Hosted websites will become read-only beginning in early 2024. At that time, all logins will be disabled, but hosted sites will remain on RootsWeb as static content. Website owners wishing to maintain their sites must migrate to a different hosting provider before 2024 (More info)
Plumstead Genealogy and associated families - Jobs of the Past

Ancestors of Forrest Gene PLUMSTEAD Sr

Jobs of the Past

*A List of Occupations

The following is a list of occupations of which many are archaic. These are useful to genealogists since surnames usually originated from someone's occupation. They also are useful to historians in general. The list is by no means complete. I thank all of those who have contributed to the list.

This list is probably not complete. If you know of some we missed, please e-mail me.



Name What they Did
*ACATER supplied food provisions, e.g. a ships chandler
Accomptant Accountant
*ACCOUCHEUR/ACCOUCHEUS assisted women in childbirth
*ACCOUTREMENT MAKER/ACCOUTRE supplier of military accessories
*ACKERMAN/ACREMAN ploughman, an oxherder
*ACTUARY kept public accounts of business
*ADMINISTRATOR directed the affairs of another
*ADVOCATE DEPUTE Scottish law officer who could act a public prosecutor
*ADVOWEE normally a nobleman, who had the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
*AERONAUT balloonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls
*AFFEEROR official in the manorial courts who assessed the monetary penalty and also collected taxes and dues and were also called Assessor
**AGENTa person who acted on behalf of a company or another person
*AGISTER official of the Royal Forests or in the New Forest it is the title for the one in charge of the ponies
**AGRICULTURISTa person involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry
*ALABASTERER worked with alabaster
*ALBLASTERE crossbow man
*ALCHEMIST medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold
*ALDERMAN senior councillor one position down from Mayor in the local council
*ALE-CONNER/ ALE FOUNDER official who tested quality and measure of ale served in public houses
*ALE DRAPER seller of ale
*ALE TASTER tested ale and beer for quality first recored in 1377 in London. Appointed by the Manor and forerunner of the Inspector for Weights & Measures
*ALE TUNNER employed by the brewery to fill ale casks (tuns} with ale
*ALEWIFE woman who keeps an alehouse or tavern
*ALL SPICE name for a grocer
*ALMANAC MAN official appointed by the Court of Sewers who warned the inhabitants of the Trent River area of higher than normal tides
Almoner an officer who distributed charity or alms; by ancient law every monastery was to disperse a tenth of its income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were obliged to keep an almoner
*ALMSMAN received alms
ALNAGERofficial who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval
Amanuensis(1) Secretary or stenographer
**AMANUENSIS(2)one who is employed to take dictation or to copy manuscript
*AMBER CUTTERcut ambergris
*AMBER & JET CUTTERcut and polished amber for jewelry
*AMBLERofficer of the Royal Stable who broke in horses
*AMEN MANparish clerk
*ANCHOR SMITHmade anchors
*ANCHORESSfemale hermit or religious recluse
*ANCHORITEmale hermit or religious recluse
*ANILEPMANsmallholder (tenant of the manor)
*ANGLE IRON SMITHmade angle iron ie. flat iron bars bent at right angles lengthways
*ANKLE BEATERyoung person who helped to drive the cattle to market
*ANNATTO MAKERworked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
*ANTIGROPELOS MAKERmade waterproof leggings
*ANVIL SMITHmade anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
*APOTHECARYprepared and sold medicines or drugs; pharmacist
*APPARITORofficial who summoned witnesses in the ecclesiastical courts
*APPRENTICEwas bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade
*APRONEERterm used in London for a shopkeeper
*AQUARIUS (EWAR)waterman
*AQUAVITA SELLERsold alcohol
**ARBITERa witness or judge
**ARCHERa person skilled in using a bow and arrow
*ARCHIL MAKERmade a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
**ARCHIVISTone who kept historical records
**ARGOLETa mounted bowman
*ARKWRIGHTskilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)
*ARMIGERsquire who carried the armour of a knight
*ARMOURERmade suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.
**ARPENTEURa land-surveyor
*ARTIFICER(1)highly respected skilled or artistic worker or craftsman or one that makes or contrives
Artificer(2) A soldier mechanic who does repairs
**ARTIFICER(3)a blacksmith; one who made fuses, grenades, shells, etc.
**ARTISANa skilled tradesman
*ASSAYERdetermined the proportions of metal in ore
*ASSAY MASTERdetermined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins
*AUGER MAKERmade the carpenters augers (used for boring holes in wood)
*AULNAGERsee Alnager
*AVENATOR (PLANTIFENE)hay and forage merchant
*AVOWRYterm for the lord of the manor
*AXEL TREE MAKER / AXEL TREE TURNERmade axels for coaches and wagons
*BACKMAKERmade "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper
*BACK'US BOYkitchen servant (from "back of the house")
*BACK WASHERemployed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
*BADGERlicensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter P on it and could only work in a defined area (the term "Badgering comes from this"). A corn miller or dealer or an itinerant food trader
*BADGY FIDDLERboy trumpeter in the military
*BAGMANtravelling salesman
*BAGNIOKEEPERIn charge of a bath house or brothel
Bailie Bailiff
**BAILIFF[1] a court attendant entrusted with duties such as the maintenance of order in a courtroom during a trial; [2] an official who assisted a British sheriff and who had the power to execute writs, processes, and arrests; [3] (chiefly British) an overseer of an estate; a steward
*BAIRMAN / BAREMANpauper or beggar
*BALERbales hay and in the mills one who bailed wool or cotton goods
*BALISTERarcher most commonly a crossbowman
**BALLAD MONGERone who sold printed ballads on the street
**BALLAST HEAVERa person who loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
*BALLAST HEAVERloaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
*BALLARD MASTERin charge of loading the ballast into the hold of empty ships
*BALLER / BALLER UPassisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay
*BAL MAIDENfemale mine worker who worked on the surface (also a Pit Brow Lass)
*BAND FILERmetal worker in the gun making industry
*BANDSTERbound the wheat sheaves after harvest
*BANG BEGGARofficer of the parish who controlled the length of stay of any stranger to the parish
*BANKERdug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge
*BANKSMANemployed in the mining industry being in charge of the cages at the pit head (sometimes known as a bank manager)
**BANQUETERa broker or banker
*BARBER / BARBER SURGEONa barber also also a surgeon (an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting in the 18th century)
*BARDpoet or minstral
*BAREMANbeggar or pauper
*BARGEE / BARGEMANworked on or owned and operated a barge
*BARGE MATENaval officer
*BARILLA MANUFACTURERmade barilla, a substance obtained from burning saltworts, the resulting mixture of sodium salts being used in the glass and ceramics industry
*BARKEEPERanother name for a tollkeeper
**BARKMANa bargeman
**BARM BREWERa person who made yeast
**BARREL FILERa person employed in the gun manufacturing industry
**BARTONER / BARTONa person in charge of the monastic farm
**BASIL WORKERa person who worked with sheep and goat skins
**BASKETMANperson who made baskets and furniture from wicker; one employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
**BATMANan officer's servant in the army
**BATTLEDORE MAKERone who made the beaters used on clothes, carpets, etc. to remove the dust
**BAWDa procurer or procuress for a house of prostitution
Baxter Baker
*BARTONERin charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton
*BASIL WORKERworked with sheep and goat skins
*BASKETMANmade baskets and furniture from wicker, and also employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
*BASS / BAST DRESSERemployed in dressing fibre or matting
*BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETORowned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the by bathers
*BATMANofficers servant in the army
*BATT MAKERmade the wadding used in quilt and mattress making
*BATTER OUTsliced a short cylinder of clay (a bat) from a "pug" and threw it onto a mold shaped for the face of a ceramic plate
*BATTLEDORE MAKERmade the beaters used on clothes carpets etc to remove the dust (later made the paddles used in washing machines)
*BAYWEAVERwho wove bay (a fine woollen fabric also known as baize)
*BEADLE / BEDEL / BEDELLofficer of the parish whose principle duty was to keep order, also was the town crier
*BEADMAN / BEADSMAN / BEDESMANemployed to pray for his employer, inhabitant of an almshouse / poorhouse / hospital or tenant employed by the manor for a specific service
*BEAD PIERCERemployed to drill the holes in beads
*BEAMERwinds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom in the textile industry
**BEAMSTERthe man who worked at the beam in a tannery
*BEARERworked undergrpound carrying the coal to the bottom of the pit shaft and placed it in the containers for uplifting to the surface
*BEATERcleansed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth (aka Fuller)
*BEAVERmade felt used in hat making
**BEDDER[1] an upholsterer;
[2] one who took care of the breeding of cattle;
[3] a bed-maker
*BEDRALin Scotland a minor church official
*BEDWEVEREmade the webbing for bed frames and also a one who wove quilts
*BEESKEPMAKERmade beehives
**BEEKEEPER / BEEMASTERa person who raised and kept bees for their honey
*BEETLERoperated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric
*BELHOSTEtavern keeper.
*BELL HANGERinstalled bells in churches
*BELLMANemployed as a watchman or town crier or who worked for the post office and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell
**BELL RINGERone in charge of ringing the town's church bells
*BELLOWFARMERresponsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ
*BELLOWS MAKERmade bellows used for organs or blacksmiths fires
*BELLY BUILDERbuilt and fitted the interiors of pianos
*BENDERcut leather
**BERNER[obsolete] a man in charge of a pack of hounds
*BESSWARDENappointed by the parish to look after its animals
*BESOM MAKERmade brooms
*BEVERbeverage maker
**BIBLIOTHECARYa librarian
*BIDDYfemale servant usually of Irish stock
**BID-STAND[obsolete] one who bade travelers to "stand and deliver"; a highwayman or robber
*BILLIER / BILLYMANoperated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning
*BILL POSTERput up notices, signs and advertisements
*BINDERbound items, e.g., books, hats etc.
*BIRD BOYemployed to scare away birds from crops
*BIRD CATCHERcaught birds for selling
*BIRDS NEST SELLERsold bird nests collected from the wild complete with eggs which were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
*BIRLYMANin Scotland a ground officer or parish arbiter
*BLACK TRAY MAKERmade Japanned trays
*BLACKING MAKERmade polish for shoes
*BLACK BORDERERmade black edged stationery for funerals
*BLADESMITHswordmaker or knife maker
*BLAXTER / BLEACHERbleached cloth or paper pulp
*BLENTONISTwater diviner
*BLINDSMANemployed by the Post Office to deal with incorrectly addressed letters and parcels
*BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKERmade wooden blocks used in the hat trade or laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid; a blockcutter was also a person who made and cut the patterns into wooden blocks for textile printing
*BLOCK MAKERengraved the blocks used in the printin
*BLOCK PRINTERprinter who used wooden blocks for printing
*BLOODMAN / BLOODLETTERused leeches for letting blood, this was thought to be a cure for many ailments
*BLOOMERproduced iron from ore, a bloom smithy
*BLOWERglass blower, one who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade, one who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths
*BLOWFEEDERfed the fibres into a "blowing machine"
Bluestocking Female writer
*BLUFFERinnkeeper or landlord of a pub
*BOARDING OFFICERinspected ships before entering port
*BOARDMANtruant officer who checked school attendance. a tenant of manorial land who paid rent by maintaining the manor's table
*BOARDWRIGHTmade tables and chairs aka carpenter
*BOATMANworked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals also the name given to a boat repairer
*BOATSWAINship's officer in charge of riggings & sails
*BOBBERwho polished metals one who helped to unload fishing boats
*BOBBIN CARRIERworked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills
*BOBBIN TURNERmade the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry
*BOBBYpoliceman usually of constable rank
**BOCHER[obsolete] butcher
*BODEYS / BODY MAKERmade bodices for womens garments
*BODGERcraftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars and usually worked in the actual woodland that they cut the timber in
*BOILERMAKERworked with metal in any industrial setting
*BOILER PLATERmade rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines etc
*BOLLlooked after power looms in the weaving industry
*BOLTERsifted meal
*BONDAGERfemale worker on a farm who was bonded
*BONDMANbonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade
*BONDSMANstood bond or surety for another where a bond was required by law
*BONE BUTTON TURNERmade buttons using a lathe
*BONE LACE MAKERmade pillow lace
*BONE MOULD TURNERmade the moulds for button manufacturers
*BONE PICKERcollected rags and bones aka Rag and Bone Man
*BONESETTERset broken bones
Boniface Inn Keeper
*BONIFACEkeeper of an inn
*BOOK GILDERdecorated books with gold leaf
*BOOKHOLDERprompter in the theater
*BOOK KEEPERlooked after the accounts for businesses
*BOONMASTERsurveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road
*BOOTBINDERemployed to operate the machines which bound footware
*BOOT CATCHERservant at inn who pulled off traveler's boots
*BOOT CLOSERworked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
*BOOTHMANcorn merchant
*BORLERwho made cheap coarse clothing
*BORSHOLDERregional name (Kent) for a constable
*BOTCHERtailor or cobbler
*BOTTILER / BOTTLERmade leather containers for holding liquids eg wine flasks or water bottles
*BOTTLE BOYpharmacists assistant
*BOTTOM MAKERmoulded the bottoms for saggers in the pottery industry
*BOTTOM KNOCKERsagger makers assistant in the pottery industry
*BOTTOMERworked down the pits moving the ore etc to the bottom of the shaft for removal
*BOWDLERworked with iron ore
*BOWKERbleached yarn. A local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher
*BOWLERmade bowls and dishes and also a term used for those who made the rounded part of spoons before casting
*BOWLMAN / BOWLWOMANdealer in crockery
*BOWLMINDERin charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing
*BOWYER / BOWERmade bows used in archery
*BOZZLERparish constable
*BRACHYGRAPHERshorthand writer
*BRAIDERmade cord by twisting threads or strips of leather
*BRAILLERmade girdles
*BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMANoperated the winch at the pit head or operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
**BRASS FINISHERone who polished brass goods
**BRASS CUTTERa person who made copperplate engravings
**BRASS FOUNDERone who cast brass
**BRAYERa person who ground things up in a mortar
Brazier One who works with brass
**BREACH MAKERa person who made the breach for guns
Brewster Beer manufacturer
**BREWSTERa female brewer
**BRICKBURNER / BRICKMAKERa person who used a kiln to make bricks
**BRICKMAN / BREAKMANa bricklayer
**BRIDEWELL KEEPERthe person in charge of a lock-up or jail
**BRIDGEMANtoll keeper at bridges
Brightsmith Metal Worker
**BROADCLOTH WEAVERa person who operated a wide loom
**BROAD COOPERa person employed as a go-between for the brewery and the innkeepers
**BROGGERa wool merchant
*BROOM-DASHERdealer in brooms
*BROOM SQUIREbroom maker
*BROW GIRLfemale employed at the pit head
*BROWNSMITHworks with copper or brass
*BUCKLE TONGUE MAKERmade the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
*BUCKRAM MAKERworked with buckram (used in stiffening materials) e.g. belts, lapels and collars
*BUCK WASHERlaundress
*BUDDLEBOYemployed to use and maintain the vats used in the lead and tin mines for washing the ore
*BUDDLERwomen and children who washed the ore at the copper mines in Allihies, Berehaven
*BUFFALO SOLDIERsoldier serving in a black regiment in the US Army in the West
*BULLWHACKERoxen driver
*BULLOCKYattended to the daily needs of cattle and may also have lent a hand with general farm duties, especially during busy periods
*BUMBOAT MANmet ships at anchor with goods for passengers and crew to purchase
*BUMMERarmy deserter
*BUMMAREEmiddle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets
*BUNTERfemale rag & bone collector
*BURGESSrepresented a borough at official levels
*BURELER made borel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel
Burgonmaster Mayor
*BURLERquality inspector for clothing
*BURMAIDENchambermaid or lady-in-waiting
*BURNEMANcarrier of barm or water for brewers
*BURYE MANgrave digger
*BUSHELERtailor's helper
*BUSS MAKERmaker of guns
*BUSKERhair dresser
*BUTNERbutton maker
*BUTTER CARVERmade imprints in butter pats
*BUTTON BURNISHERbutton polisher
*BUTTYnegotiated mining contracts and supplied the labor
**CABBIEdriver of a small horse drawn passenger vehicle
**CADa person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops
*CADDY BUTCHERbutcher that dealt in horse meat
*CADDIEmessenger or errand boy
*CAFFLERrag and bone collector
*CAINERmade walking sticks
*CAIRDanother term for a tinker
*CALCINERburnt bones to make powdered lime
*CALENDERlisted documents
*CALENDERER / CALENDERMAN / CALENDER WORKERoperated a machine which pressed using two large rollers (calender) used to press and finish fabrics or paper
*CALICO PRINTERdyed and colored calico
**CALKERan astrologer or magician
**CAMBISTa banker or one who dealt in notes and bills
*CAMBRIC MAKERmade a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric
*CAMISTERminister of the cloth
*CAMERISTlady's maid
*CAMLET MERCHANTseller of camlet, cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats
*CAMPANERbell maker
*CANDLE MAKER / CANDLERwho made and sold candles
*CANDY MANtraveling candy salesman and also slang name for a baliff
*CANER / CHAIR BOTTOMERmade the seats for chairs out of woven cane
*CANNALLERcanal boat worker
*CANTERreligious speaker who uses cant
*CANVASERmade canvas
*CAPERcap maker
*CAPILLAIRE MAKERmade orange flavored syrup
*CAPPER / CAP MAKERmade caps usually worn by the working class
*CAPTAINin charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also term for an overseer
*CARDROOMERterm for anyone who worked in the carding room of the mills
*CARDERcards wool
*CARDMAKERmaker of cards or instruments for combing wool
*CARMAN / CHARMAN / CARTER / CARRIERdrove a vehicle used to transport goods
*CARD NAILER / NAILORAmaintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving
*CARETAKERtakes care of another's property
*CARNERgranary keeper
*CARRY-IN-BOYtook finished bottled (products) to the tempering oven
*CARTERcarries or conveys in or as if in a cart
*CART WHEELERmade cart wheels
*CARTOMANCERfortune teller who used cards
*CARTWRIGHTmaker of carts & wagons
*CASHMARIEsold fish usually at inland markets
*CASTER / CASTORAmade small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc
*CASTRATORwho castrated farm animals aka gelder
*CATCHPOLE / CATCHPOLLAsheriff's assistance or bailiff
*CATECHISTAteacher of religion
*CATTLE JOBBERbuys and sells cattle
Caulker One who filled up cracks (in ships or windows) or seems to make them watertight by using tar or oakum
*CEILERputs up the ceilings in buildings
*CELLARMANlooked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse
*CEMMERhand combed the yarn before weaving
**CHAFF CUTTERmade chaff by cutting straw
**CHAFFERERdealer in chaff
**CHAIR BODGERtraveling chair repairman
Chaisemaker Carriage maker
**CHAISE MAKERmade carts from wicker
**CHAISE MAKERwicker cart maker
**CHALONERblanket maker
*CHALONERdealer in shalloon, a material made in Ch´┐Żlons
**CHAMBERLAINa steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
**CHAMBERMAIDa female servant who attended to the bedrooms in a house or inn
**CHAMBERMASTERa shoemaker who worked in his own home
Chandler Dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles; retailer of groceries
*CHANTY MANsailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
*CHAPELERmade and sold hats
*CHAPMAN / COPEMAN / PETTY CHAPMAN / CEAPMANdealer or peddler of goods usually itinerant going from village to village.
*CHARCOAL BURNERmade charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
*CHARTMASTERmiddleman that negotiated mining contracts and suppiled the labour
*CHARWOMANcleaning woman
*CHATELAINEmistress of a castle or house
*CHAUNTERstreet entertainer who sung ballads
Chiffonnier Wig maker
*CHILDBED LINEN WAREHOUSE KEEPER / DEALERhired bedlinen for childbirth as most children were born at home
*CHIMNEY SWEEPchimney cleaner
*CHINGLORrooftiler who used wooden shingles
*CHIPshipwright or carpenter
*CHIPPERS LABOURERassistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter
*CHIROPODISTtreats diseases of the feet & hands
*CHIRUGION or CHIRURGEONapothecary or surgeon (usually learned by apprenticeship)
*CHOWDERfish monger
*CHRONOLOGISTrecorded official events of historical importance
*CINDER WENCHfemale who collected the cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
*CLAPMANtown crier
Clark Clerk
*CLASSMANunemployed laborer
*CLAY CARRIERassistant to the shot firer in the pits
*CLAYMAN / CLEYMANworked in the clay pits usually preparing the clay for making bricks and also one who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof
Clerk Clergyman, cleric
Clicker The servant of a salesman who stood at the door to invite customers; one who received the matter in the galley from the compositors and arranged it in due form ready for printing; one who makes eyelet holes in boots using a machine which clicked.
*CLICKERworked in the shoe trade cutting out the uppers made the shoelace holes and one in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in printing industry
*CLIPPER / CLIPPER ON / CLIPPER OFFattached the coal carts to the wire or rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face
*CLOGGERmaker of wooden shoes
*CLOTH LAPPERtook the cloth from the carding machine readied it for the next process
*CLOTH LINTER / CLOTH PICKERremoved unwanted threads and lint from the finished material
*CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN / CLOTHMANwho made or sold clothes
*CLOUTER / CLOWERmade nails also another term for a shoemaker for the former term
**CLOWERa person who made nails
*COACHMAN / COACH DRIVERdrove any coach
*COAL BACKERcarried the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons
*COAL BURNERmade charcoal
*COAL DRAWERworked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit
*COAL HEAVERunloaded coal
*COALMAN / COAL MERCHANT / COAL HIGGLERsold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
*COALMETERmeasured the coal
*COAL RUNNERattended the coal carts underground
*COAL WHIPPERunloaded coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane
**COALYa coal heaver
*COAST SURVEYOR / WAITERcustoms officer who watched over the ofloading off goods on the coast
*COBLEMANused a flat bottomed boat for fishing
**COCKFEEDERa person who looked after fighting cocks
**CODMANa fish seller
*COD PLACERput fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln
**COGMENmen who bought and sold a coarse cloth called cogware
Cohen Priest
**COILLOR[obsolete] a collector
*COINERworked at the mint stamping out coins
**COISTSELLa groom in charge of the care of a knight's horse
*COLLAR MAKERmade horse collars and one who made shirt collars
Collier Coal miner
*COLONUSLatin for farmer or husbandman
Colporteur Peddler of books
**COLPORTEURan itinerant book salesman, most often one employed by a society to travel about and sell or distribute Bibles and religious writings
*COLOURATOR / COLORATORAworked with dyes
*COLOUR MANmixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter
*COMBER or COMBEREcombs wool
*COMB MAKERmade combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs
*COMPOSITORset the type ready for printing
*CONDER / CONNERgave steering instructions to the steersman and also gave directions to inshore fisherman of fish movements on shoals (usually from the top of cliffs or rocks)
*CONEY CATCHERrabbit catcher
*CONFECTIONERcandy maker
*CONNERinspector or tester
Cooper One who makes or repairs vessels made of staves & hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc.
**COPEMAN[1] a dishonest merchant, especially in horses; [2] a receiver of stolen goods
**COPERa horse dealer
*COPEMAN / COPERdealer in goods and also dishonest dealer in horses in the latter case
*COPPERSMITHworked with copper
*CORACLE MAKERmade coracles, a small round boat used for fishing
**CORDERa colonial official whose duty was to verify cords of wood before sale
Cordwainer Shoemaker, originally any leather worker using leather from Cordova/Cordoba in Spain
*CORDINER / CORDWAINER / CORVINER / CORVISORoriginally term used for one who worked with Cordovan (a special leather from Spain) but later term used for shoemaker
**CORK CUTTERone who worked with cork
**CORN CUTTERa podiatrist
Costermonger Peddler of fruits and vegetables
*COSTER WIFEfemale fruit seller
**COTELER / COTYLERone who made and repaired knives
*COUPERbuys & sells
**COURTIERthe owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court
*COWHERDcow tender
*COWKEEPERkept one or more cows (a common source of livelihood in cities) when a cow was kept in the back yard of a house, providing milk which was sold at the front door or window, forerunner of the local dairy
**COWPERone who made wooden items
*COXWAINship or boat helmsman
**CRACKER BOYa boy employed to clean and sort slate and other impurities from the coal crushed by the crackers (machines that crush anthracite coal)
**CRAFTIMANa craftsman
**CRAMERa peddler who sold books in the marketplace; a hawker
*CRATCH MAKERmade cratches (mangers, cribs, or frames) for hay
**CRATE MANa person who sold earthenware door to door
*CRIERlaw court officer, auctioneer, town announcer
*CRIMPERmember of navy press gang
**CRIMPET MAKERa person who baked crumpets
Crocker Potter
*CROFTERtenant of a small piece of land
**CROOKMAKERa person who made shepherd's crooks and walking sticks
*CROPPERtenant who is paid with a share of the crop
*CROSIER / CROZIERbearer of the pastoral staff of a bishop or the bearer of the cross before the archbishop in the church
Crowner Coroner
*CURERcures tobacco
*CURRIERcures or tans hides
Currier One who dresses the coat of a horse with a curry comb; one who tanned leather by incorporating oil or grease
*CUSTOMERcustoms tax collector
*CUTLERknife seller or sharpener
*DAGUERREOTYPE ARTISTearly name for a photographer (from the Daguerreotype method)
*DAIRYMANworker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products
*DAMSTERbuilder of dams for logging purposes
*DANTERfemale overseer in the winding rooms of a silk mill
*DATELER / DAY MAN / DAYTALEMANcasual worker, usually employed by the day
*DECIMER / DOZENERelected by the householders in a street to act as their representative at the borough's Court Leet
*DECOYMANemployed to decoy the wild fowl, animals etc into a trap or within shooting range
*DECRETISTknowledgeable in decrees, decretals
*DEEMER / DEEMSTER / DEMSTER / DEMPSTERjudge, usually in the Channel Isles or Isle of Man
*DELVERdug ditches
*DEPATERprecious metal refiner
*DEPUTYsafety officer for the pit crew in the mining industry
*DERRICKMANworked on an oil well handling the tubes and rods used in drilling
*DEVILprinter's errand boy
*DEVILLERoperated the devil, a machine that tore rags used in the textile industry
*DEY WIFEfemale dairy worker
*DIKEMAN / DYKEMANhedger or ditcher
*DIPPERwho worked in the pottery trade and was responsible for the glazing of items
*DISHER / DISH THROWERwho made bowls and dishes
*DISH TURNERwho made wooden bowls or dishes
*DISTILLERmaker of alcoholic beverages
*DISTRIBUTORparish official attached to the workhouse / poorhouse who looked after the secular needs of the poor
Docker Stevedore, dock worker who loads and unloads cargo
*DOCK MASTERin charge of a dockyard
**DOG BREAKERdog trainer
*DOG LEECHveterinarian
*DOG-WHIPPERdrove dogs away in a village
*DOMESTIChousehold servant
*DONKEY BOY / DONKEY MANdriver of a carriage for passengers
*DOOR KEEPERguard, janitor, or porter
*DOUBLERoperated a machine used to twist together strands of fibre (cotton, wool etc)
Dowser One who finds water using a rod or witching stick
*DRAGMANfisher man who fished by dragging a net along the bottom of the water
*DRAGOMANacted as interpreter or guide in Turkish or Arabic
*DRAGSMANdriver of a small stage coach or carriage used for public transport or private hire
*DRAGOONmounted infantryman
*DRAINERmade drains
*DRAPERdealer in fabrics and sewing needs
Draper A dealer in dry goods
*DRAWBOYweavers assistant in the shawl making mills , they sat atop the looms and lifted the heavy warps.
**DRAWERone who drew and served liquor for tavern customers
Drayman One who drives a long strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy loads
*DREDGERMANone who in a boat to collect the bits and pieces that had fallen overboard from other vessels which then were sold (London occupation)
*DRESSERone who dresses another, surgeon's assistant and also one who operated a machine which prepared threads in the textile industry
Dresser A surgeon's assistant in a hospital
*DRESSING MACHINE MAKERmade sewing machines
**DRESSMAKERclothing maker
*DRIFT MAKERAmade drift nets, used in the fishing industry
*DRIPPING MANdealer in dripping (the fat collected during the cooking of meats)
*DRIVERslave overseer
Drover One who drives cattle, sheep, etc. to market; a dealer in cattle
*DRUMMERtraveling salesman
*DRY SALTERdealer in pickles, dried meats, and sauces or a dealer in dyes and colors used in the dying trade
*DUBBEREcloth dubber, i.e., one who raises the nap of cloth
Duffer Peddler
*DUFFERpeddler of cheap goods
*DUSTMAN / DUSTBIN MANcollected domestic refuse
*DRY STONE WALLER (DRY STANE DYKER in Scottish)built stone walls usually using the stones removed from the fields as building materials. The art was in not using any cement or mortar and generally not cutting the stone, but being able to see where variuos stones would fit together
*DYERemployed in the textile mills to color fabric prior to weaving
*DYKERScottish term for a stonemason
*EALDORMANn official of the shire courts who acted as the King's deputy taking payment from the profits of the court
*EBONITE TURNERone who worked with ebonite or vulcanite, making combs or ornaments etc
*EARTH STOPPERone who plugs up animal holes
*EGG FACTOR / EGGLERegg or poultry dealer
*ELEPHANTS TEETH DEALERwho dealt in ivory ornaments etc
*ELLERMAN / ELLIMANwho sold oil used for lamps and known as an oilman
*EMBOSSERwho moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material
*EMPRESARIOland broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman
*ENDHOLDERNNinn keeper
*ENGINEMANemployed at a mine to be in charge of the machinery used to crush the ore
*ENGINE TENTERwho operated the machine which stretched the cloth whilst drying in a woolllen mill
*ENSIGNcommissioned officer in the navy
*ENUMERATORwho collected the information for the census from the householder and recorded it
**EMPTORa buyer
**ENGRAVER / ETCHERone who cut or carved designs or lettering in metal or stone
*EQUERRYofficer of the royal household usually responsible for the royal horses
*ESQUIREone who attended a knight, which later became a title for a man of standing in society
**ESSENCE PEDDLERone who sold medicines, flavorings, elixirs, etc.
*ESTAFETTEmounted courier
*EWE HERDshepherd
*EXCHEQUERrevenue collector
*EXCISEMANexcise tax collector
*EXPRESSMANperson employed in the express business
*EYER one who made eyes in needles used for sewing. Sometimes called a Holer
*FABERartisan or workman
Factor Agent, commission merchant; one who acts or transacts business for another; Scottish steward or bailiff of an estate
*FAGETTERmade up faggots into bundles, seller of firewood
*FAKERphotographic assistant who added color to photographs by hand before color film was available
*FALCONERbreeds, trains, or hunts with hawks
*FANCY-PEARL WORKERworked in mother-of-pearl making buttons or fancy goods
*FANCY WOMANprostitute
*FANNERgrain winnower
*FANWRIGHTmaker and repairer of fans or winnowing baskets
*FARANDMANtraveling merchant
*FARMERoften descendant of the gentry and, ultimately, noble classes; usually having servants and farm workers, e.g., husbandmen, groomsmen, etc
Farrier A blacksmith, one who shoes horses
Faulkner Falconer
*FASHIONERone who fashioned or formed anything, especially clothing
*FAWKNERtrainer of falcons
*FEAR-NOTHING MAKERweaver of special kind of thick woollen cloth known as fear-nought, used for protective clothing and lining portholes, walls, and doors of powder magazines on board ships.
*FEATHER BEATER / FEATHER DRIVERcleanser of feathers
*FEATHER-DRESSERwho cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
*FEATHERMANdealer in feathers and plumes
*FEATHER-WIFEwoman who prepared feathers for use
Fell Monger One who removes hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making
*FELTERworker in the hatting industry
*FENCE VIEWERa person legally appointed to inspect and report on the condition of fences.
*FERRERa smith who worked in iron
*FERRETERdealer in or manufacturer of ferret, ie. silk tape
*FETTLERcleaned the machinery in woollen mills, removing accumulated fibres, grease, etc., sharpened the fustian cutters knives or needlemaker who filed the needle to a point
*FEWSTERmaker of saddletrees
*FEWTERERkeeper of hounds, for hunting or coursing
*FIDDLERused a fiddle (small knife) to remove the flashing from cast clay forms such as bowl, creamers, cups or pitchers
*FILE CUTTERa maker of files, involved the cutting of grooves on the file surface
*FILIBUSTERAmerican mercenaries in South America, gun runners
*FILLERwho filled bobbins in mills
*FINE DRAWERemployed in tailoring to repair tears in the cloth (invisible mending)
*FINISHERoperated machine giving final touches to a manufactured article in various trades
*FIREBEATERtended the boilers that powered the machinery in a cotton mill
*FIREMANinspected for, and removed explosive gasses underground in mining or stoked the boilers on ships and locomotives
*FIRST HANDsilk weaver who had his own loom (an outworker)
*FISH FAGfemale fish monger
*FITTERcoal broker
*FLASHERspecialist process worker in the glass industry
*FLATMAN / FLOATMANnavigated a flat, a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, especially in shallow waters
*FLATHEAD (Lumber)a colloquial term used to describe the man who felled the trees and then "bucked" them up. details
*FLAXDRESSERprepared flax prior to spinning
*FLESHER[1] a butcher; [2] one who worked in a tannery
*FLESHMONGER / FLESHERbutcher or one who worked in a tannery
Fletcher One who made bows and arrows
*FLOATERvagrant or one who regulated the year-round workings of the watermeadows in winter by adjusting the hatches on the channels to flood or float the meadows with a shallow covering of water to protect them from frost and encourage the early growth of new grass mainly for early feed for sheep and other animals. The sheep were pastured on the new grass by day and driven up on to the downs to be folded by night to provide the manure needed for the coming season's grain crops
*FLUSHERMANwho cleaned out water mains
*FLYCOACHMANdriver of one-horse carriage hired by the day
*FLYING STATIONERstreet broadsheet seller
*FLYMANdriver of a light vehicle hired out for carriage of passenger or Theatre stage hand
*FOGGERpeddler or low class lawyer
*FOOT-BOYa servant or attendant in livery
*FOOT MAIDENfemale servant
*FOOT MANservant who ran errands
*FOOT PADrobber
*FOOT-POSTletter carrier or messenger who travelled on foot
*FOOT STRAIGHTENERone who assembled watch and clock dials in watchmaking
*FORESTERgame warden or forest ranger
*FORGEMANblacksmith or assistant (coachsmith 18th century Derbyshire)
*FORGERblacksmith, worker at a forge
*FORESTALLERone who bought goods before they come to market in order to raise the price
*FOSSETMAKERwho made faucets for ale-casks, etc
*FOWERstreet cleaner, sweeper
*FRAME SPINNERworker on a loom
*FRAMERone who frames houses
*FRAMEWORKER KNITTERoperator of machine which made hosiery
*FREEDMANone released from slavery
*FRESERmaker of frieze, a rough plaster
*FRESHWATER MANsailed boat on fresh water only or in the coastal trade
*FRINGEMAKERone who made fringes or ornamental borders of cloth
*FRIPPERERbuyer & seller of old clothes
*FRISEURhair dresser
*FROBISHER / FURBISHER / FURBER / FURBOURremover of rust, a polisher of metal, eg. armour
*FRUITERERfruit seller
*FRUITESTEREfemale fruit seller
*FRUITERERfruit seller
*FULLERa person who fulled (processed) cloth by increasing the weight and bulk of fabric by shrinking, beating, or pressing it
Fuller One who fulls cloth; one who shrinks and thickens woolen cloth by moistening, heating, and pressing; one who cleans and finishes cloth Gaoler
*FUNAMBULISTtightrope walker
*FURBISHERarmor polisher
*FURRIERseller or maker of furs
*FUSTIAN WEAVERmaker of corduroy
****Gallowglass Soldiersmercinaries, believed to be from the Scottish western isles, who were brought to Ireland in the later middle ages in huge numbers. They were largely employed by the Irish chieftains though there is plenty of evidence that the English used them as well. The Irish soldier was a small, light, lightly armed fella. These guys were huge, brawly, heavily armed. The sherman tank of their day. In one dynastic marriage 10,000 came with the bride. A number of Irish clans were started by soldiers who settled and married, esp. the McSweenies. The term is Irish for foreign soldier.
*GABELERtax collector
*GAFFERforeman of a work crew or in glass factory, one who smoothed, reheated the neck of and formed lip on a bottle
*GAFFMANa bailiff
*GAGERtax collector of liquor taxes
*GALVANISERiron worker who handled process of coating metal with zinc, to inhibit formation of rust
*GAMESTERgambler or prostitute
*GANGERoverseer or foreman from 1850 onwards
*GANGRELa vagrant or roving beggar
*GANNEKERtavern keeper
*GARCIFER / GARCIOgroom; attendant
**GARCIONa serving man or groom, usually a young man or boy
*GARLEKMONGERgarlicmonger; dealer in garlic
*GARTHMANowner or worker of a fish trap
*GAS MANAGERforman position in charge of checking for poisonous gas in coal mine shafts
*GATHERERglassworker who inserted the blow iron into the molten glass ready for the blower
*GATHERERS BOYheld a shovel to shield the gatherer's face from the heat
*GATWARDgoat keeper
*GAUGERcustoms official who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor in order to calculate the customs duty
*GAVELLERuserer and in the Forest of Dean, an officer fo the Crown who granted gales or the right to work a mine and in Suffolk a harvest worker, usually female
*GELDERcastrator of animals, especially horses
*GEOMETERskilled in geometry
*GERUND GRINDERLatin instructor
*GILDERapplies gold leaf
*GIMLERmachinist involved in making a gimp, a kind of card
*GIRDLERleather worker who made girdles and belts, chiefly for the Army
*GLASS COACHMANdriver of two-horse carriage hired out for the day
*GLASSEWRYGHTglasswright; maker and mender of glassware
Glazier Window glassman
*GLIMMER MANin Dublin, the man who would turn out (or down) the gas street-lights and also warn people turn out lights in their houses to ensure blackouts during bombing raids at War time
*GLOVERone that makes or sells gloves
*GOAT CARRIAGE MANdriver of small passenger carriage
*GOLDSMITHmaker of gold articles, banker
*GOOSE HERDtends geese
**GOOSE HERDERan itinerant tailor
*GORZEMANseller of gorse or broom
*GRACE WIFEmidwife
*GRAFFERnotary or scrivener
*GRAINERpainted wood to make it look like great and exotic woods
*GRAVERcarver or sculptor, engraver of images or dockside worker who cleaned ship bottoms by burning and tarring
*GRAZIERpastures and raises cattle
*GREAVE / GRIEVEbailiff, foreman, sheriff
*GREEN GROCERfruit and vegetable seller
*GREENSMITHworker in copper or latten
**GRINDERone who operated a grinding machine in any of several trades
*GROUNDSEL & CHICKWEED SELLERstreetseller of common weeds, used to feed pet songbirds
(1)GUARDIANadministered the running of workhouses between 1834 and 1929
*GUINEA PIGan unattached, or roving person whose fee was usally a guinea
*GUMMERone who improved old saws by deepening the cuts
GUNNERRe-cut old saws, sharpening and improving depth of cut
*GUTTA-PERCHA MANUFACTURERmakes a tough plastic substance derived from latex and percha scrap used especially as insulation and in dentistry
*GYPcollege servant especially one attending undergraduates
*HABERDASHERseller of men's clothing
Hacker Maker of hoes
*HACKLER / HACKMAN / HECKLERone who separated the coarse part of flax or hemp with a hackle, an instrument with teeth in linen industry
*HACKNEY MANrenter of horses & carriages
**HACKNERone who made or used hoes, mattocks, etc.
*HAIR SEATING & CURLED HAIR MERCHANTdealer in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery
*HAIRWEAVER / HAIRMANweaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair
*HALBERT CARRIERsoldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, a combination spear and battleaxe (a ceremonial officer)
*HAMMERMANhammerer, a smith
*HAND FLOWERERladies living mainly in rural locations who embroidered flowers or similar designs on muslin or cambric
**HAND WOMANa midwife; a female attendant
*HANDLE STICKERput handles on cast ceramic cups, pitchers, etc
*HANDSELLERstreet vendor
*HANDWOMANmidwife or female attendant
*HANKYMANa travelling magician in Victorian/Edwardian England
*HANSARDweapon maker or seller
*HARLOTvagabond, beggar, rogue, 14th century male servant, attendant or menial, and 15th century, loose woman
*HARMER BECKconstable
*HARPERperformer on the harp
Hatcheler One who combed out or carded flax
*HATTERmaker of or dealer in hats
Haymonger Dealer in hay
Hayward Keeper of fences
*HEALD KNITTERoperator of a machine which produced a jersey type of fabric as opposed to woven fabric
*HECK MAKERmaker of a part of a spinning machine by which the yarn is guided to the reels
*HEDGE LOOKERsupervised good repair of fence and enclosures
*HEDGERhedge trimmer
*HEELMAKERmade shoe heels
*HELLIER / HILLIERtiler or slater
*HELPER-UPyoung boy employed in Durham pits to help other workers
*HEMPHECKLERflax worker
*HENCHMAN / HENSMANhorseman or groom
*HETHELEDERprovider of heather for fuel
*HEWERminer who cut coal, stone, etc., a face worker in a mine
**HIGGERa person who peddled merchandise
Higgler Itinerant peddler
*HIGHWAYMANrobber who preys on public roads
Hillier Roof tiler
Hind A farm laborer
*HIRED MANgardener, farmhand, or stableman
*HOBBLERboat tower on a river or canal
**HODa bricklayer's laborer
*HODSMANmason's assistant
*HOGGARDpig drover
Holster A groom who took care of horses, often at an inn
*HONEY DIPPERextracted raw sewage from catch basins and out-houses
*HOOKER(1) 16th century reaper, (2) 19th century worker in textile industry who operated a machine which laid fabric flat in uniform folds of any required length
Hooker Reaper
Hooper One who made hoops for casks and barrels
*HORNERworker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns
*HORSE-CAPPERdealer in worthless horses
**HORSE COPERa horse dealer or breeder
*HORSE COURSERowner of race horses
*HORSE-HAIR CURLERdressed horse hair which was used extensively in the upholstery trade
*HORSE LEECHveterinarian, farrier
*HORSE MARINEman-handled barges on canals when horses could not be used
*HOSIERretailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps
*HOSTLER / OSTLERcares for horses, stableman, groom, repairer or railway engines
*HOUSE JOINERhouse framer
*HOUSE WRIGHThouse builder
*HOTPRESSERworker in paper or textile industries where product was pressed between glazed boards and hot metal plates to obtain a smooth and shiny surface
*HOYMANone who carries goods and passengers by water (Hoy - small coastal vessel or sloop)
*HOWDY WIFEmidwife
Huckster Sells small wares
*HUISSHERusher or door attendant
*HURDLEMAN / HURDLERhedge-maker, of wattled framework fencing
*HURRIERSterm applied to the girls aged 5-18 who were employed as coal-drawers in the coal industry
Husbandman A farmer who cultivated the land
*HUSH SHOP KEEPERbrewed and sold beer without a license (usually as a side line)
*ICEMANseller or deliverer of ice
*IDLEMANgentleman of leisure
*INFIRMARIANin charge of an infirmary
*IDLEMANgentleman of leisure
**INNHOLDERan innkeeper
*INTENDENTdirector of a public or government business
*IRON FOUNDERone who founds or iron
*IRON MONGERdealer in hardware made of iron (also known as a feroner)
*IRON MASTERowner or manager of a foundry
**IRON SMITHblacksmith; worker in iron
*IVORY WORKERSincluded makers of combs, boxes, billard balls, buttons, and keys for pianofortes
*JACKyoung male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack
*JACK-FRAME TENTERcotton industry worker who operated a jack-frame, used for giving a twist to the thread
*JACK-SMITHmaker of lifting machinery and contrivances
Jagger Fish peddler
*JAKES-FARMERone who emptied cesspools
*JAPANNERone who covers with a hard brilliant coat of any of several varnishes
*JERQUERcustom house officer who searched ships
*JERSEY COMBERworker in woollen manufacture (Jersey - wool which has been combed but not spun into yarn)
*JIGGERMANoperated a spinning wheel (Jigger) to form the foot (back side) of a ceramic plate
*JOBBERa buyer in quantity to sell to others, a pieceworker
*JOBLING GARDENERone employed on a casual basis
*JOBMASTERsupplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire
*JOYNER or JOINERskilled carpenter
*JONGLEURtraveling minstrel
Journeyman One who had served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft, not bound to serve a master, but hired by the day
*JOUSTERfish monger
Joyner/Joiner A skilled carpenter
*KEEKERcolliery official who checked quantity and quality of coal output or weighman
Keeler Bargeman
*KEEPERcontrolled the quantities of ore and fuel, regulated the blast and tapped the molten metal from the furnace
Kempster Wool comber
*KIDDIERskinner or dealer in young goats
*KILNERlimeburner, in charge of a kiln
*KISSERmade cuishes and high armour
*KNACKERharness maker, buyer of old horses and dead animals
*KNAPPERSdressed and shaped flints into required shape and size
*KNELLER / KNULLERchimmney sweep who solicited custom by knocking on doors
*KNOCKER-UPman paid to wake up northern mill and factory workers on early shifts
*KNOLLERtoller of bells
*LACE-DRAWERchild employed in lace work, drawing out threads
*LACEMANdealer in lace, who collected it from the makers, usually only those who had bought his thread, and sold it in the lace markets
*LACE-MASTER / MISTRESSemployed workers in factories or in their homes for the production of lace
*LACE-RUNNERyoung worker who embroidered patterns on lace
*LACEWOMANlady's maid
*LAGRAETMANlocal constable (Law-Rightman)
**LANDS JOBBERone who bought land on speculation and sold it to others
**LANDSMANan inexperienced sailor
*LANDWAITERcustoms officer whose duty was to wait or attend on landed goods
Lardner Keeper of the cupboard
*LASTERshoe maker
*LATTENERbrass worker
Lavender Washer woman
*LAYERworker in paper mill responsible for a particular stage in paper-making process
*LEAVELOOKERexamined food on sale at market
Lederer Leather maker
Leech Physician
*LEGGERcanal boatman
*LEIGHTONWARDgardener (leighton - a garden)
*LIGHTERMANworker on a flat-bottomed boat
*LIMNERilluminator of books, painter or drawer
*LINENERlinen draper, shirtmaker
*LINER / LYNERflax dresser
*LINKERBOY / MANone who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee (had to be licensed to trade in early 19th century had and term later sometimes applied to general manservant )
*LITTERMANgroom (of horses)
*LOADSMANship's pilot
*LOBLOLLY BOYship's doctor's assistant or errand boy
*LOCK KEEPERoverseer of canal locks
Longshoreman Stevedore
*LONG SONG SELLERstreet seller who sold popular songsheets printed on paper
**LORESMANa teacher
Lormer Maker of horse gear
*LOTSELLERstreet seller
*LOTTERone who bought odd lots of wool and consolidated them for sale
*LUMPERdock laborer who discharged cargo of timber employed by a master lumper (not the Dock Company) or fine-grain saltmaker, from practice of moulding salt into lumps
*LUM SWOOPERchimney sweep
*LUNGSalchemist's servant whose duty was to fan the fire
*LUTHIERmaker and repairer of stringed musical instruments
*MADERERgathered and sold garlic
*MAIDfemale domestic servant
*MAIL GUARDarmed guard, frequently an ex-soldier, employed on the mail coach service
*MAISE MAKERone who made measures for weighing herring catch
*MALEMAKERmaker of 'Males' or travelling bags
Malender Farmer
*MALSTERbrewer, maker or seller of malts
Maltster Brewer
Manciple A steward
*MANGLERworks a mangle
*MANGLE KEEPERwoman who offered use of the mangle for a fee
*MANGOslave dealer
*MARBLERone who stained paper or other material, veined in imitation of marble
*MARSHALLhorse doctor of shoesmith
*MARSHMANpaid by various landowners to look after marshlands and tend the animals put to graze there for the season
*MASHMAKERmaker of the mash-vats or mashels used for mixing malt
Mason Bricklayer
*MASTERone of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts
*MASTER LUMPERcontractor of laborers at cheap rate of pay
*MASTER MARINERship's captain
**MASTER OF THE ROLLSan equity judge
**MEADERa mower
*MEALMANdealer in meal or flour
**MECHANIC[1] Manual laborer; [2] Operator of a machine
**MEDICINE PEDDLERan itinerant salesman who dealt in herbs, elixirs, pills, etc. which were bought in large batches and sold under his own label
*MELDERcorn miller
**MENAGE-MANan itinerant vendor who sold goods to be paid for in installments
*MERCERcloth seller
**MESSENGER[1] a constable; [2] one who was appointed by a court to handle certain duties in a bankruptcy case
**METALMANa worker in metals
**MIDSHIPMANusually, a wealthy second or third son who could not inherit
*MIDWIFEexperience woman who assists in child birth
*MILESMAN / LENGTHSMANrailway worker who had a length of railway track to keep in good order
*MILLERcorn miller, cloth miller, saw miller
*MILLERESSmiller's wife
*MILLERS CARMANdrove carrier to deliver the flour or seed to the customers
**MILLINER[1] a seller of fancy wares and articles of apparel; [2] a maker of ladies hats and bonnets
*MILLPECKsharpener of mill stones
*MILLNERmaker of womens' hats
*MILLWRIGHTdesigner & builder of mills or mill machinery
*MILSTONE INSPECTORvagrant, a gentleman of the road
**MINERa worker in a mine, such as coal, iron, etc.
Mintmaster One who issued local currency
*MOCADO WEAVERweaver of woollen cloth used for making clothes 16-17th century
*MOLD BOYclosed and held mold for glassblower, also weighed the bottles
*MONDAYMANone who worked for landowner on Mondays in lieu of rent
**MONEY-SCHRIVENERa person who raised money for others
Monger Seller of goods (ale, fish)
*MOULDERmaker of molds or castings, brickmaker
*MOUNTEBANKseller if ineffectual patent medicines
*MUDLARKsewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger
*MUFFIN MAKERmaker who made muffins
*MUFFIN MANitinerant seller of muffins
*MUGSELLERseller of cups, mugs
*MULE MINDERminded the spinning mules in the cotton mills
Muleskinner Teamster
*MULETEERmule driver
*MUSTARDER / MUSTARDMANmade and dealt in mustard
*NAGSMANa person who schools horses, usually for his employer
*NAPERERroyal servant in charge of table linen
*NARROW WEAVERweaver of ribbons, tapes, etc
*NAVIGATORlaborer building canals or railways
Neatherder Herds cows
*NECKERworker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine the makes boxes
*NEDELLERneedle maker
*NECESSARY WOMANservant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots
**NECKERa worker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine that makes boxes
**NEDELLERone who made needles
*NETTERnet maker
*NIGHT SOILMAN / NIGHTMANone who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets
*NIGHTWALKERwatchman or bellman
*NIPPERlorry boy, a young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods
*NOB THATCHERwig maker
*NOON TENDERguarded the goods on the quay while the officers were a lunch
*OILMANsold the oil for lamps
*OLITORkitchen gardener (from Olitory-a kitchen garden)
*ORDERLYsoldier who functioned as a servant for an officer
Ordinary Keeper Innkeeper with fixed prices
**ORFEVERa goldsmith
*ORRERY MAKERmade a mechanical apparatus for showing the movements of the planets (named after the Earl of Orrery the inventor)
*ORRICE WEAVERdesigner of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk
*OSIER PEELERremoved bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
*OSTIARYmonastery door keeper
**OSTREGERa keeper of goshawks
*OSTLERoriginally applied to an innkeeper/taverner or one who received guests especially in an monastery (13th century) but later on it came to mean stableboy or a person who looked after horses, coming from the old French 'hostelier'
*OUT CRIERauctioneer
*OUTWORKERworker who carried on their occupation at home, e.g., cotton or woollen weavers but it applies to many occupations
*OVERLOOKERsuperintendent or overseer, especially in the textile mills
*OVERMANsupervisor in a colliery who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal
*OWLERsheep or wool smuggler
*OYSTER DREDGERmember of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat
*PACKERpacks goods such as pickles or herring
*PACKMANtravelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack
*PACK THREAD SPINNERoperator of the machine which made thread or twine
*PAD MAKERmade small baskets used for measuring
*PAGEyouth being trained for the medieval rank of knight and in the personal service of a knight or attendant upon someone of rank in the medieval period
*PAINTRESSwoman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles
*PAPER-STAINERone who made wallpaper
*PALING MANseller of eels
*PALISTERone who ensured the parks were safe and well kept
*PALMERone who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land
*PANNIER MANfish monger
*PANNIFEXsomebody who worked in the cloth trade
*PANTERkeeper of the pantry
*PAPERERinserted the needles into the paper ready for sale in the needlemaking trade
*PARDONERseller of indulgences
*PARFUMIER / PERFUMERmanufacturer and purveyor of scents such as perfumes, colognes and even incense
*PARGETERapplied ornamental plaster to buildings
*PARITORchurch officer who attended the magistrates and justices at court for the pupose of executing their orders
*PARKERpark caretaker
*PASSAGE KEEPERkept passages and alleys clean
*PASTELERpastry chef
*PATTEN MAKERclog maker or the person who made wooden soles (pattens) to fit under normal shoes to protect from wet and muddy ground
Pattern Maker A maker of a clog shod with an iron ring. A clog was a wooden pole with a pattern cut into the end
Parish ClerkAn officer of the church in the days when few of the parishioners were literate - "They should be at least 20 years old. Known to the parson as a man of honest conversation and sufficient for his reading, writing and competant skill in singing" Canon 91(1603). Functions - reading the lessons and epistles, singing in the choir, giving out the hymms, leading the responses, serving at the altar and other like duties, opening of the church, ringing the bell, digging graves if there be no sexton.
*PAVER / PAVIOURlaid paving stones
*PAVYLERput up pavilions or tents etc
*PEELERpoliceman, constable, bobby (from Sir Robert Peel founder of the police force)
*PELTERERone who worked with animal skins
*PERCHEMEARone who made parchment
Peregrinator Itinerant wanderer
Peruker A wig maker
*PESSONERfish monger
Pettifogger A shyster lawyer
*PETTY CHAPMANitinerant dealer in small goods, a pedlar
*PEWTERERmade pewter utensils (using any of various alloys having tin as chief component especially a dull alloy with lead)
*PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERone who made scientific instruments
*PHRENOLOGISTdiviner of a person's character based on the bumps on a person's head
*PICKERone who cast the shuttle on a loom
*PIECENER / PIECERone who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)
Pigman Crockery dealer
*PIKELET MAKERbaker who specialised in making pikelets (a small pancake or crumpet)
*PIKEMANmiller's assistant
*PIKERtramp or vagrant
*PILOTship steersman
*PINDERdog catcher
*PINNERpin make
*PINNER UPdressmakers assistant or one who sold broadsheets or ballards in the streets
*PINSETTERone who manually set up bowling pins before the advent of automated pinsetting machines
*PIRN WINDERwound the yarn onto large wheel like bobbins which were then ready to feed the looms in a cotton mill
*PIT BROW LASSfemale worker who worked on the surface of the mines
*PITMANcoal miner
*PLAITERmaker of straw plaits used in making hats etc
*PLAYDERERone who made plaid
*PLAIN WORKERperformed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer
*PLANKERone who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting
*PLATELAYERmen who laid and maintained the railway tracks in Britain and the word actually predates railways being derived from the very old "plateways" which existed hundireds of years ago, mainly for moving coal
*PLOWWRIGHTmaker or repairer of plows
*PLUMASSIER / PLUMERmade or sold plumes, ornamental feathers
Plumber One who applied sheet lead for roofing and set lead frames for plain or stained glass windows.
*POINTERsharpened needles or pins or lace maker
*POINTMAKER / POINTMANmade the tips of laces
*POINTSMANrailway worker who operated the points, used to change the line on which the train was travelling
*POLDAVE WORKERmade poldave, a coarse fabric
*POLEMANsurveyor's assistant
*PONDERATORinspector of weights and measures
*PORTABLE SOUP MAKERconverted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place
Porter Door keeper
*POSTILLIONattacher of extra horses to wagons & coaches to help them up hills
*POST BOYcarried mail from town to town, guard who travelled on the mail coach or outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion
*POSTERone who worked in the quarries breaking rocks
*POTATO BADGERseller of potatoes
*POT BOY / MANone who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots also did other menial tasks
*POTTERmaker or seller of pottery
*POTTER CARRIERchemist or pharmacist
*POTTER THROWERpotter who used a wheel and therefore had to throw the clay
*POULTERseller of poultry
*POWER LOOM TUNERone who maintained the loom in mills
*PRECEPTRESSschool mistress
*PRICKERwitch hunter, pattern maker or a horseman
*PRICKERused a type of wire brush to make small holes inside ceramic sewer pipe to prevent spalling during firing
*PRIG NAPPERhorse thief
*PROCTORofficial of a university
*PROP BOBBYworked in mines checking the pit props
*PROTHONARYlaw clerk
Puddler Wrought iron worker. The skilled man who supervised the moten mass, deciding when it was ready for shingling, hammering and rolling.
*PUGGERproduce clay paste by treading like grapes, usually women and children in brick manufacturing
*PUG MILL OPERATORoperated a machine for mixing clay and water, which then exuded a "pug" (a cylinder of clay of any diameter and indefinate length)
*PUNKYchimney sweep
*PUREFINDERold women and young girls who went about the streets gathering dog droppings which were used for tanning leather
*PURSERship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts
*PUTTER INput things in to some form of mechanised process
Quarrier Quarry worker
Rigger Hoist tackle worker
Ripper Seller of fish
Roper Maker of rope or nets
Runner Messenger Details
Saddler One who makes, repairs or sells saddles or other furnishings for horses
Sawbones Physician
Sawyer One who saws; carpenter
Schumacker Shoemaker
Scribler A minor or worthless author
Scrivener Professional or public copyist or writer; notary public
Scrutiner Election judge
Shrieve Sheriff
Slater Roofer
Slopseller Seller of ready
Snobscat/Snob One who repaired shoes
Sorter Tailor
Spinster A woman who spins or an unmarried woman
Spurrer Maker of spurs
Squire Country gentleman; farm owner; justice of peace
Stuff Gown Junior barrister
Stuff Gownsman Junior barrister
Supercargo Officer on merchant ship who is in charge of cargo and the commercial concerns of the ship
Tanner One who tans (cures) animal hides into leather
Tapley One who puts the tap in an ale cask
Tasker Reaper
Teamster One who drives a team for hauling
Thatcher Roofer
Tide waiter Customs inspector
Tinker An itinerant tin pot and pan seller and repairman
Tipstaff Policeman
Travers Toll bridge collection
Tucker Cleaner of cloth goods
Turner A person who turns wood on a lathe into spindles
Victualer A tavern keeper, or one who provides an army, navy, or ship with food supplies
Vulcan Blacksmith
Wagoner Teamster not for hire
Wainwright Wagon maker
Waiter Customs officer or tide waiter; one who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in
Waterman Boatman who plies for hire
Webster Operator of looms
Wharfinger Owner of a wharf
Wheelwright One who made or repaired wheels; wheeled carriages, etc.
Whitesmith Tinsmith; worker of iron who finishes or polishes the work
Whitewing Street sweeper
Whitster Bleach of cloth
Wright Workman, especially a construction worker
Yeoman Farmer who owns his own land
*Ivan Dominikovich
**Linda Thompson
****Linda Merle List owner Scotch Irish-L
(1)Patrick Williams of the NORFOLK[NFK]-L

Used by permission
Special Thanks to All Census

Return to Main Index
Main Index