Haplogroup E3a

Haplogroup E3a

Haplogroup E3a may have originated in North Africa, and spread south into Sub-Saharan

Africa. In North Africa, it is common among Berbers, Tunisians and Moroccan Arabs. This

paper, entitled "Origin, Diffusion and Differentiation of Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the

Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in The Mediterranean Area", discusses the

origin and spread of the subclade (described here as E-M2).

Haplogroup E3a entered Britain with the African slave trade in the late sixteenth century.

Prior to that period, this haplogroup may have entered Britain with Roman troops and settlers

from North Africa. Even Sub-Saharan Africans would have been integrated readily

into any Roman society.

Archaeologists believe that a unit of 500 Moors was stationed at Aballava, a fort on

the western end of Hadrian's Wall, near Burgh-by-Sands in modern day Cumbria. They

have also found inscriptions that may refer to African troops, and skeletons recently

unearthed at a Roman archaeological site in York exhibit African characteristics.

Scientists now suggest that a genetic study should be undertaken to identify

the descendants of these African troops among the people of The Borders.

E3a Haplotype #1

The haplotype below clearly originated in Africa - specifically West Africa.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 - 21 10 11 13 16 16

Geographical Locale

Cabinda, Angola 4.00
Mozambique 2.68
Oregon [African-American] 2.13
Equatorial Guinea 2.02
Missouri [African-American] 1.79
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Maryland [African-American] 1.37
Guine-Bissau 1.24
USA [African-American] 1.16
Illinois [African-American] .92
Choco, Colombia [African] .75
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
New York City [African-American] .67
London, England [Afro-Caribbean] .34
Johannesburg, South Africa [Eastern Bantu] .25

E3a Haplotype #2

The haplotype below is the closest match for a haplotype shared by two "Border Reiver" entries. It does not appear in

any strictly African population, but may date from the time when the Jews were slaves in Egypt.

Such a haplotype could have entered Britain with Roman colonists or troops, or with French or Flemish Sephardim

in the wake of the Norman conquest.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
17 12 30 22 9 12 13 15 17

Geographical Locale

Budapest, Hungary [Ashkenazi Jews] 2.70

E3a Haplotype #3

The haplotype below is the closest match for a haplotype exhibited by a "Border Reiver" participant with roots in the

American South. It is most likely of West African origin. Although African troops did serve in the Roman Army at Hadrian's

Wall, we should not discount the possibility that this haplotype acquired a "Border Reiver" surname in America, and not

in Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 - - 21 10 13 14 18 18

Geographical Locale

London, England [Afro-Caribbean] .34