Border Reiver "Deep Ancestry"

Border Reiver Deep Ancestry

(Modes of Interpretation)

Oxford Ancestors Approach

The Oxford Ancestors method of interpreting "deep ancestry" seems guided by the

following principles:

1) Y chromosome DNA profiles, called "haplotypes", mutate too often to distinguish

geographical origin among them when they belong to the same class or "haplogroup".

2) Since R1b prevails among the indigenous population of the British Isles, then any Briton

who belongs to R1b is considered a descendant of that population until proven otherwise.

3) OA's customers are divided into one of several "Tribes of Britain", each of which is

implicitly associated with a particular haplogroup.

The bar graph below shows how OA might interpret our Border Reiver DNA profiles.

The "Celtic", "Anglo-Saxon / Danish" and "Norse Viking" options are well-known among

OA customers. (The interpretation of all J/J2 haplotypes as "Ancient Roman" was inspired

by the anecdote of one OA customer who claimed that Bryan Sykes suggested a Roman

origin for his J2 haplotype. To our knowledge, OA has no actual "Tribe of Britain" called

"Ancient Roman".)

Celtic (R1b) 67.5 %
Anglo-Saxon / Danish (I) 20.4 %
Norse Viking (R1a) 3.7 %
Ancient Roman (J/J2) 3.1 %

The "North Sea Celtic" Approach

Population geneticists have observed high proportions of the R1b haplogroup in all parts

of the British Isles, with the highest appearing in Western Ireland and Wales. Since the

Basques of Spain exhibit similarly high frequencies of R1b, scientists concur that R1b

is peculiar to the aboriginal population of Western Europe. They also seem to believe not

only that R1b populations have existed in Europe since the Paleolithic, but that they have

largely stayed put ever since.

That is, perhaps, an oversimplification. The fact that R1b is indigenous to Western

Europe is not incompatible with the likelihood that distinct tribal groups with high

proportions of R1b have moved from one place to another within Western Europe for

thousands of years. The highest frequencies of R1b are found among isolated communities

like the Basques or the Gaelic Irish not because they alone represent the Paleolithic heritage

of Western Europe, but because they are isolated. They simply have not received the same

infusion of "new blood" from other areas that characterizes other parts of the region.

There are substantial proportions of R1b in Germany, Italy, Switzerland, France,

The Low Countries, Denmark - even in Norway and parts of Eastern Europe. Although

R1b is not quite as common in these locales, it often comes very close. In fact, among

the top ten highest match frequencies in YHRD for the basic R1b modal values

(DYS # 19=14/389i=13/391=11/392=13/393=13), four fall in The Netherlands and

one falls in Denmark. The rest fall in Ireland, Spain and England. R1b has almost

certainly been present along the North Sea coast of Continental Europe since the

Paleolithic as well.

Since we can assume R1b was at least as common across the whole of Western Europe

one or two thousand years ago as it is now, there is no way to tell how much of the R1b

in, say, England is derived from the Paleolithic natives of Iberia, from the Celts of

Switzerland and the Rhine Valley, or from the Saxons and Frisians of the Western

Germanic coast.

The only way to guess which types of R1b have a longer history in some locales than in

others is to identify where those types of R1b represent a higher proportion of the total

R1b in the population. A number of DNA genealogy researchers have recognized that a

significantly higher ratio of R1b haplotypes with DYS390 marker values of 23 occur in

Teutonic countries such as Germany, The Netherlands and Denmark than in areas such

as Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Wales.

One researcher, Alan Foster, has dubbed this variant "North Sea Celtic". Below is a table

that attributes "North Sea Celtic" Border Reiver DNA profiles to an Anglo-Saxon rather than

an indigenous "Celtic" population.

13.75 percent of the Border Reiver sample could be classified as "North Sea Celtic".

Indigenous "Celtic" (R1b) 50.75 %
Anglo-Saxon / Danish (I & R1b)
N.S.C.
34 .15 %
Norse Viking (R1a) 3.7 %
Ancient Roman (J/J2) 3.1%

"North Sea Celtic" Plus I1 Subclade Analysis

Another researcher, Ken Nordtvedt, has analyzed the comparative frequencies of

I1 and R1b haplotype variations within the European samples of YHRD (or the Y

Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database). He estimated the total number of I1

and R1b haplotypes in each geographical area (e.g., Norway, France, Northern Italy),

and used each total as a denominator to calculate the proportions that exhibited

particular variations.

Like Mr. Foster, he discovered that the highest ratios of R1b haplotypes with DYS390

marker values of 23 fell among countries with a long history of Teutonic occupation -

such as Germany, Denmark, The Netherlands and so on. His study of I1 haplotypes,

on the other hand, has divided I1 haplotypes into approximately five subgroups.

Two, which he calls H1 and H2, exhibit their highest frequencies in parts of continental

Europe with a strong Germanic past.

Two others, however - H4 and H5 - are found most often in Finland and Scandinavia.

These, he implies, express a Norse origin when found in a person of Western European

descent. A few of the Border Reiver haplotypes have formally been assigned to, or

estimated as, I1. However, many more that were estimated only as "I" are actually

"I1", and some of these are probably Norse rather than Anglo-Saxon. The primary

distinguishing marker values (at least for those markers available in our Border

Reiver DNA profiles) are DYS390=23, DYS19=14 (mostly) and DYS385a,b = 14,14

or 14,15 or (possibly) 13,14.

Our "deep ancestry" table below has been supplemented in accordance with Dr.

Nordtvedt's thinking.

About 4.3 percent of the Border Reiver haplotypes could be classified as "Ultra-Norse".

Indigenous "Celtic" (R1b) 50.75 %
Anglo-Saxon / Danish (I & R1b)
N.S.C.
29 .85 %
Norse Viking (R1a & I1) 8.0 %
Ancient Roman (J/J2) 3.1%

Haplogroups K2/N/P/Q/R/R1 Counted As "Norse"

Several researchers, like David Faux of the Shetland Islands Project, have suggested that

some haplogroups of Central or Northern Asiatic origin should be interpreted as indicators of

Norse paternal ancestry when found among individuals with roots in the British Isles.

Haplogroups N and N3, which are found among Finns, Saami and other largely

Uralic populations, very likely entered the British gene pool as an admixture among

Norse invaders.

Three other such haplogroups include K2, P, R1 (found mostly in Central Asia, R2 (which is found

most often in India and Pakistan), and Q (which is found in the Shetland Isles, Iceland, Norway,

and among other European populations with possible Central Asian admixtures, including

some Jews and Croatians).

Like R1a, which is also thought to have originated in Central Asia, these haplogroups

may have been absorbed by Heruls, Rugians and Goths and other Baltic peoples during

their wanderings near the Black Sea early in the first millennium. When these peoples

returned to the Baltic Sea, they brought these haplogroups with them.

Such haplogroups may also have been brought to Scandinavia by prehistoric Indo-

European invaders like the Kurgans or even the Indo-Aryans.

Finally, haplogroups such as Q, which is common among the Evenks and other Siberian

tribes, may have been introduced by Norse interaction with such nations as Bjarmaland,

which is now called Permia and is adjacent to Siberia.

The chart below has been augmented to reflect this interpretation.

About 1.1 percent of the Border Reiver sample belong to one of these haplogroups.

Indigenous "Celtic" (R1b) 50.75 %
Anglo-Saxon / Danish (I & R1b)
N.S.C.
29 .85 %
Norse Viking (R1a, I1 and more) 9.2 %
Ancient Roman (J/J2) 3.1%

Surname Analysis

Since surnames did not become common practice in Britain until after the 12th

century, two things must be true.

1) The linguistic origin of the surname reflects the time and place where the

surname was acquired, not necessarily the "deep ancestry" of who acquired it.

2) Since lineages precede surnames, the two cannot be identical. Many persons of

different lineages may have acquired the same surname, and many persons of the

same lineage may have acquired different surnames.

Examples of surnames that may not reflect a shared genetic lineage are:

1) Place Names - such as the names of towns, estates, or physical features of

the landscape.

2) Patronyms - in other words, surnames based on the given name of the father.

These could have been acquired by many persons whose only relationship is

that their fathers had the same first name.

3) Occupational Names - such as Baker, Walker, Carpenter, Smith, and

so on. These are acquired by persons whose only relationship is a

shared profession.

In spite of the essentially non-genetic nature of surnames, some of them are associated

with old Scottish or English families with a known national origin. Just out of curiosity,

we will total up the Border Reiver DNA profiles by probable surname origin.

The resulting chart will provide an interesting "control" in our survey of geographical

origin as determined by DNA.

Gaelic/Pictish/Celtic Briton 13 %
Anglo-Saxon 25.8 %
Anglo-Saxon or Norman 7.1 %
Norman or Flemish 16.4`%
Norse, Danish or Norse-Gaelic 5.7 %
Patronymic (e.g., "Wilson") 21 %
Occupational Name 6.2 %
Local Scottish or Place Name 4.8 %

Surname Notes

The patronymic names could easily have multiple origins. Therefore they were grouped

separately, even though some reputedly identify specific Celtic, Anglo-Saxon or Norse

families. The Anglo-Saxon word construction of these patronyms may tempt us to classify

most as Anglo-Saxon, but the very strong tradition of patronymic names among both

Scandinavians and Gaelic Scots suggests that many may simply be Anglicizations.

Two of the occupational names are English - Turner and Chamberlain - but strong

identification of Taylor, Forrester and Hunter with Scottish families dissuade us from

classifying them as Anglo-Saxon.

(NOTE: We have assigned the surnames to these categories on the basis of research.

Unfortunately, there is often considerable disagreement about their origin. If any of

these assignments appears incorrect, please contact us - but be nice, any mistakes

were inadvertent.)

Gaelic/Pictish/Celtic Briton Beatty, Burn, Dunn, Carlisle, Carlton, Carruthers, Coulter, Cuthbert, Dalgliesh, Drysdale, Glendenning, Glenn, Gowland, Halliday, Kennedy (Gaelic for "Ugly Head" or "Helmeted Head", although family may be Hiberno-Norse in origin), Kilpatrick, Kirkland, MacLellan, McCulloch, Moffit, Pringle (from the Welsh "Hoppringle"), Scott, Taggart, Wallace (thought to mean "Welsh"), Waugh (also derived from OE "Wealh", meaning "Welsh")
Anglo-Saxon Ainslie, Barraford (or Beresford), Collingwood, Craw (Crow), Dodd, Elliott (Elwald), Fenwick, Hadley, Harden, Hepburn, Heron, Hildreth, Howard, Huntley, Inglis, Irvine, Laidlaw, Langley, Maxwell, Milburn, Musgrave, Pople, Potts, Pyle, Radcliff, Redpath, Reade, Rutledge, Shortridge, Stamper, Stapleton, Turnbull, Veitch, Wake, Witherington, Young
Anglo-Saxon or Norman Armstrong (maybe from "Fortinbras"), Brown (Norman when "Broun"), Gray, Hall, Little
Norman or Flemish Bell, Boone (or Bone), Bruce, Burrell (of Huguenot origin), Cecil, Crisp, Douglas (family is Flemish, although Douglas is a Celtic place name), Eure, Fleming, Fraser, Gordon, Graham, Jardine, Lindsay, Lisle (from "L'Isle"), Noble, Montgomery, Murray, Oliver, Percy, Sommerville, Stewart, Telford (from "Taliafer") and Weir
Norse or Danish Allison (from "McAlister", via Alisdair Mor, descendant of Somerled - Cumbrian variant Ellison can also be from the Norse), Bogue, Gilchrist, Hetherington, Kerr (from "Kjarr"), Ogle, Orr, Ridley, Salkeld, Storey, Tait, Wharton
Patronymic Anderson, Robinson (a sept of Clan Gunn) and Wilson may sometimes be Norse. Davison, Thomson, Henderson and Wilkinson may be Celtic families. Jackson, Simpson, Robson, Nixon, Dixon, Hodgson and Watson may be Anglo-Saxon. Stephenson could be Celtic or Norman. Johnston and Johnson are more often than not variations of one another.
Occupational Name Chamberlain, Forster (or "Forrester"), Hunter, Taylor, Trotter and Turner
Local Scottish or Place Name Ballantyne (from "Bennochtain"), Crawford, Cresswell, Elder, Graden, Liddell (from "Liddesdale"), Lowther, Minto, Rayburn, Rome, Rutherford and Tweedie (and, possibly, many of those above)

Maximum Norse Ancestry

We have prepared tables for each and every one of our Border Reiver haplotypes that show,

not only the locales where matches were found in the Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference

Database, but also the frequency of such matches in each locale.

The locales are sorted in descending order of match frequency, and those that appear at

the head of the table may represent the possible source of each DNA profile.

Of course, many haplotypes score matches in multiple locales. There is also a danger of

misidentifying matches with haplotypes that actually belong to different haplogroups, as

the DNA profiles in YHRD are not formally identified by haplogroup and do not include

certain STR markers - such as DYS388 - that are especially helpful for discerning the

true haplogroup of a given profile.

As a result, there is no surefire way to determine which of those locales - or the overall regions

that contain them - represent the ultimate origin of a given haplotype.

Hence, we can only speculate. We can hypothesize in one direction, and then in another, and

perhaps derive a semblance of the truth from multiple perspectives.

In this section, we will propose a "what if" scenario, and quantify its implications. We will

supplement the haplotypes that have already been attributed on the basis of haplogroup to Norse

ancestry with all apparent I and R1b haplotypes whose top three match regions include Norway

or Sweden, or both.

Such haplotypes include most I1, some I2a, and a good portion of I2b, amounting to 14.2 percent

of the Border Reiver sample. They also include at least a third of the total R1b.

Lastly, we will include all our G and G2 entries. G and its subclades are thought,

like R1a, to have originated among the Central Asiatic Indo-European peoples, and G2 (at least)

is occasionally found among Scandinavians. Such haplotypes comprise 1.4 percent of the total.

This will represent a "hypothetical maximum" of Norse ancestry among the Border Reivers.

Norse Viking (Maximum) 44.1 %

The actual percentage of Norse ancestry is unknown, but may be simulated based on two premises -

all R1a in Britain is of Norse origin, and the proportion of R1a in Norway 1,200 years ago matches

that in Norway today. Since approximately one third - 34 percent - of Norwegian Y-DNA haplotypes

belong to R1a, we can estimate the percentage of Norse ancestry among the Border Reivers by

multiplying the percent of R1a by three - 3.7 x 3 = 11.1 percent.

Maximum Anglo/Danish/Flemish Ancestry

Three major population groups that migrated to Northern England and Southern Scotland between 500

and 1500 A.D. are the Angles, the Danes, and the Flemish.

The Angles invaded Britain in the 6th century and conquered most of eastern Scotland as far north as

the Firth of Forth, as well as large portions of Cumbria, Dumfries and Galloway. The name "Dumfries", as

a matter of fact, is Celtic for "Hill of the Frisians". The Angles were especially numerous in what became the

East Marches of England and Scotland. The English East March is composed primarily of Northumberland,

while the Scottish East March includes the ancient kingdom of Berenicia, which was a co-dominion of Angles

and Picts.

The Danes first invaded eastern England in the 9th century, and eventually controlled a large

portion of England called the Danelaw, which ranged from East Anglia to the southern part of Northumbria.

The Flemish were a people of mixed Celtic and Teutonic descent who resided in Flanders. Unlike

many Northern European peoples, the Flemish were able to repel the Viking invaders of the early middle

ages - and in the process developed a formidable military aristocracy. Flemish nobles later established

alliances with the Normans, which resulted in many nobles - like the Bruces - settling in Normandy and

eventually joining the invasion of England in 1066. After the Norman invasion, Malcolm Canmore and his

successors invited Norman and Flemish nobles into Scotland to modernize the infrastructure of the Scottish

nobility with continental European innovations like feudalism and chivalry. Trade with Flanders was also

encouraged, and eventually many Flemish merchants and weavers emigrated to Scotland to help manage

the burgeoning woolens industry.

Although the Angles, the Danes and the Flemish arrived in Britain under very different circumstances, they

all originally came from the marshy coastline of the North Sea and were very similar peoples. It is extrremely

hard to distinguish genetically among the descendants of the Angles, the Danes and the Flemish, so they must

be considered together.

The chart below combines the R1b DYS390=23 haplotypes and the "I" type haplogroups, which others

have already attributed to a largely Anglo-Saxon or Danish (what Capelli et al. call "invader") origin, with

any other Border Reiver haplotypes that count among their top three YHRD match regions *

Denmark, Germany, the Rhineland, the Netherlands or Belgium.

A.S./Danish/Flemish (Maximum)
DYS390=23
Other R1b
72.0 %

Such haplotypes include all I - which comprises 20.5 percent of all Border Reiver haplotypes. The remaining

49.6 percent includes all R1b DYS390=23, most R1b DYS390=22, and much R1b DYS390=24, including the

Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype itself, and a few R1b DYS393=12 haplotypes. This represents our

"hypothetical maximum" of Anglo-Saxon, Danish and Flemish ancestry among the Border Reivers.

The actual percentage of Anglian, Danish and Flemish ancestry is unknown, but may be approximated

based on the following premises:

1) All R1a in Germany or Denmark is of Norse or Slavic origin, introduced after the 6th century.

2) No more than 3.1 percent of all Border Reiver results - or 28 percent of the 11.1 percent likely Norse

total - are Norse "I" haplotypes.

3) 50 percent of the original Anglo-Danish stock was R1b, and 50 percent was I -

hence, the total Anglo-Danish R1b must equal the total projected Anglo-Danish I.

The resulting calculation would yield this: (20.4 - 3.1) x 2 = 34.6 percent.

Maximum Celtic Ancestry

We mean by Celtic, of course, any descendants of the Paleolithic aborigines of Britain who came

originally from the Ice Age refugia in Iberia and Northwest France, and eventually acquired the Celtic language.

We also mean the descendants of any real Celts who migrated to Britain from the Celtic areas of continental

Europe, such as the Rhineland and the Alpine regions. The Amesbury archer, a 2500 year old Briton whose

remains were found near Stonehenge, may have been one of those Celts, as a chemical analysis of his teeth

indicated that he grew up in Switzerland. This group will contain all R1b haplotypes, which comprise 67.5

percent of the entire Border Reiver sample, and all I2b haplotypes, which comprise 5.5 percent - as well

as any I2a2 haplotypes we are able to identify, as these, like WAMH, are also associated with Basque

and Irish populations.

This will represent a "hypothetical maximum" of Celt-Iberian ancestry among the Border Reivers.

Celtic (R1b/I2b/I2a2) 73 %

This actual percentage of Celtiberian ancestry may be approximated from the total percentage of R1b,

minus the projected actual percentage of Norse R1b (about 3.4 percent) and the projected actual percentage

of Anglian, Danish or Flemish R1b (about 17.4 percent).

The resulting calculation would yield this: 67.5 - (17.4 + 3.4) = 46.7 percent.

The Issue Of "Neolithic" J2 In Britain

The interesting paradox about "Celtic" DNA is that, although it easily comprises the vast proportion of

the Border Reiver DNA profiles, it is restricted to a much narrower range of haplogroups. It consists largely of

R1b. Even the inclusion of "I" haplogroups or subclades such as I2b and I2a2 as "indigenous" groups is

controversial.

J2 haplotypes may also have come to Britain during the Neolithic expansion of agriculture, and would

therefore have been absorbed into the eventual "Celtic" populace. But the known source of J2 haplotypes

provided by the half-millennium of Roman occupation overshadows, in our eyes, the purely theoretical input of

Neolithic J2. The assumption that agriculture must have been brought to Britain by J2 individuals from the

Middle East also contradicts the Migration vs. Cultural Diffusion model which the theory of Neolithic J2 was

introduced to support. The same thinkers who believe that all R1b in Britain has been there since Paleolithic times

tend to believe that all J2 in Britain has been there since Neolithic times. That would make both R1b and J2

comparatively "indigenous".

Yet the J2 did come from elsewhere. If these thinkers - known in archaeology as "Immobilists" - believe

that the Celtic language was introduced by cultural diffusion rather than invasion, with few if any continental

"Celts" entering Britain, then why can't they believe that agricultural technology could also have been introduced

through cultural diffusion, without the actual settlement of Middle Eastern immigrants on British soil? Material

technology is, if anything, less intrinsic to a culture than language, and therefore more readily passed from one

society to another without the actual incursion of a foreign people.

For the above reasons, we on the Border Reiver DNA Project reject the assumption that most J2 in Britain

is indigenous in origin. Other factors support our conclusion. For instance, the uneven distribution of J2 in

the British Isles, especially its relative absence in the Scottish Isles and most of Ireland, suggest that it has

been imperfectly diffused, indicating recent arrival. We believe that J2 most likely came to Britain starting

with Mediterranean trade before the Christian Era, and increased during Roman occupation.

The Theories of Stephen Oppenheimer

Epidemiologist and anthropological theorist Stephen Oppenheimer has written a book entitled

The Origins Of The British in which he postulates that not only R1b and Neolithic J2, but also E1b1b,

I1 and even R1a, have existed in Britain since prehistoric times. Considering the proximity

of, say, the North Sea coast and Scandinavia to Britain, this opinion is highly plausible and one

wonders why it hasn't been expressed before.

For those of us who are R1b, we are still as "Basque" as ever - but for those who belong to other

haplogroups, Oppenheimer's theories put everything in a different light. The main effect is that none

of us can claim any longer with any certitude that we are patrilineally descended from "Vikings"

or "Anglo-Saxons" purely on the basis of our haplogroups. All of us must now subject ourselves to

the scientifically parsimonious (one might even say "acrimonious") interpretation that our paternal

ancestors are more likely to have been ancient Britons than anyone else. To you all, I say, "Join the

club!" The maximum possible amount of "Celtic" DNA among the Border Reivers therefore becomes

a resounding 100 percent.

Oppenheimer's all-inclusiveness notwithstanding, the idea that 100 percent of us are descended paternally

from the pre-Roman natives of Britain is, of course, ridiculous. Even if it could be true, the theory does

not take into account the fact that the vast majority of peoples who came to Britain in the last 2,000 years

migrated from within that great arc of Western Europe that stretches from Portugal to Norway and which

contains pretty much the same variety of haplogroups as the British Isles - although in slightly different

proportions. I believe the real truth is that our ancestors have been going back and forth across the

North Sea, the English channel and even the Atlantic from the Paleolithic right down to the present day,

altering the British gene pool infinitesimally but cumulatively with each generation.

Simple math will make it obvious. Even if only 1 percent of the British population in each generation

was foreign born, the cumulative percentage of Britons whose ancestors were foreign born within 20

generations - about 500 years - will approach 19 percent. And 1 percent is likely a conservative figure.

A large percentage of our ancestors will incontestably have originated elsewhere since Roman times.

Oppenheimer's research doesn't decrease that number so much as make it ever more difficult to

determine which lineages should be counted.

Maximum "Roman" Ancestry

By "Roman" ancestry, we mean not just the predominantly Italian or Mediterranean haplotypes that

might have been inherited from Roman citizens who settled in Britain. We also mean the North African,

Eastern European and Western Asiatic haplogroups and haplotypes of the troops that may have served as

auxiliaries on Hadrian's Wall and elsewhere. These troops would have included men from Mauretania, Syria,

Iraq, Hungary, Romania, Macedonia, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Germany and the Caucasus. They would have

been called Pannonians, Thracians, Dacians, Goths, Sarmatians and Batavians, among many other names.

The diverse ancestry of the Roman troops and settlers confounds analysis. Almost any haplogroup

or haplotype could have come to Britain with the Romans and their followers. In fact, most Roman

auxiliaries came from Iberia, Gaul, the Low Countries and Germany - and would, presumably, have

carried haplotypes indistinguishable from those of the native Britons or later Anglo-Saxon invaders.

For the purposes of calculating this "maximum", however, we will confine our selection only to

haplogroups that occur more often in the Mediterranean, Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and

Western Asia than elsewhere - namely E1b1a/E1b1b (2.2 %), J/J2 (3.1 %), G (1.4 %), C/K2/L/Q/R2/R1 (1.4 %),

R1b (ht35) - 3.0 % and I2a (1.7 %).

We will also include those R1b (ht15) haplotypes for which one of the top two match frequencies

falls in Italy, in Southeastern Europe, or in Southwestern Asia (e.g., Greece, Macedonia, Turkey,

Syria, Croatia, Romania or the Ukraine) - which amount to 8.7 % of the total Border Reiver data set.

This will represent a "hypothetical maximum" of Border Reivers patrilineally descended from Roman

troops and settlers.

Ancient Roman Troops or Settlers 21.5 %

This actual percentage of Roman ancestry may be approximated by considering only the totals for

haplogroups that would have been common in the Mediterranean and the Near East - the cosmopolitan

heart of the Roman Empire. These are E1b1b (1.9 percent) and J/J2 (3.1 percent).

The resulting calculation would yield this: 1.9 + 2.9 = 4.8 percent.

(But even this approximation is flawed, as the figure for E1b1b and J/J2 would include some haplotypes

of Sephardic Jewish origin - an undoubtedly minuscule proportion that could have been brought to North

Britain with the Normans in the 11th and 12th centuries, or with Flemish merchants in the 16th century.)

Maximum "Norman" Ancestry

"Norman" ancestry is, like "Roman" ancestry, so inclusive as to preclude identification. The Norman

host that invaded Britain boasted troops from Brittany and Flanders as well as from Normandy, and those

who settled in Britain under the aegis of the Normans were even more diverse.

The Normans and their allies would have included representatives of all the major groups that settled

along the Anglo-Scottish Border.

Much of the Norman aristocracy would have been descended from the Norsemen who annexed the

Frankish province of Neustria at the beginning of the 10th century under the leadership of Duke Rollo

(also known as Hrolf The Ganger). They would have had Danish blood like the Northumbrians, and Norse

Viking blood, like the Norse-Gaelic settlers of Cumbria and Galloway.

Saxons had settled in Normandy at about the same time that they had invaded Britain, and the

Flemish themselves, who were a mixture of Rhineland Celts and Western Germanic peoples, were most

likely genetically identical to the Saxons.

Brittany had long been part of the Celtiberian ethnosphere that spanned from Lusitania in Northern

Portugal to the eastern boundary of Gaul along the Rhine, and only became more Celtic when the Britons

fled to its shores after the Saxon invasion of England.  Hence, not only were the Bretons "Celtic" - they

were to a large degree literally "British Celtic".

The Normans and their allies also included other groups very similar to those that came to Britain as

Roman troops or settlers. Alans, genetically identical to the Sarmatians of Hadrian's Wall, had settled in

Brittany in large numbers, establishing an equestrian military culture among the aristocracy of Northern

France that would become the foundation of medieval knighthood.

The descendants of such groups as Visigoths and Sephardic Jews were most likely included among the

Norman invaders, and they too had counterparts that had come to Britain in Roman times.

With their mixed Celtic, Scandinavian, Germanic, Mediterranean and Eastern origins, the people of Northern

France closely replicate the diversity of the Anglo-Scottish Border people. Although some have waggishly suggested

that DNA genealogy would be able to disprove the supposed "Norman" ancestry of many distinguished British

families, the reverse is almost certainly true. There is no one haplogroup that would conclusively verify or

invalidate Norman descent. Whether the subject is R1b, R1a, I1, G, J2 or anything else, he could still be

feasibly linked to a Norman origin.

The "hypothetical maximum" of Norman ancestry among the Border Reiver sample is, therefore,

100 percent. Nonetheless, we have attempted to quantify the proportions for those haplotypes that include

France or Belgium among their top two YHRD match regions.

The results are about 7.7 percent R1b, .4 percent I, and .2 percent J/J2.

French/Belgian 8.3 %

Maximum Indo-Iranian Ancestry

The Alans of Brittany and the Sarmatians of North Britain had a captivating and exotic past. Both

groups were descended from the Indo-Iranian nomads who swept out of the Asiatic steppes into Western

Europe, invading Roman territory - and eventually serving with its legions.

At least 5,500 Sarmatian heavy cavalry served in Britain. These troops patroled Hadrian's Wall, and were

posted at multiple locations, including Ribchester in Lancashire, and Catterick in York. The Alans became

allies of the Visigoths, and settled with them in Western Gaul. Descendants of both groups can almost certainly

be found in our Border Reiver sample. The only question is how many.

It is important to note that, like all nomadic "barbarians" of the Roman era, the Alans and

Sarmatians mixed readily with Goths, Gepids, Heruls, Rugians, Dacians, Huns and many other groups.

All these groups accepted new blood without hesitation, and their self-identification as "Alans", "Huns"

or "Goths" embodied more the collective spirit of a military cohort than any sense of ethnic purity.

Hence, those people called "Alans" or "Sarmatians" would have incorporated people from those

lands they had occupied for many generations - not just from Central Asia, but from the Pontic Steppe

(the modern day Ukraine), the Balkans, the Pannonian plains, the mountains of Anatolia and the Black Sea

coast. We have adjusted our estimates with that diversity in mind.

The chart below shows the total percentage of those haplotypes that include among their top three YHRD

match regions Ossetia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and other parts of the Caucasus, or the Ukraine - or

Turkey, Iran, Kurdistan or Syria, all nations with large Kurdish or Iranian pluralities. Yet it also includes

those with high frequencies in the Balkans and elsewhere in Southeastern Europe.

We explicitly excluded R1b DYS393=13, I1 and I2b as likely interlopers from the West, and all E1b1b as

colonists from the Mediterranean, even if these did appear in the areas listed above. We also excluded all

R1a, even though Indo-Iranians surely exhibited this haplogroup as well, in deference to the greater

likelihood that most R1a came to Britain from Scandinavia.

What remains will represent the "hypothetical maximum" of Alan/Sarmatian ancestry among the Border Reivers.

Alans And Sarmatians 9.0 %

.8 percent were I2a haplotypes with top matches in Turkey, Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary,

and among the Kurds.

3.0 percent were J/J2 haplotypes with top matches in the Caucasus, Iran, Russia, the Balkans -

and in samples where the Indo-Iranian Kurds represent a substantial fraction of the population

(e.g., Turkey - which is 20 percent Kurdish, Syria - which is 9 percent Kurdish, and

among the Iraqi Kurds themselves).

2.3 percent were R1b DYS393=12 haplotypes with top matches in the Caucasus, the Ukraiue,

Russia, the Balkans, Turkey, Syria or among the Iraqi Kurds.

All of the G, C, K2, L, P, Q, R2 and R1 haplotypes were included - not just because they had high percentages in

Western Asia, but because these haplogroups originated in Asia. The total G amounted to about 1.4 percent,

and the rest totaled 1.5 percent altogether.

The actual percentage of Sarmatian or Alanic ancestry is unknown, but may be approximated based

on these premises:

1) The modern day Ossetians are the people most closely descended from the Alans.

2) Half of all Ossetian males belong to Haplogroup G - therefore the total G among the

"Border Reivers" represents half the total Sarmatian or Alanic haplotypes.

3) Between 1.4 percent of the "Border Reivers" belong to Haplogroup G.

The resulting calculation would yield this: 1.4 x 2 = 2.8 percent.

(* For our "What If" scenarios that suggest the maximum percentage of ancestry attributable to a particular group,

we have defined "Top Three Match Regions" not as the top three top locales in a given geographical match table, but as the three top

groupings by country. For instance, one haplotype may exhibit its highest match frequencies in "Western Norway", "Southern Norway",

"Denmark" and "Skaraborg, Sweden". The top three match regions would be Norway, Denmark and Sweden. If, say, the

highest match frequencies fell in "Andulacia, Spain", "Madeira, Portugal", "Southern Portugal" and "Paris, France", the

top three match regions would Spain, Portugal and France. And so on.)