Haplogroup R1b3 (Atlantic Modal Haplotype) Part II

Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common variation of R1b. It is defined by the

six basic marker values below.

(DYS # 19/388/390/391/392/393)

14-12-24-11-13-13

This and related R1b haplotypes originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. During the Ice Age,

the carriers of R1b wintered in the Pyrenees. When the Ice Age ended, these carriers radiated across

Western Europe. They became the pre-Roman population of Spain, France, the British Isles, and large

portions of the Rhineland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Northern Italy.

Although the Celtic language itself has roots in Asia, the indigenous people of Western Europe

became its primary speakers. They comprised the largest proportion of those people we know from history

as "Celtic", and remain so today. Traditional areas of Celtic settlement are Ireland, Wales, Scotland,

Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia in Northern Spain. Celtic culture is epitomized archaeologically by the La Tene

settlement, which existed near Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland during the Iron Age.

The Paleolithic population of Europe also became one of the earliest components of the Spanish,

Italian and German peoples, and were among the first speakers of the the Romance languages and the

Teutonic languages, even though the Indo-European source of these languages, too, lay elsewhere.

The Basques, who are perhaps the purest "Paleolithic" population in Europe, do not speak a

Celtic language and are not Celts, even though they are ancestrally related to those who are.

R1b does not mean "Celtic". And, even though R1b is found everywhere in Western Europe,

no country in Western Europe is entirely R1b, or has been so for a very long time.

The Chart Above Shows The Distribution of R1b (alias HG1) In Green

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #6

The matches for this haplotype occur in the U.S.A., Portugal, Latin America,

Italy and London. The highest European frequencies occur in Italy.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with Iberian or Celtic migrants,

but it may also have arrived with Roman colonization.

It most definitely does not suggest an Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 10 14

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Missouri [African-American] 1.79
Bogota, Colombia [Europeans] 1.36
Emilia Romagna, Eastern Italy 1.12
Lombardy, Northern Italy 1.09
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
London, England .81
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Latium, Central Italy .45
Antioquia, Colombia [Europeans] .25

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #7

This is a highly unusual variation of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype.

By far the highest frequencies fall in the Balkan states of Albania,

Greece and Macedonia. It is also relatively common in Gotland

and Romania.

(It may actually be a different subclade of R1b - not R1b3

at all - but that assessment requires more info.)

Most of the remaining matches fall across southern Europe,

from other Balkan states, through Italy, and into Iberia.

This haplotype appears to have originated in the Balkans,

and to have migrated elsewhere in southern Europe -

either as a byproduct of Roman cosmopolitanism,

or through absorption by the Goths.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with

Roman troops, merchants or settlers.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 11

Geographical Locale

%
Albania 9.90
Peloponnes, Greece 5.55
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Athens, Greece 2.97
Gotland, Sweden 2.44
New York City [Hispanic-American] 2.00
Macedonia 2.00
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Transylvania, Romania [Szekely] 1.02
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Ireland .93
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Veneto, Italy .83
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Bulgaria .82
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
New York City [European-American] .65
Lombardy, Italy .55
Budapest, Hungary .51
Sweden .49
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Tuscany, Italy .45
Latium, Italy .45
Munich, Bavaria .39

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #8

The highest frequencies for the haplotype below fall mostly in Iberia and

Latin America, along with Zeeland and Ireland.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians

or the later Celts.

The presence of Zeeland and Brazil in the top frequencies suggests

that an origin among Flemish immigrants of either Celtic or Sephardic

ancestry might also be possible, if not likely.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 16

Geographical Locale

%
Zeeland, Netherlands 2.17
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] 1.34
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Ireland .93
Marche, Italy .93
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Lombardy, Italy .55
Central Portugal .54
Budapest, Hungary .51
Tuscany, Italy .46
Munich, Bavaria .40
Sweden .25
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #9

Like some other AMH variants with low values for DYS385b, this haplotype

occurs largely in Southern Europe, from Iberia to the Balkans.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, but

it might also have come with Roman troops and settlers.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 12

Geographical Locale

%
Florida [Hispanic-American] 8.70
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Albania .99
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Central Portugal .54
Rostock, Mecklenberg .49
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #10

The haplotype below is uncommon. R1b3 haplotypes rarely have DYS385a

marker values above 12. Haplotypes with high DYS385a marker values that

actually belong to Haplogroup Q are occasionally mistaken as R1b3.

That is probably not the case here. Since the other marker values in this

haplotype are standard AMH, we can be pretty sure this belongs to R1b3 (ht15).

Nearly all the higher frequency matches fall in the British Isles, Northern

Italy and Spain, which suggests that this haplotype is of Iberian or Celtic origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 13 -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Ireland .66
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Lombardy, Italy .55
Muenster, Westphalia .51
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Munich, Bavaria .40
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #11

The haplotype below is uncommon. Since most of the matches

are in Sweden and France, one might hazard a guess that it could be a

Norman DNA signature.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 10 15

Geographical Locale

%
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Paris, France .92
Latium, Italy .45

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #12

The high frequency in the Amerindian sample below can be attributed to European genetic

input, as well as to the skewing induced by the small size of the sample.

The top European frequencies fall in Denmark, Switzerland, Saxony, The Netherlands,

central England, the Rhine Valley and Northern Spain. This match pattern could be

construed to support either an Anglo-Danish origin (Denmark, Saxony, The Netherlands)

or an origin among the Celts of continental Europe (Switzerland, the Rhine Valley,

Northern Spain).

Individuals of both origins no doubt share this haplotype, especially in Britain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 12 15

Geographical Locale

%
Argentina [Mapuche Amerindian] 6.25
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Denmark 1.59
Switzerland 1.34
Dresden, Saxony 1.16
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Birmingham, England 1.03
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
England-Wales [Afro-Caribbean] .93
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Argentina [European] .67
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Tuscany, Italy .46
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .45
Central Portugal .43
Tyrol, Austria .43
Munich, Bavaria .40
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23