Haplogroup R1b (DYS391=12)

Haplogroup R1b (DYS391=12)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype has many variants. Any basic haplotype that differs from

the AMH values of 14-12-24-11-13-13 by a single step, on any marker, in any direction, is

still considered part of AMH. The basic haplotype below exhibits the basic marker values

14-12-24-12-13-13, which puts it in that category.

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #1

Of the top five frequencies here, two occur in Scandinavia, one in Ireland, one in

Western Germany and the fifth in a part of Italy once controlled by Goths, Sarmatians

and Langobardi.

Of the next ten highest frequencies, Latin America and Iberia appear six times,

Germany three times and Albania once. Of the Iberian locales, four occur in

Northern and Eastern Spain, where there was strong Suevian and Visigothic

influence for centuries.

The DYS391 value of 12 is rare. It most likely appears as a random mutation

among Atlantic Modal populations, and does not signify a subclade. Therefore its

range is no doubt various.

Although the rule of thumb for AMH variations among those of British descent

is to attribute them to Iberian or Celtic ancestry, that is probably not the case

for everyone with this haplotype.

The presence of Ireland and several Iberian locales strongly suggests a Celtic

origin, but the appearance of Scandinavia and other Germanic locales - especially in the

highest frequencies - hints that an Anglo-Saxon or Viking origin may be equally possible.

The haplotype could also be Hiberno-Norse, having found its way into Scandinavia

through Viking interaction with the British Celts. Research in other geographical databases

has identified this haplotype among Icelandic persons, which bolsters the contention

that this haplotype may have originated among either the Hiberno-Norse or the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 24 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Southern Ireland 1.87
Denmark 1.59
Western Norway 1.56
Munster, Westphalia 1.53
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 1.12
Albania .99
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Rostock, Mecklenburg .99
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Southern Portugal .89
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Munich, Bavaria .79
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .65
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Sweden .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Latium, Central Italy .45
London, England .40
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Antioquia, Colombia .25

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #2

This haplotype is far less common, with matches only in the old Central

European Celtic area of Graz (in Austria) and among the Basques.

This haplotype probably came to Britain with the prehistoric Iberians

or later Celtic settlers.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 - 24 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Graz, Styria 1.54
Northern Spain [Basque] .59

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #3

This haplotype is also uncommon, with matches only in the old center

of Celtic Europe near Switzerland and Northern Italy.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 24 12 14 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #4

This haplotype could be of either Iberian or Teutonic origin. The highest European

frequencies fall in Iberia, and the non-European matches seem to fall in Latin America or

in parts of the world settled by large numbers of Britons. This haplotype most likely

came to Britain from prehistoric Iberia, but a Germanic origin may also be possible.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 25 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .74
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #5

The haplotype below is most likely of Iberian origin - to the extent that any estimates can be made at all.

Although it exhibits the "North Sea Celtic" DYS390 value of 23, there are no matches whatsoever in Northern Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 23 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Latium, Italy .45
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #6

The haplotype below has matches in both Iberia and the Germanic nations of Central Europe. It could be a typical "North

Sea Celtic" haplotype, or it may simply be "Celtic". I.e., it may have either an Iberian or an Anglo-Saxon origin. As

the matches are both scanty and evenly distributed, any origin outside of a generalized "Western Europe" is impossible

to pin down.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 23 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Cantabria, Spain .99
Tyrol, Austria .43
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Central Portugal .20
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #7

All of the European matches for the haplotype below are localized in an area just inland from the southern coast of the

Baltic. This suggests a possible Northern Germanic origin, and therefore an ancestry among the Angles and the Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 23 12 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Bydgoszcz, Poland .60
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Leipzig, Saxony .12

R1b DYS391=12 Haplotype #8

The top matches for the haplotype below fall in Latin America, the Netherlands and Switzerland. This is consistent

with a Celtiberian origin, but it could also suggest a possible Frisian, Flemish or Germanic origin. Despite the match in

Poland, this haplotype is unequivocally Western European.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 12 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Misiones, Argentina [European] 2.86
Leiden, Netherlands 2.08
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Mendoza, Argentina [European] .78
Switzerland .67
Warsaw, Poland .42
USA [European-American] .39
Freiburg, Germany .23
Stuttgart, Germany .22
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .17

R1b DYS391=13 Haplotype #1

This unusual variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype is probably the result of random local mutations wherever it occurs.

It is not common anywhere, and its distribution appears evenly divided between Iberia and Germany, with a match in England

thrown in. It is most likely Celtic or Iberian in origin, but could have come to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons - which is the

bottom line for AMH in general.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 13 13 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Dresden, Saxony 1.16
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Munich, Bavaria .36
London, England .35
Northern Portugal .18