Kinney, McKinney & Variations
Lenhart & Variations
DNA Project notes

9 March 2008


Trace Your Roots With DNA - by Megan Smolenyak Smolenyak (author of other genealogy publications) and Ann P. Turner (founder and administrator of the formidable RootsWeb GENEALOGY-DNA discussion list). 2004, paperback 272 pages. At and elsewhere.
See also:
I highly recommend this book to those interested in DNA for genealogy.

DNA and Family History - Chris Pomery
(May get better price at Amazon, et al)
This is also a good book - especially for surname project leaders.


DNA 101 [Blair] - [Custer] a former high school biology teacher

FTDNA newsletters (sometimes easier to understand than their main links). - DNA Testing & Genetic Genealogy Help Links

Suggestions from the GENEALOGY-DNA List Administrator:

"Many projects refer to each other, so you can start practically anywhere and work your way around the web, but [Pomery and Duerinck] sites make good entry points . . . . "

"Charles Kerchner has also prepared an introduction and glossary, along with a number of links to sites of special interest . . ." - Terry Barton's links

FOR THE MORE ADVANCED - Site states it "is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine available on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology, it enables scientists, students and anyone searching for scientific information to chart and pinpoint data, locate university sites and find reports and articles quickly and easily." - Links to technical papers, etc.


STR = short tandem repeats. (Sometimes the "numbers" [allele values] in a DNA test are referred to as STRs. In the case of a Y chromosome test, referred to as YSTRs.)

See also Y Databases

NULL Results

FTDNA states:
A value of “0” for any marker indicates that the lab reported a null value or no result for this marker. All cases of this nature are retested multiple times by the lab to confirm their accuracy. Mutations causing null values are infrequent, but are passed on to offspring just like other mutations, so related male lineages such as a father and son would likely share any null values.

For additional information/discussion on this subject, see this link and related posts on the thread following the post:


DEEP ANCESTRY (Anthrogenealogy)

Deep ancestry (anthrogenealogy) studies indicate that we all descend from one male and one female in Africa. These two people are sometimes referred to in the popular press as "Adam" and "Eve" but they never met. The current estimates of how long ago they lived are about 80,000 years ago for the female and about 50,000 years ago for the male. Other men and women were alive at the same times they lived. However, over the centuries, all the other descendent lines have since died out. Long ago, the descendants of these two met and had children and they are the direct ancestors of us all.

Tracing Human History Through Genetic Mutations - MAP

The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves - Article

See Haplogroups

or deeper . . . .

Semino, O., Passarino, G., Oefner, P.J., Lin, A.A., Arbuzova, S., Beckman, L.E., De Bendictis, G., et al. (2000) The genetic legacy of paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: A Y chromosome perspective. Science 290: 1155-1159.

[Abstract] "A genetic perspective of human history in Europe was derived from 22 binary markers of the nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY). Ten lineages account for >95% of the 1007 European Y chromosomes studied. Geographic distribution and age estimates of alleles are compatible with two Paleolithic and one Neolithic migratory episode that have contributed to the modern European gene pool. A significant correlation between the NRY haplotype data and principal components based on 95 protein markers was observed, indicating the effectiveness of NRY binary polymorphisms in the characterization of human population composition and history."

OTHER LINKS - Cyndi's DNA links - esp. good for UK (many links)


DNA and Family History
Chris Pomery|
(May get better price at Amazon, et al)

Trace Your Roots with DNA: Using Genetic Tests to Explore Your Family Tree
Megan Smolenyak, Ann Turner
(May get better price at Amazon, et al) - link to order Alan Savin's "book" (32 pages), written 2000, updated 2002. Savin is the first known individual to conduct a surname project (1997).

The New Yorker magazine, March 26, 2001, has a 12 page article by John Seabrook, "The Tree of Me." The author reports his adventures into the world of genealogy and DNA. I'm sure there are many excellent articles out there but I liked his personal (well written and amusing) account. He visited England and got a few samples from some Seabrooks there, etc. - looking for Irish links; none yet but lots of new friends

Links to technical papers, etc. - - article, links

Note: Since the above section was prepared, DNA for genealogy has become a frequent subject in articles and TV programs.


Notes moved to this link: mtDNA Notes


BGA - BioGraphical Ancestry

Test, based on autosomal DNA, that attempts to determine percentages of African, Indo-European, East Asian, and Native American ancestry. Results example: 98% European, 2% Sub-Saharan African, 0% East Asian, 0% Native American. While DNA testing in general is in its infancy, this test is in the embryo state. It is best used for fun (recreational information) at this time. Before ordering such a test, be sure you understand what you are getting so that you will not be disappointed (for example, two siblings can take this test and get completely different results). Ancestry by DNA (also known as DNAPrint) offers this test.

For more information search the RootsWeb discussion list archives (and you will see it is a very controversial subject).
Here are two levelheaded posts on this subject in the list archives:

Other “ethnic” tests

See this post and others the thread:

* * * * * * * * * *
Robert Estes - Information that includes description of various DNA tests – not just “ethnic.”


Kennewick Man [to my knowledge no DNA tests on Kennewick Man but people keep mentioning him to me]
"In 1996, near Kennewick, Washington, a suspected murder victim is identified by forensic anthropologists as Caucasian - but turns out to be almost 10,000 years old. For fifty years our picture of prehistoric America has rested on the premise that the earliest inhabitants of the Americas were east Asians of mongoloid stock, the ancestors of today's Native Americans. But the discovery of the Kennewick Man, along with several other startling finds in recent years, has thrown that once widely accepted idea into question and revolutionized the science of paleo-anthropology. . . . Original broadcast date: 02/15/2000

DNA jewelry: A gift that screams you (From Nancy Custer on the RootsWeb list.)
British company takes personalized presents to new extreme.

"In Search of the First Language" PBS Airdate: March 18, 1997
[does this belong on the timeline?]

_________ - cousin chart
_________ sells DNA preservation kits. If you are not ready to pay for lab testing now, you can buy a kit from them, take your sample, and put it with your genealogy records according to Ann Turner, Administrator of the RootsWeb GENEALOGY-DNA List, who is associated with this company.


Human Clone - site has brief info and links:
Nelda’s keeping track of who sells what (markers, etc.)

My Timeline - informal personal timeline leading to surname project [I got so busy I never kept it up]  - Roberta Estes commercial site

Kinney, McKinney & Variations
Lenhart & Variations
DNA Project notes