NEW RESEARCH REVEALS GUÉDRY’S EXILED TO NORTH CAROLINA
By Marty Guidry
Recently two genealogists independently discovered that several Guédry’s were deported to North Carolina in early 1756. Mr. Paul LeBlanc, a Les Guédry d'Asteur member from Louisiana, through diligent research postulated in mid-2008 that some of the 50 Acadians disembarked at North Carolina in early 1756 were from the Guédry family.1 In August 2008 Ms. Helen Morin Maxson of North Carolina after several years of research reached the same conclusion.2 But who were these Guédry’s and how did they arrive in North Carolina?
The Snow to North Carolina That Never Made It
Famous in Acadian annals, the snow Pembroke departed Goat Island near Port-Royal on 8 December 1755 under the helm of Captain Milton destined for North Carolina with 232 Acadians crowded aboard.3 The Pembroke, however, never left the Bay of Fundy as the Acadians mutinied, took control of the Pembroke and made landfall at the entrance to the St. John River. There the Acadians disembarked on 8 February 1756 and with the help of Charles Deschamps de Boishébert, commandant of the French Fort Mènagoéche nearby, escaped to the interior of New Brunswick – some successfully trudging to Québec, but many dying during the cold winter months.
And the Sloop That Did
On 30 December 1755 Captain Samuel Barron sailed the sloop Providence from Halifax with approximately 50 Acadians aboard bound for North Carolina. These Acadians had been imprisoned briefly at George’s Island in the harbor of Halifax. Although to date researchers have not located a manifest list for the Providence, other records strongly suggest the identities of most Acadians on the Providence.
Noted Acadian historian Placide Gaudet believed these deportees were Acadian deputies imprisoned on George’s Island by the British in July 1755.4 In fact, earlier the British had allowed these deputies to return to their families in other areas of Acadia and they eventually were deported with their families.5
After long hours of combing the archives in Nova Scotia and North Carolina during the past decade, researchers have been able to determine that most of the Acadians deported to North Carolina on the Providence were related to Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert. Augustin Guédry was the son of Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas and his wife Jeanne Hébert very likely was the daughter of Jean Hébert and Jeanne Doiron. They had seven children: the twins Marie-Josephe and Hélène Guédry (born 1723), Jeanne Guédry (born 1725), Jean-Baptiste Guédry (born ca. 1728), Ursule Guédy (born 1731), Joseph Guédry (born 1735) and Pierre Guédry (born 1741).6
The Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert Family
Information on the early lives of Augustin Guédry,
Jeanne Hébert and their children is quite sketchy. Augustin Guédry
first appears in the historical record as the 8-year old son of Claude
Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas in the 1698 Census of Port-Royal,
Acadia.7,8,9 At this time his father Claude had ten cattle,
two sheep, eight pigs, eight arpents of land and one gun. Claude
Guédry had no fruit trees or domestic servants. It is not known with
certainty where Augustin Guédry was born. We do know that his parents
were living at Merligueche (near present-day Lunenburg) in 168610,11,12,13;
however, it appears that by 1695 the family had moved to the
Port-Royal area for Claude Guédry signed his name on 16 August 1695 to
an Oath of Allegiance to the King of England administered by Commander
Fleetwood Emes of the frigate Sorlings while he was at Port- Royal.14,15,16,17
Photo of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (formerly known as Merligueche)
By 1701 Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas and their family had returned to Merliguèche as their youngest son Paul Guédry was conditionally baptized there in January 1701 by Joseph Guyon (Dyon), husband of Paul’s step-sister Marie Dugas.18,19,20 On 14 January 1703 Baptiste Guédry conditionally baptized his younger sister Françoise Guédry at Merliguèche on the day of her birth.21,22 Later Father Félix Pain from St-Jean- Baptiste de Port- oyal Catholic Church visited Merliguèche during a missionary journey to the East Coast and baptized both Paul Guédry and Françoise Guédry on 8 September 1705 with full church ceremonies. He entered the two baptisms in the register of St-Jean-Baptiste de Port-Royal Catholic Church on 27 October 1705 after returning from his missionary journey.18,19,20,21,22,23
In 1708 Augustin Guédry, now a young man of 16 years, was living in the Merliguèche area with his parents and eight of his siblings. His brother Jean-Baptiste Guédry and wife Madeleine Mius were living nearby.24,25
War broke out between the Indians of the East Coast of Acadia and the English of New England in the summer of 1722. Caused by the ambushing and capture of Joseph d’Abbadie de Saint-Castin, highest chief of the Indians, by the English and by the plundering of the village of Nanrantsouak by the Bostonians in which they burnt the church, rectory and 33 wigwams, this war was the fourth between the Indians and the English since 1675. Officially begun by Governor Shute on 25 July 1722 with a declaration, this war was known variously as The Three Years War, Rale’s War, Lovewell’s War and Governor Dummer’s Indian War. Nova Scotia Govenor Richard Philipps, who was at Canseau during the height of the fishing season, received news of the war from Governor Shute of Massachusetts. Immediately he organized a defense of the harbor there since the Indians had already seized 16 or 17 boats and fled to the harbors of the East Coast. Additionally, he sent several of his officers to the East Coast where they blamed both the Indians and the Acadians living among the Indians.26
At Merliguèche these officers captured Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas and four of their sons with their families and brought all to New Hampshire. The sons were Claude Guédry, Phillipe Guédry, Augustin Guédry and Paul Guédry. It is uncertain who Phillipe Guédry was as no other record to date mentions a son of Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas by this name. Perhaps it was another son of the family mistakenly called Phillipe. Shortly after they arrived in New Hampshire, Jacob Parker sent them to Boston; however, Bostonians did not want to admit them to their town because of a law forbidding foreigners from settling in the town. On 16 October 1722 the Acadians received an order from the councilors of Boston requiring them to go elsewhere. The officer charged with maintenance of the peace in Boston apparently never executed this order since he considered the Acadians prisoners, not immigrants to Boston.
On 9 January 1723 Jeanne Hébert, wife of Augustin Guédry, gave birth to twin daughters Hélène and Marie-Josephe in Boston. On the day of their birth their grandfather Claude Guédry conditionally baptized his new twin granddaughters.26,27,28,29 A short time after these births the Acadians must have been released and returned to their homes for on 26 September 1723 Hélène Guédry and Marie-Josephe Guédry were baptized with full church ceremonies and their baptisms were recorded in the baptismal register of St-Charles-aux-Mines Catholic Church in Grand-Pré, Acadia.27,28
In September 1726 Jean-Baptiste Guédry and his son Jean-Baptiste Guédry fils along with three Mi’kmaq Indians were captured in the bay at Merliguèche, brought to Boston and charged with piracy. After quick trials all five were found guilty and hung on 13 November 1726. Shortly after Jean-Baptiste and his son had captured the boat, the captain of the boat asked Jean-Baptiste’s mother, Marguerite Petitpas, and his brother Augustin Guédry to intercede and convince Jean-Baptiste to disembark from the boat. They attempted to convince Jean-Baptiste to leave the boat, but he would not.30,31,32,33,34,35,36
SITE OF THE GREAT ELM
Old State House, Boston, MA, where the trial of Jean-Baptiste Guédry and his son took place.
Map of Boston Harbour. Bird Island, which barely exsists now, is believed to be the burial site for Jean-Baptiste
After 1726 no record of Augustin Guédry or his family can be found for almost 26 years. Eventually, because of the heightened tension and increasing threats from the British, almost all Acadians at Merliguèche including Augustin Guédry and his family left their homes at Merliguèche and resettled in Île Royale (today Cape Breton).
Arsenault believed they stayed a few years near Cobequid (today Truro) before going to Île Royale.37 There is evidence, however, that they may have gone directly from Merliguèche to Île Royale in 1749 or 1750. TheAcadian settlement at Merliguèche persisted until at least June 1749 when Cornwallis anchored the Sphinx in the harbor at Merliguèche on his way to Chebucto (today Halifax). Here he stated:
Later in the summer of 1749 Cornwallis returned to Merliguèche for some “garden stuff”.39 Earlier on 12 September 1745 the governor and intendant from Québec, Messieurs Beauharnois and Hocquard, visited Merliguèche and commented in their report:
The above reference to “eight settlers” probably meant eight adult males and thus several families. In 1746 Abbé Le Loutre wrote a “Description de L’Acadie” in which he said:
Finally in 1748 a “Description de L’Acadie” indicates that there were 20 families at Mirliguèche:
nd is Mioligueche at three leagues from la Haïve , the missionary has started constructing a church, it has twenty French families and 300 to 400 Indians assembled there since the month of June.39,43
By 1753 only one French family remained at Merliguèche – that of “Old Labrador”.44
On arriving in Halifax in August 1754 to avoid starvation on Île Royale, a group of nine Acadian men with their families stated that they had been enticed to leave Acadia after the founding of Halifax in 1749.44 These people primarily were children of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert and their families. Several members of the Guédry family of Merliguèche were known for their excellent coasting pilot skills and thus could easily have made the short voyage to Île Royale about 1750.39
In 1752 M. le Comte de Raymond directed a survey of the French possessions Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) to census the growing population and to establish boundaries of present and future concessions on the islands.45,46 Sieur Joseph de la Roque, King’s Surveyor, commenced the survey on 5 February 1752 to the southeast of Louisbourg. About the 2nd of April 1752 Sieur de la Roque reached the Baie des Espagnols (today North Sydney, Cape Breton). Here among the resettled Acadians were several children of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert with their families including Marie-Josephe (called Joseph), Hélène (called Eleine), Ursule (called Eustache) and Pierre.45,47 (a) In his typical detailed style of recording each family he encountered, Sieur de la Roque wrote:
Living nearby were the families of their uncle Paul Guédry married to Anne Mius and their aunt Françoise Guédry married to Jean LeJeune as well as their cousins Judith Guédry (daughter of Paul Guédry) with her husband Jean Cousin and their children, Marie Guédry (daughter of Jean-Baptiste Guédry) with her husband Germain LeJeune and their children and Joseph Guédry with his wife Josette Benoît and their children. Although we don’t know the year in which Marie-Josephe, Hélène, Ursule and Pierre Guédry migrated to Île Royale, it was probably in mid to late 1750 as this was when most of the Acadians of Baie des Espagnols arrived.45,48 Paul Boutin and Ursule Guédry received their marriage certificate at Louisbourg on 9 November 1750.49
Leaving the Baie des Espagnols on the 5th of April 1752, Sieur de la Roque continued around the eastern coast of Île Royale surveying the shores of the Baie de l’Indienne, the Baie de Mordienne and the Baie de Miré at which he arrived the 9th of April 1752. Here he found Jeanne Guédry, the daughter of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert, with her husband Julien Bourneuf, their four daughters, Julien’s sister Renée Guillaume Bourneuf and Jeanne’s brother Joseph Guédry.45,50 Sieur de la Roque thus recorded:
Note that the four daughters listed above are those of Julien Bourneuf and his first wife Anne Marie Hyaune, who died 10 February 1750. He and Jeanne Guédry wed about 14 January 1751 on which date their marriage certificate was recorded at Louisbourg.51 Shortly after Sieur de la Roque censused Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry their first child François Bourneuf was born. He was baptized at Louisbourg on 26 July 1752.52 Two years later they had a daughter Françoise Bourneuf, who was baptized on 30 June 1754 at Louisbourg.53
In the summer of 1753 Paul Boutin, his wife (i.e., Ursule Guédry), one boy (i.e., Pierre Guédry) and two girls were living at Baie des Espagnols on Bras du Sud. They had one sow and one arpent of cleared land. Residing next to Paul Boutin was Charles Boutin with his wife (i.e., Marie-Josephe Guédry), two boys and one girl. Apparently during the previous year Hélène Guédry, sister of Marie-Josephe Guédry, had left the home of Charles Boutin. They had one beef, one cow, two calves and one sow. Next to Charles Boutin lived François Lucas with his wife. This couple had one pig and one sow. The wife of François Lucas almost certainly was Hélène Guédry as we will see shortly. On the north side of the Rivière de Miré was Julien Bourneuf with his wife (i.e., Jeanne Guédry), one boy and four girls. They had one domestic servant and one cow.54
In August of 1754 twenty-five persons arrived at Halifax from Louisbourg, Île Royale stating that earlier they had been enticed to leave Acadia with the founding of Halifax in 1749, but now were returning to escape starvation on Île Royale. They professed that they would take the Oath of Allegiance. Of the 25 persons nine were adult males. They stated to William Cotterell, Secretary, at Halifax that they were “nearly related to old Labradore” - who was most likely Paul Guédry, youngest son of Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas.
City and Harbour of Louisbourg
Map of ‘Halifax’, Nova Scotia, 1750
The nine men named were Paul Boutin, Charles Boutin, Julien Bourneuf, Sebastian Bourneuf, Joseph Gedri, Pierre Gedri, Pierre Erio, François Lucas and Claude Erot.55,56,57,58 The land that they had cleared at Baie des Espagnols on Île Royale was rocky and had very poor soil, never able to produce enough to support their families. They had lived off the rations supplied by the French at Louisbourg. These ceased in 1754 and the Acadians realized that they could not support themselves so they had asked permission to leave.59 Governor Lawrence determined to send these Acadians to the newly-established Lunenburg just below their former home of Merliguèche. Through his Provincial Secretary William Cotterell he instructed the Commander at Lunenburg Lt. Colonel Patrick Sutherland to victual the new arrivals and to give them tools and land.55,56,58,60,61 They settled just above Lunenburg on their former lands at Merliguèche.
SECRETARY’S OFFICE, 24 August 1754.
Above: Heading-Victual List - 1755
Left: Sample of family names on the Victual List showing family group #1420. Name 1424 reads Pierre Boutein (Pierre Guédry), brother of Ursule Guédry.
1425: Joseph Guedry (Joseph Guédry), son of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hebert
Between 16 June 1755 and 29 June 1755 one thousand five hundred and forty-eight persons were victualled at Lunenburg.62,63 Almost all of the persons victualled were Germans recently settled at Lunenburg; however, a few were Acadians newly-arrived from Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean who had settled at Merliguèche just above Lunenburg. Below in the order that they appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg are the Acadians from Île Royale who arrived at Halifax in August 1754. The number to the right of each name is the number assigned that person on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. Note that the Acadians that arrived in August 1754 appear as one contiguous group (Nos. 1402-1425) on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. Family groups are separated by a blank for convenience. In parentheses beside each name are the usual spelling of the name and key relationships.
1402 – Francois Loucas (Francois Lucas)
1403 – Helena Loucas (Hélène Guédry, his wife)
1410 – Magd Perpeta Boutein (Magdeleine Perpetue Boutin, their daughter)
1411 – Julien Bourneuve (Julien Bourneuf)
1412 – Jeane Bourneuve (Jeanne Guédry, his wife)
[daughter of Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert]
1413 – Francois Bourneuve (François Bourneuf)
1414 – Jean Bourneuve (Jeanne Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf & first wife)
1415 – Sophia Bourneuve (Sophie Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf & first wife)
1416 – Francois Bourneuve (François Bourneuf, their son)
1417 – Sabastien Bourneuve (Sébastien Bourneuf, brother of Julien Bourneuf)
1418 – Leon Deran Bourneuve (Léon Deran Bourneuf)
1419 – Paul Boutein (Paul Boutin)
1420 – Ursula Boutein (Ursule Guédry, his wife)
[daughter of Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert]
1421 – Cathrina Boutein (Marguerite Catherine Boutin, their daughter)
1422 – Joseph Boutein (Joseph Boutin, their son)
1423 – Joseph Boutein (Joseph Boutin)
1424 – Pierre Boutein (Pierre Guédry, brother of Ursule Guédry)
[son of Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert]
1425 – Joseph Guedry (Joseph Guédry)
[son of Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert]
Of the nine adult males identified as coming with their families from Louisbourg to Halifax,55,56,57,58 seven appear above. Neither Pierre Erio nor Claude Erot appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. Furthermore, six of the seven known children of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. Only their son Jean-Baptiste Guédry does not appear. Where he and his family were residing in early 1750’s is not known.
Pierre Erio and Claude Erot probably were Pierre Terriau and Claude Terriau. On 7 April 1752 Sieur de la Roque arrived at Baie de Mordienne, a small community not far from Baie des Espagnols. The first two families he surveyed were those of Claude Teriau and of Pierre Teriau.45,47(f) Claude Teriau was 56 years of age living with his wife Marie Guérin and their nine children - three sons and six daughters ranging in age from 6 years to 25 years. Pierre Teriau was 58 years of age living with his wife Margueritte Guérin and their nine children – four sons and five daughters ranging in age from 4 years to 24 years. These two men were much older than the other Acadians leaving the Louisbourg area for Merliguèche. It is doubtful that they came to Merliguèche with their families. The above letter56,58,61 states that only 25 persons arrived from Louisbourg in August 1754. The families of the other seven men that are listed on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg number 24 persons.62,63 Including Claude Teriau and Pierre Teriau by themselves in the number of Acadians arriving at Halifax closely matches the 25 Acadians mentioned in the letter.56,58,61 Also, at their advanced age and that of their families it is likely that Pierre Terriau and Claude Terriau may have come to Merliguèche to determine if the “accommodations” were suitable for their families who planned to come later. Since they did not appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg, they probably returned to their families at Baie de Mordienne between August 1754 and June 1755.
Although to date we have not uncovered any definitive records proving that François Lucas married Hélène Guédry, daughter of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert, it certainly appeared likely from the 1755 Victual List of Lunenburg and other corroborative evidence that the Helena (Loucas) mentioned is in fact Hélène Guédry, the daughter of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert. In April 1752 Hélène Guédry was unmarried and living with Charles Boutin and Marie-Josephe Guédry, her brother-in-law and sister, at Baie des Espagnols, Île Royale.45,47 By summer 1753 it appears that she was no longer living in the Charles Boutin home; however, living next to Charles Boutin was François Lucas and his wife. They had no children indicating they probably were newly married. In the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg the wife of François Loucas was Helena and they have a daughter Maria Loucas – an infant born since the census in 1753.54 Although circumstantial, this evidence certainly indicates that the wife of François Lucas was Hélène Guédry, daughter of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert.
Twenty-five Acadians traveled from Louisbourg to Halifax in August 1754 and then to Lunenburg.56,58,61 Twenty-four Acadians from this contingent appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg as a contiguous group. Neither Pierre Terriau (Pierre Erio) nor Claude Terriau (Claude Erot) appears on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. It is very likely that one or two Acadian children were born between the arrival of the Louisbourg Acadians in August 1754 and the enumerations in the June 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. Possible births include Marie Lucas, infant daughter of François Lucas and Hélène Guédry, and Marie Perpetua Boutin, daughter of Charles Boutin and Marie-Josephe Guédry.
None of these Acadians appear on
the 1756 Victual List for Lunenburg64,65,66
which suggests that they were no longer in
Lunenburg by February 1756.
A Second Group of Acadians Arrive at Merliguèche in October 1754
A second group of six Acadian families (28 persons) arrived at Halifax from Île Royale in early October 1754 under the leadership of Charles King. Four persons in this group returned to their former homes at Pisiquit and the remainder went to Lunenburg, settling just above the little community at Merliguèche. Like the August 1754 group, these people also had previous connections with Merliguèche.67,68 They too had gone to Île Royale because of the threats of Father Le Loutre, but now wanted to return to their former lands due to the very poor soil on Île Royale and the starvation suffered by their families.
Chas. Lawrence, Esq., President.
JNO. DUPORT, Secy. CHAS: LAWRENCE67,68
At the Baie des Espagnols in early April 1752 Sieur de la Roque censused Joseph Guédry, nephew of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert, with his wife Marie-Joseph Benoît and their three children;45,47(b) Honoré Trahan with his wife Marie Corperon and their three children;45,47(c) Jean Baptiste LeJeune and Margueritte Trahan and their three children;45,47(d) Jean Benoît with his wife Anne Trahan45,47(e) and Charles Roy with his wife Marguerite LeJeune.45,47(d)
Like the Acadians that arrived at Halifax in August 1754, the Acadians that arrived in October 1754 also appear as one contiguous group (Nos. 1448- 471) on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg.62,63 Family groups below are separated by a blank for convenience. In parentheses beside each name are the usual spelling of the name and key relationships.
1448 – Charles King (Charles Roy) [ 1st cousin of Marguerite Trahan]
1449 – Margretta King (Marguerite LeJeune, his wife)
1450 – Peter King (Pierre Roy, their son)
1451 – Olive King (Olive Roy, their son)
1452 – Joseph Laberdore (Joseph Guédry, son of Jean-Baptiste Guédry & Madeleine Mius dit dAzy and the nephew of Augustin Guédry & Jeanne Hébert)
1453 – Joseph Laberdore (Marie-Josephe ‘Josette’ Benoît, his wife)
1454 – Bering Laberdore (Perrine Guédry, their daughter)
1455 – Jeane Laberdore (Jeanne Guédry, their daughter)
1456 – Servant Laberdore (Servant Guédry, their son)
1457 – Nore Trahan (Honoré Trahan)
[1st cousin of Anne Trahan below]
1458 – Maria Trahan (Marie Corperon, his wife)
1459 – Maria Trahan (Marie Trahan, their daughter)
1460 – Pierre Trahan (Pierre Trahan, their son)
1461 – Pellage Trahan (Marguerite Trahan, their daughter)
1462 – Jean Lejeune Lejeune (Jean Baptiste LeJeune)
1463 – Margretha Lejeune (Marguerite Trahan, his wife) [1st cousin of Charles Roy]
1464 – Jeane Lejeune (Jean LeJeune, their son)
1465 – Margretha Lejeune (Marguerite LeJeune, their daughter)
1466 – Blaise Lejeune (Blaise LeJeune, their son)
1467 – Marie Lejeune (Marie LeJeune, their daughter)
1468 – Jean Bonneau (Jean Benoît)
1469 – Anna Bonneau (Anne Trahan, his wife)
[1st cousin of Honoré Trahan above]
1470 – Anna Bonneau (Anne Casimere Benoît, their daughter)
1471 – Roze Bonneau (Rose Benoît, their daughter)
Like the Acadians that arrived in August 1754, the Acadians that arrived in October 1754 also came from the area near Baie des Espagnols, Île Royale.
None of these Acadians that arrived in October 1754 appear on the 1756 Victual List for Lunenburg64,65,66 which suggests that they were no longer in Lunenburg by February 1756.
Acadians from Île
Saint-Jean Join Their Cousins at Merliguèche
At least one other Acadian family appeared on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg. In early May 1752 Sieur de la Roque recorded at Anse au Comte Saint-Pierre, Île Saint-Jean (today Keppoch, Prince Edward Island):
Joseph Deschamps, whose full name was Nicolas Joseph Deschamps, was at Lunenburg at least by June 1753 when the first German settlers arrived. Father Clarence d’Entremont (see below) discusses Governor Lawrence mentioning Vieux Labrador and Deschamps nicknamed Cloverwater. Although Father d’Entremont appears uncertain as to the identity of these two men, they almost certainly were Paul Guédry, youngest son of Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas, and Nicolas Joseph Deschamps dit Cloche, husband of Judith Douaron (Doiron),78 who was the daughter of Philippe Doiron and Marie-Josephe Guédry.79
Marie-Josephe Guédry was the daughter of Claude Guédry and Marguerite Petitpas80,81 and thus was the sister of Paul Guédry. Joseph Deschamps, therefore, was the nephew through marriage of Paul Guédry. Of course, as with Paul Guédry, Marie-Josephe Guédry is referred to as an “Indian” because of her close association with Mi’kmaq living near the Guédry and Petitpas families at Merliguèche from the late 1600’s to the mid-1700’s. Father Clarence-Joseph d’Entremont wrote:
On the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg was the family of Nicolas-Joseph Deschamps:62,63
1312 – Joseph Deschamps (Nicolas-Joseph Deschamps)
At least a few of the Acadians victualled at Lunenburg in June 1755 left the area voluntarily. Julien Bourneuf, Jeanne Guédry and their family returned to the Louisbourg area between late June 1755 and September 1755. Likewise, Sébastien Bourneuf returned to the Louisbourg area with his brother and sister-in-law. On 28 September 1755 Françoise Bourneuf, just 15 months old and the daughter of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry, was buried in the cemetery at Louisbourg.69 At this time Jeanne Guédry was expecting another child within a few days. Shortly after the death of her daughter Françoise, Jeanne Guédry gave birth to another daughter Marie. Unfortunately, complications in the birth developed and both Marie Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry died shortly after Marie’s birth. Marie Bourneufwas baptized on 12 October 1755 at Louisbourg70 – just three days before her mother was buried in the nearby cemetery.71 The next day young Marie was buried near her mother.72 With the fall of Louisbourg in 1758 the British exiled Julien Bourneuf, his four young children François, Julienne, Sophie and Jeanne, his daughter Anne and her husband Guillaume Mervin and Julien’s brother Sébastien Bourneuf to France on the ship Le Duc Guillaume. They disembarked from the Le Duc Guillaume at St. Malo, France on 1 November 1758. Sébastien Bourneuf died shortly afterwards on 15 May 1759.73,74 Apparently Pierre Terriau (Pierre Erio) and Claude Terriau (Claude Erot) left Merliguèche before June 1755 as they did not appear on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg.
In addition to the Acadians discussed above, Stephen White at the Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes in Moncton, New Brunswick suspects that the family of Paul Hébert was at Halifax in late December 1755 and was deported from there.79
Censused by Sieur de la Roque in early May 1752 at Rivière du Moulin-à-scie on Île Saint-Jean not far from the home of Joseph Deschamps were:
Paul Hébert and his family were not on the 1755 Victual List for Lunenburg,62,63 but did appear in June 1763 on the census taken of Acadians in Pennsylvania.102,103,104 They apparently were not deported directly to Pennsylvania in late 1755 as they were not on the “List of Acadian Families in Pennsylvania at the Beginning of 1757”105 indicating that they arrived in Pennsylvania after this time. Although we have no documentation of their being in Merliguèche in late 1755, they may have come to Merliguèche with or shortly after Joseph Deschamps and his family since they lived near the Deschamps family on Île Saint-Jean. Furthermore, the parents of Paul Hébert were Jean Hébert and Jeanne Doiron. Paul Hébert, therefore, was the brother of Jeanne Hébert, wife of Augustin Guédry, and thus the uncle of Hélène, Marie-Josephe, Ursule, Jeanne, Joseph and Pierre Guédry, who were at Merliguèche in 1754 and 1755.
Acadians at Merliguèche Imprisoned on George’s Island
What happened to the fifty or so Acadians remaining in Merliguèche after June 1755? They seem to disappear from the record for several years. A clue may lie tucked in a small article on page 2 of the 23 October 1755 edition of the Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper.
After agreeing in August and
October 1754 to aid the Acadians from Louisbourg, the British
apparently changed course and determined to exile these Acadians. They
brought the fifty or so Acadians living at Merliguèche to Halifax in
the tender Jolly Bacchus and imprisoned them on George’s Island in the
Halifax harbor. Originally called Île à la Raguette or Snowshoe Island
until 1749, George’s Island became a British prison island where many
Acadians were held in the mid-1700’s.
Acadians Deported to North Carolina
Earlier on 3 October 1755 Samuel Brown, Master of the Transport Sloop Providence received sailing orders from Colonel Charles Lawrence.
HALIFAX, 3 Oct. 1755.
In early 1756 Charles Apthorp and Thomas Hancock of the Boston mercantile company Apthorp & Hancock, which supplied most of the ships used to deport the Acadians, submitted an account to Governor Charles Lawrence.
th to the freight of fifty French people brought from Halifax to N. Carolina, in the Sloop Providence, Samuel Barron Mr.,
per Certif. at 12s. 6d. £31 5 0
North Carolina, Jany. 13th, 1756 JNO. CAMPBELL.85,86,87
The British loaded approximately fifty Acadians imprisoned on George’s Island onto the Providence in late December 1755 and on 30 December 1755 she sailed under Captain Samuel Barron bound for North Carolina. Although the exact date of arrival at North Carolina is not known, it must have been in early January 1756 as the account for services of the Sloop Providence was filed on 13 January 1756.85,86,88,89
George’s Island, Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia
To date no manifest or list of the Acadians deported from Halifax to North Carolina has been located. Although we know that most, if not all, the Acadians deported to North Carolina on the Providence were those captured at Merliguèche, who were they? The fifty Acadians noted as arriving in North Carolina may not be an exact account of those loaded on the Providence in Halifax. A few may have died on the voyage to North Carolina, an infant or two may have been born on the trip and, of course, the number fifty may be an approximation of the actual number of Acadians landed on the Albemarle shore.
Based on records from North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Maryland as well as those from Acadia, a reconstructed list of Acadians by family group likely deported from Halifax on the Providence in December 1755 is:
* Nicolas-Joseph Deschamps, Judith Douaron (his wife),
Augustin Deschamps, Louis Deschamps, LaBlanche Deschamps, Jean
Baptiste Deschamps, François Deschamps, Elisabeth Deschamps, Marie
Deschamps, Eufrozinne Deschamps (10)
Several of the Acadians at Merliguèche in 1754 and 1755 died between 1755 and 1763. The death of Jeanne Guédry in October 1755 at Louisbourg was discussed above. Charles Boutin and his wife Marie-Josephe Guédry both died sometime between 1755 and 1763. The June 1763 census of Acadians in Pennsylvania indicates that Paul Boutin and Ursule Guédry had six children living with them. In fact, at this time Paul Boutin and Ursule Guédry only had three children: Marguerite Boutin, Joseph Boutin and Suzanne Catherine Boutin. The other three children were those of Charles Boutin and Marie- osephe Guédry, both deceased. Those children were: Jean-Charles Boutin, Pierre-Olivier Boutin and Marie-Françoise Boutin. Additionally, it appears that at least two of the children of Joseph Guédry and Marie-Josephe Benoît died between 1755 and 1763. In 1755 they had two daughters and a son: Perrine Guédry (age 16 years), Jeanne Guédry (age 6 years) and Servant Guédry (age 3 years). When the family was censused in July 1763 at Port Tobacco, Maryland, they had three children Genevieve Guédry, Gabriel Guédry and Joseph Guédry. It would appear that Jeanne Guédry and Servant Guédry and possibly Perrine Guédry died between 1755 and 1763. Jean Benoît, husband of Anne Trahan, died before July 1763 for on the 1763 petition of the Acadians at Port Tobacco, Maryland , Anne Trahan had remarried to Louis Latier and her children were called orphans. Likewise, both Jean LeJeune and his wife Marguerite Trahan had died prior to July 1763 as their son Blaise LeJeune was an orphan living with the family of Honoré Braux at Port Tobacco when the 1763 petition of the Acadians at Port Tobacco was written.
Where on the North Carolina shore did Captain Barron unload the Acadians? Although not known with certainty at this time, these Acadians likely first touched North Carolina soil on the shores of Albemarle Sound and possibly in today’s Chowan County.87 Chowan County lies on the northwestern edge of Albermarle Sound. Chowan County, originally formed in 1670 as Shaftsbury Precinct of old Albermarle County, was named after the Chowan Indians living there. After several changes during the next century, the boundaries of Chowan County became stable after 1778. Edenton, the seat of Chowan County since 1720, was incorporated in 1715 as the town of Queen Anne’s Creek. In 1722 it became Edenton honoring Governor Charles Eden. From its earliest days Edenton was a thriving town and seaport lying on Albermale Sound at the confluence of the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers. In 1728 it became the colonial capital of North Carolina and was the cultural and economic hub of the state. During this period its docks constantly buzzed with activity as hundreds of ships docked there annually. Certainly known to Captain Barron, Edenton may have been the location where in early January 1756 the Providence docked and Barron unloaded his weary cargo of Acadians.
Chowan County, N. C.
Edenton, N.C. and the Albemarle Sound
Few records of Acadians in North Carolina survive. On Thursday, 24 November 1757 the “Minutes of the Lower House of the North Carolina General Assembly” recorded:
Augustin Deschamps Remains in North Carolina
By late 1757 a substantial number of the Merliguèche Acadians had settled along Albermarle Sound in and around Chowan County. No other records of these Acadians has surfaced except those involving a lone Acadian Augustin Deschamps, son of Nicolas-Joseph Deschamps and Judith Douaron (Doiron). Shortly after being deported to North Carolina, Augustin met Elizabeth White, daughter of Luke White (of Chowan County, North Carolina) and Sarah Copeland. Augustin and Elizabeth wed shortly before 8 October 1758 as on that date Luke White gave “my beloved daughter Elizabeth Dishon or formerly called Elizabeth White” 50 acres of wood land in Chowan County.94,95
(right-Cupola House in 1918,, below-view of back of house)
In a letter dated 1887 from Tampa, FL, Dr. Louis Deshong, grandson of Augustin Deschamps and Elizabeth White, stated “Father’s mother, Elizabeth White, was a dark skinned, coarse woman of no culture, and her offspring took of the same quality – not one of them was taught to write. They were honest, industrious, and hard working men.” He then describes Augustin Deschamps, his grandfather, as “a well-made man about five feet ten inches, fair-skinned, blue-eyed, with black hair. He was a good disposition, inoffensive person. If he had any predominating trait it was that of planting and caring for trees – he had a large peach orchard.” Of his father and uncles, sons of Augustin Deschamps and Elizabeth White, Dr. Deshong stated that all of them were farmers and “They had no use of tools or inventive genius; not one of them was taught to read or write. They were honest, industrious and hard working men. The only child that was ever anything of note was Henderson, a son of Augustine Deshon Jr.” Ironically, “the only child that was ever anything”, Henderson Deshon, moved to Giles County, Tennessee after 1820 and was killed by lightning. Dr. Louis Deshong stated that he lived near his grandparents and parents for twenty years and knew them well.98
According to Chowan County records and United States Censuses for 1790 through 1820, Augustin Deschamps and Elizabeth White had at least nine sons and three daughters. For several years Augustin Deschamps operated a ferry in Chowan County for which he was paid 1256 pounds and 1516 pounds at different times by the Colonial Government. Augustin Deschamps and his family lived in Chowan County until 1793 when they all moved to Orange County, North Carolina. In Orange County Augustin Deschamps had a farm with a large peach orchard and on this farm he lived from 1793 until his death in 1820. In describing Augustin Deschamps’ last days, Dr. Louis Deshong said “My grandfather Dishong remained in Chowan County, North Carolina until the close of the War of 1776 when he and all of his family removed to Orange County some 200 miles west where he lived and died of a pollypud of the nose; he was 80 years of age, and had been a member of the Baptist Church for many years”. The American Revolution ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783 thus it appears that Dr. Deshong may have been confused by ten years on the date that Augustin Deschamps moved to Orange County. Records in Chowan County after 1793 are devoid of any mention of Augustin Deschamps or his family.97 Today descendants of Augustin Deschamps and Elizabeth White live in North Carolina as well as many other states including Mississippi, Oklahoma, Texas and Florida.95,97,98
Acadians Leave North Carolina for Pennsylvania or Maryland
With the lone exception of Augustin Deschamps the Merliguèche Acadians deported to North Carolina did not remain long there. Many stayed at least until late 1757 as seen above and may have remained as long as 1760.99 It appears reasonable that the Acadians left North Carolina in late 1760 after the surrender of Montréal on 8 September 1760 ending the French and Indian War and ensuring British control of all lands from Georgia to the Hudson Bay.79 Exactly when and how they left North Carolina is not known at this time.
St. Joseph’s Catholic Church - Courtyard entrance
Interior-St. Joseph’s Catholic Church, Philadelphia, PA
St. Joseph’s Catholic Church - Philidelphia, PA
St. Joseph’s Catholic Church, Philadelphia, PA,
built in 1733 ,
The Marriage Register of St. Joseph’s Catholic Church (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) for the year 1761 records the marriage of one of the Acadians deported to North Carolina - Simon Guétry.100 The Simon Guétry mentioned is Joseph Guédry, son of Augustin Guédry and Jeanne Hébert.
Also, this register for the year 1763 contains the marriage of René Le Core and Blanche Dechamps, daughter of Joseph Dechamps and Judith Douaron (Doiron).100
The Baptismal Register of St. Joseph’s Catholic Church (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) for the year 1762 records the baptism of Susan Catharine Butin.101 She was Susan Catherine Boutin, daughter of Paul Boutin and Ursule Guédry. The sponsor (i.e., godfather) of Susan Catherine Boutin, called “Peter Dietry” in the Register, was Pierre Guédry, the brother of Ursule Guédry and uncle of Susan Catherine Boutin.
At least some of the Acadians deported to North Carolina left for Pennsylvania by late 1760 as indicated by the marriage of Joseph Guédry to Magdalen Melançon on 22 January 1761 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Why they left North Carolina and how they traveled to Pennsylvania is not known at this time.
In 1763 we find many of the Merilguèche Acadians in
Pennsylvania and Maryland. On 10 February 1763 the Treaty of Paris
ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War) and a new phase in
Acadian – British relations began. The French government petitioned
England to send the Acadians imprisoned there to France. Once on
French soil, these Acadians sent copies of the petition to their
relatives in British North America. By mid-1763 the Acadians in each
English colony sent a petition to the French government requesting
repatriation to France or a French colony. Each petition included a
list of the Acadians in the particular colony. In the petitions from
Pennsylvania and the Maryland communities of Snowhill and Port Tobacco
we find many of the Acadians captured in Merliguèche in September 1755
and deported to North Carolina from Halifax in December 1755.
* Paul Boutin, Ursulle Boutin, his wife with six children
* Joseph Guedry, Magdelaine his wife with three children
* Pierre Guedry single
* Allen Daigle and Frosine Deschamps and three children
* René Le Corps and LaBlanche Deschamps his wife
* Paul Ebert, Marie Ebert his wife with five children
None of the above Acadians appeared on the “List of Acadian Families in Pennsylvania at the Beginning of 1757”105 indicating that they arrived in Pennsylvania after early 1757.
In Snowhill, Maryland on 7 July 1763106,107,108,109 were:
* Francois Lucas, Anne Lucas his wife, Rose Lucas, Marie Lucas, Margueritte Lucas
* Louis Déchamp, Marie Déchamp his wife, Marie Déchamp [NOTE: Louis Déchamp was the son of Augustin Deschamps and Elizabeth White.]
At Port Tobacco, Maryland on 7 July 1763110,111,112,113 were:
* Joseph Gaidris, Marie Benoist Gaidris his wife, Gabriel Gaidris, Joseph Gaidris, Genevieve Gaidris
* Honoré Trahan, Marie Trahan his wife, Marie Trahan, Pierre Trahan, orphan Joseph LeJeunne, orphan Antoine LeJeune
* Honoré Braux, Magdelaine Braux his wife, Magdelaine Braux, Marie Breaux, Margueritte Braux; Blaise LeJeune orphan. [NOTE: Apparently both Jean LeJeune and his wife Marguerite Trahan died before July 1763 as their son Blaise LeJeune is listed as an orphan.]
* Louis Latier, Anne Latier his wife, Antoine Latier, Anne Benoist orphan, Rose Benoist orphan, Margueritte Benoist orphan. [NOTE: Anne Trahan Latier, wife of Louis Latier, was the first cousin of Honoré Trahan and the widow of Jean Benoît. Anne, Rose and Margueritte Benoist were not truly orphans, but the children of her first marriage to the deceased Jean Benoît.]
Within these three petitions from Acadians at Snowhill and Port Tobacco, Maryland and at Pennsylvania are found at least one member of each family from the reconstructed list of Acadians deported to North Carolina from Halifax on 30 December 1755. Several of these Acadians continued their search for a new Acadian homeland and migrated to Louisiana in 1767, 1768 and 1769 including the families of Paul Boutin (Ursule Guédry) [with two of the children of the late Charles Boutin and Marie-Josephe Guédry], Pierre Guédry, Honoré Trahan (Marie Corperon), Blaise LeJeune, Joseph Guédry (son of Joseph Guédry & Magdeleine Melançon), Joseph Guédry (Marie-Josephe Benoît) and Louis Latier (Anne Trahan). A few families stayed in Maryland after 1763 including the families of Louis Déchamp and François Lucas (Hélène Guédry).
A long journey indeed was suffered by these Merliguèche Acadians exiled to North Carolina in 1756. Fearing the harsh policies of the British and threatened by their priest Father Le Loutre, they left the Acadian mainland in 1749-1750 to resettle on Île Royale or Île Saint-Jean. Facing near starvation from drought and poor soils they returned to Merliguèche in 1754 where they were captured by the British in late 1755, imprisoned on George’s Island at Halifax and then deported to North Carolina on 30 December 1755. Leaving North Carolina about 1760, they went either to Pennsylvania or Maryland where they remained until the late 1760’s. Still seeking a new Acadian homeland, many journeyed to Louisiana in 1767- 769; however, even within Louisiana they had to relocate several times within the next fifteen years. The tenacity and courage of these Acadian people to preserve their culture and religion is almost unparalleled in human history.
References at end of this issue.
Above: Citation information for the death record of Jeanne Guédry
Below: Copy of actual death record of Jeanne Guédry.
1. Conversation between Mr. Paul LeBlanc and Martin Guidry on 28 June 2008 in Lafayette, LA.
2. Maxson, Helen Morin, “The Acadians of North Carolina”, Le Réveil Acadien (Acadian Cultural Society; Fitchburg, MA), Volume. XXIV No. 3 (August 2008), pp. 66-75.
3. Faragher, John Mack; A Great and Noble Scheme – The Tragic Story of the Explusion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (W. W. Norton & Company; New York, NY; 2005), pp. 372-373.
4. Richard, Edouard; Acadie – Roeconstitution d’Un Chapitre Perdu de l’Histoire d’Amerique (The Marlier Publishing Co.; Boston, MA; 1921), p. 448 (Appendice VI – “Genealogie des Familles Acadiennes avec Documents” par Placide Gaudet).
5. Letter, Stephen A. White (Genealogist, Centre d’études acadiennes, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada) to Mrs. Helen Morin Maxson (Charlotte, North Carolina), 9 February 2006.
6. Arsenault, Bona, Histoire et Généalogie des Acadiens (Les Editions Leméac Inc., Québec, Canada, 1978) pp. 1491, 2499.
7. Census of Acadia in 1698 (“Recensement des habitants du Port-Royal leurs familles terre en valeur Bestiaux Arbres fruitiers et fusils Pour l’année 1698”), [Archives Nationales de France – Le Centre des Archives d’Outre-Mer (29 Chemin du Moulin Detesta, Aix-en-Provence, France 13090), Col, G1 466, nos. 18-20, 29]. Microfilm at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), Microfilm No. CEA F1801. Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), Archives des Colonies, Series G1, MG1, Vol. 466, Nos. 18-20 (Microfilm No. C-2572).
8. White, Stephen A., Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles Acadiennes – Première Partie 1636 á 1714 en Deux Volumes (Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), pp. 771-773.
9. Arsenault, Bona, L’Acadie des Ancêtres (Le Conseil de la Vie Française en Amérique; Québec, Canada; 1955), p. 95.
10. Census of Acadia in 1686 (“Recensement fait par Monsieur De Meules … de tous le Peuples de Beausbassin, Rivière St. Jean, Port-Royal, Isle Percée et autres Costes de L’Acadie, … commencement de lannée 1686”). Acadia (Port-Royal, Cap- able, Port-La Hève, Mirliguèche, Baie des Mines, Rivière St-Jean, Passamaquoddy, Mégais, Pentagouet, Beaubassin, Miramichi, Chédabouctou, Nipisiguit, Île-Percée). [Archives Nationales de France – Le Centre des Archives d’Outre-Mer (29 Chemin du Moulin Detesta, Aix-en-Provence, France 13090), Col, G1 466, no. 10]. Microfilm at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), Microfilm No. CEA F1801. Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), MG1, Series G1, Vol. 466, Nos. 10 (Microfilm No. C-2572).
11. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 771.
12. Hébert, Rev. Donald J., Acadians in Exile (Hebert Publications; Cecilia, LA; 1980), pp. 475, 508.
13. LeBlanc, Dudley J., The Acadian Miracle (Evangeline Publishing Company; Lafayette, LA; 1966), p. 381.
14. Oath of Allegiance in 1695 (“Liste des Acadiens qui ont prêtre le serment d’allégeance au roi d’Angleterre, 1695”), Acadia (Port-Royal), 16 August 1695 [Massachusetts Archives (Secretary of the Commonwealth, 220 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125. ), Vol. 2 (Colonial Chapter 8 (Nova Scotia and Canada from 1643 to 1719), Folio 540. Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), Volume II, Folio 540 (Microfilm No. F-579). Fascimile of the document on page facing page 317 of “Mémoires de la Societé Généalogique Canadienne-Françoise”, volume 6 pp. 316- 317 (1955).
15. Mémoires de la Societé Généalogique Canadienne-Françoise, (Société Généalogique Canadienne-Française, 3440 Rue Davidson, Montréal, Québec, Canada H1W 2Z5), Volume 6 pp. 316-317 (1955).
16. Labine, Mark; La Verdure de Mirligueche. The Story of the Guidry dit Labine Family in North America (Mark Labine; St. Paul, MN; 2002), pp. 32-33.
17. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 773, Supplement p. 158.
18. St-Jean-Baptiste de Port-Royal Catholic Church, Public Archives of Nova Scotia (6016 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1W4), [Baptism of Paul Guédry, 8 September 1705]; Microfilm at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), Microfilm No. CEA F1018.
19. Rieder, Milton P. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet, Acadian Church Records (Milton P. Rieder, Jr. and Norma Gaudet Rieder; Metairie, LA; 1977), Volume III (Port-Royal, 1702-1721) p. 17.
20. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 790, Supplement p. 160.
21. St-Jean-Baptiste de Port-Royal Catholic Church (Port-Royal, Acadia), Public Archives of Nova Scotia (6016 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1W4), [Baptism of Françoise Guédry, 8 September 1705]; Microfilm at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), Microfilm No. CEA F1018.
22. Rieder, Milton P. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet, Acadian Church Records (Milton P. Rieder, Jr. and Norma Gaudet Rieder; Metairie, LA; 1977), Volume III (Port-Royal, 1702-1721) p. 18.
23. d’Entremont, Father Clarence-Joseph; Histoire du Cap-Sable de l’An Mil au Traité de Paris, 1763 (Hebert Publications; Eunice, LA; 1981), pp. 1927-1929, 1932, 1939- 1940, 1942- 943.
24. Census of Acadia in 1708 (“Recensement genal fait au mois de Novembre mile Sept cent huit de tous les Sauvages de l’Acadie qui resident dans la Coste de l’Est, Et de ceux de Pentagouet et de Canibeky: ... des francois Establis a La delle Coste de l’Es”), Acadia (Port-Razoir, Cap-Sable, La Hève, Rivière St-Jean), November 1708 [Newberry Lbirary (E. E. Ayer Collection) (60 W. Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60610- 7324), Ms. 751. Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), MG18, F18. Unpublished transcribed copy at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9).
25. White, Stephen A., Ibid., pp. 771-772.
26. d’Entremont, Father Clarence-Joseph, Ibid., pp. 1595-1597, 1615-1616, 1622-1623, 1625.
27. St. Charles-aux-Mines Catholic Church (Grand-Pré, Acadia), Archives of the Catholic Diocese of Baton Rouge (1800 South Acadian Thruway, P. O. Box 2028, Baton Rouge, LA 70821), Volume 2 (1707-1748) #42 of baptismal records.
28. Pollard, Nora Lee; Diocese of Baton Rouge Catholic Church Records (Catholic Diocese of Baton Rouge – Department of Archives, Baton Rouge, LA, 1978, 1999), Volume 1 p. 59 and v. 1A (Revised) p. 88.
29. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 773, Supplement p. 158.
30. d’Entremont, Father Clarence-Joseph, Ibid., pp. 1042, 1601-1604, 1617-1618, 1623, 1625.
31. Supreme Judicial Court, County of Suffolk (Clerk’s Office, Boston, MA 02108), “Criminal Case – Piracy of Jean-Baptiste Guédry & son Jean-Baptiste Guédry fils”, v. 211 document 26283 nos. 4 & 5; v. 216 document 28868.
32. “The Trial of Five Persons for Piracy, Felony and Robbery: Who Were Found Guilty and Condemned, at a Court of Admiralty for the Trial of Piracies, Felonies and Robberies Committed on the High Seas, Held at the Courthouse in Boston, with His Majesty’s Province of Massachusetts-Bay in New-England, on Tuesday the Fourth Day of October, Anno Domini, 1726”, Printed by T. Fleet, for S. Gerrish, at the lower end of Cornhill, 1726. (Early American Imprint Series. First Series: No. 2818; Evans 2818). Transcript of trial of Jean-Baptiste Guédry pere and Jean-Baptiste Guédry fils on pages 2-19. Transcript of trial of Philippe Mius, Jacques Mius and John Missel on pages 19-34. (See page 8 for Augustin Guédry reference.)
33. Coleman, Benjamin, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (Massachusetts Historical Society; Boston, MA), v. 6 (1799) pp. 108-112.
34. Le Reveil Acadien (Acadian Cultural Society, P. O. Box 2304, Fitchburg, MA 01420), v. 8 pp. 15-16.
35. La Société Historique Acadienne – Les Cahiers (La Société Historique Acadienne, Case Postale 632, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1C 8M7), v. 16 p. 31.
36. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 774, Supplement p. 158.
37. Arsenault, Bona, Ibid., pp. 588, 1491.
38. Akins, Thomas B.; Selections from the Public Documents of the Province of Nova Scotia (Charles Annand, Publisher; Halifax, Nova Scotia; 1869) pp. 559-561. [Reprint Edition: Acadia and Nova Scotia – Documents Relating to the Acadian French and the First British Colonization of the Province, 1714 – 1758 (Polyanthos; Cottonport, LA; Reprint Edition, 1972), pp. 559-561.
39. Bell, Winthrop P.; The “Foreign Protestants” and the Settlement of Nova Scotia - The History of a Piece of Arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century (Centre for Canadian Studies, Mount Allison University; Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada; 2nd edition, 1992), pp. 403-404. [1st edition, 1961 by University of Toronto Press; Toronto, Ontario, Canada]
40. Murdoch, Beamish; A History of Nova-Scotia or Acadie (James Barnes, Printer and Publisher; Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; 1866), p. 81.
41. “Letter of Messrs. Beauharnois & Hocquart to the Count de Maurepas, 12 September 1745, Québec, Canada”. Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), MG1, Series C11A, Vol. 83. (Microfilm No. F-83).
42. Rameau, M. E.; Collection de Documents Inédits sur le Canada et l’Amérique Publiés par Le Canada-Français (L.-J. Demers & Frère; Québec, Québec, Canada; 1888- 1890), Volume 4, Tome Premier, p. 43.
43. Rameau, M. E., Ibid., volume 4 pp. 44, 47.
44. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., pp. 404, 483.
45. Census of Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean in 1752 (“Voyage d’inspection du Sieur de La Roque. Recensement 1752”) [Archives Nationales de France – Le Centre des Archives d’Outre-Mer (29 Chemin du Moulin Detesta, Aix-en-Provence, France 13090), Col, G1 466, no. 81]. Microfilm at Centre d’Etudes Acadiennes (Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada E1A 3E9), Microfilm No. CEA F1802.
46. Gaudet, Placide; Report Concerning Canadian Archives for the Year 1905 in Three Volumes (S. E. Dawson, Printer; Ottawa, Canada; 1906), Volume II, Appendix A, Part I - “Tour of Inspection Made by the Sieur de la Roque. Census 1752”; pp. 3-165.
47. (a) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 47. (b) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., pp. 46-47. (c) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 49. (d) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 50. (e) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., pp. 49-50. (f) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., pp. 55-56.
48. Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., pp. 45-48.
49. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 408, Registry 1, Folio 127v (Microfilm F-593). (Marriage Certificate of Paul Boutin and Ursule Guédry, 9 November 1750).
50. Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 61.
51. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 408, Registry 1, Folio 130v (Microfilm F-593). (Marriage Certficate of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guedry, 14 January 1751).
52. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 408, Registry 2, Folio 11v (Microfilm F-593). (Baptismal Certficate of Francois Bourneuf, son of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guedry, 26 July 1752).
53. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 409, Registry 1, Folio 20v (Microfilm F-593). (Baptismal Certficate of Francoise Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guedry, 30 June 1754).
54. Census of Île Royale in 1753. (“Recensement Général des habitans des Ports et havres de l’Isle Royale, de la quantité de Bestiaux, Batiments, Chaloupes et Chafaux pour la pêche, des terrains defrichés, auquel est joins un memoire des observations qui ont étés prises de la situation desdits Ports et havres, de la qualité des Terres, prairies et bois qui les avoisinent; fait en Juillet et Aout 1753.”) [Transcribed copy at the National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), Archives des Colonies, Series G1, MG1, Vol. 466, Part 3a].
55. d’Entremont, Rev. Clarence-Joseph, Ibid., p. 1854.
56. Roth, D. Luther, Acadie and the Acadians, (Press of L. C. Childs & Son; Utica, NY; 1891). pp. 204-205.
57. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., pp. 404-405, 483-484.
58. Akins, Thomas B., Ibid., pp. 214-215.
59. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., p. 484.
60. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., p. 483.
61. Public Archives of Nova Scotia; Letterbook; Letter of Mr. William Cotterell to Lt. Colonel Patrick Sutherland; 24 August 1754.
62. “A List of Foreign & Other Settlers Victualled at Lunenburg Between 16 & 29 June 1755 both Days Included”; [Harvard University – The Houghton Library, Hyde Collection (Cambridge, MA), fMS Can 76]; Microfilm Copy at the Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management (6016 University Avenue; Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1W4), MG1, Volume 113.
63. “1755 Victual List for Lunenburg”; http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.co/~ked1/1755vict.html
64. “A list of Foreign and other Settlers Victualled at Lunenburg and Halifax Between the 23 Feb. 1756 and the 16th May”; National Archives of Canada (395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0N3), MG18, F19, N.S. 1749-1756.
65. Kaulback, Ruth E.; Historic Saga of Lehève (LaHave) (Ruth E. Kaulback; Petite Riviere, Nova Scotia, Canada; 1970), pp. 94-102 (“A list of Foreign and other Settlers Victualled at Lunenburg and Halifax Between the 23 Feb. 1756 and the 16th May”).
66. “1756 Lunenburg Vitualling List”; http://www.seawhy.com/vict56.html
67. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., pp. 483-484.
68. Akins, Thomas B., Ibid., p. 228.
69. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 409, Registry 1, Folio 72v (Microfilm F-593). (Burial Certficate of Françoise Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry, 28 September 1755).
70. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 409, Registry 1, Folio 73v (Microfilm F-593). (Baptismal Certficate of Marie Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry, 12 October 1755).
71. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 409, Registry 1, Folio 74 (Microfilm F-593). (Burial Certficate of Jeanne Guédry, wife of Julien Bourneuf, 15 October 1755).
72. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); Depot des Papiers Publics des Colonies; Etat Civil et Recensements; Serie G1, Volume 409, Registry 1, Folio 74v (Microfilm F-593). (Burial Certficate of Marie Bourneuf, daughter of Julien Bourneuf and Jeanne Guédry, 16 October 1755).
73. Rieder, Milton P. Jr. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet; The Acadians in France – Volume III Archives of the Port of Saint Servan (Milton P. Rieder, Jr.; Metairie, LA; 1973), pp. 6-7, 14, 16.
74. Robichaux, Albert J. Jr.; The Acadian Exiles in Saint-Malo, 1758-1785 (Hebert Publications; Eunice, LA; 1981), pp. 160-161, 620.
75. (a) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 108. (b) Gaudet, Placide, Ibid., p. 106.
76. d’Entremont, Father Clarence-Joseph, Ibid., pp. 1852-1854.
77. Bell, Winthrop P., Ibid., pp. 405, 443.
78. Arsenault, Bona, Ibid., p. 2085.
79. Letter (E-Mail), Stephen A. White (Centre d’Études Acadiennes, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada) to Mrs. Helen Morin Maxson (Charlotte, North Carolina), 19 October 2007.
80. White, Stephen A., Ibid., p. 513.
81. Arsenault, Bona, Ibid., p. 1375.
82. Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper (Philadephia, PA; 23 October 1755, #1400), p. 2.
83. (a) Akins, Thomas B.; Ibid., p. 280. (b) Jehn, Janet; Acadian Exiles in the Colonies (Janet Jehn; Covington, KY; 1977), p. 219.
84. Jehn, Janet, Ibid., p. 219.
85. Public Archives of Nova Scotia; Order Book - Colonel Charles Lawrence; Order of C. Lawrence to Master Samuel Barron, Master of the Sloop Providence; 3 October 1755.
86. Maxson, Helen Morin; Ibid., p. 66.
87. Akins, Thomas B.; Ibid., p. 289.
88. Gipson, Lawrence Henry; The Great War for the Empire – The Years of Defeat, 1754-1757 [The British Empire Before the American Revolution – Volume VI] (Alfred A. Knopf; New York, NY; 1946), p. 299.
89. Landry, Don; “Ships of the Acadian Expulsion – A Compilation of Information on the Eighteenth Century Transport Vessels, Used by the British to Transport the Acadians (“Neutral French”) during the Acadian Expulsion of 1755”;http://www.landrystuff.com/ExpulsionShips.html
90. Lafreniere, Albert N.; “Acadian Deportation Ships”, Connecticut Maple Leaf (French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.; Tolland, CT) Volume 6 No. 1 (Summer 1993), pp. 26 and Volume 6 No. 2 (Winter 1993), pp. 148-149.
91. Maxson, Helen Morin; Ibid., p. 71.
92. Saunders, William L.; The Colonial Records of North Carolina (P. M. Hale, Printer to the State; Raleigh, NC; 1886-1890), Volume V, p. 894.
93. Saunders, William L., Clark, Walter and Weeks, Stephen B.; The Colonial and State Records of North Carolina (State of North Carolina; Raleigh, NC, 1886-1907), Volume V, p. 894.
94. Saunders, William L., Clark, Walter and Weeks, Stephen B.; The Colonial and State Records of North Carolina (“Documenting the American South” [DocSouth]; Online Digital Collection; 2008-2009), Volume V, p. 894;http://docsouth.unc.edu/csr/index.html/volumes
95. Land Record of Luke White dated 8 October 1758, Chowan County, North Carolina; “Record of Deeds Book Q, 1773-1777, Chowan County”. Located in the Chowan County Courthouse in Edeton, NC, it was registered on 26 February 1774.
96. Maxson, Helen Morin, Ibid.; pp. 72, 74.
97. Will of Luke White dated 17 November 1770, Chowan County, North Carolina; “Chowan Co. Wills, 1694-1938, Warner-White, Will Book A, Page 185”. The will was executed at Edenton, Chowan County, NC and is located in the North Carolina State Archives in Raleigh, NC.
98. Johnson, Jeffrey Earl (Jay); “Deschamps Family History” (Website within FamilyTreeMaker Online of Genealogy.com; Updated September 6, 2000). http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/j/o/h/Jeffrey-E-Johnson/index.html
99. Letter, Stephen A. White (Centre d’Études Acadiennes, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada) to Mrs. Helen Morin Maxson (Charlotte, North Carolina), 9 February 2006.
100. Furey, Francis T.; “Father Farmer’s Marriage Register, 1758-1786, Preserved at St. Joseph’s Church, Philad’a.”, Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Vol. 1 – 1884-1886 (American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia; Philadelphia, PA; 1887), pp. 279, 282.
101. Middleton, Rev. Dr.; “List of Baptisms Registered at St. Joseph’s Church, Philadelphia. (First Series.) From August 29, 1758, to December 31, 1775.”, Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, Vol. 1I – 1886-1888 (American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia; Philadelphia, PA; 1889), p. 266.
102. Rieder, Milton P. Jr. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet; The Acadian Exiles in the American Colonies, 1755-1768 (Milton P. Rieder, Jr. and Norma Gaudet Rieder; Metairie, LA; 1977), pp. 2-3, 5.
103. Jehn, Janet; Acadian Exiles in the Colonies (Janet Jehn; Covington, KY; 1977), pp. 213-214, 216-218.
104. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); “Liste Des noms et nombres de Tous Les accadiens qui sont dans la pinsilvenia, 20 juin 1763”, MG 5, Volume 450, Folios 416-417.
105. Vincens, Simone; Les Indomptés (Hébert Publications; Rayne, LA; 1990), pp. 213-217.
106. Rieder, Milton P. Jr. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet; Ibid., p. 30.
107. Jehn, Janet; Ibid., pp. 132, 151.
108. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); “Etat des gens neutrals Acadiens qui sont a Lewisville A Snow hill, En Maryland, 7 Juillet 1763”, MG 5, Volume 450, Folio 441.
109. Wood, Gregory A.; A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Gateway Press, Inc.; Baltimore, MD; 1995), pp. 112-113, 165.
110. Rieder, Milton P. Jr. and Rieder, Norma Gaudet; Ibid., pp. 33-34.
111. Jehn, Janet; Ibid., pp. 133, 137, 152-153.
112. National Archives of Canada (Ottawa, Canada); “Etat des gens neutrals Acadiens qui sont a portabaco, En Maryland, 7 Juillet 1763”, MG 5, Volume 450, Folio 442.
113. Wood, Gregory A.; Ibid., pp. 98-99, 122, 154, 186.