Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35) - Part II

Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35)

Haplotype 35 (or ht35) is, in a nutshell, the eastern modal variation of R1b.

Sometimes it may be the relic of an eastern migration, and sometimes it may

simply be a mutation from a local Western R1b.

Click here for a discussion of the Haplotype 35 and its possible origin.

Some of the possible ht35 haplotypes that occur among our "Border Reivers" are discussed

below, with arguments both pro and con.

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #15

This partial haplotype has an ambiguous match pattern.  The highest frequencies

occur in Norway, among Iberian populations, and in the Eastern Mediterranean.

There are also German and Polish matches, but at lower frequencies.

This match pattern may reflect the activities of the Normans or the Goths in

Southern Europe. Or the haplotype may be, in fact, Mediterranean in origin.

Since the related R1b (ht35) Haplotype #2 shows a high frequency in multiple

locations in Scandinavia, a Scandinavian origin for this haplotype cannot

easily be discounted.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 23 10 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Western Norway 1.56
Andulacia, Southern Spain 1.23
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Warsaw, Poland .42
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #16

The haplotype below probably originated in Eastern Europe or the Black Sea

region, and moved into Sweden, Northern Italy and Iberia with the Goths or Sarmatians.

It may have entered Britain with Roman troops or settlers,

but it may also have come to Britain as an Eastern European admixture among the Norse.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Hangzhou, China [Han] 2.86
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 2.38
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Athens, Greece 1.98
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Miercurea Cuic, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Syria .88
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Madrid, Central-East Spain .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Warsaw, Poland .42
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #17

The haplotype below is uncommon. Among the match frequencies in the old world,

the three highest are among Armenians, Poles and Slovakian Gypsies. All of these

groups have an Eastern origin.

This haplotype could have originated in the Caucasus, and spread

west into Europe with the Indo-Iranians or other nomads.

The Louisiana match may be a Franco-American, and the Brazilian

may be Portuguese. If so, this could support the above scenario,

as both the Alans and the Goths settled in France and Portugal.

This haplotype may have entered Britain with Roman troops,

or with Normans of Alanic descent.

We must remain aware that DYS390 values of 25 are common in Celtiberian

populations, so a few of these matches are possibly mutations from R1b ht15.

There is little suggestion of convergence with haplogroups beyond R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 25 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Eastern Slovakia [Romani] 1.59
Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Warsaw, Poland .83
Valencia, Spain .71
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #18

The haplotype below is rare, appearing almost exclusively in Western Asia

and Southeastern Europe. The Kurds, which are Indo-Iranian, show the

second highest frequency - and the Anatolian match may also be of

Kurdish origin. Please also note that Indo-Iranian nomads resided

in Macedonia, alongside the Goths, for generations.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with Sarmatian troops, or

with Normans of Alanic descent.

DYS19 values of 13 are more typical of Q haplotypes, but so are high values for DYS392

and DYS385a,b. Since the DYS392 value here is typical R1b 13, and the DYS385a,b values

are 11,13 and 11,14 and 12,14, I see no pressing reason to suspect convergence.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 29 24 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Kurds, Iraq .79
Macedonia .67
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #18

The haplotype below is rare, and appears primarily in Western Asia.

Both Central Anatolia, with its Kurdish minority, and Georgia, with its

proximity to Ossetia, have populations of partially Indo-Iranian descent.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with Syrian or Sarmatian auxiliaries,

Roman settlers and merchants, or Norman troops with Alanic blood.

We must remain leery of convergence with Q haplotypes, since DYS19 values of

13 are typical of that haplogroup. However, so are high values for both DYS392

and DYS385a,b - and both are absent here.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 24 10 13 12 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caucasus [Georgian] 1.30
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #19

The haplotype below appears in three main areas, in descending order of frequency:

1) Western Asia

2) Iberia

3) Eastern Germany

Western Asia is the homeland of the Alans and Sarmatians. Many Alans settled in both

Portugal and Eastern Spain, and the Indo-Iranian nomads settled all over Eastern Europe

after they were pushed west by the advancing Huns in the late Roman era.

This haplotype could easily have come to Britain with Indo-Iranian troops and settlers via the Roman

Empire, or with Normans of Alanic descent. Its match pattern is at least consistent with that of a true

Eastern R1b or ht35.

The variant with a DYS390 value of 25, which is common in Ireland and Iberia,

accounts for the matches in Caceres and Switzerland, and may be just a mutation from

Western R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24/25 11 14 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Caucasus [Azerbaijan] 1.39
Turkey 1.27
Tehran, Iran 1.25
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Kurds, Iraq .79
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Madrid, Spain .68
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #20

Four out of seven matches are clustered in Northern Poland and Northeastern Germany.

The other relevant matches fall in Spain and Turkey. This haplotype was probably most common

among the East Germanic tribes, and may have come to Britain with Roman troops, Normans of

Visigothic descent, or as an admixture among the Anglo-Saxons.

R1b-like haplotypes with DYS19 values of 15, however, seem to be more common in

Iberian populations, so this may simply be a mutation from Western R1b.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 24 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Madrid, Spain .66
Turkey .63
Bydgoszcz, Poland .60
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Singapore [Han] .48
Gdansk, Poland .18
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #21

Eight of the top ten match frequencies for the haplotype below fall in Eastern Europe or

Southwestern Asia. This is typical of Haplotype 35 R1b, which reaches its highest frequencies in those

areas surrounding the Black Sea. This haplotype may have originated with one of the many groups from

the Black Sea region that served along Hadrian's Wall as Roman auxiliaries. These would have included

Dacians (from modern day Romania, Slovakia, Moldova and the Ukraine), Thracians (from Bulgaria)

and Sarmatians (from the Ukraine, Southern Russia and the Caucasus).

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 - 13 12 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Lipezk, Russia 2.12
Nowy Targ, Poland 1.92
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Romania .98
Brescia, Italy .94
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Kiev, Ukraine .82
Ljubljana, Slovenia .56
Krakow, Poland .48
Cologne, Westphalia .43
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .33
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Bydgoszcz, Poland .24
Northern Portugal .18

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #22

Of the top eight frequencies for the haplotype below, two of the highest fall in Norway,

and five fall in The Caucasus and the general vicinity of the Anatolian peninsula.

This is not atypical for Haplotype 35, which can exhibit double peaks in Western

Asia and in either Norway or Northeastern Europe.

R1b haplotypes with DYS393 values of 12 and DYS390 values of 23 are

particularly prone to this distribution.

The haplotype was probably seated in the vicinity of the Black Sea from many

thousands of years ago, and may have been spread across Europe through the

movements of Sarmatians, Alans, Goths, Heruls, Rugians and other "barbarian"

nomads. It could have arrived in Britain with the Vikings, or with Roman troops

of Eastern European extraction.

Despite the Latin American matches, which are of indeterminate origin, and the

low frequency matches in Spain and Portugal, this haplotype does not appear

at especially high levels in Western Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 23 - 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Western Norway 3.13
Bogota, Colombia [European] 1.36
Caucasus [Georgian] 1.30
Eastern Norway 1.18
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Munich, Bavaria .80
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Madrid, Spain .66
New York City [European-American] .60
Warsaw, Poland .42
Cheonan, South Korea .32
Northern Portugal .32
Gdansk, Poland .18

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #23

The match pattern for the haplotype below is consistent with ht35. The top Old World frequencies

fall largely in Southeastern Europe (Greece, Bulgaria, Croatia) and in the vicinity of the Black Sea

(Turkey and Armenia). Additional matches in Sicily and Southern Spain suggest that the ancestral

haplotype may have spread west across the Mediterranean. It may also have been brought north

by absorption into nomadic groups like the Goths and Alans, through Roman settlement, or the

mercantile activities of Eastern Mediterranean peoples (such as the Sephardic Jews and others).

If truly of ht35 origin, this haplotype could have come to Britain with Roman troops or settlers,

Norman allies of Alanic descent, or Sephardic Jewish merchants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Chios, Greece 6.25
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Caucasus [Armenian] 2.00
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Bulgaria .82
Zagreb, Croatia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Turkey .63
Andulacia, Spain .61
Bydgoszcz, Poland .59
Sicily, Italy .50
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Tyrol, Austria .43
Gdansk, Poland .37
Sweden .25
Bogota, Colombia [European] .22
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #24

This haplotype is rare, but the match in Anatolia could suggest an origin in the Black Sea area. It may have come to

Britain with Roman auxiliaries from this vicinity, such as Dacians, Thracians and Sarmatians - or with other settlers

of Eastern Mediterranean origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 29 24 10 13 12 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #25

The highest frequency Old World matches fall among Armenians, Bohemians and Indo-Pakistanis. This suggests

the kind of Eastern European and Southwest Asian range common to some ht35 haplotypes. The most common

Y-DNA signature in the YHRD Armenian sample is an ht35, and some have suggested that the Armenians may be

descended from the Phrygians, an Indo-European people who invaded Anatolia from the Balkans.

This haplotype may have come to England with Dacians, Thracians, Syrians, Sarmatians or other peoples of

Balkan or Southwest Asian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 10 13 12 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Reunion island [Creole Blanc] .51
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] .40
Stuttgart, Germany .22
Argentina [European] .16
New York City [European-American] .65

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #26

The match profile for this haplotype combines the Netherlands, Northern Italy, Eastern Europe and Portugal, which would

fit the migration pattern of a variety of populations - Sephardic Jews moving from Portugal or Italy to the Low Countries,

then to Eastern Europe - or a nomadic group like the Goths moving out of Southeastern Europe into Northern Italy

and Portugal.

How this haplotype came to Britain is, of course, uncertain. It could simply be a variation on aboriginal R1b, or it could

have arrived with Roman auxiliaries from Southeastern Europe, Flemish merchants or Norman troops of Alanic descent.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 25 10 13 12 11/12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Netherlands 1.15
Emilia Romagna, Italy 1.12
Romania .98
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Krakow, Poland .48
London, England .35
Central Portugal .20

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #27

The top twenty Old World match frequencies for this haplotype fall overwhelmingly in Eastern Europe (Russia, Poland,

Slovakia, Ukraine, Slovenia, Romania, Hungary), in the Southeast Mediterranean (Greece, Macedonia, Turkey) and in

the Caucasus. This match is entirely consistent with the range of ht35. It is also consistent with the range of Indo-Iranian

expansion and settlement.

The Ingushians reside in a part of the Caucasus adjacent to North Ossetia - final resting place of the Alans -

and Ingushians and Ossetians have intermixed substantially. Thrace, Russia, Slovakia, Hungary, the Ukraine,

Romania and Macedonia all saw extensive Sarmatian activity and settlement.

France is almost the only Western European nation in the top twenty shown below, and that was heavily infiltrated

by Alans, Visigoths and other barbarian tribes of Eastern origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 13 12 11 14/15/16

Geographical Locale

%
Yaroslavl, Russia 14.29
Zakopane, Poland 14.29
Brjansk, Russia 4.65
Caucasus [Ingushian] 4.17
Nowy Targ, Poland 3.85
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Thrace, Greece 2.44
Lipezk, Russia 2.12
Bratislava, Slovakia 1.83
Kiev, Ukraine 1.65
Misiones, Argentina [European] 1.43
Ljubljana, Slovenia 1.11
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Strasbourg, France 1.01
Romania .98
Brescia, Italy .94
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Paris, France .92
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Hungary .88
Warsaw, Poland .83
Macedonia .81
Lyon, France .80
Central Bohemia, Czechia .79
Gdansk, Poland .75
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Bydgoszcz, Poland .73
Madrid, Spain .66
Southeast Poland .73
Budapest, Hungary .52
Marche, Italy .49
Greifswald, Germany .48
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .45
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Cologne, Germany .43
Rostock, Germany .41
Denmark .40
Stuttgart, Germany .37
Berlin, Germany .36
Northern Portugal .36
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Central Portugal .20
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .16
Chemnitz, Germany .12
Leipzig, Germany .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #28

The partial haplotype below is rare, occurring only in Central Europe. Since recent DNA studies have demonstrated a residual

Asiatic influence on the gene pool of the Czechs, this haplotype could ultimately be of Asiatic origin. Any haplotype occurring

in Central Europe, however, could easily have a Celtic or Germanic origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b 438
14 12 28 24 11 13 12 - - 12

Geographical Locale

%
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #29

The haplotype below is fairly widespread, but half of the top ten highest frequencies occur in Turkey or Azerbaijan

and two occur in Eastern Europe. Portugal appears twice - but in Madeira and Southern Portugal, both areas with

significant non-Iberian contributions to the local gene pool.

This haplotype could very well have come to Britain with Roman troops, traders or settlers from Southeast Europe

and Asia Minor. A marker found among archaeological remains at a military vicus in Cumbria refers to a place

called "Stratonika", which during Roman times was located in Turkey.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 25 11 13 12 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Sao Paulo State, Brazil [Pardo] 4.00
Adana, Southern Turkey [Eti] 2.94
Caucasus [Azerbaijan] 2.78
Ploiesti, Romania 2.27
Kahramanmaras, Southern Turkey 2.75
Ankara, Turkey 2.56
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Oslo, Norway .92
Kahramanmaras, Southern Turkey [Romani] .90
Southern Portugal .89
Illinois, USA [European American] .85
Valencia, Spain .71
Bogota, Colombia [Mestizo] .68
Marche, Italy .49
Hamburg, Germany .36
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Berlin, Germany .18
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .15
Leipzig, Germany .12

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #30

If this is legitimately an ht35 haplotype, it could well have an Indo-Iranian origin - considering the high frequency in

Iran and the match in Serbia, where Sarmatians reputedly settled. The matches in France and Sweden suggest a

possible Norman or Germanic origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 24 11 13 12 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
South Iran, Iran [Farsi] .96
Lyon, France [French] .80
Novi Sad, Serbia [Serbian] .47
Sweden [Swedish] .25

R1b (ht35) Haplotype #31

The only Old World match for this haplotype falls in Norway. This suggests that the haplotype may have come to

Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 25 11 13 12 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Norway, Norway [Norwegian] .27