Weimar, a city of 64,000 is located in the Bundesland of Thüringen, Germany, east of Erfurt. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899.
In 1485 the ruling House of Wettin of the ancient Duchy of Sachsen ruled in the area. The years following found it united with other states, divided, sub-divided and reunited. Weimar became the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar in 1547. In 1815 the merged states became a Grand Duchy. In 1756, Ernst August II Konstantin, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, married Anna Amalia who as a widow and regent played a active cultural part in the growth of Weimar.
With the arrival of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1775, Weimar became known as one of the great cultural centers in Europe. It was also home to the Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottfried von Herder, and many others. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller are found in the city. Goethe was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, theorist, humanist, scientist, painter. Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. Herder was a German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher.
With Hitler and his Nazi regime came the collection of Jewish people, intellectuals, POWs, and the unwanted into concentration camps and their ultimate anniliation. During this time in July 1937, Hitler established Buchenwald (Beech Wood), a Nazi concentration camp on Ettersberg Hill near Weimar. By April 11, 1945 the U. S. Army occupied the camp. Soviet occupational authorities used the camp between 1945 and 1950. After that, the Soviets took control and it became a type of "jail."
Within the city of Weimar one finds art galleries, museums and the German national theatre. The Bauhaus University and the Liszt School of Music brings many students to their doors...those in media, design, music, architecture, civil engineering and music.
On September 3, 2004, a fire at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library, which destroyed millions of dollars of materpiece work and historical literature. Books numbering in the 40,000 to 50,000 were destroyed.
Stephanie met her friend, Katherine, at Weimer. Katherine had ridden over on her bike and met the group at Marktplatz. Katherine joined the group in the tour of the city.
Anna Amalia, the ninth child of Karl I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and Philippine Charlotte of Prussia, was born 24 October 1739 in Wolfenbüttel. By birth she was a German princess and by marriage to Ernst August II Konstantin, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach she became the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. They married in Brunswick on 16 March 1756. They had a son, Karl August, born in 1757. In 1758 Ernst August was deceased, and at that time Anna Amelia became regent for their infant son from 1758 to 1775. As a patron of art and literature, she was an important influential cultural force in Weimar, Saxe-Weimar and the Holy Roman/German Empire. She died at Weimar on April 10, 1807.
Stadtschloss is the German word for a castle (palace), as it was the residence of the ruler. Stadtschloss, Weimar, was the former residence of the Grand Dukes of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach. The picture below is the entry to the very large palace which sets behind the tower buildings seen above.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe moved into this house in April 1776 and resided here until 1782. He then moved into a larger house in Weimar, but would spend his summers here at his Gartenhouse. Restored in 1995 it has been renovated and opened to visitors.
The town of Weimar expanded ca 1300 and a new market square was developed where it is presently. Some buildings are newer having been destroyed by bombs during WW II, while other buildings date back to the 16th century. The town fountain (Neptunbrunnen) with a statue of Neptune is located in front of the restored old court pharmacy (Hofapotheke).
The Russian Orthodox Chapel was commissioned by Grand Duchess Maria Pavlova (Pawlowna) of Russian heritage who died 1859 and who is buried within its walls. This is located near the royal family's Ducal Vault (right side) and the Historical Cemetery. The Ducal Vault is also the final resting place for Goethe and Schiller.
Common in German provinces during the Renaissance when ironwork was popular. The cross became the principal symbol of the Christian faith. Many are found across the U.S.A. where German-Russian immigrants settled.