Haplogroup R1b (DYS19=15) - Part I

Haplogroup R1b (DYS19=15)

The haplotypes below exhibit values 15-12-24-11-13-13 or 15-12-24-10-13-13 for the basic markers

DYS # 19-388-390-391-392-393. This puts them one and two steps away, respectively, from the Atlantic

Modal Haplotype.

We have tentatively concluded the following about R1b haplotypes with DYS19 values of 15:

1) They tend to occur in areas where R1b is native and abundant, and therefore exhibits a high

level of diversity.

2) Persons of British descent with such haplotypes are most likely of Celtiberian or aboriginal stock.

3) Since 15 is such a minority DYS19 value among R1b populations, haplotypes that have this value tend

to converge with haplotypes of other haplogroups.

4) Among those haplotypes that occur in disparate locales across Europe and Western Asia, there is

a possibility that such haplotypes could have been spread by an itinerant population of Celtic or

Iberian descent, such as Viking slaves or Sephardic Jews.

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #1

The top five Eurasian frequencies for this haplotype fall in Switzerland, Mongolia, the Caucasus, Iran and

Spain. The match in Mongolia may be the result of convergence (or the Silk Trade), and the same is even

more likely to be true for the matches in Taiwan and Singapore. Hence, any match in Asia is suspect.

If we accept that at least the matches in Georgia and Iran could be R1b, that indicates an unusual range.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, or with later arrivals of

Iberian or Western French origin, such as Roman troops or settlers, or Bretons.

However, the unusual range of the haplotype might indicate that the haplotype was spread by Sephardic Jews

of Iberian descent, although that is highly speculative. The match pattern does suggest an Iberian origin and

a possible eastward diaspora - and such places as Bern, Tehran and Barcelona did at one time have large

Sephardic communities.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 24 10 13 13 11/12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Bern, Switzerland 2.19
Mongolia 1.67
Cabinda, Angola 1.33
Caucasus [Georgian] 1.29
Tehran, Iran 1.25
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Singapore [Malay] .53
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22
Taiwan [Han] .21
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #2

Among the top ten frequencies for the haplotype below, six occur among Iberians or American Hispanics, and

one each occur in China, Norway and the Rhineland. The high frequency Chinese match is most likely an example

of convergence - as are, no doubt, several others.

This haplotype is most likely of Iberian or Celtic origin, although the diverse match pattern suggests that it could have

entered Scandinavian or Norse-Gaelic populations through slavery or intermarriage - and even that it could have entered

a Sephardic Jewish population and been spread to such far flung locales as Egypt and the Baltic.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 7.14
Yunnan, China 3.45
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Oslo, Norway 3.03
Southern Portugal 2.68
Caceres, Central-West Spain 2.19
Strasbourg, Alsace 2.02
Pyrenees, Spain 1.52
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Tyrol, Western Austria 1.31
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Egypt 1.20
Northern Portugal 1.09
Equatorial Guinea 1.01
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Lyon, France .80
Tartu, Estonia .75
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Argentina [Europeans] .66
Ireland .66
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Munster, Westphalia .51
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Northern Portugal .32
Chemnitz, Saxony .25
Sweden .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #3

Of the top five frequencies for this haplotype, three fall among Iberians and American Hispanics, and one each

falls in the Rhineland and Northern Italy. The next five frequencies also fall among Iberians and Latin Americans,

and one each falls in Austria and Belgium.

This haplotype is most likely of Celtic or Iberian origin. This very little to suggest that it must be something else.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 - 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.18
Madeira, Portugal 2.04
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg 1.39
Madrid, Central-East Spain 1.35
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .89
Tyrol, Austria .87
Brussels, Belgium .80
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Europeans] .79
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Switzerland .67
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Northern Portugal .55
Munster, Westphalia .51
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Antioquia, Colombia .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #4

The haplotype has an exceptionally cosmopolitan range. Many of the locales here - such as Iran (Persia), Italy,

Catalonia, Turkey and Hungary (Pannonia) - fall inside the boundaries of the Roman Empire.

This haplotype may be the vestige of a population group that moved widely within that Empire, such as Sephardic

Jews of Iberian descent, among others.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 13 12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Isfahan, Iran 2.08
Connecticut [European-American] 1.92
Dresden, Saxony 1.16
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Budapest, Hungary .52
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Latium, Central Italy .45
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #4

The haplotype below exhibits a perplexing mix of matches. Among the top ten frequencies, four are Hispanic or

Latin American, two of the highest are in Scandinavia, and one each fall in North Germany and the Balkans. The

rest of the matches are predominantly circum-Baltic, with one match each in London and Portugal, and a couple in

Latin America. The Latin American matches themselves may not necessarily be Iberian.

A mixture of high frequencies among Iberian and Germanic samples would not necessarily be puzzling, as

both Iberia and Germany are overrepresented in the YHRD database. The puzzling hits are the Scandinavian ones.

This haplotype may simply have come to Britain from prehistoric Iberia. But the match pattern does suggest a

possible origin among the following groups: 1) Anglo-Saxons, 2) Vikings, or 3) Germanic troops in the Roman army.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Ostergotland Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 2.00
Hamburg, Northern Germany 1.75
Western Norway 1.57
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .99
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Bulgaria .82
London, England .70
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Northern Portugal .32
Sweden .25
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #5

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians. The single match among the Kurds may

have a European origin, or it may be the result of convergence from an ht35 haplotype.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 31 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Kurds, Iraq .74
Central Portugal .43
London, England .35
Northern Portugal .32
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #6

This haplotype is too rare to interpret with any confidence. The combination of The Netherlands and Spain could

merely reflect the fact that The Low Countries and Iberia have among the highest rates of R1b in Europe, and

it is generally among populations where R1b is native and abundant that it exhibits its greatest diversity.

However, we might also consider that portions of The Netherlands were occupied by Spain

for generations, and that both Spanish troops and Sephardic refugees were present in the region.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the ancient Iberians, but it may also have come to Britain

with North Sea Celts among the Anglo-Saxons, or even Sephardic Jews.

(Note that we had a match in Malaysia, but that haplotype exhibited DYS385a,b values of 17,20,

an obvious example of convergence with a non-R1b.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 - - 25 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Groningen, Netherlands 2.08
Madrid, Spain .68

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #7

This haplotype appears Iberian in origin. Of the top ten frequencies, all but two appear in Spain, or among Latin

Americans and U.S. Hispanics. Western Norway exhibits the second highest frequency, but this may simply be

an instance of the Viking slave trade showing its effects at home.

Other R1b haplotypes with DYS19 values of 15 do exhibit healthy frequencies in Scandinavia, so we should not

absolutely rule out a Viking origin. However, this haplotype (in most cases) probably came to Britain with

the prehistoric Iberians, or with Iberian elements among invading Romans and Normans.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 28 24 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 2.38
Western Norway 1.56
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Valencia, Spain .71
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Frieburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #9

The two highest European frequencies fall in Norway, followed by matches that fall largely in Italy and Iberia.

This combination is difficult to explain.

It is most likely a coincidence - yet another instance of that phenomenon known as "alike in state, not descent".

Suppose, however, that there was a genetic connection between some Norwegians and some Southern Europeans.

Where could it be from?

1) The haplotype originated among the Vikings and was brought to Spain, Italy - and most certainly

France - by the Normans.

2) The haplotype originated in Southern Europe, and was brought to Norway via the Viking slave trade.

This haplotype may have come to Britain from Southern Europe, either in prehistoric times or during the Roman Era.

Or it came to Britain with the Normans.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Norway 2.22
Florida [African-American] 2.08
Western Norway 1.57
Madrid, Spain 1.35
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Marche, Italy .93
Paris, France .92
East Timor .72
Northern Portugal .66
Tyrol, Austria .43
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #10

The haplotype below is unambiguously Iberian in origin, and was most likely present in Britain in prehistoric times.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Madrid, Spain .66
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .45
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #11

The haplotype below is widespread, and clearly of Western European origin. It is interesting that, of the top five

match frequencies in Europe, three fall in Scandinavia and two fall in Spain. Of the next five, two fall in Spain, one in

Northeast Germany, one in Slovenia and one in France. Nearly all of the remaining European matches fall in Teutonic

countries.

The haplotype does exhibit the tell-tale "North Sea Celtic" marker - a DYS390 value of 23 - and the match pattern

below is consistent with that classification. There are also several other DYS19=15 haplotypes with this intriguing

combination of relatively high match frequencies in both Scandinavia and Iberia.

The Iberian matches in this case - mostly in Northern Spain - could be attributed to the

incursions of the Goths and the Suevi during the first millennium.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons, the Danes or the Norse - but an Iberian ancestry

is also clearly possible, as it ultimately is with most R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Ostergotland/Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Caceres, Spain 2.20
Central Norway 2.08
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Eastern Norway 1.18
Asturias, Spain 1.11
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Rostock, Mecklenburg .99
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Lyon, France .80
New York City [Hispanic-European] .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .67
Berlin, Brandenburg .55
Sweden .49
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .44
Tyrol, Austria .43
Argentina [European] .33
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Chemnitz, Saxony .24

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #12

The haplotype below is most likely of Celtic or Iberian origin. Its highest frequencies fall in Northern Italy,

Northern Spain and Southern England - all areas populated by Celtic speakers in pre-Roman times.

Nevertheless, as is often the case with DYS19=15 R1b haplotypes, the match pattern is ambiguous. Out of a total of only

seven matches, two each fall in England and Sweden, and Northern Italy and Northern Spain were at one time colonized by

a variety of Northern Germanic tribes. A Baltic origin for this haplotype is still a possibility.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 28 24 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Asturias, Spain 1.11
Veneto, Italy .83
London, England .70
Sweden .49

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #13

The most relevant matches for the haplotype below fall in Europe. The match pattern seems largely Germanic or

Central European. This haplotype may have come to Britain with either the Celts or the Anglo-Saxons. It is not

conspicuously either Nordic or Iberian.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 28 23 11 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [African-American] 1.37
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Marche, Italy .93
Switzerland .67
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Central Portugal .20
Leipzig, Saxony .12

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #14

The haplotype below is very uncommon, but the match pattern suggests an Anglo-Saxon or Danish origin. This is typical

of many R1b haplotypes with the "North Sea Celtic" DYS390 value of 23. Moreover, R1b haplotypes with high DYS19

values are also found reasonably often in Nordic countries.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 31 23 11 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt .43
Sweden .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #15

Most of the European matches for the haplotype below fall in Spain. There is nothing to suggest that this haplotype

has anything other than an Iberian origin. It most likely came to Britain in prehistoric times.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 25 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Cantabria, Spain .99
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
New York City [European] .65
Barcelona, Catalonia .45

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #16

The haplotype below has multiple matches in the British Isles, Iberia and Northern Italy, and a few high frequency

matches in the Netherlands and the Rhineland. Matches in Germany, Eastern Europe or Scandinavia are relatively few.

This haplotype may have came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, or with later Celtic arrivals, and has probably

been native to Britain since well before Roman times.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Limburg, Netherlands 2.00
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Birmingham, England 1.04
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Marche, Italy .93
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .67
Ireland .66
New York City [European-American] .65
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Tuscany, Italy .46
Central Portugal .41
Lublin, Poland .40
London, England .35
Northern Portugal .35
Leipzig, Saxony .25
Sweden .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #17

Some R1b haplotypes with DYS19 values of 15 and DYS390 values of 25 seem to appear in both Iberia and the Baltic region

simultaneously. This may be a function of the large number of both Spanish and German entries in YHRD, or it could have

other sources - the trace of Northern Germanic tribes in Iberia (e.g., Vandals, Goths or Suevi), or of Iberian emigration to Northern

Europe (e.g., the Sephardic diaspora). It also may just be coincidence. This haplotype appears circum-Baltic in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 28 25 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Lublin, Poland .41
Berlin, Germany .18

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #18

The haplotype below is another example of the trend noted above - except that this time the single match suggests

an Iberian origin.

(Please note that the search was filtered for a DYS438 value of 12, to restrict the selection to likely R1b haplotypes.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 25 10 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Madrid, Spain .66

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #19

The haplotype below is the one on this page closest to the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype. As such, it is extremely

widespread, appearing from Iberia to Germany. It does not appear in any Western Asian sample, and is rare in Eastern

Europe. The highest European match frequencies are, however, a little surprising. Four of the top six fall in Italy - two

of the top four in Sicily - while the rest appear in the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Alsace and Norway.

The high frequencies in Italy suggest something on the order of WAMH, Southern Division - i.e., a variant of Iberian

R1b with a strong Mediterranean bias. This haplotype may have been spread by any number of itinerant cultures that

spent a long period in Iberia and then migrated eastward - such as the Romans, the Carthaginians or the Sephardic Jews.

(By the way, anyone objecting to the concept of R1b Sephardic Jews might consider the example of the R1a Ashkenazim.

As R1a is the most common haplogroup among Ashkenazi Levites, why couldn't there be such a phenomenon as

Sephardic Levites that happen to be Iberian R1b? Food for thought...)

However, these are merely slight biases in a geographical spread that is otherwise typically Western

European R1b. This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Azores, Portugal 5.88
Sciaccia, Sicily 5.00
Brescia, Italy 4.72
Mazara del Vallo, Sicily 4.00
Strasbourg, France 3.03
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 2.38
Pennsylvania [African-American] 2.33
Emilia Romagna, Italy 2.25
Reunion Island [Creole Metis] 2.17
Central Norway 2.08
Groningen, Netherlands 2.08
Leiden, Netherlands 2.08
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] 2.01
Cantabria, Spain 1.98
Southern Portugal 1.79
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Graz, Austria 1.54
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Pyrenees, Spain 1.49
Greenland [Inuit] 1.43
London, England 1.40
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Zagreb, Croatia 1.33
Switzerland 1.33
Ireland 1.32
Madrid, Spain 1.32
Central Portugal 1.23
Netherlands 1.15
Asturias, Spain 1.11
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Marche, Italy .93
Paris, France .92
Tuscany, Italy .92
Cologne, Germany .87
Denmark .81
Brussels, Belgium .80
Sweden .74
Hamburg, Germany .73
Magdeburg, Germany .71
Northern Portugal .71
Freiburg, Germany .69
Dusseldorf, Germany .67
Argentina [European] .65
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .49
Krakow, Poland .48
Andulacia/Extremadura, Spain .45
Barcelona, Spain .45
Stuttgart, Germany .44
Halle, Germany .43
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
Gdansk, Poland .37
Leipzig, Germany .25
Chemnitz, Germany .24

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #20

The match table below has been prepared for a haplotype very similar to the "Irish Sea Haplotype", which is

found in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, Iceland and Northern England - and, to some degree, in Iberia and the

Netherlands.

This variant has some hits in Hispanic and Germanic populations. That match pattern doesn't especially resemble the one

for the "Irish Sea Haplotype", but it is consistent with R1b. Interestingly, it does resemble the match pattern common to

some other DYS19=15 haplotypes, in which the match pattern is polarized between Iberia and the Baltic.

Although the DYS19=15 value clearly skews the match pattern in YHRD, this haplotype is most likely just a local

mutation among the Border Reiver family in which it appears, and probably originated in the British Isles.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 - 25 11 14 13 11 13/14

Geographical Locale

%
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Greifswald, Germany .48

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #21

The haplotype below is exceptionally rare, with only one European match which falls in Germany. The African-American

match is most likely the result of admixture. There is really too little data to suggest the ultimate origin of this haplotype,

but it is most likely native to Northwestern Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 - 24 10 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [African-American] 2.70
Freiburg, Germany .23

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #22

The haplotype below has only four matches, two of which fall in the United States and one in Hamburg. This

superficially suggests an Anglo-Saxon origin. However, the presence of a match in Brazil also suggests that this

haplotype is like other DYS19=15 R1b haplotypes in that it appears concurrently among Iberian (e.g., Portuguese)

and circum-Baltic (e.g., Northern German) populations.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 25 10 13 13 10 14

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Europeans] .79
USA [European-American] .39
Hamburg, Germany .36

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #23

The haplotype below has only one Old World match, and that falls in Germany.  R1b haplotypes with DYS19 values

seem to cluster in Iberia and the Baltic region for some reason, and this haplotype is probably no exception. However,

the DYS390 value of 23 is also commonly found in the Germanic parts of continental Europe.

Regardless of how this haplotype should be classed, it certainly could have come to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
New York City [African-American] .67
Chemnitz, Germany .24

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #24

The haplotype below has only two matches, but both are in Portugal. This suggests that the haplotype came to Britain

with the prehistoric Iberians and was present there from pre-Roman times.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 11

Geographical Locale

%
Central Portugal .20
Northern Portugal .18

R1b DYS19=15 Haplotype #25

The haplotype below exhibits its highest match frequencies among Hispanic populations and in Italy, Switzerland

and Ireland. It may be of Celtic or Iberian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 28 23 11 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Santa Ninfa, Italy 2.94
Argentina [Toba Amerindian] 2.78
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Chihuahua, Mexico .93
Ireland .66
Tuscany, Italy .46
Cologne, Germany .43
London, England .35
London, England [Afro-Caribbean .35

R1b DYS19=16 Haplotype #1

The haplotype below is also very rare. The match pattern is sparse, with European matches only in Northern Germany

and the Rhineland. It could be of either Celtic or Anglo-Saxon origin, but the paucity of data precludes anything very

definite.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 29 23 11 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b DYS19=16 Haplotype #2

R1b haplotypes with DYS19 values of 16 are extraordinarily rare, and really should be compared with DYS19=15

haplotypes to get any idea of where they might come from. The haplotype below also has a DYS392 value of 14,

which makes it even rarer. It has one exact match in YHRD, which falls in Poland. It may be Northern

Germanic in origin, or it may be an Iberian haplotype brought to Poland via the diaspora of the Sephardic Jews.

Both suggestions come to mind fairly often with DYS19=15 R1b haplotypes.

Our best guess is that this haplotype is of Western European origin, despite its exotic mutations.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 30 24 10 14 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Lublin, Poland .41

R1b DYS19=16 Haplotype #3

Four of the top seven match frequencies for the haplotype below fall among Spanish or Hispanic samples. Two

of the others fall in Switzerland and among white South Africans, who are largely of Dutch or British descent. These

matches are consistent with Celtic or Iberian ancestry, suggesting that this haplotype may have come to Britain

with prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

There are a number of lower frequency matches in Norway and Finland, which is interesting. DYS19 values of 16

are so uncommon for R1b haplotypes that these matches might actually be R1a haplotypes whose deviant DYS392

values caused them to converge with an R1b - rather than R1b haplotypes with deviant DYS19 values of 16.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Zaragoza, Spain 1.67
Bolivar, Colombia [Mestizo] 1.56
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Switzerland .67
Andalucia/Extramadura, Spain .52
Latium, Italy .45
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Munich, Germany .36
Northern Norway .27
Finland .25
Eastern Norway .20
Northern Portugal .18
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .08

R1b DYS19=16 Haplotype #4

The haplotype below is found exclusively among Hispanic populations in YHRD, and may well have come to

Britain with the prehistoric Iberians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 30 24 10 13 13 11 -

Geographical Locale

%
Santa Fe, Argentina [European] 1.37
Texas, USA [Hispanic American] 1.35
Antioquia, Colombia [Mestizo] .08