MUSKINGUM COUNTY was formed March 1, 1804, from Washington and Fairfield. The word Muskingum, said Kilbourn’s Gazetteer, “is said to signify in the old Indian language an elk’s eye, or the glare of an elk’s eye.” Col. John Johnston stated that “Muskingum is a Delaware word and means a town on the river side. The Shawanese call it Wa-ka-tamo sepe, which has the same signification.” The surface is rolling or hilly, and clay the predominating soil. The ancient works are numerous. It is a rich and thickly settled county.
Area about 650 square miles. In 1887 the acres cultivated were 101,104; in pasture, 184,065; woodland, 61,850; lying waste, 3,428; produced in wheat, 301,744 bushels; rye, 5,807; buckwheat, 492; oats, 225,726; barley, 3,205; corn, 1,029,912; broom corn, 523 lbs. brush; meadow hay, 43,616 tons; clover hay, 2,971; potatoes, 81,149 bushels; tobacco, 300 lbs.; butter, 867,128; sorghum, 4,070 gallons; maple syrup, 1,733; honey, 5,662 lbs.; eggs, 91,200 dozen; grapes, 43,782 lbs.; wine, 794 gallons; sweet potatoes, 5,361 bushels; apples, 9,525; peaches, 9,474; pears, 2,832; wool, 746,478 lbs.; milch cows owned, 8,590. Ohio mining statistics, 1888: Coal, 211,861 tons, employing 400 miners and 56 outside employees; fire-clay, 840 tons; limestone, 4,001 tons burned for lime; 23,634 tons burned for fluxing; 2,120 cubic feet of dimension stone; 2,021 cubic yards of building stone; 1,620 square feet of paving; 9,248 lineal feet of curbing. School census, 1888, 15,637; teachers, 348. Miles of railroad track, 156.
Township and Census Table
Population of Muskingum in 1820 was 17,824; 1830, 29,335; 1840, 38,746; 1860, 44,416; 1880, 49,774, of whom 40,798 were born in Ohio; 1,996, Pennsylvania; 1,575, Virginia; 339, New York; 154, Indiana; 90, Kentucky; 1,508, German Empire; 840, Ireland; 430 England and Wales; 113, France; 42, Scotland; 37, British America; and 5, Sweden and Norway. Census of 1890, 51,210.
lived and died. He drew 4,000 acres for his military services, and the location embraced within its limits the ancient town plot of the natives.
THE WAKATOMACA CAMPAIGN.
The annexed narrative of an expedition against Wakatomaca is from Doddridge’s Notes.
Under the command of Colonel Angus McDONALD, four hundred men were collected from the western part of Virginia by the order of the Earl of Dunmore, the then Governor of Virginia. The place of rendezvous was Wheeling, some time in the month of June, 1774. They went down the river in boats and canoes to the mouth of the Captina, from thence by the shortest route to the Wakatomaca town, about sixteen miles below the present Coshocton. The pilots were Jonathan ZANE, Thomas NICHOLSON and Tady KELLY. About six miles from the town the army were met by a party of Indians to the number of forty or fifty, who gave a skirmish by the way of ambuscade, in which two of our men were killed and eight or nine wounded. One Indian was killed and several wounded. It was supposed that several more of them were killed but they were carried off. When the army came to the town it was found evacuated; the Indians had retreated to the opposite shore of the river where they had formed an ambuscade, supposing the party would cross the river from the town. This was immediately discovered. The commanding officer then sent sentinels up and down the river to give notice in case the Indians should attempt to cross above or below the town. A private in the company of Captain CRESSAP, of the name of John HARGUS, one of the sentinels below the town, displayed the skill of a backwoods sharpshooter. Seeing an Indian behind a blind across the river raising up his head at times to look over the river, HARGUS charged his rifle with a second ball and taking deliberate aim passed both balls through the neck of the Indian. The Indians dragged off the body and buried it with the honors of war. It was found the next morning and scalped by HARGUS.
Soon after the town was taken the Indians from the opposite shore sued for peace. The commander offered them peace on condition of their sending over their chiefs as hostages. Five of them came over the river and were put under guard as hostages. In the morning they were marched in front of the army over the river. When the party had reached the western bank of the Muskingum the Indians represented that they could not make peace without the presence of the chiefs of the other towns. On which one of the chiefs was released to bring in the others. He did not return in the appointed time. Another chief was permitted to go on the same errand, who in like manner did not return. The party then moved up the river to the next town, which was about a mile above the first and on the opposite shore. Here we had a slight skirmish with the Indians, in which one of them was killed and one of our men wounded. It was then discovered that during all the time spent in negotiation the Indians were employed in removing their women and children, old people and effects, from the upper towns. The towns were burned and the corn cut up. The party then returned to the place from which they set out, bringing with them the three remaining chiefs, who were sent to Williamsburgh. They were released at the peace the succeeding fall.
The army were out of provisions before they left the towns and had to subsist on weeds, one ear of corn each day, with a very scanty supply of game. The corn was obtained at one of the Indian towns.—Doddridge’s Notes.
Additional to the above we give the Reminiscences of Abraham Thomas, published in the Troy Times, about 1839. He was on this expedition, and, later, among the early settlers of Miami county.
The collected force consisted of four hundred men. I was often at their encampment; and against the positive injunctions of my parents, could not resist my inclination to join them. At this time I was eighteen years of age, owned my own rifle and accoutrements, and had long been familiar with the use of them. Escaping, I made the best possible provision I could from my own resources and hastened to enter as a volunteer under old Mike, then Captain CRESSAP.
tomahawk, on which McDONALD came towards me swearing, with an uplifted cane, threatened to strike. I instantly rose on my feet with the rifle barrel in my hand and stood in an attitude of defence. We looked at each other in the eye for some time; at last he dropped his cane and walked off, while the whole troop set up a laugh, crying, “The boy has scared the colonel.” CRESSAP heard what was going on and approached to defend me, but seeing how well I could defend myself stood by, smiling at the fracas. The colonel having no reputation as an Indian fighter was very naturally disliked as a leader by CRESSAP and the men.
The Attack.—From this encampment we proceeded towards the Indian villages with the intention of surprising them; but late in the afternoon before we reached them we encountered the Indians lying in ambush on the top of a second bottom. We had just crossed a branch, and were marching along its first bottom with a view of finding some place to cross a swamp that lay between us and the upper bottom. The men were marching in three parallel, Indian-file columns, some distance apart. On espying a trace across the swamp, the heads of the columns, in passing it, were thrown together, and as soon as they had gained the bank, unexpectedly received the fire of the enemy. The troops immediately deployed to the right and left, under the bank, and commenced ascending it, when the skirmish became general and noisy for about thirty minutes. The Indians then gave way in every direction. In this fight we had four or five killed and many wounded; it was supposed the Indians suffered much more.
During the engagement, while I was ascending the point of a bank formed by a ravine from the second bottom, in company with two men, MARTIN and FOX, all aiming to gain the cover of some large oak trees on the top, they both fell. The first was killed, the last wounded in the breast, the ball having entered the bone, but was drawn out with the clothes. These men were walking in a line with each other, and an Indian chief, concealed behind the tree for which I was aiming, shot them both with one ball. I took no notice whence the ball came, and hastened to the tree. Just as I had gained it the chief fell dead from the other side and rolled at my feet. It seems a neighbor, who had seen him fire at MARTIN and FOX, and dodge behind the tree, stood ready to give him a shot whenever he should again make his appearance. The Indian had got his ball haft down and peeped out to look at me, when Wilson shot him in the head.
Cowardice of McDonald.—The Indians retreated towards Wakatomaca, flanked by two companies in hot pursuit. We followed in the rear, and as the last Indian was stepping out of the water, Capt. TEABAUGH, a great soldier and a good marksman, brought him to the ground. I was at the time standing near TEABAUGH, and shall never forget the thrilling emotion produced by this incident.
During this battle one of the man, Jacob NEWBOLD, saw the colonel lying snug behind a fallen tree, sufficiently remote from danger, had there been no defence. It was immediately noised among the men, who were in high glee at the joke. One would cry out, “Who got behind the log?” when an hundred voices were reply, “The colonel! The colonel!” At this McDONALD became outrageous. I heard him inquire for the man who had raised the report, and threatened to punish him. I went round and told NEWBOLD what the colonel had said. “That’s your sort,” said he. Raising on his feet and going towards the colonel, he declared he did see him slink behind the log during the battle. He gave his rifle to a man standing by, cut some hickories and stood on the defence, at which the whole company roared with laughter and the colonel took himself off to another part of the line. Night was now at hand, and the division was ordered by the colonel to encamp in an oak woods, in sight of the Indian villages, CRESSAP’s party lying by themselves. This evening Jack HAYES was spying down the creek, saw an Indian looking at us through the forks of a low tree. He levelled his rifle and shot him directly between the eyes, and brought him into camp.
Flight of the Indians.—Just after nightfall Col. McDONALD was hailed from over the creek by an Indian, who implored peace in behalf of his tribe. He was invited over by the colonel, who held a parley with him, but declined entering into terms until more Indians were present. It was then proposed that if two white men would go with the Indians, they would send over two more of their number to us; but none being willing to undertake the visit, two came over and stayed all night in colonel’s tent. But their only object was to watch the troops and gain time to remove their families and effects from the town. Capt. CRESSAP was up the whole night among his men, going the rounds and cautioning them to keep their arms in condition for a morning attack, which he confidently expected. About two hours before daybreak he silently formed his men, examined each rifle, and led them across the creek into the villages, leaving McDONALD, with the other troops, in the encampment. At this time the Indians who had passed the night in the camp escaped. The village was directly surrounded, and the SAVAGES fled from it into the adjoining thicket in the utmost consternation. In this attack none were killed on either side but one Indian by Capt. CRESSAP.
An older brother and one or two others kept encouraging me. One of them had a good stock of tobacco. I saw him take it, and with an earnestness bordering on delirium insisted on having some. As I had never used it before they refused, thinking it would entirely disable me; but as I was so importunate they at last gave me a small piece. I directly felt relieved. They gave me more, and in a short time my strength and spirits returned. I took my arms and baggage, and was able to travel with the rest of them, and was actually the first to reach the Ohio.
Here we met the boats, but nothing in them but corn in the ear. Every man was soon at work with his tomahawk, crushing it on the stones and mixing it with water in gourds or leaves fashioned in the shape of cups, while some provident ones enjoyed the aristocratic luxury of tin cups; but all seemed alike to relish the repast. A party of us crossed the Ohio that day for the settlement, when we came up with a drove of hogs in tolerable order. We shot one and eat him on the spot, without criticising with much nicety the mode or manner of preparation. Indeed, the meat of itself was so savory and delicious we thought of little else. In a few days I returned to my parents and after a little domestic storming and much juvenile vaunting of our exploits, settled down to clearing.
The following historical sketch of Zanesville is from a series of editorial articles in the Zanesville Gazette of 1835. In May, 1796, Congress passed a law authorizing Ebenezer ZANE to open a road from Wheeling, in Virginia, to Limestone, now Maysville, Ky. In the following year Mr. ZANE, accompanied by his brother, Jonathan ZANE, and his son-in-law, John McINTYRE, both experienced woodsmen, proceeded to mark out the new road, which was afterwards cut out by the two latter. The cutting out, however, was a very hasty business, in which nothing more was attempted than to make the road passable for horsemen. As a compensation for opening this road, Congress granted to Ebenezer the privilege of locating military warrants upon three sections of land, not to exceed one mile square each; the first of these to be at the crossing of the Muskingum, the second at the Hockhocking, and the third at the Scioto. It has been generally said that these were free grants to Mr. ZANE for opening the road; but an examination of the law will show that it was only a permission for Mr. ZANE to locate his warrant on land which had not been appropriated to that purpose.
Mr. ZANE first proposed to cross the Muskingum at Duncan’s falls; but foreseeing the value of the hydraulic power created by the falls where Zanesville now stands, he crossed the river at that point, and thus became entitled to a section of land embracing the falls. Regarding the fertility of the soil and the beauty of the vicinity, his next choice was selected where Lancaster has since been built, rather than at the crossing of what now bears the name of Rush creek, which is really the main branch of the Hockhocking. At the Scioto he was obliged to locate his warrant on the eastern side of the river, as the western shore lay within the Virginia military district. His location was made nearly opposite to Chillicothe. These choice tracks would no doubt have all been taken up before that time, but they had not been surveyed and brought into market. The country east of the Muskingum, and for some distance west also, being hilly and comparatively poor, this was thought to be the least valuable section of the three, and E. ZANE gave it to his brother Jonathan and J. McINTIRE, for assisting him and opening the road.
here weekly. Four years after, a number of families having settled here, a regular post-office was opened, and Thomas Dowden appointed postmaster, who kept his office in a wooden building near the river, on Front street.
Zanesville Laid Out.—In 1799 Messrs. ZANE and McINTIRE laid out the town, which they called Westbourn, a name which it continued to bear until a post-office was established by the postmaster-general, under the name of ZANESVILLE, and the village soon took the same name. A few families from the Kanawha settled on the west side of the river soon after McCULLOCH arrived, and the settlement received pretty numerous accessions until it became a point of importance. It contained one store and no tavern. The latter inconvenience, however, was remedied by Mr. McINTIRE, who, for public accommodation rather than for private emolument, opened a house of entertainment. It is due to Mr. McINTIRE and his lady to say that their accommodations, though in a log-cabin, were such as to render their house the traveller’s home. Prior to that time there were several grogshops where travellers might stop, and after partaking of a rude supper they could spread their blankets and bearskins on the floor, and sleep with their feet to the fire, but the opening of Mr. McINTIRE’S house introduced the luxury of comfortable beds, and although his board was covered with the fruits of the soil and the chase rather than the luxuries of foreign climes, the fare was various and abundant. This, the first hotel of Zanesville, stood at what is now the corner of Market and Second streets, a few rods from the river, in an open maple grove without any underbrush. It was a pleasant spot, well shaded with trees, and in full view of the falls. The engraving was made from the description of one who knew it well.
Louis Philippe, the Present King of France, was once a guest of Mr. McINTIRE. The Hon. Lewis CASS, in his “Camp and Court of Louis Philippe,” thus alludes to the circumstance:
“At Zanesville the party found the comfortable cabin of Mr. McINTIRE, whose name has been preserved in the king’s memory, and whose house was a favorite place of rest and refreshment for all the travellers who at this early period were compelled to traverse that part of the country. And if these pages should chance to meet the eyes of any of those who, like the writer, have passed many a pleasant hour under the roof of this uneducated but truly worthy and respectable man, he trusts they will unite in this tribute to his memory.”
At that time all the iron, nails, castings, flour, fruit, with many other articles now produced here in abundance, were brought from Pittsburg and Wheeling, either upon pack-horses across the country or by the river in canoes. Oats and corn were usually brought about fifty miles up the river in canoes, and were worth from 75 cents to $1 per bushel; flour, $6 to $8 per barrel. In 1802 David HARVEY opened a tavern at the intersection of Third and Main streets, which was about the first shingle-roofed house in the town. Mr. McINTIRE, having only kept entertainment for public accommodation, discontinued after the opening of Mr. HARVEY’S tavern.
In 1804, when the legislature passed an act establishing the county of Muskingum, the commissioners appointed to select a site for the county-seat reported in favor of Zanesville. The buildings were yet few in number and the streets and lots were principally covered with the native growth; but the citizens, in order to put on the best appearance possible, turned out, while Zanesville was yet a candidate (if we may so speak) for the county-seat, and cut out the bushes from some of the principal streets, and especially from the public square, that the situation might appear to the best possible advantage in the eyes of the commissioners. Some were anxious that the county-seat should be at Coshocton, and others preferred the CASS section above Dresden, but Zanesville was finally selected, but in part because it was so near Marietta, as to render any county between the two places forever unnecessary. Muskingum included within its original limits the present counties of Muskingum and Coshocton, besides the greater part of what now constitutes the counties of Holmes, Tuscarawas and Guernsey, and a part of Perry, Morgan, Monroe and Carroll.
The County-Seat having been established, the town improved more rapidly, and as the unappropriated United States military lands had been brought into market during the preceding year (1803), and a land-office established at Zanesville, many purchases and settlements were made in the county. The first court in Zanesville sat in Harvey’s tavern. In a short time afterwards a wooden jail was erected, and also a wooden building, the lower part of which served as a residence for the sheriff and his family, and the upper room was used as a court-room and as a place for all public meetings, political or religious. These buildings stood between the site of the present court-house and jail, and were afterwards burnt down by a negro, who was confined on a charge of larceny.
ZANESVILLE IN 1846.
The following sketch of Zanesville and its resources was written for our original edition by MR. URIAH PARKE, editor of the Courier. He was one of the solid, substantial men of the Ohio of that day, strong in character and strong in physique, whom we remember with much pleasure.
ZANESVILLE has long been regarded as one of the principal towns in the State, and once bid fair to yield the palm only to Cincinnati. But the extensive internal improvements of the State have built up her rivals, while they have cut off, to some extent, her trade, and checked the rapidity of her growth. Zanesville, however, has advantages and resources which, when fully developed, must again give her a prominent place among the cities of the State.
Zanesville is beautifully situated on the east bank, in a bend of the Muskingum river, about 80 miles above its mouth by water, and 65 miles by land. It is 54 miles east of Columbus, at the point where the National Road crosses the Muskingum, and opposite the mouth of the Licking. The Muskingum seems once to have run nearly in a right line, from which, however, it has gradually diverged to the westward, forming a horse-shoe curve, and depositing, through successive centuries, an alluvion of gravel, sand, etc., of great depth, on which Zanesville now stands. In sweeping around this curve, through the space of about 1¾ miles, the river falls 8 or 10 feet, and by the aid of a dam a fall of between 16 and 17 feet is obtained, thus furnishing very extensive water power, which is used for hydraulic purposes. Near the toe of the shoe, Licking creek, or river, discharges her waters from the west, and while above the mouth of Licking, West Zanesville, containing some three hundred inhabitants, is located, South Zanesville, with nearly the same population, is situated immediately below. Farther down the curve, and separated from South Zanesville by a bluff, is the beautiful village of Putnam, containing about 1,000 or 1,200 inhabitants. A substantial and handsome bridge connects Zanesville and Putnam, while less than half a mile above, another similar bridge is thrown from Zanesville Main street, to a point in the stream, where the bridge forks, and one branch connects, on the route of the National or Cumberland road, with South Zanesville, while the other connects with West Zanesville and the roads leading off in that direction.
The Cumberland Road, constructed by the national government, and originally designed to run from the town of Cumberland, in Maryland, at the eastern foot of the Allegheny mountains, indefinitely westward, as the country becomes settled, crosses the Muskingum river at Zanesville, bearing upon it a constant and immense travel; while the Muskingum, made navigable for steamboats by dams, locks and short canals, opens a trade southward to the Ohio, and northward to the Ohio canal, near Dresden, which is 16 miles above, by water. The low level of the Ohio canal, between Licking and Portage summits, passes within 2 miles of Dresden, and a navigable side-cut of 2½ miles connects the canal with the river, at that place, which is the head of steamboat navigation.
The Trade of Zanesville having, through the river and side-cut, reached the canal, is conveyed southward through the interior of the State, or northward to the lake, and thence through the New York canal, etc.; or leaving the Ohio canal, through the Sandy and Beaver, it may branch off towards Pittsburg and Philadelphia, before reaching Cleveland. The freight, however, designed for Pittsburg and other points on the Ohio, and for the South, is usually shipped down the river upon steamboats, and on entering the Ohio it may ascend or descend. One or more steamboats run regularly, during the business season, from Zanesville to Dresden, for the purpose of towing canal boats, carrying passengers, etc.; while others, of larger size, ply between Zanesville and Pittsburg, Cincinnati, New Orleans, etc.
lead to the free employment of steam power, and is almost exclusively used for fuel, except for cooking, and a good deal for that. But though Zanesville seems thus favored by nature with all the facilities for manufacturing, and art has constructed avenues of communication in every direction favorable to the procurement of the raw material and the transmission of manufactured goods, her citizens have not turned their attention heretofore so much as they might have done in that direction. Their former great advantages in the salt and wheat trade seem, with other circumstances not necessary to specify, to have shaped their course differently; but the silent workings of causes growing out of public improvement have satisfied business men that Zanesville must be made a manufacturing—a producing place—or diminish in importance; and a company is now, with praise-worthy spirit and enterprise, erecting a cotton mill, which, it is believed, will be the forerunner of many others. Zanesville should be the Lowell of the West; but this will never be brought about by old capitalists whose fortunes have been differently made, and whose thoughts have always run in other channels. A new population rising up and mingling with emigrants of skill and enterprise may do it; but it must be in despite of such as, having amassed wealth, would play the part of the dog in the manger.
At present there are in the above-mentioned cluster of towns five extensive flouring mills, two oil mills, four saw mills, one paper mill on the most recent and approved plan of machinery; five iron foundries, in active operation and two others not doing business at present; two manufactories of yellow-ware, of beautiful finish and much used for culinary purposes, two manufactories of glass, two of woollen goods, two machine ships, one last manufactory, with numerous other establishments of less note. There are five printing offices, four being in Zanesville and one in Putnam. At these are published the Gazette, weekly; the Courier, weekly and tri-weekly; the Aurora, weekly; the Western Recorder, weekly; the Lord’s Counterfeit Detector, monthly.
There are in Zanesville two Catholic churches, two Baptist, two Episcopal Methodist, one Protestant Methodist, three Lutheran, one Presbyterian, one Episcopalian, one Universalist and one African. Some of these are extensive and beautiful buildings. In Putnam there is a handsome Presbyterian church, of the New School order, and a spacious Episcopal Methodist church. For educational purposes there is an extensive female seminary in Putnam, designed as a boarding-school, and male and female district schools. South Zanesville and West Zanesville have district school buildings; and in Zanesville much attention has been bestowed upon that subject for a few years past. The founder of the town, JOHN McINTYRE, left his immense estate, now worth probably $200,000, to found and sustain a school for the benefit of the poor of Zanesville, and a handsome brick edifice has been erected for their accommodation. The town owns two large buildings, one for males, the other for females, in which schools are kept that acknowledge no superiors. Each building is capable of accommodating three hundred and fifty scholars; and the scholars under one general head are classified and placed in charge of assistants, but may, on any extraordinary occasion, be all brought into one room. The price of tuition for the wealthy is from fifty to seventy-five cents per quarter; the public money pays the rest. But the beauty of the system is, that such as are not able to pay are admitted to all the advantages enjoyed by the most wealthy, even to the learned languages, without money and without price. Every child, then, in Zanesville, is provided with the means of education.
There are in Zanesville upwards of thirty stores for the wholesaling and retailing of dry goods, besides hardware stores, wholesale and retail groceries, drug stores, confectionery establishments, shoe stores, hat stores, etc.