Georgia from 1732 to 1789
By Merle M. Baker, Associate Professor, History
Abraham Baldwin College, Tifton, Georgia
In 1732 the King of England gave a grant of land in southern North America to twenty trustees for a period of 21 years. After that period of time the territory would revert to the Crown of England. This took place because there was a need for defense of the southern colonies in America, especially South Carolina, and at the same time there was a need to help the distressed debtors of England. There was to be no self government, along with no liquor, and negro slavery was prohibited.
One hundred fourteen people left England November 16 1732 on the "Anne." Savannah was founded February 12, 1733 when James Oglethorpe and the others arrived in what we know as Georgia. Many other groups came later.
The Trustees for the colony resigned in 1752 with the colony reverting back to the King of England. Much of this information can be found in the Colonial Records of Georgia.
By 1754 the Georgia colony was under the Crown of England. Not only was the governor appointed by the King, but he also appointed an Executive Council of fourteen for the colony.
The first self government in Georgia was the Lower House of Assembly created by the royal government. There were eighteen members elected by the people. In order to be a member of the Lower House the man had to own 500 acres of land in any part of the Province. The voters had to possess fifty acres of land in the parish or district wh [see copy]
Georgia was a sovereign state from July 4, 1776 until 1781 when the Articles of Confederation went into effect. Georgians formed the Georgia Provincial Congress on January 20, 1776. During February, the Provincial Congress sent delegates from Georgia to the Second Continental Congress. The Georgia Provincial Congress adopted a document to serve as a state constitution on April 15, 1776. It was a temporary document called "the Rules and Regulations". With eight brief parts and a preamble it established the executive, legislative und judicial branches of government. All the power was in the hands of the legislative branch which was called the Provincial Congress. They wanted nothing that smacked of a monarchy.
Georgia drew up her first Constitution on October 1, 1776 in Savannah. It was in effect from 1777 until 1789. There was no popular vote on the Constitution. It was declared legal by the Georgia Convention. The people were sovereign in the document. There was also a clear separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Georgia was considered to be a very democratic state along with North Carolina, Delaware and Pennsylvania.
At this time, Georgia had a unicameral legislature along with Pennsylvania and Vermont. This legislature was called the House of Assembly. It consisted of 72 members. Liberty County, the largest county in the state had 14 members. Richmond, Burke, Effingham and Chatham each had 10 members. Glynn and Camden counties each had one member. The city of Savannah had four members and Sunbury had two members. The representatives were chosen annually by popular vote. In order to run for office each representative had to be a resident of the state for one year. They had to be a resident of the county for three months, except in Glynn and Camden. Each member had to be not less than 25 years of age and a protestant. The member had to own 250 acres of land or property worth £25.
o~a~n had to be twenty‑one, a male, white inhabitant of the stata~e had to pos‑ r sess property valued at ten pounds or more. He was lia~le to pay taxes in this state, and had to be a rcsident ~f the state‑ for six months. Mechanics were exempted from property qualifications.
Each voter took an oath. No person who held any title of nobility could vote. No military‑uniform was to be worn while exercising^ the right to vote. If a person were eligible to vo~ and did not exercise his right, he was liable to be fined for not voting, not to exceed five pounds.
The justices of the peace in each county, appointed by the House of Assembly, were to hold the election and provide the ballot box. Once the election was over, the justices were to count the votes in public view.
The Executive Council consisted of 12 men. Two from each of the six largest counties. They were elected from and by the membership of the Assembly. The Executive Council shared executive power with the Governor.
The Kovernor was elected by the Assembly from the membership for one year. He was eligible only one year out of three years to
serve as governor. The Governor could not grant pardons or remis~S~ ~ e
There was a ~uperior Court in each county which met two times each year. There was one Chief Justice for the state. An act was passed in 1786 which gave the courts supervision over ~e ferries, roads and bridges. In 1787 an act was passed for the courts to appoint commissioners of court houses and jails.
The Chief Justice and three or more justices in the county were appointed by the Assembly. The Chief Justice was elected annually, and the others at the pleasure of the Legislature.
The Courts of Conscience or Justice Courts were continued. They could not try cases exceeding ten pounds in value.
There was a register of the probate in each county who was appointed by the Assembly. They proved wills and granted letters of administration.
The Constitution called for schools in each county which would be supported by the state. It also called for trial by jury and freedom of the press, but contained no bill of rights. The four concluding paragraphs were devoted to guarantees of personal liberty.
This Constitution for Georgia can be found in "Georgia Revolutionary Records," Volume I, pages 282‑298. Most Georgia libraries will have the three volumes of the revolutionary records.
Seventeen families of interest to Gowen chroniclers were listed in "Index to the 1830 Census of Georgia" by Delwyn Associates:
Name County Page
Going, Hugh Butts 178
Gowen, Elias G. Decatur 12
Gowen, B. B. Glynn 264
Goin, Basdal Hall 116
Goin, Betsy Hall 117
Goin, John Hall 92
Goin, William Hall 104
Goins, Dillard Jackson 321
Going, Martha Lincoln 62
Going, Alexander Newton 28
Goyne, Hiram Taliferro 358
Goyne, Nancy Taliferro 362
Goyen, Drury Upson 95
Goyens, John Upson 96
Goyens, Noyal Upson 112
Name County Page
Gowin, Nancy Clarke 312
Going, William Columbia 361
Going, Moses Lincoln 74
*[1 free colored male]
Heads of households listed in the 1860 census of Georgia include:
Householder County Page District
Gowan, Eliza Bibb 583 Godfrey's
Gowan, Richard J. Jackson 082 Jefferson
Gowan, Thomas B. Chatham 240 3d,Savannah
Gowen, Ann Camden 184 Clark's
Gowen, Horatio Walker 796 Pond Spring
Gowen, James H Chatham 242 3rd, Savannah
Gowen, William Camden 152 Bailey's
Gowen, William Charlton 446 Centre Village
Gowens, Catherine Baldwin 145 Mill Edge Vlg.
Gowing, Alexander Polk 172 Cedar Town
Gowns, Shelly Newton 488 Oak Hill
Goyen, Noyal Upson 562 Thomaston
Pvt. Thomas J. Going who enlisted in Company K, 53rd Georgia Infantry Regiment on June 4, 1861, was discharged September 13, 1861. Apparently he re-enlisted because he was wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg July 2, 1863. He was surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia April 9, 1865, according to "The Appomattox Paroles, April 9-15, 1865."
Henry J. Gowan served in Company E, First Georgia Infantry Regiment, according to "Confederate Patriot Index" Volume II. Christine Hicks, his granddaughter supplied the documentation for her membership in United Daughters of the Confederacy.
BALDWIN COUNTY, GEORGIA
Noyal Goyn was married to Winney Willis December 12, 1822 in Baldwin County, according to "Records of Baldwin County, Georgia" by Delwyn Associates.
"Noyal Goyern," obviously the above, was enumerated in the 1830 census of Upson County, page 112 as the head of a household, according to "Index to the 1830 Census of Georgia" by Delwyn Associates.
The household was enumerated as:
"Goyern, Noyal white male 20-30
white female 20-30
white female 5-10
white female 0-5
white male 0-5
white female 0-5"
BARTOW COUNTY, GEORGIA
Luisabeth Gowin was married to Coleman Sparks April 1, 1849, according to Bartow County, Georgia Marriages, 1800-1861.
BURKE COUNTY, GEORGIA
Berry Goins was a tax defaulter in Burke County in 1790 and 1796, according to the "Augusta Chronicle," Augusta, Georgia in its edition of October 22, 1796. "Berry Goyn" drew a lot in the Cherokee land lottery of 1827. He drew for land in 1835 in Upson County, Georgia.
BUTTS COUNTY, GEORGIA
Calvin Goin was a purchaser at the estate sale of Abraham Waldrop, deceased November 3, 1827, according to Butts County Will Book, 1826-1841, page 46.
Calvin Goin lived in Chambers County, Alabama in 1844. Four of his children were listed as students at a school maintained there in Township 23, Range 28 in that year, according to "The Reason for the Tears" by Bobby L. Lindsey.
"Calvin Going" was listed as a member of the Crawford Guards, an organization of volunteers who went to Mexico in the Mexican War [about 1846], according to "Historical Collections of Georgia" written by Rev. George White. They were organized at Columbus, Georgia.
Children born to Calvin Goin include:
Caroline Goin born about 1828
Marion Goin born about 1830
Thomas Jefferson Goin born about 1832
Franklin Goin born about 1834
Daniel S. Goin appeared in Butts County in the 1880 census. His household was enumerated in Enumeration District 18, page 25 as:
"Goin, Daniel S. 60, born in South Carolina
Nancy 47, born in South Carolina
Elizabeth 31, born in South Carolina
Sarah J. 18, born in Georgia
Nancy A. 12, born in Georgia
Sarah M. 7, born in Georgia"
Eliza Goin was married to George Woolf October 5, 1831, according to "Butts County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1822-1870."
Hugh Goin witnessed a deed October 17, 1828, according to Butts county Deed Book D, page 62. He was listed as the head of a household in the 1830 census of Butts County, page 178, according to "Index to the 1830 census of Georgia" by Delwyn Associates:
"Going, Hugh white male 40-50
white female 40-50
white male 15-20
white female 15-20
white male 15-20
white female 10-15
white female 10-15
white male 5-10
white female 5-10"
Hugh Going owned three slaves, according to the 1830 census.
Mary Goin was married to Waldrop Fuller [Potter?] December 27, 1840, according to Butts County's oldest marriage book, page 78.
Nancy Goin was married to Thomas Walker September 23, 1831, according to Butts County's oldest marriage book, page 29.
Margaret Goins was married to Miscah Fogg May 23, 1867, according to "Butts County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1822-1870."
Mrs. Mary Gowen Pope, age 84, of Jackson, Georgia died December 28, 1998, according to the "Atlanta Journal-Constitution" in its December 31, 1998 edition. The funeral was conducted by Haisten Brothers of Jackson.
CATOOSA COUNTY, GEORGIA
William O. Gowen, parts manager for Hailey Chevrolet Company and his wife, Patricia M. Gowen lived at Ringgold, Georgia, according to the 1965 city directory of Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Frank Gowin was a resident of Ringgold, according to the 1970 telephone directory of Chattanooga.
Susie Ann W. Gowin who was born July 19, 1917 died October 6, 1962, according to "Northwest Georgia Historical & Genealogical Quarterly," Volume 13, No. 4. She was buried at Ringgold in Old Stone Church Cemetery.
CHARLTON COUNTY, GEORGIA
Ferris D. Gowen, foreman for Union Bag Company, residing in Folkston, Georgia, was listed in the 1963-1964 city directory of Savannah, Georgia.
CHATAHOOCHEE COUNTY, GEORGIA
John Going of Columbus, Georgia was married to Miss Maud Railey January 12, 1886, according to "Eufaula [Alabama] Daily Times" in its edition of January 13, 1886. The excerpt was printed in "Marriages from Early Newspapers" by Helen S. Foley. Of John Going and Maud Railey Going nothing more is known.
CHATHAM COUNTY, GEORGIA
James Gowan was married to Charlotte Davies October 21, 1807, according to "Chatham County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1805-1896." Children born to James Gowan and Charlotte Davies Gowan are unknown.
John Gowan was registered as an "orphan, over 18, resident of Georgia over three years," in Tembrooks, Chatham County, 14th District, March 15, 1827. Orphans were eligible to draw for land in the 1827 land lottery of Georgia and thus the need for the registration. He was successful in the 1832 gold land lottery. For an $18 fee he was awarded 160 acres, formerly Cherokee land, in Chatham County, Sanderlin's Military District described as Lot 335, District 15, Section 1 South. The state did not require that he live on the land or cultivate it.
John Gowan was married July 21, 1845 to Mrs. Susan Martin, according to "Marriages of Chatham County, Georgia, 1748-1852." Children born to John Gowan and Susan Martin Gowan are unknown. "Mrs. Susan Gowan" was married March 10, 1851 to William M. Kolbb, according to "Marriages of Chatham County, Georgia, 1748-1852."
James Gowen was married October 21, 1807 to Charlotte Davies in Chatham County, according to "Early Georgia Marriage Roundup" by Joseph T. Maddox. Children born to James Gowen and Charlotte Davies Gowen are unknown.
M. Gowen, "male, age 25," merchant arrived in the United States during the fourth quarter of 1822 from Scotland. He arrived in Savannah aboard the ship, "Blucher" under the command of Capt. Porter.
CHEROKEE COUNTY, GEORGIA
Ross Gowan was listed as the head of a household in the 1880 census of Cherokee County, Enumeration District 22, page 5:
"Gowan, Ross 24, born in SC, father born unk,
mother born unk.
Sarah A. 23, born in GA, father born in GA
mother born in GA
Callie 3, born in GA, father born in SC,
mother born in GA
[son] 3/12, born in GA, father born in SC,
mother born GA, born in May
CLARKE COUNTY, GEORGIA
Mary Antoinette Gouvans was married to Robert R. Harden August 1, 1819, according to Clark County Marriage Book A, page 118.
Nancy Gowin appeared as the head of a household in the 1830 census of Clarke County, page 312, according to "Index to the 1830 Census of Georgia" by Delwyn Associates. She was a negro slave, age 36-55, according to the enumeration. Since the census did not show slaves as householders, she may have been free colored or a Melungeon.
COLQUITT COUNTY, GEORGIA
Cathy Goings, a junior student at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia in 1974, showed a home address of Moultrie, Georgia.
COLUMBIA COUNTY, GEORGIA
The genealogy of Benjamin Goens [Goings] who was born September 1, 1830 and who lived with Bemjamin Stanton, a Quaker, was researched by North Research Center, Dayton, Ohio, 45405. It was suggested that Benjamin Goens was a native of Columbia County.
John Going was married to Mildred Eubanks April 7, 1806, according to "Columbia County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1787-1863." Of John Going and Mildred Eubanks Going nothing more is known.
Joseph Going was married to Miss Jude Kindrick November 1, 1822 according to Columbia County Marriage Book A, page 181.
"Judah Kendrick Going" was mentioned in "The Georgia Land Lottery Papers, 1805-1914," page 294:
"Columbia County, Lot 56-9 Lee. Addison Hassel, formerly Addison Kendrick (illegitimate child of Judah Kendrick, now Judah Going), his name having been changed by an act of the General Assembly, 1826 session, see Dawsons Digest, page 329, appoints Dr. Nathan Crawford as att'y for himself and Littlelberry A. Kendrick of Alabama, to take out a grant to lot 56, 9th Dist. Lee County. Signed: Addison Hassel before James D. Green, J.P, 15 June 1843.
Pers. app'd. Addison Hassel, formerly Addison Kendrick, to claim Lot 56-9-1 of the 1827 Lottery, drawn by Judah Greene's illegitimate children, which was in error when entered and should have been Judah Kendrick's illegitimate children. Signed Addison Hassel before James D. Green, J.P, June 15, 1843."
Miss Lucinda Going was married to Nowell Kindrick, perhaps a brother of Jude Kindrick December 29, 1826, according to Columbia County Marriage Book A, page 206.
Miss Nancy Going was married to Daniel Davis, April 22, 1827, according to Columbia County Marriage Book A, page 253.
Miss Polly Going was married to Jacob Paul January 27, 1818, according to Columbia County Marriage Book A, page 121.
Polly Going was married to Jacob Paul September 8, 1818, according to "Columbia County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1787-1863."
William Going, free colored, was listed as the head of a household in the 1820 census of Columbia County. He reappeared as the head of a household in the 1830 census of Columbia County, page 74, enumerated as:
"Going, William free colored male 55-100
free colored female 55-100
free colored male 0-10
free colored female 0-10"
"William Goings" appeared in the 1840 census of Columbia County as the head of a household.
CRAWFORD COUNTY, GEORGIA
Fredric Gown appeared in Crawford County, Georgia in the 1880 census. His household was recorded in Enumeration District 46, page 44 as:
"Gowen, Fredric 65, born in SC, father born in SC,
mother born in SC
Elizabeth 35, born in Georgia, wife, father
born in SC, mother born in
William 9, born in Georgia, son"
DECATUR COUNTY, GEORGIA
Nettie Goins/Goings, a Seminole Indian from the Miccosukee Indian Reservation, was married to William M. Odom, according to Sondra Wiley, a descendant. No dates were given.
Elias G. Gowen appeared in the legal records of Decatur County as the receiver of four draws in a land lottery conducted in the county probably in 1827. He was a resident of Captain Durrett's District. Elias G. Gowen owned four slaves at the time of the 1830 census.
Peter Gowen appeared as the head of a household No. 368-368 in the 1880 census of Decatur County, Enumeration District 17, page 42, enumerated as:
"Gowen, Peter 49, born in GA, farmer, father born
in NC, mother born in NC
Marian E. 40, born in Florida, father born in GA,
mother born in Florida
Lawson 19, born in GA, father born in GA,
mother born in Florida
Oliver 17, born in GA, father born in GA,
mother born in Florida
Ochella 2, born in GA, father born in GA,
mother born in Florida
Gladden, Loretta 29, born in GA, servant, father born in
SC, mother born in NC"
Adjoining was Alvy Gowen, head of the Household No, 367-367, in the 1880 census of Decatur County, Enumeration District 17, page 42:
"Gowen, Alvy 22, born in GA, father born in GA,
mother born in Florida
Best, Ann A. 40, born in GA, servant, father born in
GA, mother born in GA
Sarah 14, born in GA, servant, father born in
GA, mother born in GA"
Alvy Gowen is obviously the son of Peter Gowen and Marian E. Gowen.
DEKALB COUNTY, GEORGIA
John Goings appeared in the 1840 census of DeKalb County as the head of a household.
Martha Going was married to Uriah Laney August 4, 1843, according to "DeKalb County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1840-1863."
Charles G. Gowen was a resident of DeKalb County in 1830, according to "Historic Georgia Families" by L. W. Rigsby. He appeared as the head of the household in the 1830 census of Decatur County page 12, according to "Index to the 1830 Census of Georgia" by Delwyn Associates.
Larry Ivan Gowen, Stone Mountain, Georgia, was married to Ruth Ann Wilke January 18, 1963, according to Tarrant County, Texas Marriage Book 131, page 98. Children born to Larry Ivan Gowen and Ruth Ann Wilke Gowen are unknown.
DOOLY COUNTY, GEORGIA
Census returns of 1830, 1840 and 1850 of Dooly County contained no families named Gowen or spelling variations.
Mary E. Goins, who was born in April 13, 1835 and died January 11, 1916 was buried in a cemetery located on Dooly-Houston County Line Road, according to "Historical & Genealogical Collections of Dooly County, Georgia" by Powell.
DOUGHERTY COUNTY, GEORGIA
Joseph Hubert Goings, Jr,. Marine pfc, of Albany, Georgia, died May 14, 1967 as a casualty of the Viet Nam War. His death, at age 18, was the result of enemy fire. He was born September 19, 1948. He was a caucasian and married. His name may be found on the Vietnamese War Memorial in Washington, D.C. on Line 17, Panel 19 East.
FORSYTH COUNTY, GEORGIA
Dillard Goin was married October 14, 1848 to Permelia C. Conly, according to "Forsyth County, Georgia Marriage Records. 1830-1848." Children born to Dillard Goin and Permelia C. Conley Goin are unknown.
FRANKLIN COUNTY, GEORGIA
No Gowens appeared in the 1820 or 1830 census returns of Franklin County.
FULTON COUNTY, GEORGIA
Anna Goin, colored, widow of John A. Goin, was a stenographer for Singer Manufacturing Co. She lived at r 62 Fairlie, Atlanta, Georgia in 1889 according to the Atlanta city directory.
Joseph Goin was a painter for Townbridge Furn Co. and lived at 510 Decatur, Atlanta, Georgia in 1890 according to the Atlanta city directory.
Martha Goin, widow of Thomas Goin, was a dressmaker. She lived at 510 Decatur Atlanta, Georgia in 1889 according to the Atlanta city directory.
Martha S. Goin, widow of Thomas Goin, was a dressmaker living at 510 Decatur, Atlanta, Georgia in 1890 according to the Atlanata city directory.
Anna Goins was a cook living at 201 Ivy, Atlanta, Georgia in 1890 according to the Atlanta city directory.
Thomas Goins was a brickmason living at 27 Crumley, Atlanta Georgia in 1889 according to the Atlanta city directory. He later resided at rear201 Ivy, Atlanta, Georgia in 1890 according to the Atlanta city directory.
Elizabeth Gowen, "widow of James Gowen" appeared in the 1887 city directory of Atlanta.
Howard Henry Gowen was a resident of Atlanta, Georgia, at 2948 Mabry Road, NE, in 1971, according to the telephone directory.
Other individuals who appeared in the Atlanta 1971 telephone directory include:
Gowan, Beatrice 1401 Pine Avenue, East Point
Gowan, C. M. 2154 Brown Road, College Park
Gowan, Reginald J. 3394 Kensington Road, Decatur
Gowan, William R. 2455 Chapman Sps, College Pk
Gowan, Mrs. Zeyula B. Buffington Road, College Park
Gowen, D. B. Buffington Road, College Park
Gowen, Diane 311 Peachtree Hi. Avenue NE
Gowen, Mrs. Hazel T. 1005 Delaware Avenue SE
Gowen, Joann M. 1006 Brian Lane F. Park
Gowen, Johnny C, Jr. 2425 Candler Road
Gowen, M. A. 2516 Forest Way NE
Gowen, O. W. 2077 Green Forest Drive, Decatur
Gowen, W. D. 6458 Holiday Blvd. Forest Park
Gowen, Walter 3975 Covington Hiway, Decatur
Gowens, J. B. 1914 LaMesa Lane Decatur
Gowens, W. D. 1315 Snap Fingers Road, Decatur
GLYNN COUNTY, GEORGIA
H. M. Goin was married February 13, 1893 to Lizzie Owens, according to Glynn County Marriage Book C, page 145. Of H. M. Goin and Lizzie Owens Goin nothing more is known.
J. T. Goin was married February 10, 1891 to Addie Coleman, according to Glynn County Marriage Book C, page 57. Children born to J. T. Goin and Addie Coleman Goin are unknown.
R. L. Goin was married June 18, 1911 to Bessie L. Waldon, according to Glynn County Marriage Book D, page 230. Of R. L. Goin and Bessie Waldon Goin nothing more is known.
A. V. Goins was married about 1916, according to Glynn County Marriage Book E, page 91.
R. D. Goins was married November 24, 1918 to Mary Seguin, according to Glynn County Marriage Book E, page 127. Children born to R. D. Goins and Mary Seguin Goins are unknown.
GREENE COUNTY, GEORGIA
In 1796 the Georgia State Legislature established that two brothers, "Reuben Going and John Going, men of color of Greene County . . . are hereby authorized and enabled to take, hold and enjoy property, both real and personal," according to "Ambiguous Lives" by Adele Logan Alexander.
Their brother, Thomas Going also gained his limited freedom through a private legislative act, according to "Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia, 1735-1800."
Yet the act carefully insured that:
"nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed to . . . entitle the said Thomas Going, to serve in the capacity of a juror . . . nor to render him a competent witness . . . where the personal rights or property of any white person are . . . concerned, nor to entitle [him] to vote at elections, nor to have or hold . . . land office of trust of emolument, civil or military, within this state."
The name was alternatively rendered Goings, Goynes, Gowens, Gowins and even Garnes in different legal records of Greene County.
On October 22, 1794 "John Goins of Greene County" received a deed from John Fluker of Oglethorpe County to 200 acres "on the waters of the Ogeechee bounded on the northwest by Henry's land" for "£86 lawful money." The land had been originally granted to James Espey January 21, 1785.
"John Going" received a land grant of 11 acres in Greene County in 1807. "John Gowing" appeared in the 1820 census of Greene County.
Aaron Going appeared on the 1797 tax list of Greene County in Royston District.