Enoch who became a mariner although Joseph was described as a Waterman at that time. I think this meant he was working on boats in the river carrying cargo inland rather than at sea. They lived in lodging with another mariners wife called Mary Martha Broadway [ nee Knott] whom he subsequently married on 3 Jul 1855 in Alverstoke Hampshire inheriting 3 stepchildren who after marriage sometimes went by the surname of Christopher. (Mary Martha was b Freshwater on the Isle of Wight abt 1815, she died at 20 Richard St Stoke Road Gosport the home of her son George on 30 Dec 1883) By 1861 Joseph was a licenced victualler living in Beech Alverstoke Gosport but by 1881 had become a captain of a steam launch and when he died on 23 Mar 1882 he was described as a Master Mariner, he left a will and a personal estate of £800/12/2d to his wife. Although Joseph and Mary had no children together Mary's eldest son James John Broadway (1835-1911) by her first marriage married Joseph Christopher's niece Sarah Ann Christopher (1842-1883)

      ( Enoch Christopher (1826-1863) Baptised at St Lawrence Church Upwey 9th Jan 1826 he worked on his fathers pig farm at Broadway until he left to become a mariner and by March 1851 when he was unmarried and aged 24 he was in lodgings with his elder brother Joseph Christopher at Jane's Court in Alverstoke Hampshire. According to the 1861 Census when he was living at No. 27 Bevois Street in St Mary's Parish in Southampton he was still a mariner in the merchant navy. He is living with a Ruth Christopher aged 34 recorded as his wife, and a native of Chichester in Sussex. I have not however been able to locate a marriage or anything else about her. Enoch died during the 2nd quarter 1863 at Southampton but does not appear to have left a will.

    (3.2.9) Sarah Christopher (1779-1781) baptised on 21 Nov 1779 at St Georges Church in Fordington the daughter of James Christopher (1732-1818) by his wife Love (Holloway) Stone (1736-1794). She also died young being buried in Fordington 28 Aug 1781.
3.3 John CHRISTOPHER (1734-1804) was baptised on 7th Nov 1734. As a young man he went to live in Cheselbourne, 8 miles north-east of Dorchester, probably staying with his aunt Joan CHRISTOPHER. She had two possibly illegitimate children by a member of the TRASK family who lived in the village (these being William Trask Christopher bap 12 July 1741 and Jenny Christopher bap 19 May 1745). Here John met a young widow from that family called Elizabeth TRASK (c1725) whom he married in Cheselbourne on 30 Aug 1760. She was known locally as 'Betty' a colloquial form of Elizabeth and had three children by her first marriage (7) . The Trask family had been in Cheselbourne from before 1734 and Fordington prior to 1706 so it looks like the two families knew one another over a long period. Her husband John Trask had obtained work on a large estate at Milton Abbas located only a couple of miles north-east of Cheselbourne and they had the first of their 3 children, Sarah TRASK, baptised in the Abbey on 7th August 1751. The following year the estate was sold to Joseph Damar who later became Lord Milton. He set about restoring the house and Abbey and landscaping the grounds a task so extensive that it lasted many years and involved moving the existing village to a new location. It was probably John Trask that drew John Christopher into working on the estate as well. A lot of the landscaping work was done during the summer months with labourers returning to their home parishes in the winter. Although I have not located his death, John Trask must have died shortly after their last child was born in 1755 as the overseers accounts for Cheselbourne for the following year suddenly show quite large payments being made each month to his wife and children. It was in the interest of the Overseers for Elizabeth to remarry and payments to 'Betty Trask' cease in the month of her marriage to John Christopher.

On 27th June 1761 John CHRISTOPHER attended the meeting of the Dorchester subdivision of the Dorset Militia which was held at the 'Antelope Inn' in Dorchester and from the minutes of that meeting it is clear that he had earlier volunteered to be a substitute for someone else who had been selected by ballot to serve for 3 years in the Militia Regiment. Failure to serve when balloted resulted in a fine of £10 and sometimes imprisonment so a system of accepting able substitutes arose for the more wealthy. Its not clear from the minutes but I think he probably volunteered prior to his marriage in 1760. John would have taken the oath as a substitute in exchange for a fee of £10 (or less) but was granted a discharge as ' he had a large family to support' but he also had to pay back the £10 which they then used to recruit another volunteer. This is interesting in itself as John acquired a family of 3 girls on marriage aged 10; 7 and 4 in 1761 and his wife Elizabeth was 8 months pregnant with his first child at the date of the meeting. He may also of course have been playing some role to help support Joan and her two children as Joan like the rest of the poor in the parish only received 1 shilling a week to live on. Its clear from later returns that it was standard practice in Dorchester and Fordington to exclude men who had more than a wife and one child to support from the Militia Ballot so there would have been little problem apart from John's need to pay the £10 back which was a lot of money to poor families at this date. I find it surprising that he was able to do so. The repayment of this money seems to have dropped John and his family to subsistence level and he seems to have been working away as ' Elizabeth Christopher and her children' received 4 shilling and six pence support from the Overseers of the Poor of Cheselbourne in Nov 1761 and they also paid for nine and a half yards of cloth (at 7 pence a yard) to clothe her children.

John Christopher had three children of his own with Elizabeth:-

    3.3.1 Thomas Christopher (1761-1819) who was duly baptised at Cheselbourne on 21st July 1761. Thomas was later to marry twice raising a family of 6 children from his 1st wife (Sarah Duck alias Morris) and 4 more from his second (Ann Chalker), mainly in Cheselbourne. After the birth of their first child John and Elizabeth moved to live at Milton Abbas.

    3.3.2 Sarah Christopher (1764-1849) was born and baptised in Milton Abbey on 29th July 1764. She later married John Fox and raised a family of 6 children at Glanvilles Wootton (13). As an interesting aside their third child Jane Fox (b.1797) went on the marry Joseph the son of Joseph and Sylvania Shepherd who was baptised at St Mary the Virgin's church in Glanvilles Wootton on 8th March 1789. He seems to have skated close to the law as a young man, being brought up at the Dorchester assizes in 1818 on a charge of Burglary. Luckily he was acquitted on 15th March 1818 when he gave his abode as Pulham in Dorset, his age as 26 (actually 29), and that he was an unmarried labourer. His description was recorded as 5ft 7¼ tall with black hair dark hazel eyes and brown complexion. He later met Jane Fox and appears to have had an illegitimate daughter by her that was named Eliza Fox and baptised there on 7th July 1822. He then did the honourable thing and was married to Jane at St Mary's by the resident curate Rev John Wilkins on 25th March 1823. It is worth noting that both he and Jane were clearly illiterate signing the registers with their respective marks. Agricultural life in Dorset was becoming increasingly difficult with wages often below subsistence level but they soldiered on adding Mary to their family in 1824, Samuel in 1827, John in 1828 and Roseanna in July 1831.

    The plight of Agricultural workers came to a head in the summer of 1830 with the advent of what was later called "The Swing Riots" which initially erupted with the destruction of threshing machines in East Kent. By early December however it had spread throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia. and this included the area around Dorchester. On the 29th Nov 1830 Joseph Shepherd once again appears in the Dorchester Prison Admission Registers. He gives his age this time as being 40 (1790), as being from the parish of Pulham in Dorset, his trade as Labourer, his condition as married, 5ft 8" tall; very dark brown hair, dark hazel eyes, and his complexion as swarthy. Although I have not located the trial documents I think this is because his case along with many others were referred to the special commission. The following is an extract from The Dorset Page which covered the Swing Riots so I have also provided a direct link as well.

    "The Government acted ruthlessly to punish the rioters. Thinking local magistrates had been too lenient in the early stage of the troubles, they appointed a Special Commission of three judges to try the prisoners in 5 counties: Berks, Bucks, Dorset, Hants and Wilts. On 10 January 1831 they began work at Dorchester, where 57 prisoners awaited trial - including 6 accused of ‘robbery’, i.e. demanding money with menaces, a capital offence. The 6 were duly sentenced to death, but were not ‘left for execution’, and were among the dozen Dorset men eventually transported to Australia for 7 years. They included 4 from Stoke Wake, 3 from Mappowder, 2 from Pulham, and one from Stour Provost. They were put aboard the prison hulk Yorkon 4 February 1831. Not one is known to have returned to England".

    We then have to refer to the "New South Wales, Australia, Convict Indents" register where Joseph next appears:- "Shepherd, Joseph age 40 years, Education "R"; Religion "P" [Protestant]; Married; Family (4) ; Trade described as "Ploughs, sows, reaps, and Milks"; Offence "Machine Breaking" ; Where tried "Dorset"; When tried 10th January 1831; sentenced 7 years; Former convictions None ; description 5 feet 7¼ tall complexion dark ruddy; hair dark brown; eyes brown. He also appears in the Australian Convict Transportation Register as "Joseph Shepherd; Dorset special gaol delivery; when convicted 10th Jan 1831; term 7 years. He was transported with 135 other convicts on the ship "Eleanor" to Sydney Australia leaving england on 15th Feb 1831 and arriving at Sydney on 26th June 1831. All 136 convicts survived the journey.

    3.3.3 Joanna Christopher (1767-1770), named after his aunt, and baptised in the Abbey on 3rd June 1767.
    On the 9th January 1770 however John was summoned before the Quarter Sessions at Blandford Forum and found to be the father of a bastard child on Mary Burgundy a single woman who lived in Milton Abbas. The case was brought by the Churchwardens and John pleaded guilty. A Bastardy Order was made against him which required him to pay for her 'lying in' and maintenance of the child. John and Elizabeth then seem to have returned to Cheselbourne with their family to live as their daughter Joanna Christopher died and was buried there in St Martin's churchyard on 22nd March 1770.

    John was ill in 1774 for 3 months and the Overseers for Cheselbourne paid for him to be bled, after which he seems to have recovered.(8) On 18th December 1775 Joan became ill and John seems to have attended her as he too received payment 'in his illness' the following month. Whilst he then recovered, his son Thomas fell ill in February followed by his wife Elizabeth in March after which all seems to have been well. In late April 1780 however Joan Christopher again became ill this time gradually getting worse. She obviously needed constant care as the Overseers paid for seven consecutive weeks for John Christopher to attend her before she passed away and was buried in Cheselbourne on 17th June 1780.

    Elizabeth Christopher, John's 1st wife, died between 1767 and 1785 as at the age of 51 on 5 Feb 1785 John married for a second time to a 46 year old widow called Susannah HANNAM [HARRAM]. (9) She was past child bearing age so there were no children by the 2nd marriage and she died at the age of 82 in Cheselbourne being buried there on 28 Jul 1821. John Christopher lived until he was 70 being buried in Cheselbourne on 9th December 1804 by GW Langdon Curate of St Martins church.

3.4 Elizabeth CHRISTOPHER (1735/6-1815) named after her mother she was baptised on 21 March 1735/6. She married when she was 32 years old by licence in Winterborne Came on 20 Jun 1768 to a Francis FURBER [ Bap 25 Jul 1739 Godmanstone Dorset the eldest son of Ellis Furber and Elizabeth Caines]. They had at least 1 child Elizabeth Furber Bap Winterborne Came 4 Mar 1771. Elizabeth herself was buried in St George's churchyard Fordington by the Rev John Palmer on 5 Mar 1815 when her age was given as being 81.

3.5 Thomas CHRISTOPHER (1738/9-1827) baptised 12 March 1738/9.

3.6 Joseph CHRISTOPHER (1741/2-1747/8) baptised 15th Feb 1741/2 and buried still a young boy on 19th January 1747/8.

3.7 William CHRISTOPHER (1745-1802) (10) baptised 7th July 1745 of parents legally settled there ; he lived with them until he was fifteen or sixteen and then hired out to a Mr Head at the 'Crown' in Blandford for 40 shillings, for one year; he then moved to Bridport and worked for Mr Harber at the 'Goulston Lyon' as a Chaise driver; later moving to Dorchester where he lived with a Mr Bryer(11) at the 'Kings Arms' for a quarter of a year as Chaise driver; then Blandford Forum for Mr Charles Voss for about a year.

Kings Arms Dorchester - built 1720

He married after banns had been read for three consecutive weeks in St Peters and St Paul's church in Blandford Forum on 3 Jun 1771 to a Mary KING [Born c1749 she was buried a widow in Blandford Forum on 18 Feb 1837 at the age of 88] and they raised a family of 7 children there(12). William appears to have died 9 miles away in Lydlinch and been buried in 20 Sep 1802 in the Churchyard of St Thomas a Becket

3.8 Joseph CHRISTOPHER (1748-1776) bap 14th Sep 1748 he grew up in Fordington but moved to live and work in the adjacent parish of Holy Trinity Dorchester. On 28 Jun 1772 he married in All Saints Church Dorchester to a Martha SIMMS. [also baptised Fordington, on 4 April 1743, the daughter of Thomas and Mary Simms ] They had only one child Elizabeth Christopher whom they had baptised in All Saints Church on 29 Sep 1773 but she died an infant being buried there on 8 June 1775. Joseph, still only 28 died the following year and was interred in St Georges churchyard Fordington on January 16 1776. Martha re-married on 8 May 1780 to a Robert HAYWARD in All Saints Church Dorchester.
Poor Law support:

Although only an agricultural labourer Charles managed to fully support his family from 1727 to sometime after 1764, never receiving any support from the Parish during that period. The churchwarden accounts from 1764 to 1782 are missing but by 1782 Charles CHRISTOPHER was an old man no longer able to work and he and his wife were receiving 2s 6d a week support which rose to 3 shillings in Oct 1790. In May 1789 he and his wife Elizabeth, together with all the poor of the parish, received an inoculation; this is well l before Edward Jenner (1749-1823 ) carried out his experiments in 1796.

(Info extracts from "Vaccination Jenner's Legacy" by Derrick Baxby published by the Jenner Educational Trust 1994)
    Before control measures were developed most people in populous areas contracted smallpox and of those approximately 20% died. The survivors were often terribly scarred, and blindness was a common complication. It is estimated that 200,000 to 600,000 people were killed annually by smallpox in Europe in the 18th Century, and it was a major killer of children. Smallpox caused about 10% of all deaths and 25-35% of deaths in children. With its characteristic appearance it was realised that those who survived smallpox did not get it again, and this led to a greater willingness to employ servants etc with pock marks because of their immunity. Prevention of smallpox by isolation of patients required some idea that the disease was specific and had a specific transmissible cause, and predated proof of the germ theory of disease. It also required specific knowledge of the infectious period which was from about the time the rash appeared until after the scabs dropped off. Such knowledge was acquired gradually and as presented by John Haygarth in his 'Rules for the prevention of Smallpox (published 1785)' meant that by this date many villages had an old cottage or similar on the outskirts of town that was used to immediately isolate individuals suspected of having the disease. Dorset was at the forefront of many of these developments. William Trask CHRISTOPHER (Joan Christopher's son mentioned above) was to die from Smallpox in the year 1785. He contracted the disease whilst he and his family were working in Morden Dorset and he was isolated in just such a cottage. After his death his wife and family were inoculated and returned to his place of settlement which was Cheselbourne.

    Deliberate infection as a preventative measure was practiced in India and China centuries before it was introduced to Britain by Lady Mary, wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey. The process involved deliberate inoculation of smallpox material into the arm in the hope that mild smallpox would develop. The practice was called inoculation later called variolation. Lady Mary had her son variolated in Constantinople in 1717 and on her return to England she had her daughter variolated in 1721 and so introduced the practice to London Society. A successful trial on six prisoners soon followed and in 1723 two children of Caroline on Ansbach, Princess of Wales were variolated. Initially Variolation was used mainly only in populous areas and when epidemics threatened but became increasingly common in the 1760's. Dorchester and Fordington of course sat at the crossroads of major trade routes not just throughout Dorset to places like London, Oxford and Exeter but also with the continent through the nearby coastal ports as many of the merchants in Dorchester imported wine and other produce from the continent. Protection was therefore a major concern and not just for the rich. See Vestry Minutes for the Parish of Holy Trinity in Dorchester for 15th December 1763. Here the Overseers of the Poor made inoculation against smallpox available to the poor by agreeing to foot the bill which had been agreed at ten shillings and six pence her head. A considerable sum when one shilling a week was the level of support for a pauper at this time.

    There is no doubt that inoculated smallpox produced a less severe effect reducing mortality significantly, but there were occasional disasters such as at Blandford in 1766 when many were very ill and 13 out of 384 died. There was particular concern about the fact that those in contact with variolated individuals caught smallpox which was fully virulent and fatal and this was a major barrier to its widespread use. Individuals could be isolated but few could afford it so the practice arose for a whole village to be inoculated so that everyone was infectious at the same time.

    Although Edward Jenner (1749-1823 ) is credited with the widespread introduction of vaccination using cowpox he did not carry out his first vaccination until May 1796. The use of cowpox was in use in Dorset well before that date mainly because of the work of Benjamin Jesty (1736-1816) who was using the practice some 22 years earlier. Jesty and two of his female servants, Ann Notley and Mary Reade, had been infected with cowpox. When an epidemic of smallpox came to Yetminster in 1774, Jesty decided to try to give his wife Elizabeth and two eldest sons immunity by infecting them with cowpox. He took his family to a cow at a farm in nearby Chetnole that had the disease, and using a darning needle, transferred pustular material from the cow by scratching their arms. The boys had mild local reactions and quickly recovered but his wife's arm became very inflamed and for a time her condition gave cause for concern, although she too recovered fully in time. There is a blue plaque commemorating Jesty's pioneering work at Upbury Farm at Yetminster. Jesty's experiment was met with hostility by his neighbours. He was labeled inhuman, and was "hooted at, reviled and pelted whenever he attended markets in the neighbourhood’". The introduction of an animal disease into a human body was thought disgusting and some even "feared their metamorphosis into horned beasts". But the treatment's efficacy was several times demonstrated in the years which followed, when Jesty's two elder sons, exposed to smallpox, failed to catch the disease.

    Benjamin Jesty (1736-1816)

The vestry minutes for Fordington for the month of May 1789 show that the poor of the parish had all been inoculated and this would have included Charles & Elizabeth as they were receiving support in the same accounts. At various times Charles CHRISTOPHER was given a new shirt and a pair of shoes ,and when he died they paid £0-9s 8d to have him decently buried on 24 Feb 1791 in St George's graveyard in Fordington. The churchwardens at a Vestry meeting held on 6 May 1791 voted for Elizabeth, recorded here as the widow Betty Christopher, to pay her 2/- a week in lieu of the 3/- her husband had received. Elizabeth died when she was 87 years old being buried with Charles in the graveyard at St George's churchyard on 12 Jan 1792.

Genealogical Notes:-

(1). So what leads us to believe that Charles was a surviving son of Humphrey and Ann Christopher from Hazelbury Bryan?.

      Possible origin of the name: - Charles is not a common christian name in the Christopher family yet it runs back through the generations in this family. It is clear that his great grandfather Robert CHRISTOPHER (born circa 1598) was also known as Robert CHARLES. His marriage in Edmonsham in 1625, and the baptism of the first two of his sons there in 1625 and 1627 all record him as Robert Christopher alias Charles. The most likely reason for this is that his father was named Charles Christopher, but simply known locally as "Charles" and as sometimes happened it also became used as a surname. We are talking about the reign of Charles I here when the use of an alias was not uncommon and had no untoward connotations. We then have what we think is his fathers burial in Edmonsham as 'Charles Christopher buried 29th Aug 1629'. Robert and his wife Elizabeth then have their 3rd son baptised in Edmonsham in 1630 and name him 'Charles' after his recently deceased father and for this baptism Robert has now dropped the alias. There is no further evidence of use of the alias in the family.

      Parentage:- His father Humphrey Christopher junior had 8 children and named his first son Charles Christopher and had him baptised at Hazelbury Bryan on 30th Apr 1701 but he died being buried there on 19th Apr 1702. The next child another son they baptised as Joseph on the 12 Mar 1702/3 so we conveniently have the two names that we have been searching for for many years together. There is then a gap of 7 years before the birth of Humphrey's next child and it seems likely that they had another son that they renamed Charles during this period. We know they were likely to do this as Humphrey and Ann had three daughters they named Anne before one lived beyond infancy. So at the moment the hunt for Charles baptism possibly around 1705 somewhere in the area goes on.

      Reason for the move: A baptism around 1705 would make our Charles in Fordington aged 22 years at marriage to Elizabeth Allen, who was also aged 22. We know Charles arrived in Fordington before 1727, and Joseph arrived in Cheselbourne prior to 1728 and the likely trigger for the break up of the family is the death of their father Humphrey in 1724 and the need to find work and establish their own families.

      Continued family association: Charles brother Joseph had settlement in Cheselbourne prior to his marriage to Joan Hooper in Hilton in 1728 so Cheselbourne became her place of Settlement as well. After Joseph died (we think in the 1730's when Cheselbourne parish records are missing) Joan had to return to Cheselbourne when she needed support. In 1741 and 1743 she has 2 illegitimate children by a member of the Trask family who appear to have been established in the parish for many years. When he reached adulthood Charles son John CHRISTOPHER moved to Cheselbourne where he probably lived with Joan until he married a widow Elizabeth Trask a member of the same family. John & Elizabeth name one of their daughters Joanna after Joan and when Joan falls ill John is paid by the Overseers of the poor to nurse her for 7 weeks prior to her death.

(2). Betty is a colloquial form of Elizabeth and in this case we know they used both. On more formal occasions such as baptisms they used Elizabeth but when Charles died for example the overseers refer to her as Betty.

(3). Their children were :-
(3.1) Elizabeth Christopher (1755-aft 1788) bap Radipole 27 May 1755 who married James Buckler in Winterbourne Came 25 Nov 1777;
(3.2) James Christopher (born Radipole c1757- he married 1st Martha Winzar in Fordington 19 Oct 1789 by whom he had 3 children in Fordington before Martha died. He married 2ndly Mary Bishop in Fordington on 23 Feb 1803 and moved to Winterbourne Came where another child was born;
(3,3) Joseph Christopher born Radipole c1759 died a bachelor 12 Mar 1793 in Winterbourne Came;
(3.4) Charles Christopher bap Kimmeridge 12 Jun 1761 died a bachelor 21 Nov 1791 in Winterbourne Came

(4). His age in the burial register of St Peters Church in Winterbourne Came is actually given as 90, but appears to be an approximation made by the priest after his death.

(5). James and Holloway Christopher had nine children baptised in St Georges Church Fordington:-
(5.1) Mary Christopher bap 25 June 1759 (She married James Dart in Fordington 26th Jan 1777 and raised a family of 5 children in Fordington followed by another 3 in Stinsford, she was buried at Bockhampton at the age of 74 on the 2 Sep 1833;
(5.2) John Christopher bap 14 Sep 1761 (buried 15 Sep 1764);
(5.3) Thomas Christopher (1763-1827) bap 23 Oct 1763 (He married Elizabeth Fumage at Melcombe Regis on 8th April 1792 and died at Lytchett Minster in 1827);
(5.4) Elizabeth (Betty) Christopher bap 10 Nov 1765 (She married William Lucas in Fordington on 31 May 1787and had 11 children in Fordington and Puddletown where she was buried 18 Dec 1833) ;
(5.5) Ann Christopher bap 14 Apr 1768 (She married William Harden 13 Jan 1788 and had at least 1 child before her burial in Fordington on 16 July 1791);
(5.6) Sarah Christopher bap 24 June 1770 (She appears to have died young before 1779);
(5.7) Holloway Christopher bap 21 June 1772 (no subsequent trace);
(5.8) James Christopher bap 4 June 1775 (He moved to Upway and married Hannah the daughter of William & Hannah White there 18 Jan 1798. they raised a family of 10 children there before James burial 22 Sep 1848 at Broadway);
(5.9) Sarah Christopher bap 21 Nov 1779 she also died young being buried in Fordington 28 Aug 1781.

(6). On the baptism of all nine of their children the name of James wife is clearly given as 'Holloway' . They also name their 7th child, a girl, Holloway after her mother but I can find no other trace of her, and James wife is eventually buried under the name of Holloway Christopher in Fordington in 1794. There is some confusion however over her exact name. There is only one unallocated marriage for a James Christopher in the database covering the whole of Dorset (or on a UK basis in the IGI) and that is for a James Christopher of Fordington to an Olive Stone on 26th June 1758 in East Lulworth a small parish 9 miles east of Dorchester. We are fortunate that this marriage record has been transcribed by OPC and confirmed by the Federation of Family History society database some years ago. The entry states that James Christopher's home parish was Fordington and this can only be his marriage as he is the only James Christopher living in Fordington at or anywhere near that date. The marriage also occurred one year before the birth of their first child exactly where we would expect it to be. The IGI run by the Church of Latter Day Saints however records her name as Elizabeth Steer so the original records held at the Dorset history Center need to checked to confirm that it should be Olive Stone. The Christian name of Olive is very unusual at this date in Dorset and most families named their children after themselves and their parents. None of James & Holloway's children name any of the girls Holloway but two of them (Mary & Elizabeth) name one of their girls Olive.

(7). Elizabeth had been married to a John Trask and already had three girls (Sarah Trask bap Milton Abbas 7 Aug 1751; Mary Trask born c1754 - died unmarried in Cheselbourne 15 May 1784; and Susannah Trask bap in Cheselbourne on 29 May 1757).

(8). Mary Trask the daughter of Elizabeth by her 1st marriage had four illegitimate children in Cheselbourne the last of which was recorded under the surname Christopher. Mary who was described as a child of John Christopher (i.e. by his marriage to her mother) was buried 15th May 1784. One child was named Joanna after Joan Christopher and she died aged 7 on 1st May 1785. Another child was called William possibly after Joan's son or his father and was buried in Cheselbourne on 8th Sep 1785.

(9). Susannah Groves had married Robert Hannam in Piddletrenthide on 21st April 1772. They had 3 children (Betty Hannam bap Piddletrenthide 24 Oct 1774) (James Bap Alton Pancras 18 Nov 1776) and ( Ann bap Alton Pancras 19 Nov 1780) before Robert Hannam died and was buried in Alton Pancras 13 Dec 1780

(10). Information from a Settlement Examination transcribed on the Blandford Forum OPC web page.

(11).This is likely to be Edward Bryar and his son William who were Innholders and admitted as Freemen of Dorchester on 14th April 1755.

(12). The 7 children baptised in Blandford Forum were:- John Christopher bap 14 Aug 1774 buried 7 Jul 1782; Elizabeth Christopher bap 10 Jan 1778. (She married there on 27 Dec 1797 to Henry Stainer and had at least 3 children in Ashmore Dorset by 1805); Mary Christopher bap 3 Mar 1780 (she married there 13 June 1815 to John Clench); Susannah Christopher bap 24 Dec 1783 buried 8 Sep 1786; William Christopher bap 24 Dec 1785 buried 1 June 1791; Hannah Christopher bap 11 Aug 1787(she married in Tarrent Crawford 13 Oct 1802 to John Adams); Thomas Christopher bap 18 Feb 1791, buried 19 Nov 1791.

(13). Sarah Christopher (1764-1849) and John Fox (1772-1828) had 6 children:- (1) Elizabeth Fox bap at Glanvilles Wootton (GW) 24th Feb 1793 (2) Sarah Fox bap GW 21st Jun 1795 (3) Jane Fox bap GW 1st Oct 1797 (4) Samuel Fox bap GW 23rd Feb 1800 (5) Rosanna Fox bap 9 Sep 1804 GW (6) Ann Fox bap 28 Jun 1807 GW

(14) The 12 children of William David Spiller (1827-1904) and Hannah Christopher (1832-1884) were:-
(14.1) Anne Frances Spiller (1857-1943)
(14.2) William James Spiller (1859-1859)
(14.3) Laura Martha Spiller (1860-1949)
(14.4) Bessie Ann Spiller (1861-1934)
(14.5) William George James Spiller (1863-1915)
(14.6) Sarah Hannah Spiller (1865-1866)
(14.7) Beatrice Emma Spiller (1867-1867)
(14.8) Lavinia Mary Spiller (1867-1870)
(14.9) Fanny Spiller (1869-1940)
(14.10) George Christopher Spiller (1872-1957)
(14.11) Walter John Spiller (1874- 1935)
(14.12) Edwin Harry Spiller (1878-1930)

(15) The three children of Joseph Christopher (1837-1893) and Judith Beauley nee Summers were:-
(15.1) Enoch James Christopher (1858-1930) bap Upwey 14th Nov 1858 he helped run his fathers nursery in Upwey until his marriage on 15th Aug 1881 when he was 22 years old. He married Clara Maud Otter at her parish church of St Mary's in Wimbledon Surrey. She was the daughter of Frederick Otter a carpenter and they were living then at 22 Denmark Street Wimbledon although Clara their eldest child was baptised at Broadwey in Dorset on 8th Apr 1860. They had 6 children despite saying only 5 in the 1911 census. (1) Frederick William Christopher (1892-1892) who died aged 6 weeks (2) Rosa Elizabeth Christopher (1883-1931) who married one of her father's gardeners, Arthur Charles Trowbridge in 1910 and was buried at Upwey 17th Sep 1931. (3) Frederick Joseph Christopher (1885-1935) who married Frances Greening in 1920 and had 2 children of his own (4) Arthur William Christopher (1887-1918) who served in the Hampshire Regt 2-7th (T.F.) Battalion Soldier 306871 and was killed in Iraq on 12th Oct 1918 (5) Enoch James Christopher Junior (1888- 1916) who is alleged to have been killed 16th Sep 1916 at the Somme and buried at Poix-de-Picarde, in France although I cannot locate any supporting documentation. (6) Beryl Christopher (1890-1957) who married Thomas George Fellows and was buried at Upwey 1st qtr 1957.
(15.2) Elizabeth Ann Christopher (1861-1934) who married Edmund Townsend (1856-1889) and was buried at Portland 22nd Dec 1934
(15.3) Joseph Summers Christopher (1865-1916) He worked in his fathers nursery at Elwell Street in Upwey before marrying 16 Jan 1889 in Westbury Wiltshire to Priscilla [Prissie] MEAD. She was born 4th qtr 1862 at Westbury the youngest daughter of Richard and Prudence Mead a fruit and potato merchant. When his father died suddenly in 1893 he was elected and took over the roll of churchwarden of St Lawrence Church in Upwey. He moved however in 1894 and became a florist living at 6 Edmund Street in melcombe Regis so his brother Enoch took over the role of churchwarden . He established the Weymouth Soda Water Works at Lower Bond Street Weymouth and died on 13th Dec 1916 being buried at Melcombe Regis.

(16) The four children of James Green Christopher (1840-1909) and Elizabeth Tanner (1839-1914) were:-
(16.1) Laura Sophia Christopher (1865-1941) was a twin with her sister Annie and they were baptised together at Buckhorn Weston 23rd Apr 1865. Laura married Lewis Rogers (1875-1954) a market gardener at Upwey on 21 Sep 1910. They had no children. Laura died 8th Nov 1941 leaving an estate of £510 to her husband. Lewis died 22nd June 1954 at 665 Dorchester Rd, Weymouth leaving an estate of £1,734.
(16.2) Annie Elizabeth Tanner Christopher (1865-1942) a twin with her sister Laura she married when she was 26 at Broadwey to Alfred Curtis Pitfield (1868-1934) and they had 4 children. Annie died aged 77 at Brighton in Sussex on 7th Oct 1942.
(16.3 Martha Christopher (1867-1931) Born at Portland but baptised at Buckhorn Weston on 9th Jun 1867 she married a dairyman called Robert William Burden at Broadwey on 5th Jan 1892. After marriage they raised a family of 3 children on Littlemore at Broadway living at Thormhill Dairy where Robert worked for his own account. Martha died at Broadwey abt Sep 1931 and Robert on 19 Apr 1945
(16.4) Walter James Christopher (1872-1872) Baptised at Upwey 18th Sep 1872 he only lived for 1 week being buried on 23rd of that month.

(17) The three children of George Christopher (1808-1887) by his 1st wife Emma Lock (1814-1858) were:-
(17.1) Hannah Lock Christopher (1834-1880) Bap at St Martins church in Broadmayne on 6th July 1834 she married William Bascombe (1818-1886) a widower and carpenter by trade at St Peters church in West Knighton on 27th June 1854. Her younger brother Henry was one of the witnesses. They had 2 children before Hannah died aged 46 and was buried at St Martins Church in Broadmayne on 22nd Nov 1880. William Bascombe also died there on 3rd May 1886 leaving an estate of £507 to his executor and brother-in-law Henry Christopher.
(17.2) Henry Christopher (1836-1902) baptised at Broadmayne 31st July 1836 he married in the 2nd qtr 1859, probably at Evershot where marriages for this period are not yet available (2017) at, to Caroline Christopher (1838-1904). Caroline was the second of six children of John Christopher (1805-1865) a butcher by trade by his wife Hester nee Cox (1809-1862) and had been baptised at Evershot on 29th Dec 1838. Like his father Henry was a pig dealer and they had 2 children at Broadmayne before Henry's death on 30th Jan 1902 leaving an estate of £911. Caroline died 5th April 1904 leaving £156 5s. Their 2 sons were George John Christopher (1860-1929) and Harry James Christopher (1873-1956)
(17.3) George Christopher (1840-1866) Born in the 3rd qtr 1840 he was baptised at Broadmayne on 6th Jun 1841. George a yeoman farmer married at St Mary the Virgin Church in Melbury Bubb on 11th May 1863 to Ann Atkins (1839-1911) but do not appear to have had children before George died aged 25 at West Knighton on 3rd Mar 1866. After his death Ann worked in Stourpaine Blandford as a dairywoman on Foyles Farm in West Street but soon met and re-married to a bailiff called Richard Boyt (1835-1906) her brother Richard Atkins being one of the witnesses. Ann Boyt was buried at Blandford St Mary on 15thg June 1911 aged 72.

(18) The two children of George Christopher (1808-1887) by his 2nd wife Sarah Dare (1838-1920) were:-
(18.1 Walter Christopher (1863-1945) baptised at St Peters Church in West Knight on 6th Dec 1863 his bands of marriage were read on June 12th; 19th and 26th 1904 at Christchurch at Greenwich when his address was given as being St Georges Westcombe Park 19 Chevening Road, He married Annie Catherine Patterson shortly after the banns were read and they had two children at Greenwich these being Harold Douglas Christopher (1906-2008) and Reginald George Christopher (1907-1985). Walter a superintendent of the casual wards at the Greenwich Union Workhouse later died aged 81 at Worthing in Sussex abt Sep 1945, but Annie lived to be 87 before she also died at Worthing abt Sep 1960.
(18.2) Mary Ann Christopher (1867-?) Baptised at St Peters Church in West Knighton on 2nd June 1867 she married when she was 23 years old to a manufacturer of tiles and bricks called Elijah George English (1864-1946) although he was known generally simply as George English. They moved to Tolworth in Surrey by 1901 and Harting in Sussex by 1911 taking Sarah her mother with them. George died at Harting in 1946 but we have not located Mary's death.

(19) The 4 children of Thomas Christopher (1835-1900) and Elizabeth Mears (1838-1919) were:-
(19.1) Elizabeth christopher (1858-1860)
(19.2) Thomas Christopher (1859-1859)
(19.3) Elizabeth Christopher (1861-?) She married in South Africa to Walter William Beeming
(19.4) Thomas Christopher (1864-1914) He married in South Africa to Sarah Ellen Ethel Unknown.

(20) The 'Wheal Vor' mine: There were other smaller mines not too far away but Wheal Vor's history fits the circumstances of the Andrewartha Family and it was the closest (1 mile away) and by far the largest employer anywhere in the area reaching 1,200 employees. 'Wheal Proser' a tin mine did not open until 1860 by which time William Andrewartha (Emily's father) had become a farmer of 8 acres. 'Wheal Trewavas' a copper and tin mine opened in the mid 1830's and employed at best about 200 people before closing in the late 1840's about the time Emily was born. 'Wheal Hendra' was an old mine (formerly called Wheal Joan) which ceased working in 1867 when it was renamed under new owners as The 'New Wheal Hendra'. It was a relatively small tin and copper mine located in Breage parish just inland and to the southeast of Praa Sands. Situated about one and three quarter miles south west of Breage. It worked a single lode employing in 1861 only 14 people. Many mines came and went an example was Wheal Godolphin copper and tin mine north of Germoe seems to have been most successful during the period 1815-1847 but by 1865 only had 2 employees. Wheal Vrawz otherwise Vrose seems to have been a little mine and an unsuccessful venture for tin which only worked for a very short time. Others are difficult to assess for example Great Wheal Fortune mine situated a mile northeast of Breage was producing copper and tin in 1855 but at times also produced zinc and arsenic. Employment at the mine seems to have varied the only measure being 78 people employed in 1890.

(21) The 11 children of William Christopher (1873-1961) and Susan May Pearson (1878-1980) were:-
(21.1) Will Christopher(1902-1986)
(21.1) Bert Christopher (1904-2006)
(21.3) Clem Christopher (1905-1905)
(21.4) Florie Christopher (1907-1907)
(21.5) Nellie Christopher (1908-2005)
(21.6) Jean Christopher (1909-1973)
(21.7) Clem Christopher (1910-2003)
(21.8) Glen Christopher (1913-2009)
(21.9) Leslie Thomas Christopher (1917-1917)
(21.10) Max Christopher ( 1918-1918)
(21.11) Rose Gardner Christopher (1920-1921)

(22) The 5 children of John Henry Christopher (1890-1965) were:
(22.1) Clarence Christopher (1911-2003)
(22.2) Reginald Morgan Christopher (1913-1978)
(22.3) Edna May Christopher (1916-?)
(22.4) Charles Leslie Christopher (1916-1916)
(22.5) Douglas Keith Christopher (1923-?)

(23) The 8 children of Robert Clyde Christopher1895-1965) and Delia May nee Gale were:-
(23.1) Robert Clyde Christopher Gale (1914-1995) the illegitimate son of Delia who married his father in 1916. He was born at Kadina 26th Jun 1914 and served in WWII in the Australian Army B883: 2nd ALF (Soldier SX16182) and died 21st Aug 1995.
(23.2) Molly Christopher (1917-2011) she married Leslie Morris Howard in the Methodist Manse Brompton South Australia 4th Sep 1936. She was living at 27th Second Street Hindmarch SA 1939 to at least 1943. She died at the age of 94 passing away on 2nd Nov 2011.
(23.3) Lorrain May Christopher (1919-2007) Born at Kadina 27th Feb 1919 she married William Alberrt Collins at Woollahara about 1940
(23.4) Lorna Christopher (1921-1921) Born at Kadina on 21st April 1921 she died there 23rd Aug 1921.
(23.5) Charles Leslie Christopher (1922-1993) Born at Kadina 14 Oct 1922 Married Yvonne Pople and died 2nd Nov 1993 Adelaide
(23.6) Betty Wenonah Christopher (1925-1986) Born at Wallaroo Mines 5th Sep 1925 She married twice to Warren Kenneth Cadd by whom she had 2 children and Gordon Willis by whom she had a further child. Betty died 21 Jul 1986 at Seaton Charles Sturt City SA and was cremated at Enfield Memorial Park.
(23.7) Kevin Maxwell Christopher (1927-2000) born 18 Oct 1927 at Kilkenny South Australia he married June Helen Norah Bullard 8 Mar 1852 at Manse Methodist Gilberton and they had 4 children living. Kelvin died 13 Jun 2000 at Campbelltown SA
(23.8) Kathleen Christopher (1933-1969) She married at Walkerville Victoria SA 24th Oct 1953 to Christopher Kelvin Jones and died 27 Sep 1969 Adelaide SA

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