The 1782 Volunteer Militia from Washington County, Pa

And their Moravian Indian victims


By George C. Williston.


Who were the men who murdered the Moravian Indians in that infamous event of 8 March, 1782? What were the names of the murderers? There is no doubt that a body of men from Western Pennsylvania went up the river then called Muskingum, and murdered 90-96 Delaware (Lenni Lenape), Mohican, and other Indians who had been converted by Moravian missionaries to Christianity. Some accounts say there were six warriors from other tribes there who were killed as well. This tragic event was done at the Moravian town of Gnadenhutten now on the Tuscarawas River [then the Muskingum] near New Philadelphia in eastern Ohio. There were three Moravian or Moravian Indian towns there at the time in Indian Territory north and west of the Ohio River. The three villages were burned with the bodies of the murdered people.

My intention is to put forth a list of names of the men who were on this expedition. The men will be identified as to their township, creek or settlement of residence as well as other characteristics of their identity to answer the question of who they were and how they fared after this murdering. A list of 196 names will be developed with authority clarified as to why each name is on the list. A part of this question is whether they were a militiaorganization at the time, and on official military duty. The nagging question is: what kind of men when in a group would murder men, women and children living in Christian pacifism and political neutrality? That is the over riding question which has prompted this investigation. .

Surprisingly, the first list of names was not published until 100 years after the event, and has not been re-published since 1906.[1] This is the history of a mimeographed list presently available at the Historical Society in Washington, Pennsylvania- Washington County.[2] That list was researched and put together in 1986 by Louise Martin Mohler with the consultation of Dr. Raymond M. Bell. It had been obvious to local historians during the nineteenth century that lists about this ?Second Williamson Expedition?- as it was called locally- were being withheld from public view. Reliable and serious men looked for lists, and old men were rumored to have lists hidden away. However, apparently no list ever came to light locally. Of course, people who lived in the area at the time knew neighbors, friends and relatives who had gone up the Muskingum for this expedition. Reports of the sordid details filtered out and were rumored or whispered about. There is, however, almost nothing first hand in writing which can be found today about the massacre.

The Caucasian Moravians were the first to write and publish in Europe about the massacre a few years after it happened. However, the Moravian publications did not include any names of men who did the killing except David Williamson- the elected leader.[3] Joseph Doddridge was the first local person other than the Moravians who wrote openly about the massacre.[4] Joseph Doddridge grew up around the Buffalo Creek area where his father had a forted house. As a thirteen year old boy Joseph Doddridge knew some of the men who went on this raid including David Williamson .The stories the men told left an indelible impression on his memory which he wrote into his memoirs in 1824 thirty six years after the tragic event. Joseph Doddridge in his manhood became a Presbyterian minister whose moral outrage shows through his writing. The Reverend Joseph Doddridge says this about the identity of the men on this expedition: ?eighty or ninety men were hastily collected together?our people did not go on that campaign with a view of fighting, there may have been some brave men among them; but they were far from being all such they were not miscreants or vagabonds; many of them were men of the first standing in the country.[this is an archaic or rural use of the word country meaning the local area] Many of them were men who had recently lost relations by the hand of the savages; several of the latter class found articles which had been plundered from their own houses, or those of their relations, in the houses of the Moravians?Very few of our men imbrued their hands in the blood of the Moravians. Even those who had not voted for saving their lives retired from the scene of slaughter with horror and disgust?[5]? Joseph Doddridge was apparently too ashamed or too loyal to print any names in 1824 although it is clear that he remembered some of the men.

A few years later in the last century several reputable local historians tried without success to find lists of names. Both Boyd Crumrine and Isaac Craig tried to find a list which was rumored to exist. Isaac Craig wrote to Boyd Crumrine in 1881 that he knew of a list, but couldn?t get it- and apparently never did.[6] Consul W. Butterfield- a notable historian of this Western border- wrote in 1882 that he was unable to find lists and public documents about this unseemly event.[7] It is obvious from the documentation used by Crumrine and Butterfield that they would have presented a list had they had one. Crumrine does give a couple of the names he knew, but only a couple of the total.


First Published List


Strangely enough the first publication of a list of these men was in the 1888 series of the Pennsylvania Archives which was the official publication of the State of Pennsylvania. That list includes the names of 57 militia officers and men by military rank and in a military unit of organization. The Editors say this of their list: ?The list of men?is far from complete, as there were at least a force of one hundred and sixty men under the lead of the brave Williamson.?[8] For some unexplained reason unless due to its utmost importance the Editor of the 1906 series of the Pennsylvania Archives repeated publication of the same list.[9] There is no explanation with either publication as to the origin, authority or authenticity of the list which is re-published here exactly as in the format of 1888:




Lieutenant Colonel

David Williamson



Samuel Shearer (?) John Cotton


Hugh Forbes William Wilkins


Thomas Rankin



Samuel Riddel James Huston

John Riddel Jesse Edginton

James Roney Thomas Marshall

James Buchanan Thomas Montgomery

William Forbes Eleaser Jenkins

John Baird William Black

Joseph McCullough William Ledlie

James White William Irwin

Nathaniel White Robert Henry

David Hosack Isaac Vance

Thomas Orr John Little

John Pollock William Quigley

John Breckenridge William Masterson

Alexander White John Masterson

Andrew Wineman Zachariah Masterson

Andrew Pass William Rankin

Samuel Stewart. Joseph McConnell

Thomas Byers John Munn Jr.

John Edie David Hopkins

James Bradford James Steel

Charles Bevington Charles Bilderback

Stephen Wilkins John White

William McClain Daniel Leet

Thomas McClain Dennis Jones

Robert McComb Frederick Crowe

Richard Davis


Even after the publication in 1888 a man who had spent thirty years around Washington County inquiring about the massacre and its perpetrators said in 1900 that he had some names, but the names were very difficult to come by.[10] Unfortunately, William Farrar didn?t print his collection of names for the Ohio Historical Society at that time, and his list is not in the OHS archives today. At the same time Farrar did not acknowledge the existence of the 1888 list printed above. Farrar is well worth reading. He did repeat a story of a participant who had a slave. The slave told the story of the owner returning with blood on his shirt the evening of the eighth of March, 1782- implying that his master had been on that raid.


Lists of Militiamen who served the first week of March, 1782


Louise Martin Mohler was the first to recognize that certain published lists of Washington County militia units which served that first week of March, 1782 would have to be the men paid to go up the Muskingum with Colonel David Williamson.[11] Louise Mohler saw that the men listed in the Pennsylvania Archives were those militia units for the ?Second Williamson Expedition? [12] Those men were all part of the Fourth Battalion of Washington County Militia of that first week in March in 1782. Whether or not that grouping of men as the Fourth Battalion was a permanent or stable organization or whether the battalion was made up just for this expedition will become clear further on in this paper.

The Fourth Battalion had been under the command of James Marshel as Lieutenant Colonel of the militia for Westmoreland County before Washington County was formed out of Westmoreland. At the time of the formation of Washington County in the summer of 1781 James Marshel was appointed County Lieutenant with a colonel?s rank in the militia. That officer was the highest ranking militia officer in command of all county militia units in each Pennsylvania County. C. W. Butterfield has published letters between General Irvine at Fort Pitt and militia Colonel Marshel.[13] Butterfield points out that David Williamson who with Marshel had been a militia officer for Westmoreland County had taken the Oath of Allegiance to Pennsylvania and been commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel of the Fourth Battalion for the new Washington County militia. Colonel Williamson had taken a unit up the Muskingum to the Moravian Indian towns the preceding fall of 1781. It is Butterfield?s contention that David Williamson was the right hand man of Colonel James Marshel, and that Williamson may have been the only Colonel ready to go for the new county the first week of March. Other battalion commanders had according to Marshel refused to take the Oath of Allegiance to the State of Pennsylvania as many had allegiance to the state of Virginia.[14] There was an active territorial dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia over this area, and that dispute remained active and unsettled at that time. This is documented in Butterfield?s fine collection which has never been reprinted.

It is not clear whether the militia of Washington County were organized on the basis of locality, fighting talent, age or other factors. Pennsylvania law required that all men between the ages of 18 and 53 be part of the militia. There are other lists of the battalions of Washington County in the Pennsylvania Archives. There are also other returns or lists of men who patrolled the frontier on various dates in 1782, 1783 and on through 1786. There is no study of whether the classes and battalions were organized around settlements and townships by geographic proximity which might seem logical. Paul W. Myers[15] has compiled a list of about 2200 men who are shown in the Archives as having served some period of time in Washington County militia. However, if sworn allegiance to Pennsylvania was being required it is entirely possible that was a determining factor in getting men together the first of March, 1782 for this expedition.

The question has been raised as to whether this was an on-duty militia expedition. It is absolutely clear that County Lieutenant Colonel James Marshel had the authority as given early in January, 1782 by the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania to call out the militia. The authority to call out units had been given to the County Lieutenants of both Washington and Westmoreland counties by the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. It is further clear from the correspondence Colonel Marshel had with General Irvine at Fort Pitt that Marshel was being given advice and requests were being made of him by General Irvine. Whether or not General Irvine could command Colonel Marshel and the militia is a little unclear. General Irvine did not use a commanding tone with James Marshel, and Colonel Marshel sometimes said he could not comply with the wishes of General Irvine[16]. The fact is that when this expedition left for the Muskingum General William Irvine had been in the East for some time, and had no knowledge of its organization. Communication being several days away on a fast horse this was apparently done without the knowledge of General Irvine or the knowledge of Colonel Gibson at Fort Pitt in charge after the 15th of January.

With this introduction here are the ?returns? or lists taken as authorizations to pay by company for the time between the 1st of March and the 8th of March, 1782 exactly as they appear in the Pennsylvania Archives, Sixth Series.




A Return 1st and 2nd classes Cap?n Henry Graham?s Company of the 4th Batt?n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st day of March, 1782 (c.)


1st Class

William Price Joseph Willson

John Marshal Abner Willson

Henry Cooper James How

Nicholas Smith John Cooper

Isaac Johnston


2nd Class

Thos. McKibbens Robert McCulloch

John Gardner Robert Marshal (Smith)

Daniel McCoy Samuel McKibbins

Daniel McGoogen Samuel Hindeman

Thos. Strain James McMillan


Given unto my hand this 8th day of March, 1782





A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Robert Miller?s Company in the 4th Batt?n Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day of March, 1782.

1st Class


John Odonel, Ensign Joseph Blair

Samuel Cahoe John Ralston

Mathew Ritchie Arthur Campbell

Stephen Vineyard Aaron Carter

James McCready Jno. Reed

Barney Carter


2nd Class


Edward Davis Nathaniel Cahoe

Thomas Peircifield William Wilson

Jno. Willson William Orr

David Gault David Long

William Black Joseph Holmes


Given under my hand this 8th day of March, 1782 ROBERT MILLER, Capt.



A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Thomas Renkon?s Company in the 4th Batn. Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day March, 1782 (c)


1st Class


Hugh Patton Daniel McCloud

William Shearor Robert Hayes

William Sinclair Michael Dohertey, Senr.

William Martin


2nd Class


Daniel Currey Daniel Clark

William Hilbit William Hayes

John Roberts Robert McKnight

Jno. Cunning


Given under my hand the 9th Day of March, 1782 THOMAS RANKIN, Capt




A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Captain Charles Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt?n

Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezvouze the 1st Day of March, 1782 (c.)



1st Class


Shadrack Stillwell, Serj?t. Adam Hickman

James Densmore Charles Reno

Frederick Lesnit Thos. Everet

Wm. Miller John Fosit

Francis Lesnit Miles Willson


2nd Class


Thos. Young, Serj?t. Geo. Thorp

Geo. Reno Tobias Mattocks

John Armstrong Robert Piatt

Thos. Coneyers William Turner

Abraham Slover Isaac Springer



Given Under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 CHARLES REED, Capt.




A return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. David Reed?s Company in the 4th Batt. Washington

County Militia Ordered to Rendezouze the 1st March, 1782.


1st Class


James Reed Humphrey Aitchison

Christ?r Gaunce Brice McGeehon

Mathew Aitcheson Robt. Boatman

James Kerrlin


2nd Class


Thomas Chenney, Ensign John Coneyers

John Montgomery John Reed

Jams. McBride Jams. Martin

Saml. Scott William Stevenson

John Hudgel


Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 JOHN RENEAN (?) Leut.




A Return 1st and 2nd Classes Capt. Wiliam Scott?s Company in the 4th Batt. Washington County Militia Ordered to Rendezouze the 1st March, 1782.


1st Class


Wm. Scott, Capt. Wm. Gill

Henry Nelson, Serjt. Aaron Sackett

Thos. Shannon Jams. Hannah

Walter Hill Wm. Sparks

Valentine Sennet Wm. Hervey


2nd Class


John Carpenter, Leut. Michael Huff, Jun.

Richard Stevenson William Hanks

Edwd. Smith Junr. Morris West

Edwd. Davis William Harris

Charles Norris Charles Stewart

David Baily


Given under my hand this 9th day of March, 1782 WILLIAM SCOTT, Cap?n.




Names added by James Simpson


An Editor of the 1912 edition of Joseph Doddridge?s ?Notes? mentioned above added in a footnote seventeen names which he had apparently collected. These names came from James Simpson who was a historian of the Cross Creek area. This attribution of James Simpson is on the attribution of Dr. Raymond Martin Bell- an authority on the names of Washington County people during the early period.[17] The names of the seventeen men appended to Doddridge are as follows: JOSEPH VANCE, JOHN McWILLIAMS, CHARLES CAMPBELL, ROBERT MARSHALL, THOMAS MARSHALL, THOMAS CHERRY, JAMES ROSS, MOSES PATTERSON, DAVID KERR, JOHN GRAHAM, SAMUEL MERCHANT, ROBERT WALLACE, JUDGE JAMES TAYLOR, SOLOMON VAILE, DAVID GAULT, SOLOMON URIE (died 1830), AND OBADIAH HOLMES JR. Half of these men were from the Cross Creek area. All were included in the Mohler-Bell list by the authors of that list.



To provide the answer to the question as to where these men lived search was made of surviving tax lists. A Tax list for Washington County for 1781 arranged by township was searched for every name.18 From the experience of using the index and searching the list it is clear that the index lists men on the wrong pages, and some men are on the list but not in the index. The index is not complete or accurate which means that after using the index one must also search the whole list. It is also clear that the same man may be listed in more than one place. This is clear in looking at the listings of Colonel Dorsey Pentecost as this man with such an unusual name is listed in several places where he owned land. That opens up the clear possibility for confusion if and when a man owned land in more than one township. The amount of land, number of animals and money valuation are listed for every man on the tax list; but only the extremes of ownership are reported here. Only men who had little or nothing, and those who had wealth are pointed out. Single men without anything or single men with land will be listed. One of these men had as many as 1500 acres in one place or township which was the upper end while some men had no land and little more than a horse.

While the massacre was done in 1782 there is no tax list for that year in the Court House at Washington, Pa or in publication. Louise Martin Mohler searched the published 1783 tax list, and put the data in the work she did.[18] That data will also be included as a second source of basic locational information.

A second kind of locational information is the place these men settled on land granted to them by the state of Virginia. The land grants tell in many instances where the land was settled. That information is gained from lists published by Dr. Raymond M. Bell of land grants from the State of Virginia for land in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1782.[19]

There is a published list of warrants for the purchase of land from Pennsylvania.[20] That list, however, does not give the location of the land by township, creek or settlement- no location is published. Furthermore, the list is not accurate according to Jonathan Steyer. This means that the whole file would have to be searched by hand, and each warrant read for locational information.

It is important to note that both Virginia and Pennsylvania were giving and selling land in the area before the war. This question of loyalty added to the political confusion in the area right at this time.

Only men in the Archives lists have military rank in this listing. Men from the Simpson list and other sources do not have military rank in this listing as there is no primary or compelling evidence for assuming that they were on military duty.




Pvt. Humphrey Aitchinson ? in 1783 in Cecil Township.


Pvt. Mathew Aitcheson ? Settled land in 1775 in Mt. Pleasant Township - in Hopewell Twp in 1783.


Pvt. John Armstrong ? in Cecil, Cumberland and Robinson Townships in 1781- so one or three men is unknown - in Cecil Township in 1783; a man of this name one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1782 asking for Congress to increase defense by the army [21]; CDAR- First PA Regt b May, 1750 and d 24 Jan, 1820, Washington, PA Cemetery [so may have been Continental soldier].; PMF- lists two men of this name- one buried at Washington , PA and the other at the Armstrong Cemetery at Cumberland, Greene County, PA; DAR3- lists a man of this name 1766-1844 from Butler Co., Pa buried at Center Chapel, Wells Twp, Jefferson Co., Ohio; CWCW- will 1820.


Pvt. David Baily ? not on these Washington County tax or land grant lists- may be Bailey or Bally as there were men of that name on these tax lists.

A pension application by David Bailey S16,616 under the law of 1832 from Washington County, Missouri says that he served 2 years with Capt. Taylor in Colonel Black?s Regiment of Virginia; and that in 1779 he enlisted for 3 years with Capt Isaac Taylor in Col. Montgomery?s regiment serving along the Ohio River from the falls to the mouth and back, and with George Rogers Clark against the Shawnee on the Big Miami- he says nothing about 1782. This man died 22 Oct, 1822 leaving no children ; and his widow was applying in 1849. This may well be the same man.[22]


Pvt. John Baird ? in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township, and in Strabane Township in 1783 the latter having land and a distillery; CDAR- killed at Fort Duquesne [?], buried at Washington, PA Sec E, lot 190 granite headstone born 25 Nov, 1758 no date of death., PMF.


William Baxter- land granted at Harmon or on Harmon Creek in 1775 and 1776 - not on the Washington County tax lists- PWM- buried at Cross Creek.

Pension application S6591 of 27 August, 1833 from Brooke Co., Virginia lists four periods of service: 1) 3 months in 1776 in the militia under Capt. Isaac Cox, Lt. David Steel served at Holidays Cove on the Ohio River near Harmons Creek now in Brooke Co., Va, 2) when discharged in Nov., 1776 enlisted for three years with Lt. Daniel Steel under Col. John Gibson of the 13th Va Line [at Fort Pitt] where he served 8 months as a Sgt. in Steel?s company, 3) in 1781 he volunteered about l month under Lieut. Col. Williamson for the expedition to the Delaware towns where they captured 10-12 indians; and 4) in March, 1781 served l month under Col. Williamson in the militia where ?declarant again volunteered on an expedition into the Indian Country, against the Indians, under the command of Col. David Williamson, a skirmish took place, and about ninety three Indians were killed. It was the practice on such expeditions for the militia, after they rendezvoused, to elect their officers, and declarant served as a volunteer Lieutenant in the expedition last mentioned.? For some reason he made another statement 31 Dec., 1833 in which he called this Second Williamson expedition a ?volunteer expedition.?. In the militia service he says ?no regular troops or officers present? [meaning no troops or offices of the Continental Army]- and, while claiming 12 months of service exclusive of the scouting parties he says that on the last two [militia] he furnished his own arms, ammunition, horse and provisions and never got any compensation nor any written documentary evidence. [23]


Pvt. Charles Bevington ? in Smith and Nottingham Townships in 1783- the latter being a single man only with horses. and no land.


Pvt. Charles Bilderback ? on the 1888 list only as a Private, but later may have later been a Captain in the militia-in Cecil Township in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists.- a man of this name also listed in Strabane in 1783 with only a horse-; EF-?This is the man who killed the Moravian named Joseph Shabosh. the story is told that seven years later he was captured by hostile Indians, who, on learning of his identity, put him to death with torture?.only a legend without proof?; the identification of this man as the man who fired the first shot wounding Shabosh and afterwards tomahawked and scalped him was also made by the local historian, Isaac Craig in 1881 if not earlier.[24]

Charles has been given terrible notoriety by Allen Eckert as the man who killed the first thirteen Moravians with a mallet with no proof that I can find..[25] This claim has recently been increased in a film aired on public television to claim that Charles Bilderback not only killed the first thirteen men with a mallet, but scalped them as well. That claim is as yet unproven even though the author has searched the index and roll 11 of the Lyman C. Draper papers. Randall Wilkins, the author of this charge, has not proven this contention on Charles Bilderback.[26] While holding no brief for anything but the truth and as egregious as is this event it seems important to have substantive evidence for charges made against individual men.

Charles Bilderback was well enough regarded to command a militia company as a Captain in the ?Crawford? campaign which followed in the summer of 1782. His fighting and leadership was apparently rewarded and appreciated by his peers.


Jacob Bilderback ? name added by Isaac Craig in an 1881 letter as being on this expedition, [27]? single, with nothing in 1783 in Strabane Township.


Pvt. William Black ?settled in Cecil township in 1774- in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Fife?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..

There are three pension applications by men of this name on microfilm. None of them seem possible for this man who had lived in Washington County.


Pvt. Joseph Blair ? not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert Boatman ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; one of two in this army who signed a petition to Congress late in 1781 asking for more defense for the region out of Fort Pitt [28].


Lewis Bonnet Senior ? from the Virginia Panhandle [now W.Va], was called Capt. or Major, born in Paoli, Md. 1736/7- died 1808, fought under Braddock in his defeat and in Dunmore?s War, settled on Wheeling Creek in 1769 or 1772 with the Wetzels, married a woman named --------Wagener. His son says: ?my father was in Williamson?s Moravian campaign, but he took no part in murdering?.[29] The careers of Sr. and Jr. are difficult to separate. One local historian says Lewis Bonnett (probably Jr.) was born in 1762, from Hardy Co., Va and was pensioned for service 1779-1783. It is a puzzle as to which one was on this expedition. [30]


Pvt. James Bradford ? only on the 1888 list- in Greene and Strabane Townships in the 1781 tax list and in Strabane in the 1783 list; PMF- buried at the Bradford Cemetery, Whiteley Township, Greene County, Pa., CWCW- wills 1801 and 1811 (two men ?).


Pvt. John Breckenridge ? only on the 1888 list- in 1783 in Peters Township- RBE of Youghagania Co.,Va sold 400 acres on ?Shirtees? [Chartiers] Creek 1 Nov, 1779..


Pvt. James Buchanan ? only on the 1888 list- Settled in 1774 at Wheeling Creek and West Finley Township- in Strabane Twp in 1781; EF- Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition..


Stephen Burkham ? Burkham admitted in his own memoirs to being at the.[31] He didn?t say whether or not he killed any of the Moravians, but did name John McCulloch and claimed that William Welch killed seven of the Moravians with the tomahawk. Stephen of Ohio County, Virginia was born in 1762 in Berkeley Co, Va and settled in 1768 near Beeson?s Fort [near Uniontown, Pa], fought under General Lachlan McIntosh out of Fort Pitt. His name may have earlier been spelled Burcham.


Pvt. Thomas Byers ? only on the 1888 list- settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek- in Donegal Township in 1781 and in West Finley Township in 1783; EF- Pvt in Capt Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition, CWCW- will 1825..


Pvt. Nathaniel Cahoe (or Kahoe)- not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Samuel Cahoe ? not on these tax and land grant lists.; PMF- Samuel Kahoe (or Cohoe) CDAR- buried at Washington, PA.


Pvt. Arthur Campbell ? Settled in 1775 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 in Smith Twp. and in 1783 in Strabane Township, TLM 2:422 signed a petition with men around Well?s Fort warning General Irvine of the dangerous situation after the massacre- CDAR- ( Revolution and later Indian Fighter) b 1753- d 21 March, 1819, buried Cross Creek Cemetery- Claysville, PA, CWCW- will 1804.


Charles Campbell ?bought 200 acres from Pennsylvania in 1773 in Westmoreland Co.,[32] from the Simpson list- Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783 listed as single; EF- died 21 March 1819 and buried in the old cemetery in Cross Creek, CWCW- wills 1819 (2) and 1832...


Lt. John Carpenter ? settled in 1773 in Buffalo Creek area ?RBE of Ohio Co., Va. sold 400 acres on Doldering Run, a branch of Buffalo Creek in 1780; later moved his family across the Ohio River with other families and was illegally settled in 1782 in the area now Ohio - was captured by Indians on the way to Fort Pitt in Feb 1782, R. H. Richardson says that the Carpenters- John and Nancy- were living near James Maxwell, and John kept moving them West with other families, that in 1773 they were on Jacob?s Creek when John was 41 years old (b 1732) , before marrying John had rescued Nancy from having her head split by Indians , they were friends of the John McCullochs and the Tiltons and others who were on this raid and moved into Ohio country before it was legal [33]-TLM 2:422 after the raid a John Carpenter was among the signers of a petition to Gen. Irvine about their ?dangerous? situation - buried at Prairie Chapel Church near Coshocton, Ohio. A man of this name is listed in 1783 in Fallowfield Township with animals only and no land which makes one wonder whether there were two men by this name.


Pvt. Aaron Carter ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Barney Carter ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783.


Pvt. Joseph Casey ? in the M/B list but not to be found on the Archives lists ? settled in 1774 around Buffalo Creek- in 1783 in Donegal Township without land - will not be included in this study-later pensioned from Pa in Campbell Co, Ky in 1834 at age 71.


Ensign Thomas Chenney ? a Chenney/Chaney not on these tax or land lists.


Thomas Cherry from the Simpson list may be the man above-settled in 1774 on Raccoon Creek - is on the 1781tax list in Smith Twp.- and in 1783 was in Mount Pleasant Twp. DAR3 lists Thomas P. Cherry saying he was a ranger of the frontier in Pennsylvania dying in Va. in 1829 and buried in Walnut Twp, Fairfield Co., Ohio...


Edward Christy ? of the Buffalo Creek area and single, but not on the tax lists- said by EF to have been the principal exhorter against killing the Christian Moravians ?preaching? to the men against killing to the point that the more violent men were threatening him? EF says he was a student of Rev. John McMillan ?he is said to have been a Presbyterian Minister in later years- he was on this raid because the indians had allegedly just recently killed the young woman pledged to be his wife.

We were told in Washington, Pa that Edward Christy left memoirs about the massacre. An imaginary re-visit of Captain Sam Brady [alleged also by some to have been at the massacre and the idea refuted by others] was published years ago, but offers no proof that it is in fact anything but an imaginary conversation, and not a memoir.[34]


Pvt. Daniel Clark ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was in Captain Reed?s Co of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time.


James Cochran ? named by Paul W. Myers with unspecified authority ? not in these tax and land grant lists-PMA- buried in Allegheny County.

Pvt. John Coneyers ? settled in 1774 on Millers Run in Mt. Pleasant Township; RBE- estate accounts 1795 leaving minor children: John, Thomas, Sarah and Samuel.


Pvt. Thomas Coneyers ? not on these Washington County tax and land grant lists.

The pension application of Thomas Conyers Jr. S3200 of July, 1846 says that he served from 1776-1779 as a Private in the 8th Pennsylvania Regt, and was at the battle of Bonbrook [is that Boundbrook ?]. He left Pennsylvania in 1784 and made the application from Robertson Co., Tennessee. The film is very difficult to read.[35]


Pvt. Henry Cooper ? in Smith Township in 1783.


Pvt. John Cooper ? in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Smith Township in 1783; RBE- of Smith Twp. will made 1794.


Pvt. John Cotton ? on the 1888 list as a Captain which is not his Washington County militia rank- in Strabane Twp in 1783; DAR3-may be the man buried in Mahoning Co., Ohio- was an officer in the Connecticut line and had lived at Belpre, Ohio so possibly a former Continental officer who passed through Washington County.


Pvt. Frederick Crowe ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jno. Cunning ? as John Cunning on the 1781 tax list in Cecil Twp.- and in Smith Twp in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel Currey ? in Bethlehem Township in 1783.


Pvt. Edward Davis ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Richard Davis ?only on the 1888 list - in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township; DAR3- may be buried in Union Co., Oh where he died at age 96.


Pvt. James Densmore ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMF- buried in Buffalo, PA; PMA- as James Dinsmore 1742-1817 in the Bedford Co. militia (preceded Westmoreland/Washington Co.), born in Ireland and first settled in Fayette Twp., of Allegheny Co [36], granted land on Millers Run which became in 1788 part of Allegheny County. and later in 1795 got land in Canton Twp., of Washington County, CWCW- wills 1817 and 1831..


Pvt. Michael Doherty Sr. ? in Cumberland Township in 1781 and Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. Wm. Donehey ? as Wm. Donehee in Cecil Township in 1781.


Pvt. John Edie ? only on the 1788 list- as John Eddy in Amwell township in 1783; EF, Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Jesse Edginton ? in Strabane Township in 1783; EF- Pvt. in Capt. Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. Thomas Everet ? Sgt. Thomas Everett was discharged from Capt. Benjamin Biggs Co. of Col. Gibson?s Regiment at Fort Pitt on 1 Nov, 1780 probably after three years arduous service guarding the frontier against the Indians. [37] Listed as Everight in Cecil Township in 1783 with a horse and no land.


Pvt. Alex Fegan ? as Alex Feggan in Cecil Township in 1783- RBE Alex Feagon bought 400 acres on Mill Creek in 1784.


Pvt. John Fosit - - also spelled Fawcet/ Fosset- settled in 1772 in Cecil Township as John Faucet- and was in Cecil Township in 1783- an early Methodist according to M/B.


Lieut. Hugh Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Somerset Twp in 1783; EF says he was a Lieutenant in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition.; CDAR- buried at Grove United Presbyterian Church in West Middleton, PA on Rte 18.; PMF says buried at Buffalo, PA, CWCW- will 1821 and 1837 (two men?).

A barely readable pension application made at Pittsburgh in 1832 #S2215 says that he served from 1776 for 3 years as a private [in a Continental line] and was at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga, [in the Northern Army] and also in Crawford?s campaign- but it doesn?t mention this expedition.[38]


Pvt. William Forbes ? only on the 1888 list- in Strabane, Canton and Robinson Townships in 1783. How many men of this name is unknown.

A barely readable pension application S5410 says he served with Capt. Samuel Brady along the Allegheny River and one tour to the Munsey towns so he had apparently served with a Continental line.[39]


Pvt. John Gardner ? in Smith Township in 1783; buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson [40]- he died 10 Sept, 1821 at 64 years, married Elizabeth Clark who died 1 Oct, 1853 at age 95 years, CWCW- will made 1821..


David Gault - from the Simpson list ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and in 1783- in the latter tanyard is next to his name which may mean he ran or owned a tanyard, but was a single man without land- so was probably a tenant; EF says he was from Cross Creek Twp.


Pvt. Christopher Gaunce ? Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. William G.Gill ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- said to have been in the Northumberland Co. Militia, b 1747- d 12 June, 1802 and buried at Mt. Hope Cemetery near West Middleton, PA, CWCW- will 1802. .


Capt. Henry Graham ? settled in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in Hopewell Township in 1783-TLM 2:422 signed a petition from the area of Wells Blockhouse just after the massacre apprising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation,- PMF- buried at Cross Creek according to Simpson Henry Graham died 31 Jan, 1827 at 87 years and his wife, Mary, died 29 Nov 1814 age 70 [41]; was an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1792 till his death and a Justice of the Peace of Washington County..


John Graham - from the Simpson list- Cross Creek Twp in 1783; verified by EF, CWCW-will made 1830 and 1831.


Pvt. Wm. Hanks ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Jams Hanna ? as James in Strabane Twp in 1783.


Pvt. William Harris ? not on these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Private in the frontier rangers of Westmoreland County so may have been from east of the rivers at the time.


Pvt. Robert Hays ? as Robert Hayes in Cecil and Peters Townships in 1781 and in Cecil Township in 1783. Buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hays ? three such listed in 1781 being in Cecil, Donegal and Morgan Townships - the one in Donegal having no land? and in 1783 only in Cecil Township; RBE- Wm. Hayes will 1795, and CWCW has a will in 1835. .


Pvt. Robert Henry ? only on the 1888 list- both in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township; EF-an early settler of that section of old Strabane now known as North Strabane Twp; WJC- an 1787 land grant., CWCW- will in 1829.

Apparently not the pension applicant S1830 although with an extensive military career and a pension application made from Washington County, Penn when he was 77 years old in 1832. The applicant enlisted from Lancaster Co, Pa and says that in 1778 he moved to Augusta Co, Va and was drafted into the Virginia line. In the fall of 1781 he was in Augusta Co, Va and when drafted went to fight in eastern Virginia at Jamestown and Williamsburg. The massacre expedition could have been worked in, but he does not mention it.[42]


Pvt. William Hervey ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; CDAR- a William Harvey is buried in Montour Cemetery near Montour, PA, Rte 22; 1758- 1838, CWCW lists a will of 1816.


Pvt. Adam Hickman ? in Cecil Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny County.


Pvt. William Hilbit ? not in these tax and land grant lists; PMW- was a Pvt. in Rueben Kemp?s Co of Westmoreland Co. militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time..


Pvt. Walter Hill ? in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township- TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation.


Pvt. Samuel Hindeman ? In Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- probably the Sam Hineman who bought 60 acres on Cross Creek in 1783; the local historian, Isaac Craig, says in a letter to another local historian, Boyd Crumrine,[43]-? a man named Hindman was said by General Richard Butler to be one of the worst;?. this being the only man of that name on the list we have to assume he was talking of Samuel Hindeman/Hindman.- but what does ?one of the worst?; mean ?that he killed the most or was one of the most vicious? General Richard Butler was a well respected Continental officer who as a Colonel was at Fort Pitt near the time of this expedition, and became Indian Agent immediately thereafter so he would have had reason to have been paying attention.


Pvt. Joseph Holmes ? in Smith Township in 1783- buried in Allegheny Co.


Obadiah Holmes Jr. from the Simpson list- in 1781 was listed in Cecil Twp with no land - he admitted in old age that he had been on the raid and claimed to be among the non-killers.[44] It is said that he rescued an Indian boy on this expedition, and brought him home to live for a few years. O.H. died in 1839 at the age of 96 and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt Daniel Leet?s Co on Crawford?s Expedition in the summer of 1782, died in Pittsburgh in June, 1834 aged seventy-four; buried at Woodville, Pa (two dates of death reported for the same man ?)..


Pvt. David Hopkins ? only on the 1888 list ? in 1781 was single with land in Nottingham Township; and was in Nottingham Township in 1783.


Pvt. David Hosack ? only on the 1888 list- in 1782 was living in Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va).


Pvt. James How ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; DAR3- may be the James Howe d 1808 bur at Fairfield, Warren Co., OH..


Pvt. John Hudgel ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Michael Huff Jr. ? in Hopewell Twp with no land in 1781 and in Hopewell Twp. in 1783.


Pvt. James Huston- only on the 1888 list; single with land in 1781 in Strabane Twp.; EF- son of William Huston, the first white settler in Catfish Camp (now Washington, Pa.) and in Capt. Daniel Leet?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. William Irwin ?only on the 1788 list - in Strabane Twp in 1781 and in Canton and Strabane Towship in 1783 ? the latter being listed as Irvin; EF-a settler in Canton Township; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW- has a will of 1822.


Pvt. Eleaser Jenkins ? on the 1888 list only- in Bethlehem Township in 1783; WJC- 1793 land grant, CWCW lists a will of 1822.


Pvt. Isaac Johnston ? in 1781 in Morgan Township.

The pension applications of 1818/1820 of Isaac Johnston S36642 of Bullitt Co, Kentucky is likely to be the man. He claimed to have served three years under Colonel John Gibson. He said that he had served in Capt. Springer?s Co. of the 7th Va Regt stationed at Fort Pitt. He also made reference to Pittsburgh 1779 and the company of Capt. Samuel Brady with scouting parties against the Indians to the close of the war. He was 72 years old in 1820 with a daughter of unknown age and a son born 12 Oct., 1799.[45]


Pvt. Dennis Jones ? only on the 1888 list ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


David Kerr ? from the Simpson list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says probably from Cross Creek Township.


Pvt. James Kerrlin ? or Curlin ? not listed either way on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Ledlie ? from the 1888 list- Wm. Ladley settled in 1774 in Wheeling Township; RBE- may be the Wm. Ladler who bought land on Middle Wheeling Creek in 1778; CDAR? a Wm. Leadlie b 1747 and d 5 Jan, 1835 is buried in the Paris Cemetery- Rte 22, Washington County, Penn.


Pvt. Daniel Leet ? from the 1888 list only- settled land in Franklin and Chartiers Creek in 1773 and at Catfish Camp [now Washington, Pa] in 1776- is said to have been a Revolutionary officer (other than militia) ? was a Sub- Lieutenant of Washington County appointed 2 April, 1781 but resigned that office on 30 March, 1782 - is listed in Cecil Township in 1783; RBE sold 120 acres on ?Shirtee? Creek [Chartiers] in 1784;? taxed in Pitt Township of Allegheny County in 1791 ?is buried in Allegheny County. As sub-lieutenant would have been along with Matthew Ritchie the second highest ranking Washington County militia officer on the expedition going as a private when he had the militia rank of Major;

EF says? a surveyor by profession; settled near Catfish Camp in 1776 after which he served in the Continental Line, and with General McIntosh at Fort Laurens in 1778; Deputy Surveyor General in Yohogania, now Washington County; surveyed in this county in 1780 under Virginia certificates; Brigade Major in Crawford?s Expedition; commanded a division after Colonel Burton was wounded; died 18 June, 1830, at the home of a daughter at Sewickly Bottom;? PMA- says that Daniel Leet was a friend of General Washington and a Major in the Continental Army where he had a distinguished career. It is fully possible that this Daniel Leet was a surveyor for the Ohio Company of Virginia hoping to ensure land for top men of Virginia including George Washington and George Mason.[46]

Could this be the same man who is credited with this career as an officer in the Revolution: ?acted as quartermaster from 1 Jan,1777 to 1 Oct, 1777 and as paymaster from this latter date to 21 Sept, 1778, then as Brigade-Major for three months, to 21 Dec, 1778. He received 5333 1/2 acres of land from the State of Virginia (as bounty).?[47]

Forrest says in the material quoted above that he was from Bordentown, New Jersey and had married Wilhelmina Carson. This seems to conflict with information from Louise M. Mohler which says that the Leets were from Berkley Co, Va.

A remark from an 1881 letter from the local historian, Isaac Craig to historian Boyd Crumrine, [48] has to be passed along although not otherwise corroborated ?I have heard that Daniel Leet was the man who first used the mallet.? If this means that the man with the second highest political and military position on the raid going as a Private began the killing with a cooper?s mallet as this alleges he set a very bad example for most of the men who had less prestige. Is this the unnamed man who actually killed 13 people before he quit as reported in Washington County histories?

If Daniel Leet committed that disgraceful first murdering it is no wonder that he later resigned his position as a Sub-Lieutenant of Washington County. It is also no wonder that the murders were done or that the story of the massacre was covered up from the public. Daniel Leet and the other influential men on this expedition who were politically and militarily powerful whom other men would either have followed or by whom they would be intimidated.


Pvt. Francis Lesnit - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783 ? Buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Frederick Lesnit - listed in Cecil Township in 1781 as single with nothing ? and in Cecil in 1783.


Pvt. John Little ? from the 1888 list only? not on these tax and land grant lists; bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co from Pennsylvania in 1776,[49] PMA-a former Private in the Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Continental Line under General Anthony Wayne; according to Crumrine [50] s/o James, family from Ireland worked a farm and spent the winter at McDonald?s blockhouse [near present town of McDonald], RBE- John Little of Youghania Co., Va sold land on Harmons Run in 1780; John was an elder of the Mt. Pleasant Church, and had land in Strabane or South Strabane Twp.


Pvt. David Long ? on the 1781 tax list in Greene, Robinson and Strabane Townships. In Robinson and Strabane without land so location is indeterminate; RBE- David Long of Washington Co., Pa in 1783 sold 200 acres on ?Shirtee? Creek [Chartiers] and sold land and a house in Washington County in 1784.


Pvt. John Marshal ? settled land in 1774 on Cross Creek ? in the 1781 tax list there was a John Marshall in Hopewell Township; this man is alleged to be the brother of the County Lieutenant, James Marshel. There is puzzling spelling with this name which makes certainty difficult; RBE- sold 202 acres in Washington County in 1784; CDAR- a John Marshall who d 1832 is buried in Montour Cemetery at Montour, PA.

John Marshall pensioned in 1818 age 69 years old pension number S41797 living in Washington County. Pa. He said that he served in 1776 for 2 months in the 2nd PA B?n, and late in 1776 he served in the 13th PA Regt and was wounded at Brandywine, and was later discharged to care for his brother?s big family Nov-.Dec., 1778.[51] There was no mention of militia service or the Massacre- if this man was on it.


Pvt. Robert Marshal ? the Return says Smith in parentheses which may mean Smith Township- in the 1781 tax list there is a man with this spelling in Amwell Township with nothing- in 1783 in Peters Township; a reputable local historian says that Robert Marshel was a brother of the County Lieutenant [in that case he was probably born in Ireland as was his brother] and was on this raid. but expressed his regret all his life, -RBE- bought 100 acres on the middle fork of Cross Creek in 1784; was an elder in the Buffalo Church. [52] .


Robert Marshall- from the Simpson list with two lls- in 1783 in Cross Creek and Hopewell Townships. Crumrine [53] lists a Robert Marshel from Buffalo as on the raid but this is a puzzler- he is listed in 1783 in Hopewell Township with no land and only a horse; a man of this spelling is buried at Cross Creek (white, 1972) died 26 Nov, 1832 in his 74th year, and his stone apparently says he was one of the 18 men under Colonel Williamson who formed a second line in favor of saving the Moravian Indians from massacre at Gnadenhutten.?. THIS COULD BE THE SAME MAN LISTED ABOVE . It is a puzzle whether there were two men of this name on the expedition, CWCW one of these men made a will in 1832.


Pvt. Thomas Marshall ? from the 1888 list- Hopewell Township in 1783.


Thomas Marshel ? from the Simpson list ? EF- says ?County Lieutenant of Washington County; an early settler in Cross Creek Township, and proprietor of Marshel?s Fort; an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1792 till dismissed in 1827 when he moved to Ohio where he died in 1839 aged ninety-six years..? [54]

There was a Thomas Marsheal in 1781 in Hopewell Township. All three spellings may be the same man. People of this name had different ways of spelling their family name.


Pvt. Jams Martin ? a James Martin settled land in Hopewell and Buffalo in 1774 and on Millers Run in 1775. listed in both Cecil and Hopewell Townships in 1781 so could be one or two men - in Hopewell Twp in 1783, CWCW- wills 1814 and 1827.


Pvt. William Martin ? in 1781 listed in Peters and Smith township ? the one in Peters being single and having no land so two men and in Hopewell Twp in 1783.

Pension application S5736 of Booths Creek, Hampshire Co, Va. at the time of the application in 1832. The applicant served in the Ft. Pitt Company of Captain B. Biggs, Colonel Gibson?s Virginia Regiment till the end of the war- 4 years. After being discharged he may have gone on this expedition. Should this be the same man he would have been on active duty while going on this militia expedition. The pension application says on the way home [from the Fort Pitt area] he was fired upon by Indians and shot in both thighs, both legs and one arm were broken- several bones and causing amputation of one leg, he moved in 1791 to Hampshire Co., Va where he died 3 July, 1846. He was born 30 Nov, 1762 at Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia the son of George. His middle name may have been Judson. [55]


Pvt. John Masterson - Somerset Township in 1783.

John Masterson was pensioned in 1832 at 73 years old number S16460 living then in Nelson Co., Kentucky. He says that he was drafted in 1777 or 1778 for 6 months as a Pvt. out of Washington County, Pa into Colonel Crawford?s Regiment, Pennsylvania Line. He was born 1752 in Fairfax County, Va. and had lived on Pigeon Creek in Washington County, PA.[56] There was no mention of being on the Massacre expedition.


Pvt. William Masterson ? in 1781 and 1783 in Somerset Township.


Pvt. Zachariah Masterson ? only on the 1888 list - on the 1783 list in Somerset Township with horses and no land.


Pvt. Tobias Mattocks ? settled land in 1775 on Raccoon Creek - taxed in 1783 in Robinson Township and in Moon Township of Allegheny Co in 1791 as Tobias Mattox (which could be the same place).


Pvt. Jams McBride ? as James settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1775- in 1781 taxed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships but had no animals in Robinson - taxed in Cecil Township in 1783; charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township.[57]-, CWCW- lists a will in 1827.


Pvt. Thomas McClain ? from the 1888 list- not in the 1781 and 1783 tax lists but well to do- in Pitt Township of Allegheny Co in 1791.


Pvt. William McClain ? from the 1888 list ? taxed in Strabane Township in 1783.


Pvt. Daniel McCloud ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert McComb ? from the 1888 list ? in Somerset Township in 1781 - in Cross Creek Township in 1783; EF- ? a soldier of the Revolution (Continental line ?) , settled in Cross Creek Township where he died in 1827.?


Pvt. Joseph McConnell ?from the 1888 list - buried in Allegheny County


Pvt. Daniel McCoy ? in 1781 there were two in Cecil and one in Smith Townships so location is indeterminate.

Jane, widow of Daniel McCoy of West Finley Township of Washington County made application W965. He had served, she claimed, in the 8th Pennsylvania line which would have been at Fort Pitt.. Seven children were listed.[58]


Pvt. James McCready ? in Robinson Township in 1781


John McCulloch ? named by Stephen Burkham as being there as a Private when he was at other times an officer in the Militia ? a well known frontiersman living in Ohio Co, Va or West of the Ohio River illegally at the time, he attended the major conference with General Irvine at the fort after Irvine?s return as a representative from Ohio County [59]- his dates 1770-1821 married Mary Bukey 1757-1846; Mary Bukey MCCulloch d/o Jemima Dunn and John Bukey (her sister married Rev. John Doddridge). John McCulloch was later a civil magistrate in Ohio County, Va living near Short Creek.


Pvt. Joseph McCullogh ? from the 1888 list - buried in Allegheny County. the name has a variety of spellings in this area.


Pvt. Robert McCullogh ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Brice McGeehon ? in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; a Brice McGeechen was charged by General Washington in 1784 with squatting on Washington?s land;[60] WJC- 1785 land grantee half interest as executor of John Milligan..


Pvt. Daniel McGoogen ? in Hopewell Township in 1783 as McGugan ; RBE- estate accounts 1791 as McGoogin leaving wife, Ann..


Pvt. Samuel McKibbins as McKibbin in Hopewell Township in 1783 without land, RBE- bought 300 acres on Mon (Montours?) Run in 1780 and sold land on Mon (Montours?) Run at the narrows in 1784; Simpson [61] reports that this man was buried at Cross Creek 27 Sept, 1836 in his 77th year, and was an old Indian fighter and veteran of the Indian Wars and an elder in the Cross Creek Church from 1807 till his death 27 Sept,1836, and his wife, Mary, having died 26 June, 1833 in her 75th year is also buried at Cross Creek .


Pvt. Thomas McKibbins ? in Hopewell Township in 1783 according to Crumrine 728 lived next to Colonel James Marshel, .


Pvt. Robert McKnight ?single in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. James McMillan ? a man named McMullan settled in 1775 in Pike Township ? a Private James McMullan was discharged at Fort Pitt 13 Nov, 1780 at Fort Pitt from Capt. Biggs Co of Col. Gibsons Va Regiment probably after three years arduous service against the Indians,[62] was a brother of the Reverend Jamaes McMillan of Chartiers Creek; CDAR- buried in Washington County..


John McWilliams from the Simpson list ? settled land in 1775 around Buffalo Creek ? in 1781 in Donegal Township; EF says he was a general in the militia of Washington County, but I find no evidence that there was a rank higher than Colonel in the militia, CWCW- lists a will in 1837.


Samuel Merchant ? from the Simpson list ? settled land on Raccoon Creek in 1774 - in 1781 in Donegal Township; EF- settled in Hanover Twp in 1778, but driven away by Indians; returned in 1779 and remained until his death presumably then in Washington County..

Jacob Miller Jr. - admitted later in life to being on this raid ? of Swiss ethnicity- born in 1762 at Hagerstown, Md. and died in August, 1830 at age 67/11/24, married Anne Mary Leffler, was a noted Indian fighter- settled land in 1771 on the Dutch Fork area of Wheeling Creek in Donegal Twp with other families of germanic origin where he is listed in the 1781 tax list;[63] ?Jacob Miller saw the folly of the attack [on the Moravian Indians] and refused to be a party to it and stood aside;? this role for Jacob Miller as a non-participant is verified by Captain Henry Jolly ?a man of that time and place- says ?when it was decided the Moravians must die, Miller and a few others tried to get out of hearing, but [JMJ is quoted as saying] ? the death screams out went us?;[64] RBE- estate accounts of the Senior J.M. 1786 is puzzling with J. JR. of age and the minor children (Jacob, John, Polly, Adam, Catherine, Frederick, Piler, Henry) and a widow, Mary; the Sr. was allegedly killed and scalped by Indians in 1808 so this is a bit of a puzzler.


Capt. Robert Miller ? settled land in 1772 on Chartiers Creek which was in Cecil township in 1781 and 1783.

It may not be the same man, but Robert Miller made a pension application from Augusta Co., Va claiming that he had been an indian spy on several occasions and a First Sgt. of Virginia troops under Captains Robert McCrory, John McCrory, Thomas Hughart and David Gwinn. He served three months in 1780 and three months in 1781 while in Kentucky.

Pvt. William Miller - men of this name in both Bethlehem and Peters Townships in 1781 both having a little land so inconclusive ? only in Hopewell Twp in 1783, CWCW- lists a will in 1802.


Pvt. John Montgomery ? was listed as single with nothing in 1781 in Peters Township; RBE- John Montgomery of Youghania Co., Va sold 400 acres on Kings Creek ( probably Washington County) in 1780.


Pvt. Thomas Montgomery ? in Strabane Township in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783 ? an elder in the Presbyterian Church who died in New Athens, Ohio.


Pvt. John Munn Jr. ? two men of this name in Nottingham Twp. in 1781 one single ? and in Nottingham Twp in 1783 , one of these men may have been a Captain in the Westmoreland and Washington County Militia on other expeditions, CWCW- will listed for 1802.


Sgt. Henry Nelson ? settled land in 1773 in Independence and Buffalo Creek - in Hopewell Twp 1783 TLM 2:421 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the dangerous situation for the settlers.


Pvt.. Charles Norris ? living illegally west of the Ohio River in 1782.[65]


Ensign John Odonel - there were John O?Donalds in 1781 in both Amwell and Cecil Townships ? the one in Amwell being single ? he was listed in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. Thomas Orr ? settled 400 acres of land in 1775 in Middle Wheeling Twp, Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va.); this from Alice Walker, a descendent,[66] ? tradition says he was born about 1749 in Adams Co., Pa, married Margaret Creighton (d/o John and Anne Creighton) in 1789 at Col. David Williamson?s Fort, was on the ?Crawford? expedition as well and may have been a Continental soldier (see DAR), and died 31 Oct, 1835; ? Thomas told his descendents that he was on this expedition, but did not participate in the killing of the Moravian Indians.


Pvt. William Orr ?Private Wm. Orr was discharged at Fort Pitt 2 Nov, 1780 from the Company of Capt. Biggs, Col. Gibson?s Va. Regiment probably after serving three tough years against the Indians,[67] is listed in 1783 in Cecil Township, a man of this name had land next Thomas Orr above in Ohio Co., Va bought in 1793 and sold in 1796 (according to Alice Walker above who has tried unsuccessfully to establish a relationship between these two Orrs).


Pvt. Andrew Pass ? only on the 1888 list.- not on these tax and land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMW- says that he was in Capt. Munn?s Co. of Westmoreland County militia so may have been from East of the rivers at the time and followed Captain Munn as a loyal soldier.


Moses Patterson ? from the Simpson list - not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Hugh Patton ? in Cecil Township in 1781 and 1783; RBE- bought 150 acres on the west branch of Chartiers Creek in 1783.


Pvt. Thomas Peircifield- not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Robert Piatt ? was at that time living in Ohio County, Virginia (now W. Va.).


Pvt. John Pollock ? on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1772 on Crooked Run ? in Hopewell Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; RBE- Thomas and John Pollock sold 188 acres on Cross Creek in 1783 to William Pollock; EF says probably from that section of old Strabane Township which is now North Strabane Twp; WJC- 1785 land grant., CWCW- will listed of 1833..


Pvt. William Price ? settled land in Chartiers Creek area in 1774 ? in Hopewell Township in 1783; RBE- of Washington County, Pa., sold 900 acres in Washington County in 1783; DAR3- may be the man b 1744 living in 1840 buried at Barnes Cemetery, Seal Twp., Pike Co., Ohio.


Pvt. William Quigley ? only on the 1888 list ? in Nottingham Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.


Pvt. John Ralston ? in 1781 listed in Cecil Township as single with nothing, CWCW- will listed for 1816 and 1828.


Capt. Thomas Rankin ? on the 1888 list as Sgt. ? settled land in 1774 on Raccoon Creek- two are listed in 1781 in Cecil and Nottingham Townships the one in Cecil having no land ? making this indeterminate- listed in Cecil Twp 1783 as Capt.- a big land owner, there is a single man of this name with nothing much in Nottingham in 1783- one of the most affluent men on this expedition; EF identifies most of this and says he was a Captain in Crawford?s Expedition ?a Thomas died in Cadiz, Ohio; RBE- there was also a man of this name of Smith Twp. who made a will in 1793; DAR3- may be the man born 1760 and buried in Rankin Cemetery, Moorefield Twp., Harrison Co., OH.


Pvt. William Rankin ? only on the 1888 list ? settled land in 1770 on Raccoon Creek ? in 1781 two are listed one being single with nothing in Nottingham Township and the other with 1300 acres and (comparatively land wealthy) in Smith township- one is listed in 1783 in Mt. Pleasant Township and is buried in Allegheny County; EF says he was an early settler in Mount Pleasant Township; DAR3- to make the burial puzzling a man of this name b 1748 in Winchester, Va is buried in Paint Twp., Fayette Co, Oh who was ? a scout on Frontier Pa and Va?. see family history there, CWCW- will listed for 1793.


Capt. Charles Reed ? settled land in 1773 on Miller?s Run ? not listed in either tax list.


Capt. David Reed ? in Cecil township in both 1781 and 1783; RBE- bought 318 acres on Millers Run (Cecil Township) in 1782; charged by General George Washington in 1784 for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil Township,[68] CWCW- will listed for 1824.


Pvt. James Reed ? two are listed in 1781 in Cecil Township one having only a horse ?both are listed in Cecil Township in 1783 and there is one in Fallowfield Township, CWCW- wills listed for 1817 and 1831.

James Reed from Washington County, Pa was pensioned as destitute under the law of 1818 number S40324 when he was 68 years old. He said that he was a Private in Colonel St. Clairs Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line serving from Jan, 1776 to April, 1777. In that service was in the Battle of the Thames, at Crown Point, Ticonderoga and Philadelphia. He further says that he served ?two terms of duty in the militia against the indians on the Susquehanna,? but makes no reference to the Massacre.[69]


Pvt. John Reed ?RBE- John Reed of Youghagania Co., Pa sold 400 acres on the North branch of Cross Creek in 1779, also bought 98 acres on Bushey Run in 1781, and bought 400 acres on Millers Run [drains into Chartiers Creek] in 1780; there are five listed in various townships in 1781 and six in 1783 making this indeterminate; John Reed Esq. taxed in 1783 in Cecil Twp., a John Reed Esquire charged in 1784 by General George Washington for squatting on Washington?s land in Cecil township;[70] WJC- a 1785 land grant and one for J.R. Jr. 1786, CWCW- wills listed for 1814 and 1817.


Lt.John Renean ? signed for Captain Reed ? a completely unlisted name.


Pvt. Charles Reno ? in Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. George Reno ? may be George Runo of Cecil Twp 1783..


Pvt. John Riddel ? as Riddle in both Amwell Township with land and Fallowfield Township without land in 1781 - and in Strabane Township in 1783, EF says he was a Pvt in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the summer 1782 Crawford Expedition; buried in Allegheny County, CWCW- will listed 1818 for John Riddle.


Pvt. Samuel Riddel ? or Riddle in Robinson Township in 1781 and in Strabane Township in 1783; EF says that he was a Pvt. in Capt. Charles Bilderback?s Co on the Crawford Expedition; DAR3- may be the man 1759-1825 buried in Mahoning Co., Oh who was a ?Pvt in Rangers of Washington and Westmoreland Co.?


Pvt. Matthew Ritchie ? settled land in 1772 in Chartiers/Cecil Township; and Harmon; and in 1774 in Tomlinson.- in 1781 Matthew Richey Esquire living in Cecil Township with 1000 acres, was appointed 24 Dec, 1781 a Sub-lieutenant of Washington County so with Daniel Leet was the second highest ranking militia officer in this army listed as going as a private when he was in fact of higher rank, and one of the richer men on this expedition, Matthew Ritchie is listed on the rosters above as being a private in the 1st Class (or squad) of Captain Miller?s Company so he is a prime example of that phenomenon. CWCW- will listed for 1798.


Pvt. John Roberts - in 1781 in Greene Township with a horse and no land.; RBE- sold 444 acres on Roberts Home Plantation in 1780 ( township or place not identified by RBE); CWCW- will listed in 1821.


Pvt. James Roney ? a surveyor who settled land in 1774 on Buffalo and Wheeling Creeks - in 1781 in Smith Township ? in 1783 in Donegal Township; EF says ?an early settler in West Finley Township and a brother of Hercules Roney, the proprietor of Roney?s blockhouse [now Finley Twp], both were chainmen for Colonel William Crawford when he surveyed land grants under the old Virginia Certificates."; CDAR- buried in Washington County; RBE- will 1791 and estate accounts 1792 leaving a son , Hercules.


James Ross ? from the Simpson List ? in 1781 listed in Smith and Strabane Townships the latter being without land ? as an educated young man he was teaching for Reverend James McMillan at the time of this raid [71]?- however, due to the two listings in 1781 this is indeterminate as to township of residence; EF says ?also a private in Captain McGihan?s Company on Crawford?s Expedition, taught school in McMillan?s log Academy near Canonsburg, admitted to the bar in 1784, member of the Constitutional Convention of 1790; one of the three commissioners appointed by Federal government to meet the Whisky Insurrection leaders in 1794, United States Senator, died 27 Nov, 1847 aged eighty-five years,? That is an important identification by a local historian if there were two men by this name in 1781; RBE- says J.R. of Cecil estate accounts 1786 leaving son, James- may be the father of the more well known younger man; Kohn says that James Ross in 1794 was a ?trusted confidant of President Washington.?[72] .

There is a bit of a puzzle here as a man of this name is buried in Mahoning Co, Oh, who in DAR3 says he served in Washington Co., Pa, was age 77 in 1833.

A James Ross says in his pension application that in April of 1782 having served in the Western part of Pa, ?I was drafted under Capt. Wm. Scott and marched to a place called Mingo Bottom on the Ohio River below Beemor, we were stationed here to protect the persons and property of a number of our countrymen from the plunder and depredations of the Indians?, served 1 month and then volunteered with 400 others to go to Sandusky on the Crawford cmpg. He didn?t mention this expedition in March.

Pvt. Aaron Sackett ? not in these Washington County tax and land grant lists- TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for the settlers,- in 1783 was single in Manallen Township, Westmoreland County; PMW- was an Ensign in the Westmoreland County militia.


Pvt. Samuel Scott ? in 1781 listed as single with no land in Cecil Township and with land in Nottingham so identification is inconclusive; RBE estate accounts 1794 leaving a wife, Elizabeth, and minor children, John and Jean and RBE lists a sale of land in Washington County on Mingo Creek in 1784 by Samuel Scott of Rostrover Township of Westmoreland County.


Capt. William Scott ? in 1781 is listed in both Hopewell and Nottingham Townships so is inconclusive, CWCW- will listed in 1829 and 1836.


Pvt. Valentine Sennet - not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. Thomas Shannon ? settled land in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Cross Creek/Independence - in 1781 and 1783 in Hopewell Township, TLM 2-422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there- CWCW- will listed for 1814.


Capt. Samuel Shearer ? from the 1888 list only as Captain with a question mark as if the editors were not sure ?there is no proof of that rank or his presence in the area- not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Shearor ?as Wm Shearer is in 1781 in Hopewell Township and 1783; PMF- says buried at Cross Creek.


Pvt. William Sinclair in 1781 in Cecil Township and in 1783 in Donegal Township; RBE- bought 294 acres on the West fork of ?Shirtee? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and W.S. Jr. bought land at the same place and year; CWCW- will listed for 1820.


Dave Slaughter ? named in Forrest?s Washington County History [EF] with an important and courageous volunteer role in swimming the cold river to bring over a sugar trough so the men could send over their clothes dry after swimming the cold Muskingum River, not on these tax and land lists.


Pvt. Abraham Slover in 1773 he was in Pitt Township, Bedford County which was around Ft. Pitt, in Feb, 1775 he was on a committee to lay out a road from Ft. Dunmore to Raccoon Creek,[73] he is not in either the tax or the land grant lists- was the brother of John Slover who was one of Crawford?s guides in the ill-fated summer of 1782 expedition ? from around New River, Virginia where their family was massacred before this by Indians.[74]


Pvt. Edward Smith Jr. since the Jr. was used in the return would suggest that his father was in the neighborhood - an Edward Smith settled in 1772 on Buffalo Creek and Independence - an Edward Smith was taxed in Rosstraver Twp of Bedford County in 1773 and in Pitt Twp of Allegheny County in 1791.- but not on the lists being used here; RBE- estate accounts 1790 leaving son, Isaac.


Pvt. Nicholas Smith - in 1783 in Hopewell Township; PMF- says N.S. SR. buried in South Strabane.


Pvt. William Sparks ? settled land in 1773 in Buffalo and Independence ? three listings in 1781- two in Hopewell and one in Fallowfield Townships- and in 1783 in Strabane Township.


Pvt. Isaac Springer ? not on these tax or land grant lists, PMW- was in Capt. Joseph Cisna?s Co. of Westmoreland militia- so may have been from East of the rivers.


Pvt. James Steel ? from the 1888 list only ? in 1781 list in both Cumberland and Strabane Townships neither having land so location of his home is indeterminate- and in Strabane Township in 1783.

The pension application of a James Steel #S4882 made 7 June, 1832 where he was living in Hocking Co., Ohio. He was born 80 years previous in Ireland. Served in 1776 for 5 months as a private under Capt. William Steel, Col. Cunningham and General Hand; and 2 months in 1776 under Capt. Marshall and Col. Miles. and in 1779 had gone to Washington County, Pa; and then to Fairfield Co., Ohio[75].


Pvt. Richard Stevenson ? not on these tax or land grant lists.


Pvt. William Stevenson ? in Peters Township in 1783; a William Stephenson is buried at Cross Creek 1 March,1851 aged 80 years [was he 13 years old at the time of this raid ?]; according to Simpson he came from Berkeley Co, Va s/o James Stephenson., a paymaster of the Revolutionary Army and a nephew of Colonel Wm. Crawford and Col. Hugh Stephenson- a friend of General Washington. William ?served his country faithfully, and he was prominent in the bloody scenes of St. Clair?s defeat.?[76] - name is spelled both ways, CWCW- will listed for 1829- no mention of the massacre.


Pvt. Charles Stewart ? settled land in 1775 on Cross Creek and Buffalo Creek ? Hopewell Twp in 1783; RBE- left a will in 1793, CWCW- will listed for 1814.


Pvt. Samuel Stewart ? only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in Strabane Township.


Sgt. Shadrack Stillwell - not on these tax or land grant lists; EF says he was a Pvt. in Captain Munn?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition.; RBE- bound out his children Jeremiah and Mary in 1787.


Pvt. Thomas Strain - in Peters Township in 1783; CDAR- buried in Washington County.


James Taylor ? from the Simpson list ? settled land in 1776 in Buffalo and Hopewell Townships- in Hopewell in 1781 and Fallowfield Township in 1783 - told his descendents that he did not kill on this raid[77]


Pvt. George Thorp ? in Cecil township in 1783.


Pvt. William Turner - in 1781 listed in both Cecil and Robinson Townships - so of indeterminate location; RBE-W.T. of Youghagania Co., Va sold 600 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1784 and his estate accounts 1791.


Solomon Urie . ? from the Simpson list died in 1820 or 1836 at Coshocton, Ohio. May be the man mentioned by Farrar as one who in 1812 would talk about the raid when drunk, [78]or that may be the other Solomon below; EF says ? a son of Thomas Urie Sr. of Hopewell Township. Solomon and Thomas Urie Jr., brothers, were noted hunters. While on a hunting trip near Stillwater, Ohio; they were attacked by Indians and Thomas was killed, but Solomon escaped. In 1815 while Solomon was living near Coshocton, Ohio he killed six Indians single handed because one of them boasted that he had killed Thomas Urie, Jr. Solomon was taken to Mad River, tried for this and acquitted. He was killed in 1830 falling from his horse.?


Solomon Vaile - on the Simpson list- not on these tax or land grant lists ? in 1791 in Moon Township of Allegheny County which place could have been in Washington County earlier- see above reference to a ?Sol? who in the 1812 era talked about the raid only when drunk.


Pvt. Isaac Vance ?only on the 1788 list - settled land in 1773 on Pigeon Creek ? in Somerset Township in 1781 and 1783; EF says he was a Pvt. in Capt. Rankin?s Co on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; PMF says he is buried at Pigeon Creek..


Joseph Vance ? on the Simpson list - in Smith township in 1781 and 1783 ; Ef says ?the builder and proprietor of Vance?s Fort one mile from Cross Creek, where the first plans for the Moravian expedition were made?, TLM 2:422 a petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre advising Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there, -[79] says Joseph and several of his wives are buried at Cross Creek ? an elder in Cross Creek Church from 1782-1832; and afterwards a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, died 6 May, 1832 aged eighty-two years, buried in the old cemetery at Cross Creek,? .CDAR- says he is buried in the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Cemetery at Dunningsville, PA b 1750 and d 5 May, 1832, CWCW- lists wills for 1822 and 1832.


Pvt. Stephen Vineyard ? in Donegal Township in 1781 and 1783.


Robert Wallace ? on the Simpson List only- bought 300 acres in Westmoreland Co in 1773 from Pennsylvania,[80] in Cross Creek Township in 1783 ? cited by EF as at the massacre and claimed that he did a lot of killing ? his family was killed and carried off just before this expedition and some historians say that the attack on the Wallace family set off this expedition ; EF says that he died in 1808 and is buried at Florence, CWCW- lists a will in 1808.


William Welch- named by Stephen Burkham who was there: ?William Welch, an Irishman tomahawked seven. The house was crowded according to Burkham with men tomahawking, the Indians had previously sang and prayed.;? [81] not on 1781 tax list; a name used by Allen Eckert (see below).


Pvt. Morris West ? - TLM 2:422 petitioner with others from around Well?s Fort just after the massacre informing Gen. Irvine of the ?dangerous? situation there for the settlers- Hopewell Township in 1783.


Pvt. Alexander White ? on the 1888 list only ? in Somerset Township in 1783.


Pvt. James White settled land in 1773 in Chartiers and N. Strabane -was in Strabane and Robinson in 1781 and in Strabane in 1783 ? both single in 1781 in Strabane ? man of this name elected a Washington County Justice of the Peace in 1781- is buried in Allegheny County. His land in Strabane could in 1788 have been put into Allegheny County from Washington County.


Pvt. John White ?only on the 1888 list- in 1781 and 1783 in Smith Township; EF-says settled in old Strabane Township in 1773, elected a Justice of the Peace on 15 July, 1781 [ was he on this expedition while being a Justice of the Peace?]; WJC 1792 land patent; and died in 1806, CWCW lists a will in 1807.


Pvt. Nathaniel White ? in 1781 in Strabane Township without land and in Strabane in 1783.


Pvt. Stephen Wilkins ? only on the 1888 list ? in Strabane Township in 1783.


Lt. William Wilkins ? only in the 1888 list ? in 1783 in Smith Township ; EF says he was an Ensign in Capt. Munn?s Co. on the summer, 1782 Crawford Expedition; ? buried in Allegheny County.


John Williams- It was recently discovered that the son of this man put in writing to Lyman Draper that his father was on this expedition, and the father blamed Colonel David Williamson for the killing. That letter is reproduced in the microfilm of the well known Draper Manuscripts at the Wisconsin Historical Society.[82]


Lt. Col. David Williamson ?born in 1752 at Carlisle, Pa; after visiting the western country brought his parents into this frontier; settled land in the Buffalo Creek area in 1774, 1775, 1776 and 1777 (about 900 acres) ? listed in Donegal Township in 1781 with 800 acres so owner of one of the larger amounts of land on this expedition- and in Donegal Twp in 1783; WJC- Sr. and Jr. 1787 grants - the highest ranking militia officer on this expedition and supposedly elected to the top ranking position.; EF says that Colonel Williamson was ?strongly opposed? to the killing of the Moravians- Stephan Burkham claimed in later years to have been at the massacre quoted Col. Williamson as saying ?do what you will with the prisoners? as he walked off. This was told by Burkham to Lyman C. Draper well known for his collection of original material now at the Wisconsin Historical Society,[83] Colonel Williamson after the raid was elected Sheriff of Washington County, but died poor in a dispute with the county over a note he had co-signed; CDAR says he was buried in the Washington, Pa cemetery without a stone in 1814 at age 74.

It was the custom of the American militia to elect their own officers. Lieutenant Colonel David Williamson was elected to his position. However, it may not be fair to say he was elected commander. Militia did not always do what they were told by their own officers. It is uncertain how much to charge him with the responsibility for the killing. It is clear that there were other men along who also had high ranking positions in the militia. It is always pointed out that his role in this Massacre did not ruin his political standing as he was elected Sheriff of Washington County a few years later.


Eleazer Williamson- brother of Col. David above; the author was told by letter by Dr. Raymond Bell that this man was on the raid. However, that has been impossible to verify. His pension application says that he was on the expedition in 1781 that took Indian prisoners, and that he was also on the summer, 1782 ?Crawford? expedition which is verifiable.[84] He did not in that application mention being on this March, 1782 expedition which he either forgot or didn?t want to claim among his tours of militia duty- he had been a militia officer in Westmoreland County but was not one on this expedition.


Pvt. Abner Willson ?in 1781 without land in Smith Township - listed in Hopewell and/or Cecil 1783, this name spelled with one and two l?s is a bit of a puzzle.


Pvt. Jno. Willson - in 1781 in Smith, Cecil and Peters without land ?in 1783 there are four Johns in various townships of Washington County - so is indeterminate as to location; RBE- bought 329 acres on Streets Run in 1784 and 100 acres on Two Mile run in 1785; CDAR- a John Wilson who d 14 Feb, 1803 is buried in Washington, PA.


Pvt. Joseph Willson ? settled land in 1773 in Wheeling Township.- in 1781 in Peters Township; RBE-bought 227 acres on Petlore Creek in 1782 .


Pvt. Miles Willson ? in Smith Township in 1781 and Cecil Township in 1783.


Pvt. William Willson ? several men with this name- one settled land in 1769 on Little Whiteley Creek ?three listings of men of this name and spelling in 1781 in Bethlehem, Cecil and Smith Townships so indeterminate whether one or three men- one man in Hopewell Township in 1783 ; RBE- lists four land transactions of men of this name: of Augusta Co., Va sold 400 acres on Racoon Creek in 1777, of Washington County sold 200 acres on ?Shirtees? (Chartiers) Creek in 1783 and of Youghania Co., Va sold 300 acres on Raccoon Creek in 1779 and of Pittsburgh sold 300 acres in 1784; WHC- two 1786 grants; CDAR?a William Wilson Sr. buried at the Bethel Presbyterian Church at Clifton, PA- near Rte 19, lived 1757-25 Jan, 1845. buried in Allegheny County.; one man of this name buried at Cross Creek;[85] RBE notes two estates by men of this name: one in 1794 with a son, Robert; and one in 1795 of Cecil Twp leaving minor children (William, Robert, Esther, Margaret and Elizabeth), CWCW- lists a will for 1795. .

There were several pensions made by William Wilsons in this area. Number S3572 was living in Allegheny County in 1832. He said that in 1777 he served under General Wayne in the battles at Princeton, Monmouth, and Trenton for three years; and at Shamokin against the Indians. No mention of militia service or the Massacre. Pension number S22600 was living in Jefferson Twp of Allegheny County, Pa when pensioned having served three enlistments from 1777. No mention of the Massacre or militia service.

The man with pension number S7907 from Monongalia Co, VA is the most likely. His was all frontier service. He says that in 1779 he served under Col. Brodhead against the Munsie towns, in 1780 was an Indian spy on Dunkard Creek; and in June of 1781 he served under General Clark to the Forks of the Ohio. He would be the most likely to have been on the Massacre, but makes no mention of it.[86]

A man of this name with one l in DAR3 was Pvt in lst Pa Regt buried in Hamilton Co., Ohio.; there is also in DAR3 a Major Wm. Wilson 1754-1851 b in Ireland with a brother in the Tygart Valley, Randolph Co., Va buried in the Casner Cemetery near Mt. Ephraim, Noble Co., Ohio.



Pvt. Andrew Wineman ? on the 1888 list only ? not on these tax and land grant lists.


Pvt. Thomas Young ? in 1781 in Cecil Township without land ? in 1783 also in Cecil Township.




CDAR Canonsburg, Pa. DAR, Revolutionary War Soldiers of Washington County, Pa. or Buried in Washington County, mimeographed, no date or author.


CWCW Bob and Mary Closson, compilers; Index to Washington County Wills, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, no date.


DAR3 Daughters of the American Revolution, Official Roster III, Soldiers of the American Revolution Who Lived in the State of Ohio,? ,l959, no place of publication or author. Includes information on ancestors of DAR members only. There is more data on some so full citation must be checked.


RBE Raymond M Bell, Washington County Estate Records 1781-1796 and Deed Records 1782-1785 Washington, Pa; 1967.


EF Earle R. Forrest, History of Washington County, Pennsylvania, Chicago, 1926, pages 132-142.


PMA Paul W. Myers, Allegheny County, Pa. Revolutionary War Soldiers; Closson Press, Apollo, Pa,1988.


PMF Paul W. Myers, Washington County, Pa. Frontier Rangers, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1987, pages 37-41.


PMW Paul W. Myers, Westmoreland County in the American Revolution, Closson Press, Apollo, Pa, 1988.


TLM Thomas L. Montgomery, Frontier Forts in Pennsylvania, Ray Press, Harrisburg, Penn. 1916 -2 volumes ? all references here to Volume 2.


WJC List of men whose land grants were in the Archives, Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pa; type written, n.d. or authorl these Virginia grants were for military service in state units of the Line or sometimes for militia service. Men who enlisted for three years in a Continental line were promised 100 acres.


The eighteen men who voted against killing


Most accounts relate that the men were lined up at the Indian village after the people were captured, and those who were against killing the Christian Indians were told to step forward. That was a common procedure with militia troops for voting on an issue. When the voting was done eighteen men stepped forward to vote against killing. It took a lot of courage and conviction to step out of that throng of men who had undoubtedly made known their desire to kill. Strangely enough even the names of most of the men who refused to kill the native Moravians have not been handed down. Colonel David Williamson was allegedly against the killing, but either could not or did not stop it. Obadiah Holmes Jr. according to EF was among those who did not kill, and even brought home a young Indian boy who had escaped being killed. Edward Christy?s role as the chief exhorter against killing has been related. James Taylor and Thomas Orr told their descendents that they did not kill. Robert Marshall?s stone over his grave says that he was one of the 18 non-participators. Jacob Miller?s son wrote that Jacob did not kill and stood aside. Unfortunately, in old age many men may have regretted their involvement and wanted to clear their names and reputations. .

A memorial ought to be erected at Gnadenhutten, Ohio to those 18 men for their heroic refusal, but all their names will never be known unless a list of primary authority is found. In fact there is no corroborating evidence yet found naming those who stepped aside except that of self report of men in their old age. One of the unfortunate aspects of the imposed secrecy, a secret investigation left unresolved by the Congress and lack of an investigative press or any press at all in the area.


The 196 number


It ought not come as a surprise that we have found 196 names. Although Joseph Doddridge said that there were 80-90 he may have only known of those who came from his area of the county. General Irvine said at the time after he had looked into the matter that there were 300 men.[87] The Pennsylvania Archives said in 1888 that there were ?at least 160?; and Stephen Burkham- who was there said years later there were 400.[88] Burkham?s is the only estimate by a man who was there even though he apparently rode in the day the killing was done. General Irvine- the ranking outside investigator of the time may have the more accurate estimate at around 300. At that rate, there are undoubtedly more men yet to be found.

The names used by Allen Eckert


Allen Eckert has written two popular versions of this event in parts of larger books in The Frontiersman (1971)[89] and That Dark and Bloody River (1995).[90] However, on this event he has used some real names of men who were there, and some other names of men who were not apparently there. At least there is no evidence that they were there or that they existed in the area at the time. The names of the men used by Allen Eckert who cannot be found there are: George Bellar, Nathan Rollins and Altho Johnston. Research into the sources cited above do not reveal those names. Eckert?s sources for those names would be of utmost historical importance. Of course, the list includes another 15 men who cannot be found so that fact alone does not prove they were not there. Eckert?s sources would be crucial.

While the local historian, Earle Forrest (EF) claims that Charles Bilderback did the first killing of the young Joseph Schabosh, and that an unnamed man killed the next thirteen imprisoned people with blows of a coopers mallet he does not name the man who did that. Allen Eckert without citing the authority in his footnotes has named Charles Bilderback as the man who did the first killing of thirteen captives with a blow from a cooper?s mallet while Isaac Craig had heard that it might have been Daniel Leet who first used the mallet. It would be important to know the authority for those names and the source for the attribution of this horrendous act to Charles Bilderback





Most of these 197 men were by ethnicity Scotch, Irish or Scots-Irish. That is difficult to prove, but is based on writing on the Scots-Irish in Western Pennsylvania by descendents who boasted of their predominance.[91] C.W.Butterfield, a careful historian of the area, also notes the high proportion of Irish and Scots- Irish. Many of the people were immigrants themselves or sons and daughters of immigrants with a strong memory of the struggles of the old country for land and freedom. Men of this background were known for their tenacity and fighting spirit- and what today we would call racist views which they projected onto the Indians. It is claimed that such men were blatantly racist against the Indians.[92] A few were of Swiss and German ethnicity and a few descendents of English colonists whose families had spent several generations in this country.

Quite a good number of these men were not poor. Many owned land in quantities up to 1500 acres- the average being one farm of 300 acres. Most undoubtedly hoped to own land. All chose freely to bring their families to this part of the frontier where guerilla war came on with the Revolution. We see that some even brought their families into this country during the Revolution. There was an expectation on their part of living in safety, and of being protected by the troops of the government out of Fort Pitt. The terrorist incidents of killing, maiming and capturing carried out by the British inspired Indians had unnerved this whole frontier; but upwards of ten thousand people lived there anyway.

The tax lists make it clear that most of these men had wives and many probably had families. Only a few single men show up on the tax lists as a small percent of the whole. We can safely assume that most had wives and children. There were several generations of some families in the area as is evident from the use of Sr. and Jr. There was a wide spread of wealth, power and position in this volunteer militia organization. Joseph Doddridge was right on the point that some of the best men ?meaning land rich and politically powerful- in the area went along on this expedition. There was direct connection of some of these men to the officers at Fort Pitt, but knowledge of the moving army was apparently kept from Colonel Gibson. It is claimed that a couple of these men had been in Captain Bigg?s company at the Fort who had justly treated and released some Moravian Indians the preceding fall [from the 1st Williamson expedition].

The most powerful people in the Chartiers and Cross Creek area had to know this army was being organized. There was direct connection to Colonel James Marshel- the County Lieutenant and militia commander whether or not he gave them orders. . Daniel Leet was a friend of General George Washington and other high placed men. These men were a cross section of the able bodied manhood of the area- and most especially from Washington County. In actual fact some of these men were very well off in land, money and position- but apparently were also fighters. This is proven by the fact that some of these men also went along as volunteers on the big summer 1782 expedition to try to kill off the various Indian tribes at Upper Sandusky [the Crawford Expedition].

Home Locality of the men;


The men of the Fourth Battalion of Washington County Militia on these lists were scattered all over Washington County as well as East of the rivers in Westmoreland County and west into the panhandle of (West) Virginia ? and a few were even living illegally beyond the Ohio River in Indian country. Some clearly lived out of Washington County both East and West. One third were found on the 1781 tax lists and over half in 1783 on Washington County tax lists. Another half dozen lived East of the rivers, and a few more illegally west of the rivers. Only fifteen remain completely unmentioned on the lists searched here. Those fifteen are unlisted who may have been transients, newcomers or underage volunteers too young to tax or own land.

Among those located in Washington County twenty-five percent came from Cecil Township on both tax lists. Cecil was the political power center of the county. Cecil Township included the most men with military and social titles on the tax list. Colonel Dorsey Pentecost the wealthy elected representative to the Pennsylvania government; and Colonel John Neville another rich and powerful man both lived in Cecil Township as did numerous others of wealth and power. This was the ?Shurtee? area, ( the population center of the area drained by Chartiers Creek) or the ?ssscotch? settlement.

In the 1781 list the second largest number were from Hopewell (13) and Strabane (13); and second in 1783 were from Hopewell (19). Those three townships are clustered together in the middle of Washington County. Hopewell is the township where both Colonel David Williamson and Colonel James Marshel, the County Lieutenant lived. The largest number of these may have come from the Cross Creek area- or that area surrounding where the Colonels Williamson and Marshel lived- which might be considered the center of military power. In this way the expedition was largely from the centers of political and military power of the area west of the mountains.

While no township went unrepresented among the men we could find there were zeros in both years in a couple of townships. In 1781 the townships with zero were Bethlehem and Fallowfield; and in 1783 townships having none listed are Cumberland, Greene and Morgan, all in the southern portion now Greene County.

The fact that these men were scattered all over the area raises a question as to whether the Fourth Battalion was a group of volunteers who assembled hastily as Doddridge has said, or a pre-organized organization. The fact that some had been officers in both the militia and the Continental Line and traveled as Privates on this expedition makes that question even more poignant. It is also clear that some men joined this expedition without being on militia duty and without military rank. It seems that some were just passing through or showed up just for the expedition after some years of fighting in the East. Some joined for the goal whatever it was. Others went along specifically because of their families or friends having been killed. Robert Wallace is the most obvious example of that. This was not just a minimal response of reluctant men but a major volunteer response of everyone who heard of it and wanted to go. It was all out major war.

The fact that two of the county sub- lieutenants, Daniel Leet and Matthew Ritchie, went along as privates; and Jacob Miller usually a major in Virginia militia went along without apparent rank is of special interest. This is difficult to explain in the understandings of 200 years ago. Among volunteers was it just a matter of being part of the objective? Is this just a very leveling or democratic act on their part? Were they men who carried rank lightly and didn?t care about it? They were obviously willing volunteers, but it is difficult to know in their terms how this happened.

Furthermore, more than twenty of these men had seen war service in the Continental Lines of several states, particularly Virginia and Pennsylvania. There may be many more who served in Continental units. Many of them had serious militia service. For the war in the East .men had been supplied or gone from the area west of the mountains to serve there. Some were veterans of battles against the British, Indians and loyalists. This was not an army of beginners, but of men of considerable frontier and regular army fighting experience.

We have shown that in some few instances where these men lived long enough to make applications for pensions under the laws of 1818 and 1832 only one could be found who mentioned specifically his involvement in this expedition which he called a ?skirmish? (William Baxter). After searching fifty pension applications of likely participants William Baxter is unique in this respect. His pension application was mentioned by Lyman Draper who noted Baxter?s candor.[93] That suggests that the participants were either ashamed of it, wanted to forget it, or didn?t want that service known or used as qualification for a pension.


The army that left by tacit approval


From the subsequent action of Colonel Gibson in temporary command of the Fort; and known to be sympathetic to the Indians it is evident that this army was able to get away quietly and unknown to him. This could only be done with the cooperation and approval of the many people of the area who did not go along. Some of this can be deduced by looking at the number of men who came from the river townships. In 1782 the townships which bordered on the Ohio River NW of the Fort Pitt were Robinson and Peters, and those around the corner on the Monongahelia were the small Nottingham and the big Fallowfield Townships. Cecil Township was just behind and between Nottingham and Peters. This research shows that 30 or more men were from Cecil Township. Cecil Township residents in this army included two of the County Lieutenants: Daniel Leet and Matthew Ritchie. Two or three men were from each of Robinson, Peters and Nottingham Townships. It would be difficult if not impossible to gather up 40 men and move them Southwest on horseback without attracting the notice of numerous other people. Cecil Township was fairly populated with important people. There were only a couple of trails through the area along which most of the men had to travel. It is interesting to note that a third County Lieutenant of the time from Cecil Township, William Cochran, did not go along. There was apparently some choice in the matter of whether to be a volunteer. So, it seems evident that there had to be collusion and approval by other people living there who did not report this immediately to the Fort. This suggests further that many or most of the people in Cecil Township who knew of the army approved of their mission.


An All Volunteer Army


It is only on the alleged statement of Joseph Vance who was on this expedition, the operator of Vance?s Fort, made years later that this raid was planned in advance at his place. There is no corroborating evidence on that from someone who was there. Maybe, it was planned to take place as early as the river ice went out. That may account for the composition of the companies. It is clear that these men were volunteers who gathered in a hurry after the first Indian raids of the early spring. The men likely started around Chartiers. The volunteer nature of this militia army is even reported by John Struthers, a man who was in the area and declined to go along.[94] William Baxter, a participant, also says it was a volunteer operation.

The instigators of this expedition knew that if they moved fast while General Irvine was out of communication they could get away before the Fort knew about it. The leaders knew that General Irvine had turned the fort over to Colonel Gibson on January 15, and left for his home in Carlisle, Pa. Numerous men from Cross Creek and other settlements in Hopewell Township where Colonels Marshel and Williamson lived joined the group as it made its way down to Wheeling and on to Mingo Bottom. As they crossed through the Virginia Panhandle a few more men joined them. When they got to the Ohio River word got out about the large expedition going up the Muskingum. John Carpenter and other men who were settled illegally west of the Ohio joined them.

This army did get away unbeknownst to Colonel John Gibson in temporary command of Fort Pitt while General Irvine was away. It is said that when Col. Gibson learned of their aims he sent a messenger to warn the Moravian Indians in their villages, but that the messenger got there too late. That suggests that this group moved fast without knowledge of the command at the fort, and got across the Ohio River into Indian Territory before news got to the Fort. That answers the question as to why Colonel Gibson did not stop them whether or not he could have.

It is clear that this tragic event was hidden from public scrutiny by its perpetrators almost completely except for word of mouth. It is likely that the most volatile and brutal among them threatened the others to remain silent. It is also possible that shame and guilt served to keep men silent, and that having men of high military and social status participating in the killing intimidated many. There is a pattern even into old age that some forgot to mention their involvement even in pension applications where a service record was required.

This research clearly shows that this volunteer army included men of all stations in life including men of property and position who were willing to go along as privates to get the job done (whatever it was intended to be). The task was enough of a priority as far as they were concerned that rank and position did not matter for this hastily organized expedition. That is the Fourth Battalion, Washington County militia of the First week of March, 1782.

It is also clear that this expedition afterwards did not give peace of mind or a sense of security to some of the men and their families in the area. Thomas Montgomery (TLM) has printed several petitions or informational bulletins of prominent men who lived around Well?s Fort and mill issued just after this tragic event. Forty six men signed these petitions eight of whom had been on this expedition namely; Henry Nelson, Walter Hill, Morris West, Thomas Shannon, John Carpenter, Aaron Sackett, Henry Graham and Joseph Vance. They wanted a few soldiers to guard the mill claiming it not only supplied them with flour for bread, but also supplied flour for the militia. They felt that the soldiers guarding the river were not enough to protect the mill. They obviously didn?t have a sense of security even after the killing of the Moravians.


Final Judgement


There ought to be some final word on the infamy of these murders however gratuitous that might be 200 years later. It was suggested by other men who were in the area at the time that these men were cowards trying to avoid further service in the army being raised by General George Rogers Clark. A well known old fighter of the French and Indian War and the Revolution published in 1812 that ?this was an act of barbarity equal to anything I ever knew to be committed by the savages themselves, excepting the burning of prisoners.[95] Captain Henry Jolly late in life estimated that they were cowards for what they did.[96] Those are interesting viewpoints for men who were themselves frontiersman of that time and place. General William Irvine was circumspect to openly express his judgement of these acts of murder, but the General does call it a ?barbarity? in his letter of May 9, 1782 to the President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania.[97] There is no way now for the men who did this killing to explain or defend themselves.

There is evidence that it was an act of desperation. Native American opinion of the time is difficult to find, but contemporary Native American opinion would call this genocide. This has been represented to me by Dr. Barbara Alice Mann of the University of Toledo. This is not the place to try to explain this killing. There is no way for us 200 years later to justify the killing of innocent men, women and children who along with their European missionary teachers were friends of the cause of the very Americans who killed them. .









[1] W. H. Egle, editor; Pennsylvania Archives, 2S:14:753-754 and 6S:2:257-258.


[2] Louise Martin Mohler, The Massacre at Gnadenhutten, 1782, (Washington: Washington County Historical Society , 1986) mimeographed, 8 pages.

[3] J. D. Schopf, Travels in the United States: (Erlangen, Palm, 1788) and translated in English by Alfred Morrison as Travels in the Confederation, (Franklin, New York, 1968)153.

[4] Joseph Doddridge, Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars (Clarksburg W. Va, 1824); ( reprint. Pittsburgh: Ritenour and Lindsey, Pittsburgh, 1912) 201.

[5] Doddridge 188.


[6] Isaac Craig, letter to Boyd Crumrine, 26 October, 1881; Papers of Boyd Crumrine, Archives of Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pennsylvania.

[7] Consul W. Butterfield, Washington-Irvine Correspondence, (Madison, 1882) 239.


[8] W.H.Egle, editor; Pennsylania Archives, (Harrisburg: Myers, 1888) 2S:14:753-754.


[9] Thomas L. Montgomery, editor; Pennsylvania Archives (Harrisburg: Ray, 1906), 6S:2:257-258.


[10] William Farrar, ?The Moravian Massacre,? Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 3(1900) 297.


[11] Mohler 3-6.


[12] Montgomery, Archives 6S:2:135-139.


[13] Butterfield, Correspondence Appendix J, 277-320.


[14] Butterfield, 281-282.

[15] Paul W. Myers, Washington Co. Pa Frontier Rangers 1781-1782, (Apollo: Closson, 1987).


[16] Consul. W. .Butterfield, Historical Account of the Expedition Against Sandusky, ( Cincinnati: Clark, 1873) 24.


[17] Raymond M. Bell, letter to the author, Coralville, Iowa; 22 Nov, 1998.


18 Raymond Bell and Katherine Zinsser, The 1783 Tax Lists for Washington Co., Pa:, (Bowie: Heritage,1988).


[19] Raymond M. Bell, ?Dates of Settlement from Virginia Certificates-Washington County, Pa.?

National Genealogical Society Quarterly, 45(11957)132-136.

Raymond M. Bell, ?Virginia Land Grants in Pennsylvania,? Virginia Genealogist, 7(11963) 78-83, 103-


Raymond M. Bell, ?Settlement Dates, Washington Co., Pa.? National Genealogical Society Quarterly,

54(1966), 222-224.


[20] William Egle, editor Pennsylvania Archives (Harrisburg: Ray, 1897)3S:26:531-624. Jonathan Steyer of the Commonwealth Land Office, Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg said on 1 Sept., 1999 that this index is not accurate, and only some of the warrants give the township location of the land. Since the warrants are not available on microfilm with an index the thousands of warrants would have to be searched by hand in Harrisburg.


[21] George C. Williston, ?Desperation on the Western Pennsylvania Frontier: A 1781 Petition to Congress for More Effective Defense? Pennsylvania History 67: 7, Spring, 2000 298-312 .


[22] ? Selected Records from Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Application Files,? (microfilm) (Washington: National Archives and Records Service, 1969), roll 40.

There are almost 900 rolls of microfilm in this series all alphabetical, and only occasionally page numbers can be seen.


[23] Selected Records, roll 64.


[24] Isaac Craig.


[25] Allen W. Eckert, The Frontiersman (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967) 251.


[26] Randall Wilkins of Wapatomica Productions, Sierra Madre Ca makes this allegation. Mr. Wilkins was asked for the evidence, and suggested in a letter to the author 31 March, 2001 that the source was Allan Eckert as noted above and the Lyman Draper MSS. The published index to the Draper MSS which are in the Wisconsin Historical Society poor as it is only lists a Bolderback in Ree 11. That is the only possible indexed reference. Most of reel 11 was tediously searched without discovery of the evidence for this claim. We conclude that there is no evidence for the claim of Eckert or Wilkins on this matter which Mr. Wilkins himself says in his letter of 31 March, 2001as follows: ?The source is, as far as I know, unsubstantiated by any others as well as being a possible second or third-person account, making it dubious as historical record.?..


[27] Isaac Craig.


[28] Williston 9 .


[29] Recollections, 85.


[30] Jared C. Lobdell, Recollections of Lewis Bonnet Jr., (Bowie: Heritage, 1991)85 [from the Draper MSS at the Wisconsin Historical society] and L.V.McWhorter, The Border Settlers of Northwestern Virginia (Hamilton: G.P.C., 1975)419.


[31] Jared C. Lobdell, ?Further Materials on Lewis Wetzel? (Bowie: Heritage, 1994) 92 [from the Lyman Draper MSS].


[32] Egle, 1897, 406.


[33] Robert H. Richardson, Tilton Territory-Warren Township, Jefferson County, Ohio (Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1977)78, 81 and Louise M. Mohler, Personal Lineage sent to the author.


[34] Charles McKnight, Our Western Border (Phildelphia: McCurdy, 1876) 403-417.


[35] Selected Records, roll 213.


[36] Boyd Crumrine, History of Washington County, Pa (Phildelphia: Everts, 1882) 689.


[37] W.T.R. Saffell, Records of the Revolutionary War (Baltimore: C.C.Saffell, 1894) 280-284, and

(Bowie:Heritage, 1999) reprint.


[38] Selected Records roll 328, pp431-435.


[39] Selected Records roll 328.


[40] James Simpson, History of the Cross Creek Graveyard and the Cross Creek Cemetery 1894, 1942 and (Parsons, McClain, 1969) 54.


[41] James Simpson 60.

[42] Selected Records, roll 419, pages 46-50.


[43] Isaac Craig


[44] Forrest, 137 and Farrar, 295.


[45] Selected Records, roll 473.


[46] Kate Rowland The Life of George Mason (New York: Putnam, 1892) I:214. In this letter George Mason refers to a Mr. Leet as one of two surveyors of the 200,000 acres men of the Ohio Company hoped to secure for themselves in a business venture.


[47] Saffel, 392.


[48] Isaac Craig


45 Egle, 1897, 459...


[50] Boyd Crumrine 481, 703, 863, 984.


[51] Selected Records, roll 554.


[52] Alvin D. White, History of the Cross Creek Presbyterian Church (Parsons: McClain, 1969) 19.


[53] Boyd Crumrine, 226.

[54] Forrest, 138 and Farrar, 295.

[55] Selected Records, roll 556, pp 767-770.

[56] Selected Records, roll 558


[57] John Fitzpatrick, Diaries of Washington (Boston 1925) 2:294.


[58] Selected Records, roll 566.


[59] Lobdell, Further Materials 6, Crumrine 111 and Louise Mohler, Personal Lineage.


[60] Fitzpatrick 295.


[61] James Simpson 68.

[62] Saffell 282.


[63] Lester H. Smith, Early Day Settlers on Dutch Fork typewritten manuscript, 1948: 44-48 [Wooster, Ohio Public Library].

[64] J.C.Lobdell, Indian Warfare in Western Pennsylvania and NorthWest Virginia at the Time of the American Revolution (Bowie: Heritage, 1992) 75 ].[from the memoirs of Captain Henry Jolly given to Lyman Draper 1838].

[65] Richardson 95.


[66] Alice Walker, letter to the author, from Blue Mound, Kansas 9 April, 1999.


[67] Saffell 282.


[68] Fitzpatrick 2:296.


[69] Selected Records, roll 680.


[70] Fitzpatrick 2:296.


[71] Dwight R. Guthrie, John McMillan (Pittsburgh: U.P. Press, 1952) 53,87,141,172,173 and

Richard H. Kohn, Eagle and Sword (New York: MacMillan, 1975) 165.


[72] Richard H. Kohn Eagle and Sword (New York: Macmillan, 1975) 165.


[73] Crumrine, 207.

[74] Consul W. Butterfield, Historical Account of the Expedition Against Sandusky (Cincinnati: Clarke, 1873) 126.


[75] Selected Records, roll 768.


[76] James Simpson 77.


[77] Reported by E.Irene Taylor, Cannonsburg, Pa, 1997.-not a descendent.


[78] Farrar 296.


[79] Simpson 81.


[80] Egle, 1897,520


[81] Lobdell, Further Materials 92.


[82] Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts, The Draper Manuscript Collection (Chicago: Regenstein Library, 1980)

Roll 11: Vol 4, page 21.


[83] Burkham quotes Colonel Williamson to Draper in Lobdell: Further Materials ,92. This is important as this is the only report of this remark by Colonel David Williamson, and probably cannot be corroborated.


[84] Selected Records, roll 40.


[85] Simpson 62.


[86] Selected Records, roll 879.

[87] Butterfield, Washington-Irvine Correspondence 99 [letter of April 20, 1782 to General Washington].


[88] Lobdell, Further Materials 92.


[89] Eckert The Frontiersman 246-252.

[90] Allen W. Eckert That Dark And Bloody River (New York: Bantam, 1996) 312-322.

[91] S. T. Wiley ?The Scotch Irish in Western Pennsylvania,? The Scotch Irish In America, Third Congress (Nashville: M.E.Church, South, 1891) 234 and Robert Garland ?The Scotch-Irish In Western Pennsylvania? Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 6(April, 1923) 65-105 [Garland lists many of the family names}.


[92] Gregory Knouff ?Soldiers and Violence on the Pennsylvania Frontier? in Frantz and Pencak Beyond Philadelphia (University Park: Penn State U Press, 1998) 187, 190, 191,193.


[93] A name given by Jean S. Morris.


[94] John C. Dann, The Revolution Remembered (Chicago: U of C Press, 1980) 256.


[95] Colonel James Smith, The Mode and Manner of Indian War (Paris, Ky: 1812) 46.


[96] Lobdell, Recollections 26, 77


[97] Butterfield, Washington-Irvine Correspondence 244.




The author is indebted to Louise Martin Mohler for the identification of the major lists which were eventually re-discovered by the author, and the method that she used. Louise Mohler encouraged further investigation and development of what she had begun, and carefully edited the manuscript. The author is indebted to Jean S. Morris for the name that she added. There is indebtedness as well as Irene Taylor of Cannonsburg, Pa. There is further indebtedness to John C. Harriman and others of the Clements Library at the University of Michigan for courtesies extended to an amateur. In a similar vein one must remember Bonnie Knox of the local Wayne County Library. Other libraries open to the author?s free use included: Wooster College, Ohio Genealogical Society, Washington Pennsylvania Public Library, Library of Michigan, the University of Michigan and that of Washington and Jefferson University.



Researched, written and Copyright 2000, 2001 by George C. Williston

The author would be interested in the names of other men of this army,

Or any family stories about the tragic event.
Permission granted for any genealogical usage.