Anything above this line is advertising and is not a link to information on this web site

Henry of MA

The Four Israels of Massachusetts [Israel Kenney]
By Jeff Green
Revised 15 February 2006

By utilizing the few available records and the process of elimination, I hope to leave no doubt in the reader's mind that the Israel Kinney who married Susannah Hood and migrated to Maugerville, New Brunswick, Canada, was in fact, the same Israel Kenney who was born in Sutton, Worcester, MA on October 23, 1739.

I'll address the four Israel's of issue as such: Israel #1, #2, #3 and #4:

#1 Israel Kenney, Sr. was the first of the name in the colonies. He was born in Boxford (inc. into Middleton in 1728), Essex, MA on August 24, 1712 to Daniel, Sr. and Mary (Richards) Kenney [R-01]

#2 Israel Kenney, Sr. was the second of the name in the colonies. He was born in Sutton, Worcester, MA on October 23, 1739 to Daniel, Jr. and Elizabeth (Stockwell) Kenney. [R-02] He was a nephew of Israel #1

#3 Israel Kenney, Jr. was the third of the name in the colonies. He was born in Middleton, Essex, MA on January 6, 1745/46 to the unmarried Rebeckah Perkins and is the son of Israel #1 [R-03] (1)

#4 Israel Kenney, Jr. was the fourth of the name born in the colonies. He was born in Middleton, Essex, MA on October 21, 1746 to Israel #1 and Eunice (White) Kenney [R-03]


The Four Israels - Relationship Chart
Most of these men had several children, only the "Israel" lines are noted here


Henry of MA was the father of Thomas


Thomas (m. Knight) was the father of Daniel 1682


Daniel 1682 (m. Richards) was the father of


Daniel 1705
who was the father of

[#1] Israel 1712-1747
who was the father of


[#2] Israel 1739-[adult]
Married Hood
His mother: Stockwell
He migrated to Canada.

[#3] Israel 1745/46-1820
Married Wilkins
His mother: Perkins (unmarried)

[#4] Israel 1746-1817
Married Balch &
Widow (Woodbury) Fulle
His mother: White {Mayflower line}



[#3]Israel had two sons named Israel:
Israel 1766-1767
Israel 1768-? [adulthood]

[#4]Israel had son Israel who died in infancy in 1804


To begin: There were only four Israel Kenney/Kenny/Kinne/Kinney's "born or living in the colonies" until the birth of Israel #3's named son on September 19, 1766.(2)  This child died soon afterwards and the next Israel born to #3 was on September 14, 1768. This child survived to adulthood and was married only once and had a family. I have also been unable to find any record of an Israel or Asa Kenney that migrated from Ireland during this time frame. There's just no evidence to support this theory.

Josiah and Deborah (Towne) Kenney

Now for those that believe in the Josiah and Deborah (Towne) Kenney parentage:

There was no Israel Kenney born to Josiah and Deborah (Towne) Kinney in 1731. It is a supposition known only to a Mabel Gould Demers Hinckley who published a genealogy of this line in 1969. There is more evidence to debunk her theory than there is to support it. The timeline for this family is as follows:

Timeline - Josiah and Deborah (Towne) Kenney


Josiah Kenney, Sr. born Feb. 12 ,1705/06, son of John, Jr. and Mary Kenney

May 1, 1729

Josiah Kenney, Sr. and Deborah Towne were married on May 1, 1729.

Dec. 15, 1729

Their first child was Mary (Kenney), born on Dec. 15, 1729.

Sept. 30, 1732

Their second child, a son named Asa (Keney), born on Sept. 30, 1732.

Oct. 16, 1732

It's evident that Deborah had complications that arose from the birth of Asa and never recovered. Five weeks later on Oct. 16, 1732, an unnamed wife of Josiah Kenney is listed in Topsfield Deaths (C.R.).

July 3, 1734

Josiah, Sr. remarried on July 3, 1734 to a woman named Mary Case, the daughter of Humphrey and Rachel (Nichols) Case.

August 31, 1736

Asa, son of Josiah, Sr., dies August 31, 1736 (C.R.)

January 8, 1737

Josiah Kenney, Sr., dies January 8, 1737 (C.R.)

June 18, 1737

Josiah Kinney, son of Josiah and Mary Kinney born June 18, 1737 He survives to adulthood and has a family of six children, none of them were named Israel.

All of the life events in the preceding family/ies were recorded in the Topsfield town or church records [R-04] and all of these records have survived and are available on the internet at:

This family's relationship to Henry of MA is uncertain; however, a Y-DNA participant reporting ancestry to Josiah b. 1737 matches the Y-DNA signature established for Henry's line. See #20650

There is no evidence in the vital records of an Israel Kenney/Kenny/Kinney/Kinne etc. born to Josiah and Deborah Kenney, nor can I find any evidence of one born anywhere else in the colonies between 1713 and 1738. Asa's name was not mistakenly entered as Asa, instead of Israel, in the Topsfield town records when he was born, as told by Mabel Hinckley. Nor could they have made that error twice when he died. Nor is there an entry in the Topsfield vital records for an Asa being born on August 18, 1736, thirteen days before his older half brother of the same name passed away on August 31, 1736. In fact, I can find no event occurring on Aug. 18, 1736 with regard to this family. If there can be anything legitimately attributed to this mystery date it's that Asa, born of the first marriage, had not been baptized until then. This could have possibly occurred because his mother was sick from the day she delivered him, until she died five weeks later on October 16, 1732. I will speculate that in August 1736, Asa probably became gravely ill and Josiah and his second wife Mary's concern for this led them to having him baptized thirteen days prior to his death. If this was so, then that baptism date, wherever it came from, could give one the mistaken impression that (a second) Asa was born then. But people don't generally give a child the same name as an earlier child unless the first one has already passed away. I have not been able to locate any baptismal records that have this information, but I'll be willing to bet this is where this date of August 18, 1736 came from. It is not included in the church records, but it may be that he was baptised on his deathbed and the record may have come from a family bible. The only other explanation for this date is that it was fabricated.

All of this confusion in this family appears to have been created by a researcher attempting to find a place for the "Israel Kinney of New Brunswick" to fit in by following a strict ideal of naming conventions. And when a Deborah and an Asa (names used by Israel #2) were found in a Topsfield family with the Kenney surname, they made it fit by backing it up with an assumption of erroneous record keeping, not once, but in two incidents and offering no other proof. Considering that all of the life events for Josiah's family from his first marriage until his untimely death and the posthumous birth of his son Josiah, Jr. were recorded in the church records, then I find it ludicrous to believe a story that there was some overlooked mystery child born to this family. (Personal rant, now off. lol)

Israel #1 - The Boxford Iron Works

Israel #1, the main cause of the confusion revolving around this debate, grew up in a large family of nine children in a house that is said to have been located at the northeast quadrant of what is now known as Kenney Road and Liberty Street in Middleton, MA. His father, Daniel Kenney, Sr., was originally a mason by trade, but sometime prior to 1720 he had aquired a 1/6th share in the Boxford Iron Works, which was located on the south side of Pout Pond Brook and in close proximity to his northern property boundary. [R-05] This appears to be the initial introduction to the iron manufacturing, blooming, blacksmithing and iron art business by this branch of the Kenney family who were descendents of Henry and Ann (Putnam) Keney.

After the death of his father, Job Averill, Sr., in February of 1730, a young Samuel Averill was bound out for the iron trade by his father's will to Daniel Kenney, Sr., "the famous ironmonger" who became his guardian. (Samuel's older brother, Israel Averill, married Daniel, Sr.'s daughter, Mary Kenney.) [R-06]

During his short life, Israel #1 and his brothers Isaac and David became heavily involved in the business of the iron works and Israel #1 and Isaac also had interests in obtaining lands in the Maine frontier, possibly for the further development of their iron business. On March 23, 1738/39, they purchased 471 acres along the west side of the Sheepscot River, between Wiscassett and Alna in the Maine Territory, from Isaac Kenney's brother-in-law, Isaac Richardson. [R-07] In 1744, Ezekial Averill, the youngest sibling of Samuel, was said to be in the employment of Israel #1. In a pay draft, dated September 5, 1744, he received of Israel #1 "one pound, ten shillings old tener to pay to Ezekial Averill for his work for me at Shepcut". (Sheepscot) [R-06] On October 25, 1744, Israel #1 purchased his father's (Daniel,Sr.) 1/6th share in the Boxford Iron Works.

The following April of 1745, thirty-two year old Israel #1 had an affair with the eighteen year old, Rebeckah Perkins. That following winter on January 6, 1745/46, Rebeckah gave birth to a son she named Israel Kenney (#3). But, on January 11, 1745/46, just five days after young Israel's (#3) birth, Israel #1 traveled to Boston with Eunice White, his second cousin, and filed an intention of marriage. [R-08] Nine months later, on October 21, 1746, Eunice gave birth to a son she named Israel Kenney (#4). In the following spring of 1747, I find evidence that Israel #1 passes away a few months shy of his 35th birthday. In his inventory taken on June 29, 1747, it lists various iron working tools and a 1/6th part of an iron mill. [R-09] Although it's noted by several researchers that the infant Israel #4 inherited his father's 1/6th share in the mill in his will, the File #: 15324 in the Essex County, Massachusetts, Probate Index, 1638-1840 specifically states that Isreal Kenney, Sr. #1 died intestate. Israel #4 may have received it after probate and it was held by his mother until he reached the age of majority, but he didn't receive it in a will. There's a big difference there.

Israel #3, the Revolutionary Soldier

Israel #3 born in Middleton, Essex, MA on January 6, 1745/46, was the only child of his unwed mother Rebeckah Perkins. [R-03] He was raised in the home of his maternal grandmother and it's not known for sure whether his mother resided with them or not. But it does appear that she took an active part in raising him as he did name his first daughter Rebecca.

Israel #3 wed Hannah Wilkins on September 18, 1864. [R-03] She was born October 19, 1741, and was the daughter of a nearby neighbor. Hannah's father had also died within a year of her birth and she was raised by her mother and her stepfather, Jonathan Bailey. Rebeckah Perkins, the mother of Israel #3, died in Topsfield on May 15, 1774 "a middle aged woman". [R-04] According to her birthdate of Jan. 12, 1726/27 [R-04], she was 47 at the time of her death.

Israel #3 and Hannah moved to Hollis, Hillsborough, NH sometime between August 1765 and September 1766. Their first child was stillborn in Middleton on August 19, 1765 [R-03] Their next two children were twins, born on September 19, 1766, and they were named Rebecca and Israel. They were most likely born in Hollis because I can find no record of their birth in Middleton. Young Israel, III the male twin of Rebecca died in his bed on Feb 07, 1767 and this incident is recorded in the Middleton records. So this possibly could have occurred during a visit back home, as did the birth of their next child. On September 14, 1768, Hannah gave birth to a son they again named Israel. The next seven of their nine surviving children were evidently born in Hollis because they aren't registered in any other of the town records. They are, however, listed under the family if Israel and Hannah Kinney, with dates of birth, in the "History of the Town of Hollis New Hampshire" by Samuel T. Worcester. [R-10]

On April 19, 1775, when his wife was four months pregnant with their son Moses, Israel Kenney #3 and 91 other men, referred to as the Hollis Minute-Men, gathered on the Common in Hollis, NH and began their long march to Lexington to do battle with the British. He served in the 1st regiment of three New Hampshire Continental regiments, was in and out of battle till the end of the war, and is found to have fought in New York City, Trenton and Princeton in New Jersey. [R10]

In about 1805, Israel's (#3) son Moses Kenney and his wife of one year, Jennie Jane Knowlton, along with his sister Hannah and her husband, Solomon Blood, made settlement in the Knox Plantation in Hancock (now Waldo) County, Maine, just west of Belfast. Within the next ten years, several other brothers and sisters with their spouses joined them, as well as the widowed and aging Israel #3. It is here in the town records when Knox was incorporated on July 17, 1819 that Israel Kenney #3 stated in his deposition that he was born January 6, 1745/46. [R-11] This statement and the Middleton birth record for Israel #3 are irrefutable evidence linking this Israel to his birth mother, Rebeckah Perkins. On March 5, 1820, nine months after he gave this deposition, Israel Kenney #3 passed away while living at the residence of his son Moses. He was 74. [R-12]

Israel #4, the Mayflower Descendant

Israel #4 was born in Middleton, Essex, MA on October 21, 1746 to Israel #1 and his wife, Eunice (White) Kenney a descendant of the Whites of the Mayflower. He was the only child born to this couple and after his father passed away, his mother remained single for five years until June 4, 1752, when she married the three time widower, Mark Howe. [R-03] Mark also had connections to the Boxford Iron Works as his father, John, Jr. and grandfather, Capt. John Howe, Sr. were at one time part owners in the business. [R-05] Together, Mark and Eunice had three children and he brought three from his last marriage. [R-03] So Israel #4 grew up in a home with three step siblings and three half siblings. And his older half brother, Israel #3, lived nearby with his mother and maternal grandmother.

On May 5, 1765, Israel #4 married Hannah Balch in Topsfield, MA. [R-05] She was a third great-granddaughter of the immigrant ancestors, John and Agnes Balch that settled in Beverly, MA in about 1636. Their house, which traces back to this date, still stands today and is considered the oldest standing timber-framed house in North America.

Israel #4 and Hannah settled in Middleton where all seven of their children were born and raised. [R-03] Sometime after the 1790 census and prior to 1798, it appears that Hannah passed away because on November 25, 1798, Israel #4 married the much younger widow Judith (Woodbury) Fuller [R-13] who was born on February 21, 1766. She brought two children into the marriage and Israel #4 still had his three youngest daughters living at home. Just before July 29, 1804, Judith gave birth to a son they named Israel Curtis Kenney, the middle name being the first name of Judith's father. He died a few days later and was buried on August 4, 1804. Their next child, a daughter, was named Lydia White Kenney, born prior to April 19, 1807. Her middle name of "White" was obviously derived from Israel #4's mother, Eunice (White) Kenney Howe. Judith and Israel #4 had another son born in February 1808 they named Israel Kenney, III [R-13] and according to the census figures for 1820, it doesn't appear that he survived to adulthood. Israel #4 passed away and was buried on June 1, 1817 and Judith survived him and lived until April 6, 1840. [R-13]

Israel Kenney #2 of Maugerville and Oromocto, New Brunswick, Canada

Now for the final Israel Kenney and his "brother" Asa.

Israel #2 was born in Sutton, Worcester, MA on October 23, 1739 and was the seventh of twelve children born to Daniel, Jr. and Elizabeth (Stockwell) Kenney. [R-02] Israel #2 and an Asa Kenney, are both listed in the "Officers and Men from Sutton in Colonial Service from 1755 to 1761" [R-14] that served during the French and Indian War. This Israel #2 had a younger brother named Asa born October 14, 1743. [R-02] But it's not certain if this is the same Asa that served in the Colonial service or if it was their 2nd cousin Asa Kenney, born March 14, 1737/38 the son of Theophilus and Jemima (Pond) Kenney. [R-02] One of these two Asa's married a Mehitable Stockwell on July 24, 1763 [R-02] Her birth year has been estimated by others to be about 1741.

Asa and Mehitable's youngest child was named Jesse, and Theophilus and Jemima's youngest child was also named Jesse and they also had a son named Stephen. [R-02] This is the first use of the name Stephen in any of the Kenney families to this date, and both Jesse and Stephen were Israel #2 and brother Asa's second cousins, once removed. But in the early settlements of these small frontier towns, they were likely to be as close as brothers.

In Robertson's book The Genealogy of Henry and Anne Kinne, the author states next to Asa's name (son of Theophilus), "no further record". And she attributes Israel #2's brother Asa as being the spouse of Mehitable. Two other siblings of Israel #2 married into the Stockwell family, as well as the fact that their mother was a Stockwell. No other members of the Theophilus Kenney family married Stockwell's. [R-02]

Israel #2's brother, Asa, would have just turned seventeen at the end of the fighting in the French and Indian War in 1760. There is also an assumption that Asa was killed during the war.(3)  This would have had to happen by the end of 1760 when the fighting ceased. This Asa would hardly have been old enough to have married and then run off for the last couple of months in the war. Not impossible, but I'd say this candidate really pushes the envelope of plausibility. After the end of the war, the only record found for Israel #2 in the vicinity of Upton is an intention of marriage to Sybil Leland, filed in the Uxbridge/Grafton area on October 24, 1761. [R-15] [R-16] If this marriage occurred, there is no record of it nor of any children born to them. There is also no record in the Sutton area of an Asa Kenney marrying an Abigail.

I've found in the marriage records for Middleton an Asa Kenny that married an Abigail Putnam on October 8, 1765. [R-03] This is the only record I can find for an Asa Kenney and an Abigail anywhere, and there is no further record of them. In the Topsfield marriage records I find an entry for Israel Kinney and Susanna Hood's marriage intention and marriage on the same day of June 9, 1763. [R-04] I cannot find entries for the births of their first two children, Deborah and Sarah in the Topsfield [R-04], Middleton [R-03] or Sutton [R-02] vital records nor can I find an entry for Asa and Abigail's son, Asa, Jr. in these same volumes.

Being that Daniel Kenney, Jr., father of Israel #2, was the son of a man that owned part of an iron mill, it's quite possible that he was also trained in blacksmithing to some degree or another. Unfortunately I've been unable to locate information on this theory, but it's doubtless that he would have had something to do with Israel's following the trade of his grandfather and uncles, leading him to an apprenticeship at the Boxford Iron Works.

In the town tax records for Middleton in 1762 and 1763, there appears to be three different Israel Kenney's. I suspect that after Israel #2 returned from his Colonial Service, it's very likely he went to the iron works in Middleton to either learn or further hone his skills as a blacksmith. And what better an area for a young man to find a bride. The population was much larger and denser in the Middleton, Topsfield and Salem areas than in the remote town of Sutton.


My conclusions are that the Israel Kenney who married Susannah Hood is the Israel #2 as described above. I believe the Asa Kenney that married an Abigail is probably the son of Theophilus and Jemima (Pond) Kenney and is Israel's cousin, not his brother. Although, if this Asa was married at the time he died in battle, he couldn't have been married to Abigail Putnam because she was born about 1745 and was fourteen at the time of the taking of Quebec. This Asa (son of Theophilus) would have been twenty one and he and Abigail would have to be married before September 1759, at the time Quebec was taken. Now, if this Asa were to have survived the war and died in some other manner between October 8, 1765 and the time the families set out for Canada, then his marriage to Abigail Putnam would be more feasible. There may be a record of the birth of Abigail's son, Asa, Jr. tucked away in some obscure Topsfield or Middleton document that could be the final clue to this story.

So there it is. Take it with a grain of salt or accept what I've given you here and follow it up with more research of your own if you wish.

If any of this confuses you, you still have questions or have anything you'd like to share or add, please feel free to email me.

Comments, additions, corrections, supported by reliable sources, are welcome.

Jeff Green [ replace the -- with @ ]


(1) This has been proven with DNA testing (see Group 2 #8933) and a proper paper trail.
(2) The Feb. 7, 1767, of death for Israel #3's first named son is recorded in the Vital Records of Middleton - Deaths. The first children born to Israel & Hannah on August 19, 1765 were twins of which the daughter, Rebecca, survived and an unnamed son was stillborn. [R-03]
(3) According to family tradition in what is written in "Israel Kenny, his children and their families" by Edwin Wallace Bell; [R-17] Israel had a brother named Asa who married a woman named Abigail who survived him and then married a storekeeper named Richard Barlow. It also suggests that Asa died in the war, possibly at the taking of Quebec. The taking of Quebec occurred on September 13, 1759, so I would think this pretty much takes this Asa, Israel #2's brother, out of the picture. On this date, he was a month shy of his sixteenth birthday. This information presented in E.W. Bell's book has made it very difficult to determine whether the Asa that Bell speaks of was actually a brother of Israel #2 or if he was his cousin. The records that "are" available do not support this story at this time and nobody else has turned up any information that can prove this story one way or another. Over the years, family memories fade and get replaced by erroneous family lore and I think that's basically what this is.


Town and vital records, 1681-1859
Boxford, Essex, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0877753 and 0877753

Births, marriages and intentions, deaths, 1710-1877
Sutton, Worcester, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0721190

Births, marriages, deaths 1703-1822
Middleton, Essex, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City : Filmed by Reproduction Systems
for the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0876103

Births, marriages and intentions, deaths, 1648-1886
Topsfield, Essex, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0761323

Publication: The Ironworks in Middleton Massachusetts
By Lura Woodside Watkins

The Averell-Averill-Avery Family
A Record of the Descendents of William and Abigail Averell of Ipswich, Mass.
Compiled by Clara A. Avery
Pages 211, 224, 225

The Richardson Memorial
Author: John Adams Vinton
Call Number: CS71.R52

Genealogical Records: Massachusetts Genealogical Records, 1600s-1800s
Listed in: Boston Marriages from 1700-1751, Vol. I
Marriage Intentions, 1741-1751
Page number: 281
Israel Kenney & Unice White Jan. 11, 1745

Essex County, Massachusetts, Probate Index, 1638-1840
Old Series : Probate records, vols. 327-328, Book 27-28, 1746-1749.
Film #: 0875134
Name: Israel Kenney
File Date: 20 Apr 1747
Residence: Middleton
Type: intestate

"The History of Hollis New Hampshire"
From its First Settlement to the Year 1879
by Samuel T. Worcester
Pages 164, 380

Town and Vital Records, 1812-1892
Knox, Waldo, ME - Vital records
Salt Lake City : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1953
film # 0011041

Military Records: Revolutionary War Pension Lists
Listed in: Pension Roll of 1835, Volume I, Maine, Page 188
Pension Application date: April 11, 1818
Pension Commencement date: July 21, 1819
Lists date of death as: March 5, 1820. 

Births, marriages, deaths, 1653-1890
Beverly, Essex, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0760604

Officers and Men from Sutton in Colonial Service
For Various Lengths of Time, from 1755 to 1761
This record is included with:
Births, marriages and intentions, deaths, 1710-1877
Sutton, Worcester, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1971
film # 0721190

Births, marriages and intentions, deaths
Uxbridge, Worcester, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1972
film # 0874034

Births, marriages and intentions, deaths
Grafton, Worcester, MA - Vital records
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1972
film # 0872747

Israel Kenny, his children and their families"
by Edwin Wallace Bell

Tax records, 1728-1799
Middleton, Essex, Massachusetts, - Taxation
Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1900
Film # 0968016

Other items referenced:
1790 Census - Beverly, Essex, MA
1800 Census - Beverly, Essex, MA
1810 Census - Beverly, Essex, MA
1820 Census - Beverly, Essex, MA
1790 Census - Hollis, Hillsborough, NH
1800 Census - Hollis, Hillsborough, NH
1810 Census - Hollis, Hillsborough, NH
1800 Census - Knox, Hancock, ME
1810 Census - Knox, Hancock, ME
1820 Census - Knox, Hancock, ME
1830 Census - Knox, Waldo, ME (Knox, ME became part of Waldo Co. July 3, 1827)

Citations for the families genealogies (
Bell, Hinckley, Robertson) are at this link: Publications

~Jeff Green's Kenney line~
Henry Kinne of MA
Thomas Kinney, Sr.
Daniel Kinney & Richards, Sr.
#1 Israel Kenney, Sr. & Perkins (unmarried)
#3 Israel Kenney, Jr. 1745 & Wilkins
Aaron Kenney & Phelps
Luther Phelps Kenney & Washburn
Leslie Hugh Kenney [maternal grandfather]

This report contains minor edits to Jeff Green's original posts on RootsWeb and is presented with his permission.
The original posting was made to several Kenney surname variation lists on RootsWeb including:
Part 1 - More on the Four Israel's of Massachusetts by Jeff Green (Fri, 10 Feb 2006 20:43:35 -0500)
Part 2 - More on the Four Israel's of Massachusetts by by Jeff Green (Fri, 10 Feb 2006 20:45:11 -0500)

Earlier material (2003) [same post to two different lists]
Untangling the four Israel's of Massachusetts

Modified 15 Feb 2006 version on 5 March 2006 (added link to DNA#20650)

The url of the page you are reading now is:
This is a tiny link to this same page:

Anything below this line is advertising and is not a link to information on this web site