Border Reivers DNA By Haplogroup - Introduction

Border Reiver DNA By Haplogroup

(Go To Border Reiver DNA By Haplogroup - Non-R1b Only)

(Go To Border Reiver DNA By Haplogroup - R1b Only)

(Go To Helpful Links)

(Haplogroup Percentages By Region)

(Map Of DNA Study Locations)

(Border Reiver DNA By Surname)

(Border Reiver "Deep Ancestry")

(Guide To Geographical Match Tables)

(Home Page)

We have gathered the data on these pages from the Border Reivers DNA Project at Family Tree

DNA, from private contributions, and from public haplotype databases such as YSearch and Ybase.

Most of the haplogroups here were suggested by the testing service, some were confirmed by

SNP tests - and the rest have been carefully estimated by comparisons with other haplotypes

that were officially assigned a haplogroup. (Please note, however, that most of these haplotypes

have not been SNP-tested, and some of the estimates may be incorrect.)

Helpful Links

The link below describes the various haplogroups and traces their

prehistoric migration routes:

Haplogroups And Their Migration Routes

This link provides charts and tables of haplogroup distribution:

Haplogroup Map And Distribution Tables For Europe

Worldwide Haplogroup Maps

Below is a link that shows the genetic family tree of haplogroups:

Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) 

Below is a link that provides sample haplotypes from various haplogroups:

Sample Haplotypes

Below are several links that provide statistical info about Y chromosome haplotypes:

Range of DYS Marker Values in the YHRD Database

Observed Mutation Rates As Reported By YHRD

Frequency of Selected Partial Haplotypes In YHRD By Region

Range of DYS Marker Values in Ybase

Those of us who wish to reassess the likely haplogroup of our database entries,

we strongly recommend this excellent tool:

Whit Athey's Y-Haplogroup Predictor

Many excellent web pages and scientific papers are also available at:

Family Tree DNA

Haplogroup Percentages By Region

(According To The Capelli Study)

Link To Capelli Data Set

The table below displays the haplogroup percentages obtained by the Capelli study "A Y Chromosome

Census of the British Isles".

Column FxIJK in the original study, as it was mostly G, is labeled as "G".

Columns JxJ2 and J2 are joined under "J/J2".

IxI2a2, 2.47 + 1 and I2a2 are joined under "I1/I2a/I2b" - principally because it is difficult to

isolate the exact equivalents of I1, I2a and I2b among the Capelli classifications.

Column KxPN3 is labeled "O", and PxR1 is grouped under "P/R/Q".

Columns R1xR1a1 and AMH + 1 are joined under "R1b".

R1a1 and 3.65 + 1 are joined under "R1a".

We incorporated the E1b1a and E1b1b totals we obtained from our "Border Reiver" database into a

single percentage, and will compare that directly with the E1b1b figures acquired by the Capelli study.

Our rationale here is that, if the E1b1a entries in our database really came from Britain, they may have

the same origin as many of the E1b1b entries - Roman troops and settlers from North Africa and the


(It is important to note, however, that E1b1a DNA profiles among Americans of presumably

British colonial descent may, in fact, have an Afro-American origin.)

Those who review these table should note the following:

1) We have obtained the Capelli data set and have been able to separate DYS393=12 R1b haplotypes

of a possible Eastern orientation (ht35) from more Western European R1b haplotypes (ht15).

2) Although we have been able to differentiate I1, I2a and I2b haplotypes among our Border Reiver

entries with some degree of success, we have not yet been able to do so with the Capelli data

- although that may change eventually.

The entries are sorted in descending order by R1b percentage, and we have

noted the following generalities about the "Border Reiver" Sample:

1) The R1b percentage is somewhat less, and the I1, I2a and I2b percentages somewhat more,

for the "Border Reiver" sample than for the median in the study. This may suggest a larger

than average Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Scandinavian component.

2) The "Border Reiver" sample has percentages only very slightly above the median for most of

its minority haplogroups, which suggests that our sample is fairly typical of Britain as a whole.

3) As of the last data upgrade, the "Border Reiver" sample shows somewhat more similarity to the

samples from Uttoxeter and Penrith than to other samples.

Our sample has less than half the R1a as Penrith, which probably reflects a higher proportion of

Scottish Celts and Northumbrian Angles in our group - but it shows comparable levels of

E1b1a/E1b1b, J/J2, G and R1b DYS393=12, possibly due to the shared proximity to Hadrian's Wall.

Interestingly, the proportions for Uttoxeter are also similar to those in our sample.

This may reflect the combined genetic legacy of Roman settlement and Brythonic Celts

near the Welsh Marches, which - like Hadrian's Wall - are also a traditional border area.

4) We do note a tendency for higher than average percentages of E1b1a/E1b1b and J/J2 to occur

together, often in locales in Southern and Central England where Roman settlement was

most extensive. Sometimes these spikes are sometimes accompanied by higher than average

ratios of R1b DYS393=12 to R1b DYS393=13 haplotypes.

(Click on the links in the header to learn more about the haplogroups included in the table.)

Geographical Locale % R1b (ht15) % R1b (ht35) % I1/Ilb/I2b % R1a % E/E1b1a/ E1b1b % J/J2 /T/L % G/G2 N/N3 % C/O % Q/R
Norway 30 28 34 1 4
Germany/Denmark 38.5 .5 39 12 3 3 2 2
York (Yorkshire) 57 32 4 4 2
Norfolk 57.5 2.5 31 4 3 2
Southwell (Nottinghamshire) 59.75 4.25 18 5 6 6
Orkney 61.5 2.5 15 19 2
Chippenham 63 2 22 8 4 2
Shetland 63.5 1.5 10 23
Border Reiver Families 64.6 2.7 19.5 3.7 2.1 4.7 1.2 .07 .5 .75
Uttoxeter (Staffordshire) 65 6 18 2 4 4 1
Penrith (Cumbria) 65.75 2.25 18 8 3 2 1
Llanidloes (Powys) 66 19 4 5 2 4
Channel Islands 66 24 3 4 2 2
Western Isles 66 25 9
Morpeth (Northumbria) 70.9 2.1 18 3 4 2
Isle of Man 71 16 13 2
Dorchester (Dorset) 71.6 1.4 14 4 4 4 1
Midhurst (West Sussex) 72.75 1.25 18 1 1 5 1
Pitlochry (Perthshire) 75.1 4.9 10 2 7
Faversham (Kent) 76 11 4 4 5
Durness (Sutherland) 78 2 14 6
Cornwall 78.1 1.9 12 8 2
Stonehaven (Aberdeen) 79 13 5 2
Rush (Dublin) 79.5 6.5 11 3
Oban (Argyll) 81.25 4.75 7 4 2
Haverfordwest (Pembrokeshire) 87.5 3.5 4 2 3
Llangefni (Wales) 87.75 1.25 4 1 4 1 1
Castlerea (Roscommon) 87.75 2.25 9
Basques 88.1 .9 7 2 2
Median Percentages 70.9 1.9 16 4 2 2 0 0 0 0

Map of DNA Study Locations

(Copied from "A Y Chromosome Census of The British Isles")