1800s Direct

1700s Direct

1900s Direct

1700s Branches

1800s Branches

1900s Branches

The 1800s
Expansion and Reconstruction

If you thought there were a lot of things going on before, try keeping up with the Nineteenth Century.  There was so much expansion it is hard to know who was what and where, much less how and why.  The world was coming to grips that there was so much more out there than Europe.  To be honest, I haven’t discussed anything about Asian, Middle Eastern, or Pacific dealings.  To sort through all the information could take a lifetime.   So I will only hit the highlights as related to our history and will go into a bit more depth in American History.  The Nineteenth Century was full of noteworthy individuals:  Writers such as Charles Dickens, Emily Dickenson, Benjamin Disraeli, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allen Poe, Mark Twain, Jules Verne, and Walt Whitman; Composers such as  Ludwig van Beethoven, Johannes Brahms, and Frederic Chopin; Philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, and Charles Darwin; Politicians and Leaders such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Ulysses S. Grant, Andrew Jackson, Thomas Jefferson, Robert E. Lee, Abraham Lincoln, and Queen Victoria; Scientists and Inventors such as Thomas Edison, Michael Faraday, Gregor Mendel, Louis Pasteur, and Nikola Tesla.  This list may seem long, but believe me I only hit the highlights of those who contributed to the world in the 1800s.  Many things we take for granted today were invented in the 1800s such as the electric battery (1800), the refrigerator (1805), Electric motor (1821), Photography (1826), Insulated Wire (1827), the lawn mower (1830), Colt’s Revolver (1835), Morse Code (1835), sewing machine (1836), type writer (1843), Telegraph (1844), Elevators (1852), the Mason Jar (1858), Repeating rifle (1860), Revolving Machine Gun (1862), Dynamite (1866), Vacuum Cleaner (1868), Barbed Wire (1873), Phonograph (1877), Zipper (1891), Wireless Communications (1893), and the Radio (1895).1  The current leaders of the various powers at the beginning of the 1800s were Emperor Napoleon I in France, Emperor Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire (central Europe), Pope Pius VII, Emperor Alexander I in Russia, King George III in the UK, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were the presidents in the beginning of the 1800s for America.

In England, the British began to consolidate their holding and regroup.  They had just lost their most valuable asset, America.  In 1801, Great Britain and Ireland merged in to the United Kingdom.  But that didn’t just satisfy them.  They wanted the colonies back.  In 1812, they tried again to take America.  But they couldn’t put all their efforts into this, because they had other threats; the Holy Roman Empire (Central Europe) had just been dissolved in 1806, the Barbary Wars in North Africa were affecting slave trade around the world (1801 – 1815), Napoleon had become an international threat (1803 – 1815).  As Ireland was their new state, they had a potato famine between 1845 and 1849.  Famine and disease were a major cause the European Revolutions in 1848.  In 1854, the English fought against the French, the Ottoman Empire and Russia in the Crimean Wars.  In 1878, the British had their famous Zulu Wars; then the Boer War in 1880s.  I’m telling you, when your at the top it is tough staying their and fighting off all the competitors.   About the only thing England did constructive was the establishment of what we now call Singapore in 1819 through the British East India Company and the Canadian Confederation in 1867.  We will get more into the English when they are concerned with America.  

The French were the cause of much debate in the early 1800s.  During the American Revolution, the French were our allies and helped us defeat the British as they would do anything to hurt England.  The Bourbon Monarchy in doing so had almost bankrupted the country; thus, causing a French Revolution.  Republicanism attempted to oust the monarchy in 1789.   The monarchs managed to stay around till 1795, until they were run out of France.  Now that they had control, the French people did not know what to do and for the next 4 years, there was no clear leadership.  In 1799, a man named Napoleon Bonaparte, who was a General, took over as the first Consul for the new French Republic.  In 1804 with no opposition, he proclaimed himself as Emperor of France, Napoleon I.  From 1804 till 1812, Napoleon attempted and nearly succeeded to conquer all of Europe.  From 1812 to 1815, he suffered many defeats such as the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.  He was finally captured and imprisoned on a British Isle named St. Helena as he surrendered to the British.  War caused many things in the world.  It causes death and desolation not only of people, but of economies and nations, yet it also promotes invention, industry, reform, as well as distraction from other things.  Napoleon’s war did all these things.  There were new weapons of warfare which had been created and an industry to replicate them.  There was reform in the style of government in France and these efforts kept the other powers that be focused on France and not America which was very fragile and learning to be a country on its own.  

The Spanish were having troubles also as Mexico was following suit and wanted independence.  This war took a little longer than most as it began in 1810 it did not end till 1821.  As a matter of fact, the Mexicans were pretty much in a state of war for independence and to hold on to what they had for entire first half of the century.  In 1835, the territory of Texas fought against Mexico to free itself; which by 1846 it developed into a Mexican-American War.  As you can see all that was going on in the Nineteenth Century in other countries affected the world, but more importantly the Americas.  

America was united in 1789 as they elected a new government.  The United States had enormous potential but was very fragile.  The United Colonies, now states, still had the same issues as before.   They did not change overnight.  They still fought Indians, the British never gave up attempting to regain the land, the French were now the allies of the newly recognized nation, and the Spanish issues were brewing and yet to come.  The Declaration of Independence was almost never signed due to several grievances, even though all agreed on the separation from England.  The biggest issue of the day was avoided thanks to the diplomacy and compromising of Benjamin Franklin, but never solved – Slavery.  Between 1784 and 1800, the US government paid out an estimated $1 Million a year to keep their ships free from the pirates that originated from the Barbary Coast (Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis) in North Africa.  Thomas Jefferson opposed the idea for fear of further attacks on merchant and/or slave ships to extort monies from the new and inexperienced nation from the beginning but as he was just an Ambassador to France at the time, he could do nothing.  The pirates would capture the merchant ships and hold the crew ransom.  The government just paid the ransoms.  In 1800, it is reported that 20% of the US treasury was spent on these ransoms.2   Now Washington spent from 1789 to 1797 as the President.  John Adams took over from 1797 till 1801.  Then in 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected as he opposed these dealings.  America was growing but still a toddler nation.  Jefferson sought to strengthen the country by redirecting the funding.  He sent a fleet of US ships to protect its interests in the Mediterranean as a defence against these pirates.  This was called the first LA Purchase Barbary War.  This lasted till 1805 at the Battle of Derna, a city of Tripoli.  Do you remember the theme song for the Marines with the phrase “to the shores of Tripoli”?  This is where that came from.  Yet most people don’t even know about the wars.   In 1803, Jefferson negotiated a deal with the new ruler of France (who was still an ally), Napoleon.  He took the 20% spent on ransoms and bought France’s claim to the Americas.  Jefferson had negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.  The acquisition of almost 530 MILLION acres of land for roughly $3/square mile (or $11,250,000.00) was the greatest deal of the century.  Understand I am leaving out much of the story and only giving a synopsis.  Napoleon’s forces were exhausted in Europe and had no interest in international affairs at the time, not to mention he could use the cash.  It is funny how God places people in particular situations at particular times to give an out come that would normally not have taken place.  The new land basically doubled the size of the new nation.  Now that we had this land, we still didn’t know anything much about it.  We knew there was land on the other side yet it belonged to the Spanish.  How did we first learn about this land?  Jefferson got approval from the congress of $2,500 to fund an expedition.  His private Secretary, Capt. Meriwether Lewis, was chosen as leader of the group and Lewis chose William Clark to co-lead.  Beginning on 14 May 1804, they began (not the first but the first American expedition) from the last outpost known in Missouri, Le Rochette. 3 The story is very interesting but not quite relevant yet for our discussion; but it ended at they made it to the Pacific Ocean at what is now Astoria, Oregon in December 1805.  The trip took so long, many thought it had failed, but in 1806, the explorers made it back to tell their story.  Apart from the obvious geographical knowledge, why did Jefferson do this?  The famous expedition opened up the fur trade in the west, discovered new species of plants and animals, helped pave the way for peace with the Indians, help establish claim to the Oregon territory, created the beginnings of the Oregon Trail, and created the first post-war national heroes, which also spurred the first writings about the early west.  Do you think Jefferson had some insight?  Jefferson did more to establish America than just about any one of the times.  In 1809, Jefferson’s protégé took the helm as President, James Madison.  Madison had his work cut out for him.  

Not only were the Mexicans fighting for their independence from Spain, who owned the south western portion of America, between 1810 and 1821, Britain had regrouped and tried to retake their lost colonies.  As the French were in a revolution of their own, the Americans were on their own.  The British was upset with the American self-government and their policy of expansionism.  The Americans wanted to push England out of North America all together, this included the Canadian colonies.  The Americans were upset with the failure to comply with many of the terms of the 1783 Treaty of Paris (including the giving up of forts in the frontier – the British were still using the Natives to harass the Americans) and they were upset with the English’s attempt to keep the colonies from growing by stopping American ships supposedly looking for deserters and harassing the crewmen about once being British.  This eventuated in trade embargos against the Americans and the loss of hundred of ships.  From 1812 to 1815, The War of 1812 took place from New Orleans up to Baltimore.4  In 1814, all up and down the Louisiana and Natchez territories, the Battle of New Orleans took place.  This eventuated into a stalemate and the Treaty of Ghent.  Although the US didn’t officially win, it was proven that the US could defend itself because the people, however divided about other issues, still came together to defend its borders.   It created a stronger sense of nationalism. The British Canadians, of who were the majority of the British forces, signed a treaty in 1818 with the US to settle border disputes in the north ensuring Canada’s survival.  The war also stopped the clashes caused by the Indians as they used the differences between the two groups to defend their lands.  A little revolution now and then is a good thing, but how many were the Americans to have just in their first 25 years.  

Still, Americans were divided on the issue of Slavery.  American slaves even attempted to band together and start a revolt but it ended in the hanging of the revolt leaders; for south was growing stronger and stronger with the trading of commodities farmed by the slaves and were not about to loose them.  The north was growing bigger in the industrial side of things, steel for instance.  The US issued the Monroe Doctrine explaining to the world that the Americas were not to be underestimated, nor trifled with but all the while struggling to maintain the structure inside, such as having to establish a Bureau of Indian Affairs in the US War Dept., not to mention the rebellions by slaves.  This bureau created many treaties, such as the Creek Indian Treaty in 1825 forcing the Indians to sign over all lands and move out of the Georgia area.  Still, Eli Whitney finished his Cotton Gin (thus prolonging slavery in the south) and creating guns (contributing to the American Civil War).   In 1820, the US Government passed the Missouri Compromise which banned slavery north of the 36th parallel, other wise known as the Mason-Dixon Line. By 1833, the British banned slavery all together in their colonies with the Slavery Abolition Act.  This was huge step because earlier they were promoters of the slave trade.  This meant that the Canadians were now officially against slavery.  This news along with the overwhelming support already in the northern states began to cause waves.  But the issue was side stepped again as the settlers in the Texas territory revolted against the Mexican control.  Texas was not part of the US at this stage, but the prospect of gaining such land kept their interest.  President John Q. Adams offered Mexico $1 Million for Texes in 1827 but to no avail.  Again, Andrew Jackson in 1829 offered $5 Million and was turned down.  Also in 1829, the Spanish tried to retake the colonies but were quickly repelled.  The Mexicans were concerned with all the interest and the Texans were upset with the current leadership; thus, in 1835 the Texans revolted and won by 1836 to become the Republic of Texas.  It was not until 1845 that Texas was ceded into the Union as the 28th state in the United States.  As the Texan borders were still in dispute and Texas now belonged to the US, the Mexican-American War began in 1846 and lasted until 1848.  The Mexicans were defeated and the border for Texas was now set at the Rio Grande.  As Texas supported slavery due to its cotton plantations, the war was supported by the southern states while the northern states opposed the war but were obligated to defend as it was now part of the nation.  Can you see how this slavery issue just keeps manifesting itself?  In 1848, there was a gold rush in California that lasted till 1858 and extended all the way to Australia.  This gave the citizens something else to talk about for a while as many began to migrate to the west.  Now the gold rush is not that important but it is what eventually led the area to become a state due to all the migration.  But alas, the Slavery issue could wait no longer.   In 1857, the Dred Scott decision was made by the US Courts that slaves were property and property was protected under the 5th amendment.5  This was the first of the “coffee” to boil out of the cup.  In 1861, the war between the states, the American Civil War began.  The southern states felt so strongly about their rights to continue the status quo they had for so longed survived on, that they succeeded from the US to form the Confederate States of America (CSA).  Those states were South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas at the start.  Then Jefferson Davis was elected President of the CSA and Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee joined.  Several states were divided and thus were called Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland.  Slavery was a question of constitutional state’s rights; did the states have the right to admonish or deter slavery?  The North also wanted to end the division among the states and create a solid union.  The south fought to preserve their way of life and the north fought to preserve the Union.  Slavery was the pinnacle of the underlying issues.  Lincoln shortly after the start of the war issued his Emancipation Proclamation in 1862.  It declared all slaves held in the slave states to be "then, thenceforth, and forever free. It actually had little effect but served as a commitment of the US to end slavery. After the some of the bloodiest battles on American soil (more people were wounded or killed in the civil war than all the other wars combined), the war ended in 1865 as General Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House.  But to this day, these feelings still exist over numerous generations.  But how did the North win?  Several reasons which are:  (1) Industrialization of the North provided more arms and ammunition, (2) Union outnumbered the Confederates, (3) better railroad routes for movement of troops, and (4)  Former slaves recruited into the Union Army are just to name a few.  This marked the end of the fighting and the beginning of a reconstruction of the Nation.  The results were the 13th, 14th, and the 15th Amendments to the constitution.  It took till 1877 to regain control over the southern states.  

In 1867, the US continued their quest for more land and purchased the Alaskan Territory from Russia while the Canadians formed their own confederation; however, remaining under the commonwealth of Queen Victoria.  Progress continued on the industrial front as well, for example, the First transcontinental railroad was completed in the US in 1869 and the first electrical power plant was created in New York.  Parks were established such as the Yellowstone in 1872.  In 1890, the Indian wars came to an end with the last battle called the Wounded Knee Massacre.  The US participated in the revival of the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.  While in 1898, we gained control over Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines at the end of another war, the Spanish-American War which lasted only a year.

MS 1798-1817 Mississippi history for the 1800s was not much different.  The area was inhabited by three Indian tribes totalling 25,000 to 30,000 in number: Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Natchez.  There were other smaller tribes, but these three controlled them.   The first white man to see this land and its inhabitants was Hernando De Soto in 1540 as a Spanish Explorer.  It was left alone until 1682, when the French Explorer, Robert Cavelier – better known as LaSalle – travelled the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes down to the Gulf of Mexico.  Through this he claimed the whole river basin (basically everything the river touched along with all its tributaries) for France.  He named the area Louisiana (after King Louis XIV) and named the river, Mississippi, based on a Canadian Indian tribe word meaning “big river; Great River; or literally Father of waters”.  The first French Settlement was in 1699 at the present day Ocean Springs.  The next settlement was not until 1719 at Fort Rosalie, or the present day city of Natchez. This settlement was abandoned after the Natchez Indians massacred most of its inhabitants in 1729.6  In 1734, the French allied with the Choctaws and fought the Chickasaw Indians until 1740.  The official French and Indian War began in 1755 as their many Indian alliances were now used to disrupt the English expansion.  In 1763, a treaty was signed with ceded all the lands belonging to the French east of the MS River to the English and the Spanish ceded all of Florida to the English.  At the same time, the French also gave the Spanish all the lands west of the MS River including New Orleans.  At this point, MS is called the Natchez Territory and belonged to the English.  Then in 1783, with the ending of the Revolutionary War, the US government allied with Spain controlled the land east of the MS River.  By 1788, the US wanted free navigation of the MS River and by 1795 the Spanish agreed to move out everything it had above the 31st parallel.  This caused some tension among the Americans and the Spanish and in 1797; the US government just claimed the whole territory for themselves and pushed the Spanish out.  A new governor was appointed, Gov. Winthrop Sargent, on 6 Aug 1798.  He renamed the area the Mississippi Territory and this remained it name for the next 19 years.   In 1803, we found out that Thomas Jefferson negotiated the Louisiana Purchase which gave the territory the MS River from the French.  Then in 1812, the British attempted to regain their lost colonies.  Part of their attack was centered in New Orleans.  But Mississippians had to fight two wars at once as the MS Militia aided in the Battle of New Orleans and helped stop the Creek Indians uprisings.  As the British mounted their attacks, the Creek Indians began to formulate an attack in the now Alabama area in their final attempt to run out the white man. There is a unique history here but it is off our beaten track.  The main point here is that those in the MS Territory in between 1812 and 1815 were very preoccupied with attacks from all sides.  Finally on 10 Dec 1817, the Mississippi Territory was split in two (MS and AL) and MS became the 20th state of the Union.  Alabama did not join till 1819.7  

Mississippi was already being broken up into counties.  By 1815, there were 14 counties including Franklin, Marion, natches - 1787 and Lawrence Counties.  Then after MS had become a state, between 1817 and 1833, MS obtained several treaties with the natives, such as the Treaty of Chickasaw Council House, the Treaty of Doak’s Stand, and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which inturn gave us many more counties including Copiah, Lincoln, Smith, and Neshoba (which was later carved into Newton and Neshoba).  Many of the Indians left for the Oklahoma territory.  The lands were left open for settlement and many people came.  The land was excellent from growing crops such as cotton which became MS’s chief export.  As huge fields of crops were to be grown, you would need many people to work the land.  Slavery already existed and had become a necessity in the south.  As there was opposition in the Union for slavery, MS along with other states became a strong advocate of State’s rights.  Mississippi was no exception when it came to explosive feelings about their way of life or the hot topic of slavery; therefore, by 1861 the state agreed to be the second state to secede from the Union and become part of the Deep South or the Confederate States of America.  When the civil war broke out, MS was very much part in the fighting.  The 33rd Regiment and the 8th Regiment were just a few among many confederate soldiers from MS.  Many of the famous battles took place in MS, such as:  The battles of Corinth, Harrisburg, Holly Springs, Iuka, Jackson, Meridian, Port Gibson and Vicksburg.  By the end of the war, MS was devastated by the scorched earth policy adopted by General William T. Sherman and the rerouting of labor that did work the land to fight this war.  As a matter of fact, Union, MS was one of the only towns saved from Sherman’s wrath just purely because of its name.  In 1870, MS was finally re-admitted into the Union after changing its constitution.  It took MS many years to begin to recover from the war and I believe will never fully recuperate.   That looks like it brings us up-to-date with what I believe to be the relevant history of MS till the end of the 1800s.  We have talked about what was going on in the world, in America, and even down to the state of Mississippi in the Nineteenth Century.

Virginia Now that we are up to speed on the history, let’s recap the last 150 years of our family migrations before we move on just to keep thing clear (in my mind).  From England, our ancestors first arrived in America in the mid 1650s and 1660s.  We entered from Gloucester Co. VA via Major Lawrence Smith and Lieutenant Christopher Smith.  Here they had many influential friends and family that helped promote our family.  They had the Taliaferro’s, the Warner’s, and a few other highly placed individuals.  Lawrence even scrapped with the notorious Nathaniel Bacon of Bacon’s rebellion.  Christopher remained quiet and vigilant in his duties, teaching others, and ministering.  The Smiths eventually migrated to Hanover County and up to Louisa County where many land dealings took place as well as in other surrounding counties in VA as we revealed with Captain Ambrose Joshua Smith.   Ambrose, living to almost 100 years old, became quite the NorthCarolina important figure in his little world of which also could have been a contributing factor to his demise.  He took land brokering to new heights for our family.  Before Ambrose died in 1758 at the hands of the Indians, he began making a move towards North Carolina where many of his kin folk lived, including his first born son, Nicholas.  It was in Edgecombe County, North Carolina where we next found Ambrose as he stopped for the better part of a year to help fight the local Indians.  His son Nicholas was already living in what we now call Moore County, North Carolina on property his father had purchased some time earlier.  It was here that the Smith family settled for almost 50 years till the end of the Revolution.  Nicholas continued some of the land speculation but generally kept a low profile as feelings began to fester over the homeland and the local Indian uprisings.  He raised his family in the wilderness portion of NC.  For reasons I can only speculate, Nicholas’ son Nathan, moved his family from the well settled homestead of Moore County to new lands being offered freely in what was called Franklin County, Georgia.  Today the actual area lies in Habersham County, GA.  There are three theories as to why Nathan moved:  (1) Cheap and better land deals, (2) over population of the Moore Co. NC area caused the family to seek more frontier land, and (3) He was considered a Loyalist during the time of the Revolutions, and was hiding from those who knew him for a new start.  It could have been all three reasons or a combination.  The move had to have had taken place sometime between 1797 and 1798 as Nathan’s son, Isham Smith, had his son John while still in North Carolina and we found Nathan signing a document dated 1798 while in Franklin County, Georgia.  Nathan for some reason kept his entire family always near him.  They lived and moved together while he was alive.

At last discussion back in the 1700s, we determined that the Smith family moved to the Mississippi Territory but left it there.  How and Why did they move?  Let’s start with Why.  Do you remember from the earlier section the reason why Nathan and his son’s signed the petition in 1798?  The Georgian Government were offering great incentives to promote emigration by giving away land ceded from the Indians.  This enticement spurred many to move to Georgia and bring their entire families, such as the Smith Family, the Wofford Family, and the Hollingsworth Family.  As a matter of fact, each of these families had their own aptly named settlements in the land being offered (the Nathan Smith Settlement, the Wofford Settlement).  These families were offered to build their own forts as well for protection from the still uprising Indians in what was then the large county of Franklin, created on 25 Feb 1784 (but today the location is actually around Habersham Co.).  Ok, we should pause here for a moment and gather a bit more information about these settlements to better understand what happens afterwards.  Below is an abstract from an article written by Mrs. Sara Hines Martin for the North Georgia Journal about one of the forts in the area:

“Between 1782 and 1797, when white settlers were making treaties with
the Native Indians to define Georgia's boundaries, whites built forts to
protect settlers living on the frontier. When misunderstandings took
place between the two parties, hostilities sometimes broke out and the
settlers needed protective quarters.  Fort Hollingsworth was built for
that purpose.
When whites first migrated to Franklin County between 1783 and 1788,
they settled (by mistake or otherwise) on land that was Indian territory
fixed by the treaty of 1785. A survey ultimately revealed that the sett-
lers had trespassed, and the Cherokee Nation demanded that the settlers
William W. Wofford and Jacob Hollingsworth both moved from North
Carolina to Franklin County in 1792, each building a fort.  The area came
to be known as Wofford's Settlement.  According to an account, Colonel
Wofford and others, upon learning that the settlement lay in Indian ter-
ritory, petitioned Georgia Governor James Jackson to either relocate the
line out of Indian territory, or to protect the settlers and their possessions
 in that area against possible Indian attack.
Supposedly, Wofford rode his horse to Washington to talk with authori-
ties about the situation.  After further negotiations, the Indians ceded a
strip of land four miles wide to the state of Georgia. This property was
called the "Four Mile Purchase" in 1804, and it included the Wofford Set-
tlement.  Originally, a twenty-foot-wide strip of felled trees marked the
line.  The United States agreed to pay the Cherokees $4,000 immediately
and $1,000 annually for the property rights.”8

Mrs. Martin also wrote this following abstract which coincides with what she wrote earlier but it gives us a bit more insight into the Fort and the time period:
Fort Hollingsworth-White House

Fort Hollingsworth-White House is located in the community of
Hollingsworth, on Wynn Lake Road, about two miles off US Hwy
441 between Baldwin, Ga. and Homer, Ga.

Hollingsworth Fort was first shown on a map of the Defensive Plan
Western Frontier, Franklin County in 1793.

Georgia's boundaries in the 1700's can best be described as the
wild frontier.  Between 1782 and 1797 various treaties were made
with the Indians to define Georgia's boundaries.  Forts were built
to protect the settlers who lived on the frontier.  Indians were
likely to be incited by misunderstandings.  Horses and farm animals
were frequently stolen, and families had to be protected in fortress-
type buildings surrounded by wooden fences.

The first settlers of Franklin County whose lands granted by the
State of Georgia between 1783 and 1788 lay north of the Indian
Boundary fixed by the treaty of 1785.  These lands were granted
under the impression that they lay south of the agreed Indian
boundary line.  When this line was surveyed it was found that
these lands lay north of the boundary line and in the Cherokee
Nation, which demanded their removal.

William W. Wofford and Jacob Hollingsworth both moved from North
Carolina to Franklin Co., Ga. before l792. Wofford's fort appeared
on the map in 1792 and Hollingsworth's in 1793. This area was known
as Wofford's Settlement.

When Col. Wofford found out that their settlement was considered to
be in Indian territory after the line was surveyed, he along with
the other settlers in this area petitioned Georgia Governor James
Jackson to have the line re-run or to take such other action as
would protect them and the possessions of their homes.

Legend has it that he mounted his horse and rode to Washington to
talk with the authorities about his land holding in Georgia.  This
resulted in the "Four Mile Purchase" of 1804 when the Indians ceded
a strip of land 4 miles wide (from the Habersham and Banks County
line on Baldwin Mountain to the Line Baptist Church on Hwy. 441)
and 23 miles long (extending from Curahee Mountain to the head waters
of the South Oconee River) which included the Wofford Settlement. It
was originally marked by a line of felled trees at least twenty feet
wide which became a sort of no man's land.  The United States agreed
to pay the Cherokee Indians $4,000 and $1,000 per annum for the
property rights.

By about 1796 the Indian troubles were about over and the need for
the string of frontier forts was no longer pressing.  The forts,
after the need for defense subsided, became log farmhouses.

The Wofford's and the Hollingsworth's travelled together to new
frontiers in the west using passports to travel through Indian
territory.  As the years passed many of their descendants would
pack up their belongings, taking wives, children, slaves and
animals and move west, as genealogy records show.  Fort Hollingsworth
was left on these vacant lands.8 Same as above

Not bad stuff for a history buff, but as you can tell there was no mention of our Smith’s in these articles. We do however get a great deal of history about the area and what was happening which will prove helpful in time to come.  I will explain more in a bit.  Let’s go back to the original land deals that Mrs. Martin spoke of.  How did so many settlers just get it wrong, and move to lands that were not legally theirs?  Maybe one or so, but every single settlement in the area was in the wrong location.  As we have the benefit of hindsight, we also can see a bigger picture from within the prevailing Georgian government.  In the late 1700s and early 1800s, Georgia the country was still trying to find its legs and had no real safeguards to protect citizens from scams; especially from those within the very administration of the states.  Governments knew what to do, but there were many details that had to be ironed out.  In the Georgia territory, up until about 1803, land was distributed or granted on what was called a “Headright” system.  The heads of the families would be granted the right of 200 acres of land for himself and then 50 acres each for every member of their family they brought with them, not to exceed 1000 acres per family.  I wish they had this system today!  It is easy to see why people came and brought their families.  When the war was over in 1783, the governors were signing land grants to these individuals per the arrangement, but the grants were greater than the amounts allowed by law.  To be more specific the grants were greater than the available land.  The Governors of Georgia wanted to make a name for their selves and granted land at such a fast pace fuelling the land speculations to bring Georgia in to the national limelight as “the place to be”.   I would bet a wooden nickel that these officials were getting some cash under the table from all these deals as well.  There is a record showing a governor granting one man a million and a half acres.  What would one man do with 1.5 Million acres?  Several more were just below the million acre mark, with a grand total of around 2.5 million acres.  Wow, it would appear that Georgia had land coming out their ears.  The problem was that in the area that they were granting (and accepting some money for no doubt at what I understand was 3 shillings per acre) was only 407,000 acres.  Oopps.  Just a calculation error – or was it?  You can imagine the small problem this may have caused.   But this isn’t even half of the issue.  The land was advertised as - suitable for farming, bring your whole families – you know the spill; yet the actual land was desolate, unproductive, or barren.  People were now rushing to acquire inadequate land and eventually began fighting over this unusable land.  This particular situation was known as the Pine Barrens Scandal.9   If this were not enough, can you imagine this scandal being overshadowed by an even greater one, the Yazoo Land Fraud.  The current Georgia government was not just ignorant or stupid, they were down right thieves.  I wonder if this is where the politicians got their ruthless reputations.  In 1785 a company called the Combined Society was created for the sole purpose of obtaining large land grants and selling them off for a profit.  Ok, no problems yet.  This creation was formed in Bourbon County Georgia.  Where is this?  Remember that Georgia, at the end of the war in 1783, encompassed what we know today as the states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and parts of Tennessee and South Carolina; basically all the Deep South except for Florida.  The official lines had not been drawn yet that we know today.  The state of Georgia had concluded a treaty with the Indians (Cherokee and Creek) ceding what we now call North Georgia; but Georgia stretched even further west.  Bourbon County was located on the Mississippi River close to Natchez, MS.  This puts a new light on things.  This area was void of any real government, so when the Georgian government discovered this Combined Society buying land out west, they began to set up shop to govern them.  YazooMap The Society quickly disappeared as people began to pay attention to what was going on but not before the damage was done.   Before its demise, the Society gave others the same idea and three other companies were established for the same purpose:  The South Carolina Yazoo Company, the Virginia Yazoo Company, and the Tennessee Company.  To cut a long story short, the companies bribed, swindled, and intimidated the Georgia Assembly to pass a bill in 1795 which would give the companies huge amounts of land for next to nothing.  When the public got wind of this, the game was up.  Every one involved scattered, especially the politicians.  A US senator, James Jackson, came down and took over as acting Governor.  He set out to reform the politics and attempt to straighten out the mess.  He even threatened to shoot all those involved.  In 1796, James collected all the records, bills, and receipts (except one to George Washington) and burned them.  All that had been done was no more, yet here again the damage had already been done and now was compounding.  Now can you see where there could be much confusion here?  The US government had granted many lands that bordered Georgia as Indian Territory back in 1785.  Our Nathan brought the family down well after all the dilemmas, but the new Georgia government still were not exactly sure of the boundaries.  We know this because of the abstracts written above, as William Wofford and Jacob Hollingsworth both obtained land in 1792 and 1793, respectively, which we know was in the wrong place.  The state had to refund the money paid for the land (to those who would accept money for some of the land had already be resold) and did not recognize any of the claims.  For the original land holders this was ok, but what about those who had bought the land from the originals.  They were screwed (this was our family).  This began to tie up the courts as many fought to seek retribution.  The Federal Government stepped in and accepted the claims finally in 1802.  And as we saw above, the Federal Government tried to make amends at least in one particular case through the “Four Mile Purchase” of 1804.  This was short term pacification, for there were some that still didn’t agree.  The matter ended up in the US Supreme Court in 1810 where they ruled in favour of the individual claims and that the reform act by James Jackson was unconstitutional (Fletcher vs. Peck).  The Supreme Court said that the state breached on a valid contract.10   Go figure.  It looks like those officials from Georgia moved up to the Supreme Court.  How would this make you feel if you owned the land – or thought you did?   

I know you’re asking yourself, why did we just go through all this.  Keep your pants on, it will all make sense soon.  Therefore, with more research we come across a similar account of which we shown in the previous chapter but will go over again here.  As shown above, some one rode to Washington D.C. to plead their case.  This resulted in the sending of the Indian Agent, Col. Benjamin Hawkins, to Georgia to determine who was right.  As you can imagine from the scandals, the US Government wanted to settle these issues quickly.  Recorded in what is now Habersham County, taken from the Lavonia Times and Gauge, February 23, 1934, the following excerpt is cited:

“The first settlers of what is now Habersham County were those settlers of Franklin County, whose lands were granted by the State of Georgia between 1783 and 1788, lay north of the Indian Boundary fixed by the treaty of 1785. These lands were granted under the impression that they lay south of the agreed boundary line. When this line was surveyed, it was found that these lands lay north of the boundary line and in the Cherokee Nation, the Indians demanded their immediate removal. In 1798, these settlers petitioned Governor James Jackson to have the line re-run or to take such other action that would protect them in the possession of their homes. This resulted in the "Four Mile Purchase" of 1804, when the Indians ceded a strip of land four miles wide and twenty miles long which included these lands. This strip of land was then added to Franklin County, but now lies in Banks and Habersham Counties. Those who signed the petition were: Phillip Thomas, John Thomas, William Thomas, Phillip Thomas, Jr., Abednego Downing, George Waters, Levi Taylor, James Huitt, Joseph Dunnegame, E. Dunnegame, Moses Terel (probably Terrell), John Little, William Alexander Ramsey, Jesse Austin, Thomas Ketrim, Thomas Lean, Equila McCrackin, (torn) McCrackin (probably James), (torn) Halcom (probably Moses), George Hopper, William Weatherspoons, Hugh Hartgrove, Benjamin Wofford,* Nathaniel Wofford, Richard Burkes, Richard Lay, Nicolas Smith, Nathan Smith, Oen Carpenter (probably Owen), James Minnerd (probably Minyard), Nicholas Nuton (probably Newton), Stephen Smith, Lewis Dickerson, Joseph Halcom, John Parker, John Ratley, Thomas Warren, Robert Shipley, John Shipley, Nathaniel Shipley, William Little." In the Georgia Genealogist, under Franklin County, Wofford Settlement appears the following: ". . . Col. Meigs further reported settlers left outside the Hawkins line around other forts:

Isham Smith, John Smith, Adam Sheffield, James Keys, Joseph Shelton, Samuel Spencer, William Spencer, Richard Jacks, John Huitt, Jacob Hollingsworth, Moses Alfred, William Smith, Averitt Smith, James Brown, Temple Carpenter, John Warren, James Hamilton, Nimrod House, James Alfred, Thomas Bullen, ` William Newton, ____ Snow, Asa Walker,  Morgan Guest, George Morgan,  Reuben Warren".

Of the above names found in Nathan Smith's Settlement, the following relocated to Mississippi: Nathan Smith - Franklin County, Nicholas Smith - Franklin County, Owen Carpenter,* Lawrence County, Isham Smith - Lawrence County, Asa Walker - Lawrence County, Temple Carpenter - Lawrence County, William Newton - Lawrence County, Morgan Guest - Lawrence County, and Averitt/Everitt Smith - Lawrence County.

It appears from the above transcripts that the Smith land was reclaimed by the Cherokee Nation and that the Smiths then migrated to Lawrence Mississippi prior to 1813. In the 1813 Tax Roll of Marion County (note: Lawrence County was formed from Marion in 1814), Isham Smith, Sr. is shown with a lot in Monticello with no poll taken. Persons exempt from poll taxes were over 50 years of age, thus the estimate that Isham Smith, Sr. was born about 1760.”11  

What does all this tell us?  The first two abstracts gave us some history of the area.  This history matches this last article.  We have the same story, the same time frames, and the same references such as the “Four Mile Purchase” and even some of the matching names: Wofford and Hollingsworth.  Ok, so the story has credibility now with two different sources reporting the same basic story.  The difference is that the last one gives us a list of those who signed the petition to Washington.  This is the best information of all, for it documents many of our ancestors.  It gives us a time and place of where they were and with the history we have just went through we can understand what they were doing and why they acted they way they did.  I have highlighted the names that are important to us.  Notice that some of them are not Smiths.  These guys married into our family later on (or we into theirs).  So it would stand to reason that the singular event in Georgia brought many families with in close proximity to one another which inevitably resulted in union of one or more families via marriage, not to mention probably some long standing friendships.  I say this, because we find that not only did they live around each other in Franklin County, the Carpenters, Keys, and Hollingsworth’s all traveled to Mississippi with the Smiths as we will find in the tax records and censuses later.  One Smith researcher, Dr. Harold Graham, who has helped me more than he knows in my own research and is connected to us through the Hollingsworth line, has shared with me some of his research on the Hollingsworth’s.   He is currently the head of the Newton County Genealogical Society in Decatur, MS and he and his staff are transcribing priceless documents for others to use in their research.  The following essay tells the story of the descendants of Isaac Hollingsworth, Sr. but it is filled with detailed information and mentions many times of our Smith lineage.  Together with the earlier abstracts, will show how our Smiths migrated from Georgia to Mississippi.  We will discuss the details afterwards.  

    Chapter 1: Descendants of Isaac Hollingsworth, Sr. (1781-1866)
    One of the first settlers of Newton County, Mississippi, was Isaac Hollingsworth, a native of North Carolina, a farmer and miller, who came to live southwest of Decatur in the year 1834.  Isaac, it is believed, was born in the shadow of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Burke County, North Carolina.  As a young adult, he came with his brother Jacob to the frontier country of Franklin County, Georgia.
    Franklin County, Georgia, was created in 1784 from lands ceded by the Creek and Cherokee Nations and included all or part of the present-day counties of Franklin, Banks, Jackson, Hart, and Stephens Counties.  As an incentive to settlers, land could be homesteaded at no cost to the settler except a few years of cultivation and use.  Many of the early inhabitants were former residents of South and North Carolina, a significant number having served in the Revolutionary War.  These early settlers included Jesse and William Smith, both natives of Moore County, North Carolina, and veterans of the South Carolina militia.
    Col. William Wofford, Sr., settled on the western border of Franklin County in 1790, bringing with him his friend from Newberry County, South Carolina, Jacob Pennington.  The territorial government authorized Wofford to set up a military outpost as protection against the Indians and the area under his jurisdiction, included a six-mile strip, known as Wofford's Settlement, along this western frontier.  Soldiers posted at Wofford's Fort in 1793 included William Wofford, Benjamin Wofford, Samuel Hollingsworth and Jacob Hollingsworth.  After the arrival of Jacob Hollingsworth in 1792 from Burke County, North Carolina, another outpost, known as Hollingsworth's, was created.  Later outposts were created in the names of John Martin and John Dickerson.  Several of Wofford's sons and Samuel Hollingsworth are listed as members of the militia stationed at Wofford's Fort.
    Other settlers who moved into Wofford's settlement included Stephen Smith (1796, from Moore County, North Carolina), Jacob Kees, Isham Smith, Sr. (1804, from Montgomery County, North Carolina), and Isaac and Everett Smith, also William Smith, Jesse Maxwell, his brother Thomas Maxwell, Jr., and Thomas' brother-in-law, Benson Henry. With them they brought the Baptist religion, and built a church along the edge of the frontier The church was named Line Baptist Church [this church still exists today] and located a mere few feet across the true Georgia border and in a community that came to be known as Hollingsworth. Since it was located on Cherokee land, its members refused to worship at night for fear of Indian raids.
    In 1797 and 1798 the federal agent Benjamin Hawkins conducted a survey of the area, announcing afterward that many of the settlers, such as Isham Smith, Sr., were living on Indian lands outside the state of Georgia.  These settlers were ordered to move, an action they first resisted, but later complied with. Many had already begun to look toward the Mississippi Territory.  Now they took the incentive to move into the new Mississippi counties of Marion and Pike Counties.  Many of the settlers from Wofford's Settlement located near Fair River in present-day Lincoln County, Mississippi.  For many, the county of Franklin had been viewed as a "jumping off place" and they had moved temporarily to the area with the expectation that the federal government would soon open new lands for habitation to the South and West.
¬    In the year 1802, Isaac and his brother Jacob were in the Territory of Tennessee, likely with a brother Abraham, in search of the best migration route from Franklin County to the Mississippi Territory.  Isaac and Jacob returned to Franklin County in 1803, as per return passport from Col. Jonathan Meigs that authorized passage from Tennessee through Indian lands into Franklin County.  The language of that passport reads as follows:
    So. West point Sepr. 13th 1803
    Cherokee Agency
    Jacob Hollingsworth and Isaac Hollingsworth have permission to pass thro; the Cherokee Nation to Franklin County in the state of Georgia, taking care to make no infraction of the Law for regulating intercourse with the Indian tribes & for preserving the peace on the Jacob Hollingsworth and Isaac Hollingsworth have permission to pass thro; the Cherokee Nation to Franklin County in the state of Georgia, taking care to make no infraction of the Law for regulating intercourse with the Indian tribes & for preserving the peace on the frontiers; or the regulations of the Executive of the United States for the Government of the Indian Department
        Return J. Meigs
        A War in Tennessee


    Then in 1804, we have the following passport application:

    Hudson's River
    Frontier of Franklin County 14th of April 1804

    To whom it concerns:
        Whereas Lewis Dickens, Caleb Dickinson, Nathan Horn, and Lewis Jones, hath made known to us the Subscribers, of their intentions in Removing to the westward of the Cumberland mountains with their families; and that it is two Hundred miles more or less in the distance of their journey, to pass through the Cherokee Nation; and that is considered that it will be much to their safety to obtain a Passport for the purpose.
        We certifie that all the Men above named are honest men and good citizens, that they have for a considerable (time) declared their intentions of their Removal; and we believe that they have settled their affairs and dealings with all Persons in this part of the Countey.
    William Weatherspoons                 Charles Spencer                Samuel B. Spencer                         Joseph Skelton                       Stephen Smith                  Jacob Loughridge
    Adam Shuffield                              Matthew Dickeson              John Dickeson                               James Stigler                        Elijah Maxwell                    Jesse Maxwell
    Robert Dickeson                           Benson Henry                     Benjamin Wofford                        George Hoppe                         (illegible)                             Hugh Hartgrave
    Samuel Brights                            Richard Jacks    Isam Smith
    N. B. We the within Subscribers do confirm this on the back as there were some left out within that were intended by us--Samuel Hollingsworth, James Maxwell recommendations for Pass Ports.  Acted  on 21st of April 1804.

    The above named Samuel Hollingsworth returned to Franklin County to take a land grant of 160 acres on Webb's Creek in 1807 next to Thomas Maxwell, Jr. Meanwhile, Jesse Maxwell and his brother James went to the wilderness west of the present town of Monticello, Mississippi, to clear land, build dwellings, and begin crops. The womenfolk and children were left behind with Thomas. By 1816, James returned to Georgia to stay, settling in Elbert County, while Thomas, his brother, brought the womenfolk and children to their new home in  Mississippi near the residence of Isaac Hollingsworth.
    Samuel Hollingsworth returned to North Carolina, where he died in Haywood County in 1810. It is assumed that he was the father of Isaac and Jacob Hollingsworth and that the trip to Mississippi was made on their behalf to seek out new and fertile lands. Neither Jacob nor Isaac is mentioned in the will in which he indicates, "As for my other children, I have taken care of them in my lifetime."
    In the fall of 1810 Isaac took his family through the Cumberland Mountains, in a route known today as the Atlanta Road, and into the Tennessee valley. Building a raft, they began the float trip through the Tennessee River system.  Low waters interrupted their trip and they went into winter camp, probably in the area of Carroll County, Tennessee.  Isham, the second son of Isaac and Dorcas Hollingsworth, was born during this time. With spring, the family continued their trip into the Mississippi River, down to Natchez, and then traveled overland on the old Fort Stephens road to the Fair River, a tributary of the Pearl River, where they built a log cabin and began life anew.
    Isaac bought 160 acres along the Fair River suitable for a mill place and for farming.  One record of 1813 indicates he was indebted to Caleb Dickerson for payments on the land.  Among his neighbors during these early years were Jesse and Thomas Maxwell, Caleb and Lewis Dickerson, Jacob and Perry Kees, Stephen Smith, William (Billy) Smith, the Steen family, Isham Smith, Sr., and Isham Smith, Jr. The Fair River Baptist Church was organized in 1815 in the home of Lewis Dickerson and many of the same families were early members.
    With the outbreak of the War of 1812, the main concern in the rural South was that the Creeks, who had allied with the British, would wreck havoc on the settlers.  This confrontation came to a head on August 13, 1813, when the Creek Indians attacked and killed more than 500 persons at Fort Mims, Alabama.  In retaliation, Governor Claiborne organized the Mississippi Militia and marched against the Creeks at the Holy Ground on December 23, 1813, and at Horse Shoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River in March of 1814. This ended the Indian threat.
    George Nixon's 13th Regiment represented Marion and Pike Counties in these military campaigns. Specifically, Company S (for Smith) was comprised of residents of the Fair River area.  Under the command of Captain William (Billy) Smith, the unit included Lt. Isham Smith, Corp. Isaac Hollingsworth, and privates James Steen, Caleb Dickerson, Jacob Kees, Levi Smith, Eli Smith, William Steen, and Ensign Robert Steen. The unit was poorly prepared for battle, with summer clothing, primitive weapons, and few food supplies, and would later petition the Governor for relief.  Isaac Hollingsworth, himself, was assigned to the gunsmith shop.
    In 1828, Isaac sold his land at Fair River to Balinda King (Jesse Maxwell, witness) and moved to Copiah County, Mississippi.  Isaac owned land in Copiah County and was a charter member of County Line Baptist Church in Copiah County prior to his move to Newton County in 1834.
    Isaac Hollingsworth is listed as one of the first thirty-two settlers in Newton County, then part of Neshoba County, Mississippi [this is on of the reasons why we will find later so many of our relatives in Newton Co. MS.  Isaac married Isham Smith’s daughter, Dorcas, while also naming their first born after Isham Sr., but we will get to that later]. On March 13, 1835, Isaac was awarded an Original Land Patent in then Neshoba County, Mississippi, described as W 1/2 of SE 1/4 of S 2 T7 R11E containing 80 35/100 acres for the price of $100.44, for which he paid cash.  In the years that followed, Isaac continued to add to his land holdings.  In 1841 tax records indicate that he was assessed $10.12 for his property that included 1,034 acres, 1 clock, 40 cattle, and 5 slaves. (This clock, along with a razor owned by Isaac, is currently in the possession of Dr. John G. Hollingsworth of Athens, Georgia.)  On the eve of the Civil War, Isaac owned fourteen slaves, including an elderly couple that had apparently been with him for many years.  Many of the Hollingsworth slaves retained the family name after the Civil War and lived in the area, but after a number of years, drifted to other states.
    At least part of the town of Decatur was included in the early land holdings of Isaac Hollingsworth, including the present location of the Decatur United Methodist Church and the courthouse.  It is said that he donated land to the county with the stipulation if the courthouse were ever moved that the land would revert to the family. The property donated included stipulations for a courthouse, jail, and school. In a story told by Jacob Carl Hollingsworth, Isaac made it a special occasion by preparing a huge barbeque under the trees for all who would come.
    The date of Isaac's death is established in part on the basis of a Certificate filed in Hinds County, Mississippi, under date of 3 March 1866, in which Isaac N. Hollingsworth of Hinds County was authorized to act as attorney in disposing of the effects of the estate of Isaac Hollingsworth, deceased, late of Newton County, of which the spouse and children of the late William Smith Hollingsworth are heirs, namely Clarissa M. Hollingsworth, S. M. Hollingsworth, Nathan M. Hollingsworth, J. D. Hollingsworth, M. A. and Simeon Wise, J. O. Hollingsworth and H. T. Hollingsworth, minors, heirs of William Smith Hollingsworth, Isaac Newton Hollingsworth, guardian. The property consisted of 160 acres in addition to one wagon, one gin, one gristmill, and other items.
    The homestead of Isaac Hollingsworth is believed to have been located southwest of Decatur in Section 21, Township 7, Range 11 East.  Located in this immediate area are the Hollingsworth Cemetery and a millpond, reputedly known originally as Hollingsworth's, but subsequently owned by Summers and McMullan. Carl Ledlow reports the remnants of two old home sites in this area, one of which may have belonged to Isaac. Elizabeth Hollingsworth, the spinster daughter of Isaac, was living on this land when she died in 1878 and it is likely that she inherited her father's home site as she helped Isaac manage the household affairs for over fifty years.
    Times were hard for Elizabeth after her father's death in 1866, and much of her inheritance was sold off in order to survive. With her death, the remaining section was sub-divided between her brothers and sisters and their heirs.
    Isaac had married, about the year 1803, to Dorcas (Smith?).  It is believed that Dorcas died with or following the birth of their last son, Addison, in 1824, and she is likely buried in the Fair River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Known issue of Isaac and Dorcas Hollingsworth:
        B01. Sarah (Sally) Hollingsworth, born 18 June 1805, Georgia (likely Franklin County)--died 30 June 1865, Copiah County, Mississippi; married Rev. George         K. Tillman                
        B02. William Smith Hollingsworth, twin, born 25 February 1806, Georgia--died 13 June 1852, Hinds County, Mississippi; married Clarissa M. (Clara) Morris
        B03. Mary (Polly) Hollingsworth, twin, born 25 February 1806, Georgia--died 27 July 1860, Hinds County, Mississippi; married Isaac Riser
        B04. Nancy Hollingsworth, born 11 January 1808, Georgia--died 1852/ 1856, Newton County, Mississippi; married David Riser
        B05. Elizabeth Hollingsworth, born 1809, Georgia--died 3 December 1878, Newton County, Mississippi. Did not marry.
        B06. Isham Hollingsworth, born 3 December 1810 in the wilderness of Tennessee--died 1 November 1879, Newton County, Mississippi; married Elizabeth             (Betty) Miller
        B07. Samuel H. Hollingsworth, born 6 May 1813, Lawrence County, Mississippi--died 19 June 1888, Newton County, Mississippi; married Linnie                           Smith
        B08. Robert S. (Robin) Hollingsworth, born 29 October 1817, Lawrence County, Mississippi--died Fall of 1892, Newton County, Mississippi; married (1)             Jemima Smith and (2) Cinderella Smith Pinson
        B09. Jemima Hollingsworth, born ca. 1817, Lawrence County, Mississippi--died 1850/1860, Newton County, Mississippi; married John Smith
        B10. Jacob (Jake) Hollingsworth (Jr.), died ca. 1849, Newton County, Mississippi; married Emily Alexander
        B11. Addison H. Hollingsworth, born 1824, Lawrence County, Mississippi--died 24 January 1892, Coryell County, Texas; married Clarissa Ann (Cassie)               McCullen
        Census records suggest that two additional sons were born to Isaac and Dorcas.  These, however, may have died young. Their names are unknown.12

I don’t know about you, but I just love this information.  I have personally talked (emailed) with Dr. Graham and a few of his staff which also happen to be of some kin.  I feel his research is of the utmost authentic and so much better than my own.  So, what did we draw from the Hollingsworth essay?  We found out that they were in Franklin Co. GA at the same time as our Smith’s.  We already knew this, but one more document will help seal the issue.  Dr. Graham mentions a Jesse and William Smith from Moore Co. NC.  Jesse we will find out was considered to be one of Isham’s sons, but is actually of another branch of our Smiths.  I am not quite sure, as there are so many, which William Smith is referring to.  The only William Smith I know from Moore Co. NC is our William, brother to Isham and his son.  MS Counties Next he mentions the Hollingsworth Fort which we had already learned about.  But here he reconfirms many of the names we discovered, such as Stephen, Isham, Everett, and William – all whom are brothers.  But then he brings up an interesting point – Religion.  He says that the Smith’s brought with them the Baptist religion from NC to GA as they started the Line Baptist Church which still exists today.  This is interesting because it is reported later that some of the Smiths established the Fair River Baptist Church in 1815 in Lincoln Co. MS, one of the Smiths from the Stephen Smith line also established a church (Pleasant Grove Baptist Church near Brookhaven, MS), one of Isham’s grandson, Rueben Anderson Smith, was a Primitive Baptist preacher, and as any one of you in our direct family knows that it continues to run deep in our blood as my dad is also a pastor, Carey T. Smith.   And don’t forget Christopher Smith back in 1700 who was the Church Clerk who ministered to the people, including the Indians.  This is just a bit of early trivia for you.  Dr. Graham further mentions our Isham Smith again as he was living on the Indian lands then says he moved with others to the Fair River area in present day Lincoln Co. MS.  We will prove this in just a bit but it is nice to know that the story is authenticated.  Now earlier Mrs. Martin mentioned something about passports and low and behold, so does Dr. Graham.  But he goes one better, for he gives us a copy of these passports along with a list of those to whom it was granted:  We found Stephen and Isham (Isam).  Why were these individuals on the passport to begin with?  They were making plans to move, but to where and why?  Let’s start with why.  Remember that I took you through all the troubles in Georgia politics and how it related to us.  In Georgia between 1797 and 1804, the confusion of property lines in Indian Territory along with the scandals.  It was clear that the settlers in Georgia were just about fed up with all the business by 1804 even with the Four Mile Purchase.  Ok, we were fed up with Georgia politics; so why choose Mississippi?  As word had been spreading in the south that the Mississippi Territory was about to open up (meaning the lands were soon to be ceded from the Indians) it was a second chance for the Smith Family and others to begin again with good land, cheap land.  Americans in general have always been on the move, our ancestors were not too indifferent.  During the first 20 years of the 1800s, so many Americans moved west it was called the “Great Migration”.  Think about it.  In 1800, there were only two states west of the Appalachian (Smokey) Mountains:  Tennessee and Kentucky.  Yet by 1820, there were eight: Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana.  It is estimated that the population grew from 386,000 in 1800 to well over 2 Million by 1820.13  As we found out through the Scandals earlier, there were a few that already lived in the area such as Natchez and the Tombigbee area above Mobile, AL.  But other than this, it was just Indians.  So why did people, specifically our ancestors choose Mississippi?  Opportunity!  This land was being considered the Garden of Eden flowing with the Milk and Honey; even the poor man had plenty to eat.  Land was still the “great wealth” but our family was soon to be out of the brokerage of land and into the farming of land.  Cotton was king of the south.  Tobacco and rice, the two original staple crops upon which our country was founded on as exports, were all but dying out.  Cotton became the new way to go.  The best place to grow it was in MS.  This eventually made MS one of the richest states in the Union up until the Civil War.  Therefore, if you take this opportunity and combine it with all the troubles the Smith Family was having back in Georgia, it becomes a bit clearer as to why we chose the Magnolia State.  Although the move didn’t happen till between 1810 and 1812, the six to eight years between this time was spent serving out their debts to farm the land in GA, waiting on the outcome of the Supreme Court about the land deals goneFlatboat bad, and assuming the worst by looking for an exit (which was Mississippi) and a route there.  The Smiths and the Hollingsworths were checking out the best routes to the MS Territory through the Indians lands; therefore, the need for the passports.  As the Hollingsworths and the Smiths were working on this endeavor together, it would be prudent to assume that they may have traveled the same route, even though they may not have traveled together at the same time.  Dr. Graham mentions Isaac’s family took the route through the Cumberland Mountains (known today as the Atlanta Road) in to the Tennessee Valley (via the river system).  This would mean that they would have had to have built raft to travel down the river system.  I would imagine it looked like those in the old Daniel Boone movies; large flatbed with part of it covered to shield from the weather.  Remember, they were bringing not only the family, but the slaves, animals, and all their belongings.  And I am sure they had all the relevant dangers such as rapids, predators such as bears, and not to mention Indians; but they didn’t have to walk and it was a faster pace as well as a bit safer.  They would have packed up and headed north to link up with the Tennessee River.  From here they would have built their boat and headed toward the Ohio River near present day Paducah, Kentucky.  Here the flatboats would float down the Ohio River until it reached the Mississippi River near Cairo, IL today.  From here it was southward towards Natchez.  Just the water trip alone would have been over 1000 miles, but it was better to go around and arrive alive.  Remember that the MS River belonged to the French until 1803 and was not usable without permission.  This is another reason why the Smith’s would have waited till 1804 to try the route.  Once on the Mississippi River, they could float easily down to the Natchez port; hopping off to make the short trek to the then Marion County, or the present day Franklin, Lincoln, and eventually Lawrence Counties.  Why this route and not another?  A straight line would seem the quickest.  It is because not only was all the land frontier land with very few roads, but the most known paths, such as the Natchez Trace, were littered with thieves and Indians.  The Natchez Trace was a known trap as many others before had attempted to travel it and died doing so.  There were actually four different routes.  They could have traveled down the Tombigbee River, but this went through the Cherokee Indian territory – too dangerous.   They could have gone from Georgia to Fort Stephens crossing the Alabama River and Tombigbee River trekking many miles through Indian Territory – too dangerous.  They could have used the Natchez Trace – we already proved it too dangerous.  The safest route was up and around using the natural water ways.  It was still a tough time out there.  

Not only was it tough with the locals, don’t forget the British were still around.  They tried to take the US back in the War of 1812.  It has been mentioned that our ancestors were in the war of 1812 of which I will get to in a minute, but this fact would place the Smith’s in the Mississippi Territory prior to June 1812 (the official starting date of the war).  Again, we will say that a few Smith families made the trip around 1810 to find out if the reports were true about the land and to see how they would get there.  Of these a couple would have returned for the rest of the family.  From the dates of the children and grandchildren, we discovered that the family didn’t all travel together.  They came in groups, but all that traveled were accounted for by 1813.  With this said, it is understandable that many would have been able to participate in the War of 1812.  Now Dr. Graham mentions that there was a 13th Regiment, known as Nixon’s Regiment under Col. George Nixon.  His regiment represented the counties of Marion and Pike counties.  He broke it down even further by giving us the names in one of the companies, Company “S”.  The “S” stood for SMITH.  He mentioned Capt. William Smith, Lt. Isham Smith, Levi Smith, and Eli Smith as well as Isaac Hollingsworth in this company.  Each of these are our relatives.  When we get to discussing each one individually, I will show you exactly who they are but for now I believe Capt. William is the son of William Smith.  Lt. Isham Smith is the son of Isham Smith.  Levi and Eli are both sons to Everett Smith.  William, Isham, and Everett are all brothers, and sons of Nathan.   For now, that will end our discussion of Dr. Graham’s essay, but we have found out loads of information about our Smiths.    

As you have discovered way back at the beginning, the name of SMITH has an old and long history; some colourful and some fictitious, yet one fact remains:  we are still here.  We Smith’s have been here for as long as anyone dares to remember and Lord willing; will be here for generations to come.  It has been so with our Smith family line as well – all the way down to Mississippi.   The Mississippi Territory that was created in 1798 had been further divided in 1817 into the Mississippi & Alabama Territories; therefore, Mississippi was only a toddler state in the 1820s.  Indian lands were becoming open for white settlers as six major treaties with the Choctaws and Chickasaws (such as Treaty of Doak's Stand14, Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek15, and Treaty of Pontotoc Creek16) were all signed by 1834.  These last treaties effectively established most of the counties within the state.

The brothers Smith (Everett, Nicholas, Isham, Stephen, and William) and their sister, Sarah, as we found out in the previous chapter all came down to the Mississippi Territory.  My direct line from Nicholas to Nathan now flows though Isham Smith.  And as we discovered, Isham and his wife Sarah Harbin had six children:  Isham Anderson Smith, Elizabeth Smith, John Smith, Jemima Smith, Stephen Smith, and Dorcas Smith.  

Isham Anderson Smith was born 1790 in North Carolina and died about 1869 in Louisiana.  He married Ms. Elizabeth Kees (remember those Keys back in Georgia that signed the petition, she is part of them) on 24 Jun 1812.  Dr. Graham mentioned that a Lt. Isham Smith was in the Company “S” from Mississippi during the War of 1812.  The war officially began on 18 Jun 1812.  I want to believe that he and Elizabeth were sweethearts, and when the war broke out he and his family felt they too needed to join to help; but before he left he wanted to show Elizabeth that he did love her (in case he didn’t return) and married her just a week later before their departure.  This too leads me to believe that the Company “S” went down to fight the British in New Orleans.  Along the way Isham probably seen some land that he fell in love with, and after the war he took his family back down to the area and settled in.  Together, Isham and Elizabeth had 12 children starting with Harbin Smith who was born about 1813.  Now whether she was pregnant before he left or upon his return I don’t know.  But notice the boy’s first name.  Harbin has the maiden name of his grandmother from the Smith side – Isham Smith Sr. married Sarah Harbin.  Just a bit that links him to his mother and father (when researching your family from the past where records may be scarce you have to pay attention to small details like this to help sort out who belongs to who).  The other 11 children were: Mary Ann, Hiram, Isaac, William, Isham, Sarah, Elizabeth, Pleasant, Stephen, Maranda, and Belinda with the last one being born about 1835.   

Elizabeth Smith was born about 1796 in North Carolina.  I have put little effort so far in to finding her family.  I don’t even know if she was ever married.  One day I will find out.  The next was John Smith who was born 23 Feb 1797 in North Carolina.  This helps me find out when Isham moved from NC to GA.  As he lived near his father and other family, he would have followed them as they moved as he proved through out his life.  We know Isham Sr. was in NC during 1797 and signed the petition in 1798, so the move was within these dates.  But as that John of our direct ancestry I will save him for last.  

The next child of Isham Sr. and Sarah, Jemima was born about 1798 in Franklin Co. Georgia.  She grew up to marry a Mr. Henry Maxwell.  Henry was born 17 Apr 1793 in Elbert Co. Georgia and died about 1870 in Lawrence Co. MS.  This tells me that he married into the family, but again as all Smith’s stuck together, instead of her moving to his family home stead; he came with Isham to Mississippi.  But remember also back on the list of names on the Passport for the Indian territories, there was a Jesse Maxwell.  So there were some Maxwells in the area that were looking to migrate as well.  Jemima could have known them as she grew up as kids.  Any way, Henry and Jemima were married on 27 May 1819 in Lawrence Co. MS.  Together they had 9 children:  Simeon, Jemima, Martha, John, William, Jemima, Andrew, Sarah, and Amanda.  I don’t know why she had two children named the same.  

The fifth child was Stephen Smith, no doubt named after his Uncle Stephen Smith.  He was born about 1803 in Franklin County Georgia.  He grew up to marry a Ms. Mary Newton who was born about 1803 and died in 1868.  They were married on 8 Mar 1822 in Lawrence Co. MS.  Together they had 13 children:  Benjamin, Keziah, Sarah, Mary Ann, Talitha, William, Isham, Frances, Arcadia, Isaac, Ellen, Virgilla, and Frankie.  Now if he was born in 1803 and his mother died in 1803, it seems fair to assume that she may have died as a result of complications from childbirth.  This would have been hard on Isham.  But there was another child.  

The last child that we believe to be Isham’s is Dorcas Smith.  Now Dorcas is a bit of a mystery but we can figure some things out.  She had to have been born before 1803 as her mother died then.  As I have no date for her birth, we will have to figure this one out on our own.  From records found among the Hollingsworth line, we discovered that Isaac Hollingsworth married a Dorcas in 1803 in Franklin Co. Georgia.  There was no last name given.  Isaac being one of the settlers in Franklin Co. Georgia as proven in the essay by Dr. Graham, we can see the connection forming as the Smith’s and Hollingsworth’s are now living amongst each other.  It is obvious that a friendship formed between Isham and old Samuel Hollingsworth (Isaac and Jacob’s father) if they didn’t know each other from before.  The Hollingsworth family also came from North Carolina.  Therefore, the marriage between the two families is no surprise.  Now if most women were married between the ages of 18 and 22, we can assume an average of 20.  This is just an observation on my part, no official data here, but you can deduce this for your self.  If she married Isaac Hollingsworth at about age 20 in 1803, she would have been born about 1783, on average.  So far so good?  This would place her parents, Isham and Sarah, being married about 1782.  If Isham was born around 1760, he would have been married about age 22.  That's good.  If Sarah was born about 1765, she would have been married at age 17.  That puts Isham at age 23 and Sarah at age 18 when Dorcas was to have been born.  These calculations are all fitting pretty good.  So the possibility of Dorcas belonging to Isham is very high.  Some other records from the Hollingsworth’s give her the surname of Smith.  I have no official data, but all the makings are there for the story to be the truth.   I searched and found no other Smith families in the area of Franklin County Georgia during this time.  This has to be the only answer.  I for one believe it as does other more educated researchers, such as Dr. Graham.  With that out of the way, Isaac and Dorcas moved with the Smith family to Mississippi to Lawrence Co. MS.  It is believed that Dorcas died at the birth of her last child in 1824.  From here it appears that Isaac took his children and moved on up to what is now Newton Co. MS as we seen in Dr. Graham’s research.  Isaac and Dorcas had 11 children:  Sarah, William, Mary Ann, Nancy, Elizabeth, Isham, Samuel, Robert, Jemimah, Addison, and Jacob.  Notice the names of Isham and Samuel – both references to their grandfathers – it’s the little things we must watch.  There is one more piece of evidence (which is why I spoke of Isham’s children in this particular order) we must notice.  This has to do with the son we waited till the last to speak of, John.

John Smith had come down from Georgia with his father Isham Smith and many other family members between 1810 and 1812 to settle in Lawrence Co. MS.  John and his first wife, Francis Maxwell, began their family in Lawrence Co. MS with the first of his 9 children.  Remember John’s sister married a Henry Maxwell.  Francis was Henry’s sister.  Francis was born (how’s this) on 23 Feb 1797 in Elbert Co. Georgia like her brother; Francis was born on the same day as John but in different parts of the country.  They were married in 1817 in Lawrence co. MS but eventually moved up to Newton Co. MS some time after 1826.  Their children were:  Lina Carolina, Jemima, Jeremiah Benton (Jerry), Cinderella, Jeremiah, Joshua, Reuben Anderson, Isham, and Mary between 1817 and 1842.  That’s enough for the average crowd, but our John was no average man.  John went on and married twice more and ended up with about 17 children before he died.  Some say he
 John W. Smith Family

actually fathers 21 children but I haven’t found them yet.  His second wife was none other than Jemima Hollingsworth of which they were married shortly after Francis died in 1842.  Don’t remember?  Just look one paragraph back.  That’s right; he married his niece, the daughter of his older sister.  As John was in Newton County, so were the Hollingsworths.  This is that other piece of evidence I was referring to.   And this isn’t the only instance of our family marrying within it self (maybe not this close though).  Everett, William, and Stephen’s families all married inside the family many times (1st cousins, 2nd cousins, and so on).  Sounds bad at first, as many in the north would have you believe.  But if you look back at any family in the old days from early 1800s and beyond, even to biblical times, it was not that uncommon.  I am not advocating marrying your sister or anything, I am just pointing out that we take our population today for granted.  In the Early days, let’s say London in the 1500s, there are many times more people now in New York City than there were in the entire country of England.  In 1700, the population was estimated to be 250,000 in the entire British-American Colonies.  Jackson, MS beats that number.  The issue is that the Pickings were slim.  It just wasn’t right to marry your immediate family as it is today, but cousins were fair game and as too many don’t care to admit, we wouldn’t be here if they didn’t.  This is the explanation we have for being connected to a few Famous people from marriages.  Jemima and John had 5 children together:  Isaac, Bailey, Huldy, Jane, and James between 1842 and 1849. Each of these children can be found in the Lawrence Co. Census’.  Now Jemima died in 1854 at age 37, but old John had the juice in him like his Great-Great Grandfather Ambrose.  He married a third time, to a Ms. Eliza Graves in 1854.  Now John was 58 at this time.  Eliza was born about 1832 and died in 1870.  That made her 23 at the time of her marriage.  She gave John at least three more children: Sarah Celia, Andrew Jackson, and Elizabeth.  John out lasted them all or was hard on his wives.  He lived to the age of 84 in the year 1881 in Newton County Mississippi.

To validate his existence we found him listed in the 1820 Federal Census of Lawrence Co. MS (pg. 63 ln#9, Tshp #7).  Incidentally, Isaac and Jacob Hollingsworth were also found on the same page.  Coincidence?  I don’t think so.  I jumped to the 1840 Federal Census of Newton Co. MS (pg. 147) and found him again as he and Jacob Hollingsworth signed together.  The next census was the 1850 Federal Census of Newton Co. MS and on page 184a, Line # 41, I found our John Smith, at age 54, described as a white male and a farmer. The census recorded his current assets valued at $350 (a tidy sum back then but nothing to write home about) and his birthplace to be North Carolina. This last census is very interesting as it just reconfirms all that we have surmised.  If he was age 54 in 1850, he would have been born about 1796/97 (If the census was taken in January 1850 his birth date was 1796, and if any time afterwards the date would be 1797.  We finally find out what he was doing for a living – a farmer.  This would be a given though, Farming was the way of life in Mississippi and he had a bunch of mouths to feed some how.  Still checking, I found him in the 1870 Federal Census of Newton Co. MS (pg. 433b, Ln #8) listed as age 73, born in North Carolina and described as a white, male, farmer who could not read or write, yet was reported as have a personal value of $290.  The last record I have found on our John Smith so far is the 1880 Federal Census of Newton County Mississippi (pg. 597b – Beat 3) living at the house of Robert Hollingsworth.  Robert was the husband of Cinderella Smith, John’s daughter.  

So John was born in North Carolina, raised in Georgia, became friends with and travelled with the Hollingsworths, moved to Mississippi with his family and friends, and got married three times in Mississippi before his death in 1881 at age 84.  At this stage I know next to nothing about his children with Jemima Hollingsworth and Eliza Graves, but hopefully I will be able to expound on them some time soon.  But I do know a little about his children with Frances Maxwell.  It will get a bit confusing but try to stay with me.  To begin we must go back to these Hollingsworths that keep hanging around in our story.  The Hollingsworth line goes back a long way.    There was a Henry Hollingsworth roughly about 1610 from England who begat his son Valentine Hollingsworth about 1640 in England.  Now it was Valentine that came over via Ireland to the Americas.  I say Ireland because his son Samuel Hollingsworth I, was born in 1673 in Belfast, Ireland.  Samuel I begat Samuel II in 1706 who in turn begat Samuel Hollingsworth III in 1741.  Samuel III was the same one who migrated from North Carolina down to Franklin County Georgia with his family.  Samuel had 10 children:  Abraham, Jacob, Rachel, Isaac, Elizabeth, John, Enoch, Ruth, Margaret, and Malona.  Do you recognize some of these names: Isaac or Jacob?  It was Isaac who married Isham’s daughter, Dorcas.  Isaac and Dorcas had 11 Children:  Sarah, William, Mary Ann, Nancy, Elizabeth, Isham, Samuel, Robert, Jemima, Addison, and Jacob.  We already met Jemima as she was one of the wives of our John William Smith.  But it was also Samuel and Robert who got their hooks in our Smith girls.  

John Smith’s first child with Frances Maxwell was Lina “Carolina” Smith, born about 1817 in Lawrence Co. MS and died 5 May 1912 in Newton Co. MS.  She married Samuel H. Hollingsworth (son of Isaac and Dorcas).  Together they had 12 children:  Mary Elizabeth, Sarah Jane, John, Jacob, David Riser, William Perry, George, Isaac, Martha, Robert Willis, Isham, and James.  We could go on but this isn’t the time to do so.  John’s Second child with Frances was Jemima Smith, born 1822 in Lawrence Co. MS and died 1861 in Newton Co. MS.  She married Mr. Robert Hollingsworth (son of Isaac and Dorcas).  Together they had 11 Children:  Samuel, Isaac, John, Addison, Mary Francis, Isham, Jeremiah, William, Willis, Joshua, and Stephen.  Notice not only all the kids that are around but all the names.  Many of them are the same.  Can you imagine a family reunion, and we haven’t discussed hardly any of the other close families.  John’s third child was Jeremiah Benton Smith (sometimes called Bent) who was born about 1826.  As he is our direct ancestor he will be the last of the children we will talk about.  John and Frances’ fourth child was Cinderella Smith, born about 1827 in Lawrence Co. MS and died about 1907 in Newton co. MS.  Remember that John was found living with her in the 1880 census before he died.  Cinderella was one hell of a woman.  She lived to be 80 years old and didn’t waste a day.  She was married early to a James Walley.  She and James had 12 children:  James, Richard, Frank, Buster, Everett, Matt, Tom, Jake, Elizabeth, Anna, Mattie, and Susanna.  James died sometime around 1860 about the same time Cinderella’s sister did, Jemima.  This left Cinderella and Robert Hollingsworth with a bunch of “younglings’ each and themselves with no mate.  So as the situation presented itself, Robert and Cinderella married each other to provide a mutual advantage.  Now Robert already had 11 children now coupled with Cinderella’s 12.  That is 23 kids.  Then together they had another 3 children: Jacob, Mary, and Donna.  Now that is 26 kids of various ages.  But it appears that Robert and Cinderella didn’t get along.  The story goes that Cinderella was the princess and was quite a hard woman.  They split up and she remarried again to a Mr. Owen Pinson.  Together they had 4 Children:  Elizabeth, John, William, and Frankie.  She herself had 19 children with the additional step children from her marriages.  Is it any wonder she was so tough?  

John and Frances had a fifth child, Jeremiah, born about 1830 and that is all I know.  Their Sixth child was Joshua Smith born about 1834.  I am sure there is more to his story, but I have been unable to locate it.  The seventh child was Mr. Reuben Anderson Smith, who was born 15 Mar 1835 in Newton Co. MS and died 7 Aug 1927 in Newton Co. MS.  Reuben married a Ms. Lillie Carey.  They had no children as it appears that she died at an early age.  Now Reuben married again to Narcissa Stephens (b. 1840 / d. 1890) and had 9 children:  Sarah, William, Henrietta, Margaret, John, Narcissus, Lena, Mary, and Ed.  Reuben became a Primitive Baptist Minister as a profession in Newton Co. MS.  He eventually died near his brothers on 7 Aug 1927.  There is a small story with him, but we will get to that in the next chapter.  Reuben was found next to his brother Jeremiah in the 1860 Federal Census of Newton County MS, page 109, Line #732, age 26, white male, farm labor, married to Ann (Narcissa) age 17 with one child Sarah.  Again he was found in the 1870 Federal Census of Newton Co. MS (page 466a, Line #29, Tshp #7, Range 10) at the age of 35, white male, with wife Narcissa, age 27, and 3 children (Sarah, William, and Henrietta) The lastly he was cited as a farmer in the 1880 US Federal Census of Newton Co. MS (pg. 597a, Beat #3).  But for now that is enough to prove his existence.  Then lastly, John and Frances had two more children; the eighth was Isham (born about 1838) and Mary (born about 1840).  That is all I know of.  Ok, now back to the direct line with the third child.

John’s third child, Jeremiah Benton Smith Sr., was born on or about 1826.  Knowing the area was only newly established as was the local and federal governments; those living in the area were settlers.  Settlers survived as farmers and farm labor.  Such was the case of John Smith and Jeremiah Smith, respectively.  After growing up on a farm in and around Newton County MS and hiring his self out as farm labor in later years, during Jeremiah’s travels he met a lady names Sarah E. Young.  Sarah was born 11 Mar 1830 in what is known today as Alabama.  We believe these two were married around 1855, when Jeremiah would have been 29 years old and Sarah, age 25.  I say believe because we are not sure of the exact date, but we can estimate through the births of their children.  They only moved back towards Smith County MS some time after 1860, even though the youngest son, John, was born in Smith Co. MS.  As Sarah’s family was from around that area, it would possible to assume she went to have the baby near her parents for help.   Jeremiah and Sarah had two children, which we know of:  Jim [James] F. Smith and John Smith.  The first born, Jim, was born about 1856.  With this date, we assume they were married before 1856.  We know very little about Jim at this stage.  In the 1860 Federal Census of Newton Co. MS on page 109, it is recorded that Jeremiah and Sarah were living there with two son, Jim – age 4, and John – age 2.  Knowing that Jim was 4 in 1860 would estimate his birth to be about 1856.  While we are on the subject of the 1860 Census, it is interesting to note that the actual recording had our Jeremiah as a “Jerry”, living next to his brother, Reuben, and father (John).  

Jeremiah was a hard man to locate.  We know his name was Jeremiah (will explain in a bit) and we know he went by the name Jerry in Newton Co., but his family and friends all called him “Bent”.  Having the advantage of researching him after his death still didn’t help much because only a gravestone was found with a name “J.B. Smith” and no date.  Let’s start with the gravestone.  We all know he was a Smith.  His friends and family called him Bent.  Now nick names are usually short for something and in this case the obvious choice would be “Benton”.  Armed with J. Benton Smith now, we are still searching for his first name.  One could argue the name “John” after his father as well as argue “Jerry” seeing how it is recorded in 1860 as such.  It was not till later that we discovered that his son John, actually named after his grandfather, later changed his name to Jeremiah to honor his father after his death.  What kind of love is that for a father by a son?  There you have it, how we found Jeremiah Benton Smith, Sr.

It is here that we will stop to take a break and see what is going on around our Smith’s.  The US was just over 80 years old.  They had the makings of a great country yet over the years, the county had developed two separate ways of life; the north was run by the political and national leaders who were trying to build the country and tear away from the old ways but the south had just been quiet and settled in were making a good thing even better.  The North began to build on and develop human rights (whether or not they went about it the right way is to be determined, but the intent was there).  The South had settled in using the culture they had always known and been used to for 1000 years, slavery, to create an empire of sorts in agriculture.  This however, had no regards for civil liberties of the slaves.  By 1860 the tension just grew too great and a civil war broke out.  The war lasted for three years with the south spurned and the north weak but liberated; thus, the states once again became UNITED.  In 1863, the final battle at Gettysburg brought an end to the war and Lincoln gave his Gettysburg address.  Lincoln was shot and a Thirteenth amendment to the Constitution was passed to abolish slavery.  Our forefathers, had a weak government structure and hard time keeping it around, yet they had the fortitude to remain true and the wisdom to create a government that can change and evolve with the times (thus the amendments).  America began to mend itself and become an economic powerhouse till the beginning of the 1900s.

Jeremiah’s wife, Sarah, is buried in Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery in Smith Co. MS and is recorded with a death of 4 Oct 1889.  This is a bit odd as most couples are buried together, yet the gravestone we found with J.B. Smith (believed to be him) is in Bezar Cemetery, Smith Co. MS.  This is still feasible, as she died many years after him which we will go through in a minute.  On this “J.B. Smith” gravestone we further found a marker on it with the symbol “CSA”.  CSA stands for “Confederate States of America”, which is to say he was supposedly in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.  I am still trying to get documented proof via the Old Military records office in Washington D.C. on this.  But while I was waiting I still did a bit of research and found him recorded in Company “C” – The True Confederates of Smith County, MS – in the 8th Mississippi Infantry Regiment which was mustered into service on the 1st of June 1861.  He was listed as a SGT. (see http://www.datasync.com/~davidg59/8th_c.txt ).  The regiment was assigned many times over the 5 year time frame to various Division Commanders, and they were in many battles.  The following is a list of battles the 8th Regiment were in:  [1] Murfreesboro (Dec 31, 1862 –Jan 3, 1963), [2] Tullahoma (June 1863), [3] Chickamauga (Sep. 19-20, 1863), [4] Chattanooga Siege (Sep-Nov 1863), [5] Chattanooga (Nov 23-25, 1863), [6] Atlanta Campaign (May-Sep 1864), [7] Peach Tree Creek (July 20, 1864), [8] Atlanta (July 22, 1864), [9] Franklin (Nov. 30, 1864), [10] Nashville (Dec 15-16, 1864), [11] Carolinas Campaign (Feb-Apr 1965), [12] Bentonville (Mar 19-21, 1865).  That was a lot of moving around and fighting.  The following is some accounts of a few of the battles I felt were interesting just see what our Jeremiah went through and survived.  Each was written by a Mr. David Graham:  

The 8th Regiment Field History:

    After rendezvous at Enterprise, MS. in August, 1861, the 8th Regiment was mustered into Confederate service in early October and immediately sent to Pensacola, FL. along with the 5th Mississippi Infantry Regiment. As part of Gen. Braxton Bragg's forces, they camped opposite of Union-held Ft. Pickens through the fall & winter of 1861 where severe artillery engagements occurred between Fts. Barrancas and Pickens. A return shows the Regiment at "Camp Burt near the Warrington Navy Yard, FL." from Oct. 18 - Dec. 31, 1861. A return for Jan. and Feb. 1862 shows the Regiment at "Camp Jones near O'Bannonsville, FL." A further return for March and April shows the Regiment encamped at Warrington, FL. Although not ordered to Corinth as were the Ninth and Tenth Regiments they remained in the Pensacola, FL area until May of 1862 where they were evacuated to Ft. Morgan near Mobile, AL under the command of Lt.-Col. J. Gates. During the summer of 1862, the 8th was sent by rail to Chattanooga, TN as Bragg prepared his offensive into Kentucky which would be part of the overall battles for Chattanooga. It was at this time the 8th was assigned to Gen. J.K. Jackson's Brigade, Whither's Division, Polk's right wing along with the 5th Mississippi and the 5th Georgia Inf. Regiments. Although the 8th participated in the advance into Kentucky (Bardstown near Louisville) they were not engaged at the Battle of Perryville (KY - Oct. 8, 1862) where Bragg was compelled to fall back into Tennessee. A return for Sept. and Oct. 1862 shows the regiment stationed in Knoxville, TN., preparing for the great battles to occur in Tennessee which would culminate with the loss of Chattanooga, the fall-back into Georgia, the return to Tennessee with Hood for the slaughter at Franklin and "the end in the Carolinas" where the Army of Tennessee surrendered in April 1865.

Battle of Murfreesboro
Although Gen. Braxton Bragg had manoeuvred Union Gen. Buell out of Tennessee, his defeat at Perryville, KY in October 1862 forced him to retreat to Murfreesboro, TN and there his forces dug in. The Union Army of the Cumberland, now commanded by Gen. William S. Rosencrans (who had replaced Buell) had been in light pursuit of Bragg and was back in Tennessee occupying Nashville. The federal forces finally advanced out of Nashville on Dec. 26, 1862 and found Bragg's forces and the 8th Mississippi waiting at Murfreesboro - about 30 miles away from Nashville. Although the Federals had made the advance from Nashville, the Confederates made the attack. Here, the 8th served in line with Breckinridge on the east bank of Stone's River at the opening of the Battle of Murfreesboro on Dec 31, 1862. They accompanied several units sent across the river to attack Palmer's Division after other divisions had failed, yet this attack also failed. The fighting was so fierce that one officer and three enlisted men from Co. K refused to go to the front line. Of the 874 total from the brigade engaged in this attack, the returns from the 8th Regiment show 20 killed and 113 wounded.
Bragg's army withdrew from Murfreesboro on the night of Jan 3 and proceeded to Shelbyville - falling back to the so-called Confederate "Tullahoma Line". Rosencrans did not pursue and no major engagements were seen until Rosencrans finally moved his army out of Murfreesboro 6 months later on June 24 - here began Rosecran's "Tullahoma Campaign". Returns show the 8th encamped "on the river" at Bridgeport, AL until July 1863. There they were engaged at times with hunting deserters and bushwhackers in northern Alabama. It was during this time that Bragg was compelled by Rosencrans to fall back to Chattanooga as Rosecrans pushed through the "Tullahoma Line". As Rosecrans advanced on Chattanooga in August, the 8th was brought in to help reinforce Bragg's position. A return on August 27th shows that three men from the 8th Regiment were killed and one wounded by a shell that exploded, having been shot from enemy batteries on Waldron's Ridge. Later returns show the 8th with Bragg at Chattanooga and retreating with him to Lafayette, GA - at the time that Rosencrans' flanking movements through the mountains were underway. Since the Confederates still held Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, the Federal position was tenuous. Bragg received much-needed reinforcements by rail from Longstreet's Corps (of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia) as Rosecrans was involved in a series of deceptive ploys by separating his army into three groups trying to confuse Bragg and also locate the bulk of Bragg's army and hopefully deliver a decisive blow. Rosecrans hastily tried to reunite his separated army when he realized that the Confederates were amassing themselves along with Longstreet's reinforcements and both armies found themselves manoeuvred about 8 miles east of Chattanooga near the banks of a little creek named Chickamauga (a Cherokee name meaning "River of Blood") - the Federal and Confederate main bodies were now lying too close together to avoid contact. Manoeuvring and skirmishing occurred during the days and nights of Sept. 17th and 18th. On the night of Sept. 18, 1863, Bragg's forces had sufficiently crossed the creek and set up positions for an attack.

Battle of Chickamauga
In the great Battle of Chickamauga which began about 8 am on Sept. 19, 1863, the 8th Regiment, commanded by Col. John C. Wilkinson, shared the right side of the Confederate line and were distinguished in the gallant advance of Cheatham's Div. which occurred around noon. In this battle, the 8th was placed alongside the 5th Miss. Infantry Regiment (the 5th Mississippi usually always had the same assignments as the 8th). The 8th captured and brought off the field several pieces of artillery and some horses belonging to the enemy who was being commanded by Gen. Thomas. This booty had been originally captured earlier in the day by Walker's Corps, but was recaptured by Thomas' forces. Later, the 8th lost the forward ground attained on the 19th but later again advanced close to Federal positions on the Chattanooga Rd. Under heavy fire, the 8th held their ground until the enemy was driven back. It was at this point that Elbert's first cousin, Col. Adin McNeill of Co. F was killed and Col. John C. Wilkinson of Co. F was wounded. Also killed was my great-great-great granduncle, Capt. J.W. White of Co. G and his nephew Wm. Oscar Chatham. The following description of Capt. White's death was supplied to me by Kay Armstrong Lee, a "newly found" distant cousin (original source "Records of Jasper County, W.P.A. Source Materials"):

    On the 2nd day of the Battle of Chickamauga, about 4 pm on Sunday evening
the 8th Miss. Advanced close to Thomas' position on Chattanooga Rd. and
held their place, driving the Federal Army from it's last position.....the soldiers
were loading their guns, (when) Capt. White...was struck by a shot. It cut the button
at the neck of his shirt, entering his neck, came out at his shoulder blade, cutting
through his knapsack. He ran about 100 yds just as hard as he could, shooting
as he ran. With outstretched arms, he fell to the ground, face down, where his
mouth filled with dirt. The orders were given to fire, and it was therefore impossible...to go to him.
    Ms. Lee continues with this anecdote from the family history:
Upon hearing the news of the deaths of Captain John White and
his nephew, William Oscar Chatham, their families travelled to
Chickamauga, exhumed the bodies, loaded them in the back of a
wagon under a load of coal and brought them home for burial at
the Hopewell Methodist Church Cemetery in Jasper County.

The casualties for the 8th for the 2 days of fighting were: 10 killed and 84 wounded out of 252 engaged. Col. Wilkinson said, "...all men in the regiment did their duty nobly...". Adin McNeill and several of his family members who fought and died with the 8th Regiment are buried at the McNeill Family Cemetery outside of Shubuta, MS. The memorial on my cousin Adin's tombstone reads:

    Dear brother, too hard it seemed that just at the close of the struggle
in which thou hast striven so bravely and the victory won from the foe,
flying balls thy life which promised so well should take but thus it was.
And as the sun in silence hid his face and the enemy in confusion fled,
and the den of battle lulled into stillness three shots thy body pierced.
And ended the life of one of whom we were
    proud and sent thy spirit to realms of glory."

Withdrawal to Atlanta
The 8th Regiment was part of Jackson's Brigade holding a position on Chattanooga Creek during the Battle of Lookout Mountain (Nov 24, 1863). They were a part of Cheatham's Div. the next day in the Battle of Missionary Ridge where many of the regiment were captured. From there in retreat, the 8th proceeded to Dalton, GA. and went into winter quarters. Bragg would not again return to Tennessee with his army. Jefferson Davis replaced Bragg with Gen. Joseph Johnston - a very able general, but a man who Davis had never really gotten along with. Now the Battles for Atlanta would begin.
In Feb 1864, the 8th became part of Walker's Division composed of mainly units from GA. When Gen. W.T. Sherman advanced, the 8th served with Cleburne's Div. and was then in action at Calhoun on May 14, 1864, at Reseca May 15, at Adairville May 17, at New Hope Church May 27 and along the line at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain up until July 2. Near Pine Mountain, Lt.-Col. J.F. Smith was killed. The 8th was then temporarily attached to Gist's Brigade. A roll dated June 17 has my great-great grandfather admitted into the "Floyd House and Ocmulgee Hospitals" in Macon, GA with dysentery and then furloughed on June 22. At this time, Jefferson Davis relieved Gen. J. Johnston and handed the Army of Tennessee to Gen. J.B. Hood. Davis could not forgive Johnston for allowing the western front to push itself into Atlanta...the very heart of the Confederacy. Unlike Johnston, who preferred manoeuvring for position, Hood, believed in open frontal assaults which in the upcoming months, would allow the Federals to chew up much of the Army of Tennessee. Hood, who himself had lost use of an arm at Gettysburg and had lost a leg at Chickamauga, is still a controversial figure in the history of the Army of Tennessee, which unlike the Army of Northern Virginia, was unable to find a leader with the charisma of Robert E. Lee.

Battles for Atlanta
At the Battle of Peachtree Creek on July 20, 1864 - the fight for the city of Atlanta commenced. The regiment had considerable casualties as did other units engaged, e.g., Gen. Loring's Confederate troops faced horrendous losses of over a 1000 men in only a few minutes. Even worse for the 8th was the fighting that occurred during the Battle of Atlanta on July 22, 1864. The 8th was again with her "sister-regiment" - the 5th Mississippi and were part of Lowery's Brigade which lost half it's numbers that day, having in battle a total of 1200. Forgoing sleep for 2 days and nights in excessive summer heat, the men were completely exhausted. Nevertheless, they made a gallant charge against the Federal rifle pits. It was at this time that Col. John C. Wilkinson was killed, Adjutant J.S. McCaskill missing, and Lt. A.E. Moody wounded. Gen. Lowery said, "The 8th Mississippi lost their gallant Colonel, Adjutant and many other valuable officers and men near the works". Three companies of the 6th Iowa Regiment repulsed the charge of the 8th Mississippi and "secured their dead and wounded with some prisoners". On this day, the 8th's Division commander, General W.H.T. Walker was killed. Also for the first time in the western theatre, a Union general was killed: Gen. MacPherson, whom Sherman had personally mentored.
The regiment had been 408 strong when it left Dalton on May 10 and by July 22 had tallied 36 killed, 190 wounded and 14 missing, leaving 208 fit for battle. It was at this time that Sherman began a siege of Atlanta. While the city was under siege, the 8th Mississippi served in the works of the fortifications that had been built and also at East Point. The brigade was moved to Jonesboro to face Sherman's troops there.
At the Battle of Jonesboro (just outside of Atlanta), the 8th made a gallant fight, driving the enemy across Flint River on Aug 31. However Sherman, who had swung the bulk of his army south of Atlanta succeeded in capturing Jonesboro, effectively cutting-off Confederate railroad support. At Jonesboro, the Army of Tennessee lost 10 men to each Union soldier killed. This would not be the last time Gen. Hood would demand blood sacrifice from the Army of Tennessee.
At Lovejoy's Station on Sept. 2 as Hood abandoned Atlanta, the 8th assisted in the repulse of Wood's Union Division with heavy losses to the enemy, but also with considerable casualties within the 8th Regiment. Atlanta was now lost and it was at Lovejoy's Station that the Army of Tennessee's tattered elements reorganized. As Sherman settled into Atlanta, Hood's Army moved north, hoping to lure Sherman out of Atlanta to fight him in the mountains to the north. Hood had persuaded Beauregard to let him try this strategy, for even if Sherman stayed in Atlanta, Hood could then try to break Sherman's supply lines coming down from Tennessee and even reclaim Tennessee itself, in it's relatively open position. Sherman, who entertained no notion of leaving Atlanta, ordered Federal General J.M. Schofield to depart with his army and link-up with Gen. Thomas' forces in Nashville and from there, protect Tennessee, the supply-line to Atlanta and also deal with the Confederate Army of Tennessee "once and for all". Sherman had other plans: the burning of Atlanta, then carving a 60-mile wide swathe through the South as he burned his way to Savannah - his infamous "March to the Sea".
As the Army of Tennessee moved north chasing and trying to lure Schofield into a fight, the 8th took part in operations along the Chattanooga & Atlanta RR, including the capture of Dalton AL, then on to Gadsden AL, skirmishing before Decatur and then crossing the Tennessee River on Nov 13, 1864. On Nov 21, they marched in a snowstorm from Florence to a position of battle at Spring Hill against Stanley's Federals, in the rear of the Union positions at Columbia in preparation for the Battle of Franklin. Schofield had been avoiding a fight all along, but now that he was close to Gen. Thomas' and his forces at Nashville, an encounter was eminent. Hood knew he had to try to do something before the two armies linked up. As the Federals firmly entrenched themselves at Franklin in preparation for a possible Confederate attack, Hood made it known to his generals that a frontal assault over exposed ground would be the order of battle. In disbelief, Hood's subordinates objected, informing Hood that the attack was suicidal. No amount of persuading could compel Hood to change this plan. Division commander Gen. Patrick Cleburne, an illustrious leader under whom the 8th Regiment served, commented bitterly to his friend and subordinate, Gen. D.C. Govan, "Well, Govan, if we must die, let us die like men."

Battle of Franklin
At the Battle of Franklin on Nov. 30, 1864, Hood launched an massive assault against Schofield's army in what would be one of the Army of Tennessee's worst battles. The 8th was part of the memorable assault upon the fortified Union breastworks in which Division Commander Cleburne was killed as well as Gist and also 60 other brigade and regimental commanders being either killed or wounded. As an example, Company B of the 8th Mississippi brought in 27 men on this sacrificial charge and lost 10 killed at the breastworks, 7 wounded and 4 captured. At the McGavock Cemetery , 25 men killed at the Battle of Franklin from the 8th Regiment are buried. In this 5 hour battle, Hood lost 6,250 men (more than both sides lost at Shiloh). Federal losses were 2,326. That night, Schofield retreated into Nashville, leaving his dead and wounded on the field and linked with Thomas, as Sherman had originally planned. Hood ordered his wounded army to follow and at this time, the 8th Regiment numbered 837 men. Taking up positions in a hilly area south of Nashville Hood prepared his remaining 23,000 soldiers for the battle. These soldiers, recovering from the blow of Franklin, were ragged...more than 1/3 of them without shoes in this December winter. So ill-equipped and provisioned, a Tennessean said, "We can see our ragged soldier with sunken cheek and famine-glistening eyes." The Federals, on the other hand, were amassing over 70,000 men. Gen. Thomas knew this would be the opportunity to finally destroy the Army of Tennessee. Thomas took so much time preparing for a total victory that Grant decided to replace him - but Thomas, at the last minute, launched the attack on the foggy morning of Dec. 15, 1865.

The Final Battle: Nashville
At the Battle of Nashville on Dec. 15-16, the 8th, under the corps command of Nashville's own Gen. B.F. Cheatham, was involved in the repulsions of the enemy's "mostly colored" units assaulting Hood's right (eastern) flank during the 15th. The repulsions left Union dead and wounded by the hundreds scattered on the battlefield. The only Confederate casualties in Cheatham's corps that day were those from Federal sharpshooters. That night, Cheatham's corps was marched west to station themselves on the right of Stewart's Corps, along the western flank. On the 16th, the Federal assault on Shy's Hill resulted in a breech in the Confederate line along the west flank. The 8th, as part of Lowrey's Brigade, was at the center of the Division's (Cleburne's) line - which was under the command of Gen. J.A. Smith, who held command after Cleburne's death at Franklin. Lowrey was immediately ordered to relocate to support the western flank just as it fell through. As the Federals pressed on, the Confederate line further gave way and a confused retreat towards the Granny White Pike ensued. Cheatham ordered that Lowrey's and Granbury's Brigade check the Federal advance. It was here that the 8th was involved in the disastrous fighting near the Granny White Pike. The routed Confederates reorganized in the hills several hundred yards southwest of the abandoned line of battle. After Nashville, Hood was pursued by the Federals for the next 10 days. As Hood retreated southwest - the destination being northeast Mississippi, a rear guard was formed under Gen. N.B. Forrest to protect the army from attack by the Union pursuit. Forrest had gained such success and notoriety with his quasi-guerrilla tactics, that Sherman hinted at his assassination in a letter to Thomas in Jan. 1865 saying, "...I would like to have Forrest hunted down and killed...". Through Christmas of 1865, the Army of Tennessee and the 8th Mississippi marched through snow and frozen mud through northern Alabama and finally reached Corinth, Mississippi - where they stayed for a week and then on Jan 23, retired to Tupelo where Gen. Hood resigned command. The Army of Tennessee and the western theatre was brought to a close. Hood, in his report, stated that he brought about 15,000 men into Mississippi, not including approximately 3,000 Tennesseans given furlough. This means that during the Battle of Nashville and the subsequent retreat to Mississippi, the Army of Tennessee lost approximately 5,000 men either killed, wounded, captured or missing. For the entire campaign under Hood, since receiving command at Atlanta, Hood himself estimated his losses at an incredible 10,000 men (in only 2 months!). Actual losses surely were higher, at Franklin alone, Confederate losses were over 6,500. Add to that the 5,000 that can be determined from Hood's own report concerning the Battle of Nashville and subsequent retreat, then add the losses at Jonesboro and the subsequent chasing of Schofield into Tennessee, it would be more accurate to estimate losses of 15,000. Defending his decisions to the bitter end, he wrote in his official report to Richmond concerning the campaign and particularly, the breech at Shy's Hill during the Battle of Nashville:
    Were I again placed in such circumstances I should make the same marches and fight the same battles, trusting that the same unforseen and unavoidable accident would not again occur to change into disaster a victory which had been already won. The remaining elements of the Army of Tennessee were then transported by rail to the eastern theatre.

If that didn’t tell you how it was, I don’t know what would.  Our Jeremiah saw some heated battles.  As I wait for the official records, we have no date of death and I have found no records alluding to him after 1861.  I want to believe he survived these battles purely based on the fact his grave is in Smith Co. MS.  He could have been killed in the war and transported back but I just don’t know.   

I mentioned earlier that Jeremiah has two sons, Jim and John.  As there is not much more to be said about Jim than already discussed, we will continue now with the latter.  John Smith was born 4 Dec 1858 in Smith Co. MS.  We know that our Jeremiah Benton Smith Jr. (my G-G-Grandfather) was married to a Rosa Wedgeworth from personal knowledge.  In the 1880 Federal Census for Smith Co. MS we find a Jeremiah, age 21 and a Rosa, age 22 on page 357a.  Now Rosa’s ancestors are a mystery yet it is believed that she is of an Indian descent, Cherokee to be a bit more specific.  As stated before, we knew that Jeremiah Sr.’s son,Jeremiah Smith, Sr. Family John, changed his name to Jeremiah in honor of his father.  We can verify this though the 1880 Census.  To further verify, if he was recorded at 21 years of age at 1880, by calculating back we find that he would have been born about 1858/59 – a perfect match.  It further gives us an approximate date of death for Jeremiah Sr. - before 1880.  Since we found Jeremiah Jr. in the 1880 Census, then John had already changed his name; this means that Jeremiah Sr. was born around 1826 and died before 1880; thus, he could not have lived more than 64 to 65 years of age (and possibly died earlier).  Jeremiah Jr. was 21 years old in 1880 which also means that his father died while he was young.  Growing up without a father (even if he was 21 at his death) is tough for anyone and especially during this time and in my mind would create a strong sense of family importance and quality of time with them.  Now this is a guess (and only a guess), but if John / Jeremiah Jr. was old enough to understand the meaning behind changing his name to honor his father, the he would have been at least around the ages of 10 or 15 at his father’s death.  This assumption would put Jeremiah Sr.’s death between 1868 and 1880, but I have no proof; he could have died earlier. Just this one theory would help with the assumption that he survived the Civil War.  One last theory about this subject:  The family unit could also be important to Jeremiah Jr. because he grew up alone.  His father died early, his brother is something of a mystery at this stage and could have died early, and his mother died before he was 30 years old.  This process may seem a bit tedious, yet it is the way we prove records as well as find out interesting facts (like name changes) and gives us the diagram as we see here.

We have already begun the story of Jeremiah Benton Smith Jr. with his birth, parents, siblings, and name change.  Through that discussion we have discovered that by the age of 30, he was parentless and only one brother (if he was alive).  Born on 4 December 1858, John (Jeremiah Jr) lived most, if not all, his life in and around Smith Co. MS. as I have found no evidence to the contrary.  John was named after his grandfather, John Smith (b. 1797 in NC).  While young John was still a boy, his father, Jeremiah Benton Smith, Sr., died some short time after 1860.   As devastating to any young boy as this would be, young John assumed the name of his father in my belief to keep his memory alive.  What greater tribute to a father could a son do?  John is now known as Jeremiah Benton Smith, Jr. - my great-great-grandfather.  Growing up without a father would seem very hard and thus would explain why Jeremiah Jr. seems to love family so much.  For this love he had for his father, obviously carried through to his own family as they all grew up and remained around him.  The census data we have for Jeremiah Jr. is as follows:

Burial: Aug 01, 1935, Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery, Pineville, MS., Smith Co.
Census 1: 1880, Smith Co., MS., page 25, Dist #5; No HH #, Jeremiah Smith 21, Rosa 22
Census 2: 1900, Smith Co., MS., Beat #5; Sheet 9B, HH#148.
Census 3: 1910, Smith Co., MS, Beat 5; Sheet 12A; HH #144, page 106A of the 1910 Federal Census of Smith County, Mississippi, as having been married 30 years with 9 of 11 children still living .
Census 4: 1920, Smith Co., MS, Beat 5 - Pineville Precinct: Sheet 6A; HH #90.
Census 5: 1930, Smith County, MS., Federal Census, Beat 5, Em Dist 65-13, Sheet 2A, HH # 41, list J.B. 72; Rose 72; & Maggie 41.
Death Cert.: MS#35-21071; states date of birth as Dec 8, 1862.

In about Smith, Jeremiah 1879, Jeremiah Jr. married a Ms. Rosa Wedgeworth (b. 25 May 1855) of whose descent I have yet to discover.  He is Wedgeworth, Rosa recorded in the 1880 Census of Smith Co. MS as only him, age 21, and Rosa, age 22.  By 1910, the census records them as having been married for 30 yrs. With 9 of 11 children living.  These children are as follows:  Wallace (b.11 Oct 1880), Mittie (b. 30 Dec 1882), Carrie (b. 11 Mar 1885), Maggie (b. 8 Nov 1887), Vander (b. 9 Dec 1889), Dollie (b. 5 Jan 1892), Edward (b. 5 Feb. 1894), Mary (b. 24 Mar 1898), Aaron (b. 25 Nov 1899), and 2 infants who died at birth.  They did have one more child, Oma (b. 6 Jan 1901) that was found later that also died young in 17 Feb 1903.  

Jeremiah Jr. appears to be quite the loving and caring center of the family at this time, for all his children and grandchildren still lived around him.  This too may be in part to the fact that he was a farmer.  In 1915, he posed with his wife and then children and their families for the first family photo that I am aware of.  In this photo, it is apparent that as his children married into such families as the Harris’ and McNeil’s’, the daughters and their families as well as the sons are still living around their father.  

Jeremiah Smith, Jr. Family

Jeremiah continued to live in Smith Co. MS (Near Pineville, MS) till his death on 31 Jul 1935.  He died in Smith Co. MS just 7 months exactly after the death of his wife, Rosa, who died 31 Dec 1934.  My opinion is that when couples who live together for any great length of time as these two did learning to love and depend on each other and one dies, the other one will not be far behind.  In this case or in addition to the theory, there was a daughter Maggie who never married and lived at home who lived only a few months later as she died on 20 Nov 1936.  At the time of Jeremiah’s death, he was survived by 8 children and 37 grandchildren.  He is buried at the Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery in Pineville, Smith Co. MS along with his wife and many of his ancestors and descendants.  As of June 2005, his descendants number 12 children, 43 grandchildren, 100 great grandchildren, 122 great-great grandchildren, 31 great-great-great grandchildren, and 4 great-great-great-great grandchildren.  That’s 412 descendants that I have found so far… and still counting.  What a legacy!  

Wallace Smith Family Smith, Hansford Marion Harris, Julia Smith, Wallace Jeremiah and Rosa’s first child was Wallace Samuel Smith.  He was born 11 Oct 1880 in Pineville, Smith County, MS.  He died 14 Mar 1955 in Smith County, MS at the age of 74.  Wallace was found in the 1910 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 12A, Household #145).  Again, He was found in the 1920 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 7A, Household #113).  Incidentally, Beat #5 is the Pineville District.  Then in the 1930 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, Em District 65-13, pg. 3B, Household #69) we find Wallace at age 49 with wife, Juliasmith, iris smith, onie Smith, Missoura   age 47, and three children: Ona at age 22, Clint at age 18, and Ola at age 16.  The last record found was a WWI registration found by Dr. Graham listing Wallace as a potential candidate for being drafted to the war.  This document gave his birth date as 28 Oct 1880.  Along the way he managed to marry (as many of his siblings did) into the Harris Family.  He married Ms. Julia Harris about 1900 in Smith co. MS.  She was born 22 Sep 1883 in Smith Co. and died 28 Feb 1969 also in Smith Co. MS.  Both were buried in the Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery in Pineville, Smith County, MS. smith, ola smith, William Clint Together they had 6 children:  Hansford or Hance (b. 1 Oct 1901), Missouri “Zura” (b. 3 Nov 1903), Onie (b. 1905), Iris (b. 1908), William Clint (b. 28 Nov 1912), and Mary Ola (b. 12 Mar 1917).  We will go further with the linage in the next chapter, but I am unable at this time to tell you what they did for a living, although I assume it was farm labor.  I can however show what they looked like.  I have obtained two family photos which contain Wallace’s family.  One was obtained from Larry and Charlotte Webb who run the Smith County Mississippi Genealogical Society as well as publish a book about the Smith County History.  

Larry is a descendant from the Harris Family of which our Smith’s married into Now the Larger photo (from Larry Webb) shows Wallace as he is holding Onie; Julie holding Iris (who is not quite one yet); Missouri standing behind Julia; and Hansford standing behind Wallace.  This photo was taken around 1908/09 as it is dated or judged by Iris in the photo.  The individual photos were cropped from a larger family photo taken about 1915 of which I obtained from my father who got it from our Aunt Ruth (we will get to her soon).  Wallace’s photo (top left) is a bit distorted but you can still make out the features.  As we go through notice the differences as they grew older.  Julia (the top middle) hasn’t changed much but her hair.  Hansford (top right) is very much like his dad.  Missouri, who looked scared stiff in the 1908 photo, has grown taller in the 1915 photo (middle row, left).  Onie (middle row, middle photo) is now age 10.  Iris (middle row, right) has grown the most, as she is now age 6 or 7.  Notice the photos of each of the girls; see that they are all wearing the same cloth of dress.  Now by 1915, Wallace and Julia had two more children, William Clint (bottom left) and Mary Ola (bottom right).  For now this is the best I can do for the Wallace Family.

Jeremiah and Rosa’s second child was Mittie Smith who was born 30 Dec 1882.  She died 10 Feb 1962.  She was born and died both in Pineville, Smith Co. MSHarris, Huey Harris, Dewey Harris, Edgar Harris, Wilma Smith, Mittie Harris, Rolland and is buried in Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Mittie, like her older brother Wallace, married into the Harris Family about 1902.  She married Mr. Cratus Rolland “Rollie” Harris, who was born 12 Jan 1878 in Newton Co. MS and died 30 Apr 1962 in Smith Co. MS.  He too is buried with Mittie at Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Now as Census records are only recorded via head of households, we must look up Cratus Harris to find our Mittie.  We found the following records concerning Cratus:
Harris, Ambrose Harris, Homer Benjamin Harris, Lola
1910 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 8B, house hold #98)
1920 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 7A, house hold #115)
1930 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 4B, house hold #85)

Again the Harris’ were living in the Pineville area.  Notice how the family just sticks together as they did just a couple of generations earlier.  I love this fact.  In 1920, they were still living next to one another.  Notice the House hold number of 115.  In 1920, Wallace’s house hold number was 113.  They were living close to one another.  The last census in 1930 shows Cratus at age 52, with wife Mittie age 47, and 9 Children:  Wilma at age 20, Edgar at age 16, Dewey at age 16, Huey at age 16 (they were twins), Clurah at age 14, Rentha at age 12, Rubin at age 10, Prentis at age 7, and Gay at the age of 5.  It just appears that our family were like rabbits again and again.  The census didn’t show that there were three older children already moved out: Lola Harris, Homer Benjamin Harris, and Ambrose Tom Harris.

As you can see on the first row, the first picture on the left is of Cratus “Rollie” Harris.  The second picture is of Mittie Smith.  The third picture is of Wilma Harris, the fourth is of Edgar Harris, the Fifth is of Dewey Harris, and the last picture is of Dewey’s twin, Huey Harris.  If you notice before I cropped the pictures, Rollie is holding Huey and Mittie is holding Dewey.  The second row of photos is of the children who had already moved out by 1930.  The first one is of Lola, the second of Homer, and the third of Amburs.  Again, these photos are derived from a 1915 family photo.  So that gives Rollie and Mittie 7 children so far with pictures.  They ended up with 12 children here listed in order:  Lola E. (b. 19 Oct 1903), Homer Benjamin (b. 15 Jan 1905), Ambrose  Tom [or Amburs] (b. 10 Nov 1906), Wilma Francis (b. 15 Oct 1908), Edgar Roland (b. 5 Oct 1910), Dewey Joe and Huey C. (b. 10 Jan 1913), Clurah (b. 1915), Rentha (b. 1918), Rubin (b. 11 Jan 1920), James Prentiss (b. 12 Feb 1923), and Gay (b. 17 Jul 1925).

The third child of Jeremiah and Rosa was Carrie Smith.  She was born 11 Mar 1885 in Smith Co. MS and died on 8 Sep 19McNeil, Floyd - in back McNeil, Myrtle McNeil, Slonnie McNeil, Curtis McNeil, Myrtis McNeil, Chester & Smith, Carrie the Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery in Pineville, MS.  She married a Chester A. McNeil about 1906.  The McNeil’s w19 in Smith Co. MS.  She is buried atere from Bay Springs, Jasper Co. MS.  How they met, I do not know, but it appears that the McNeil family moved to Smith Co. and stayed.  Chester; therefore, was born in Bay Springs, MS on 16 Aug 1887 and died 12 Dec 1935.  Chester was also buried at Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.    We found Chester in the WWI registration for Smith Co. giving a birth date of 16 Aug 1888.  Then we found him in the 1910 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 8A, House hold # 95).  This family also lived near the other family members.   Then again we found him in the 1920 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 6A, House hold #92).  Together, Carrie and Chester had 7 children.  Some are in the photos below.

The first picture is a little distorted but it is Chester McNeil and Carrie Smith.  The second picture is of Myrtis, the first born.  The third picture is of Curtis McNeil, the second born.  The Fourth picture is of the third born, Slonie McNeil.  The fifth picture available is of the fifth child, Myrtle.  The last photo is of two infants.  The bald headed baby in the back looking forward is Floyd McNeil.  But that is not all.  The seven children are as follows:   Myrtis (b. 7 Oct 1906), Curtis (b. 6 Jul 1908), Slonie (b. 10 Oct 1910), Myrtle (b. 27 Sep 1912), Floyd (b. 2 Nov 1914), Dollie (b. 25 Sep 1916), and Carrie (b. 8 Sep 1919).

The fourth child of Jeremiah and Rosa was Maggie Smith.  Maggie was born 8 Nov 1887 in Smith Co. MS and died 20 Nov 1936 in Smith Co. MS.  She wasSmith, Maggie buried with her parents in Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Maggie never married and as we spoke earlier, she died just months after her parents died.  From the picture we have on the left, I am not quite sure there wasn’t something wrong with Maggie.  Maybe some birth defect.  I don’t believe she had any real health problems as she lived to nearly 50 years old and for a child to survive so long in a tough environment, I believe she was dearly loved by her parents; thus, the grief of their death over came her soon after.  I have seen this happen before in my family, but on my mother’s side.  My grandfather, Richard Marsh died, and then my Uncle died with in weeks of his father’s death.  Not two months later after grandpa died, my grandmother died because of the grief.  Here again I am going off the subject.  Maggie was the spinster as she died at the age of 49.  The fifth child is Vander Bill Smith.  As he is our direct ancestor I will discuss him last.

The sixth child of Jeremiah and Rosa was Dollie Smith.  Dollie was born 5 Jan 1892 in Smith Co. MS and died 13 Nov 1970 in Smith Co. MS as she too is buriedMcNeil, Henry McNeil, Cooper McNeil, Son Smith, Dollie (McNeil) McNeil, Closier at Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Dollie, like her sister Carrie married into the McNeil Family about 1908.  She married Closier C. McNeil who was born 23 Jul 1889 in Bay Springs, MS and died 13 Dec 1935 in Smith Co. MS as he was buried at Leaf River Baptist Church.  Again, to find records of Dollie I had to look for Closier.  He was found in the 1910 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 12A, House hold # 139).  We found him like the rest of the family still living in the area in the 1920 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 9B, house hold # 154).  Between these two records, he was recorded in the registration book for WWI with his birth date given as 23 Jul 1890.  I don’t know the significance of all the WWI registers showing our family as being born one year after they actually were.  Just an observation.  The last record found for Closier was in the 1930 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 2A, House hold # 34) listing himself at age 40, Dola (Dollie) at age 38, Son at age 20, Cooper at age 18, Henry at age 16, and Carrie [his niece] at age 10.

This was all his family.  He and Dollie had 3 children that we know of:  Othel “Son” McNeil (b. 10 Aug 1909), Cooper McNeil (b. 1911), and Henry McNeil (b. 15 Aug 1913).  Closier is the first photo, Dollie is the second (and no that is not horns on her head, but the collar of the shirt from Hance, her brother), Othel is the middle picture, the Fourth is Cooper, and the last is Henry.

Smith, Gayle Smith, Mary Jeremiah and Rosa’s seventh child was Gayle Edward Smith.  He was born 5 Feb 1894 in Pineville, Smith Co. MS.  His date of death is unknown at this stage but it is believed he died in Mobile, AL.  I have no data on Gayle except that he married a lady named Luannie Boykin.  His pictured in the photo though between his older brothers, Vander and Wallace; even though it is a bit distorted, he appears to be a clean cut gentleman.  The eighth child of Jeremiah and Rosa was Mary Smith.  Mary was born 24 Mar 1898 in Smith Co. MS and died 26 Nov 1995 in Sylvarena, Smith Co. MS.  She was buried in the Mt. Pleasant Baptist Church Cemetery in Sylvarena, MS.  As she was only 16 or 17 at the time of the photo we have she wasn’t married yet; so the only photo I have of the family so far is as shown to the right.  According to the Smith Co. marriage books (Book 2, pg. 511); she was married on 5 Mar 1920 to Lem “Vander” Bryant.  Lem was born 22 Jul 1898 and died 6 Mar 1974.  He was buried at Mt. Pleasant Baptist Church in Sylvarena, MS.  A newspaper article from Laurel, MS announcing his death stated:

    Bryant, Lem Vander
    Funeral Services for Lem Vander Bryant, 76, Rt. 1, Raleigh, who died Wednesday, will be held Friday, 2 pm at Mt. Pleasant Baptist Church with burial in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery.  Memory Chapel of Bay Springs is in charge of arrangements.  Survivors are his widow; two sons: A.G. Bryant, Atlanta, GA; Ralph Bryant, Raleigh; two daughters: Mrs. Cleo Rogers, Jackson; Mrs. Janice Welborn, Raleigh; 19 Grandchildren, 12 Great-Grandchildren, and two sisters: Mrs. Emma Moore, Bay Springs; Mrs. Lizzie Culver, Mobile, AL
    Laurel Leader-Call

This article gives us heaps of information.  But we did actually find him in the 1930 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (Beat #5, pg. 3B, House hold #66) listing himself at age 31, Mary at age 33, A.G. at age 7, Cleo at age 4, and Ralph at age 1.  In actuality, there were 4 children between Mary and Lem:  A.G. (b. 1923), Cleo (b. 1925), Ralph (b. 24 Jan 1930), and Janice (b. 15 Sep 1935).

Smith, Hance The ninth child of Jeremiah and Rosa was none other than Aaron Hance Smith.  Hance was born 25 Nov 1899 in Smith co. MS and died on 7 Aug 1956 at Whitfield, Rankin Co. MS.  No, he wasn’t in the Mental Hospital.  Aaron was buried with his parents at Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  As he was only 15 or 16 at the time of the photo I have, he too, is the only photo I have of his family and that is the top of his sister, Carrie’s head under his chin.  In the Smith County Marriage books (book 3, page 140) he is record to have married on 24 Dec 1921 to a Ms. Iva Beulah Sorey.  She was born on 29 Dec 1905 in Smith co. MS and died on 10 Jan 1964 in Forest, Scott Co. MS.  She was buried with her husband at Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Aaron and Iva had 4 children together:  Margaret Genevieve (b. 12 Nov 1925), Elba Katherine (b. 1927), George Fred (b. 27 Sep 1927), and Christine (b. 26 Apr 1928).  There is more information about the family linage, but this again isn’t the time.

One last reminder about Jeremiah’s kids is that he and Rosa tried to have three more.  The tenth and eleventh children were infants that died at birth or just afterwards.  There was believed to be one boy and one girl.  The twelfth child born to them was named Oma Smith, born about 1901. But to their dismay, the little girl only lived till 1903.  How heart breaking that would be.  I believe with great understanding they quite trying to have kids.

Smith, Vander Bill Moseley, Mattie Olivia Ok, finally we are down to the fifth child of Jeremiah and Rosa, Vander Bill Smith, of whom our direct line funnels through.  He too was a challenge to find as his father was. Now Vander was born on 9 Dec 1889 in Pineville, Smith Co. MS and died 30 Dec 1970 in Pineville, Smith Co. MS. He was buried at the Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery.  Of the kinsman I had living; they all only knew him as Van Smith.  Some had called him Van diver, but neither name was showing up on any register.  Finally after asking around to various genealogy sites I ran across a man who had done some research on Smith’s in and around Smith and Newton Co. MS.  His name was Dr. Harold Graham from Decatur, MS.  We have discussed him earlier.  And through his research we even found out that he is related to some Hollingsworth’s that we too are kinsman with.  I had found a long lost cousin.  Anyway, Dr. Graham had already found my great grandfather as Vander Bill Smith.  As I began to research Vander Bill, I began to find records not only in the Federal Census but in the Military records as well.  What I really found was not that he was in the miliary but a draft record of available men in the Smith Co. MS area for WWI; and once again his birth date was recorded as 9 Dec 1890.   He was found in the 1910 Federal Census for Smith Co. MS (beat 5, sheet 12a, House hold # 137) as the son of Jeremiah Smith and Rosa Smith (Wedgeworth).  He would have been 21 years old or thereabouts.  In the 1930 Federal Census of Smith Co. MS (beat 5, Sheet 2a, House hold # 38) listing VanderSmith, Vera - in Front Smith, Ruth Smith, Emma 40; Mattie 36; Ruth 18;Vera 15; Eulon 12; & Beulah 8.  Not only does this verify Vander, but it confirms what we know about his wife and children.  Vander was married to Mattie Olivia Smith around 1909.  She was born on 29 Jul 1893 in Smith Co. MS and died 28 Nov 1974 in Brandon, MS.  Together, they had 6 children: Emma (b. 17 Apr 1910), Ruth (b. 1912), Vera (b. 1915), Eulon (b. 18 Dec 1917), Beulah (b. 12 Jul 1920), and Edward (b. 5 Jun 1930).  Vander’s children at the time of the 1915 photo are as follows:  Left – Emma, Middle – Ruth, and Right – Vera (infant in front looking down).  Uncle Larry, brother to my father, said he remembers Vander a little bit.  He remembered his dad, Eulon, sending him with plough parts to be rebuilt and sharpened as he remembered that his grandpa was an excellent black smith.  Seems fitting after reading the history of the Smith’s.  Uncle Larry said him and Jerry, his older brother – my name sake – used to ride their worn out old bicycles with an old basket tied to the front handlebars filled with parts for Vander to fix.  Larry said he doesn’t remember much more than that, except that it was a long ride on the bicycle even though in reality is was just down the hill, but then he finished by saying:

    “My first memories of Vander were him and grandma walking down the hill to visit. He was a small wiry man with a good sense of humor, but kinda quick sometimes with the temper. He was a blacksmith and we used him for all sorts of things that we had to have fixed around the farm. He was very strong for his size and worked very hard. He was born and grew up in Pineville MS. When he and grandma got married he came to burns, Pulaski address, and built his house and raised his family. They already had family in the area as grandma's sister Dell lived just down the road.  Vander as you know was called Van by everyone who knew him. When all the kids were grown he moved to Polkville, MS. By the time he moved to Polkville he had arthritis really bad and was confined to a wheel chair, but never lost his since of humor.”

Vander Bill Smith Family

 Dad, Carey T. Smith, says he remembers being stubborn and not doing what his father asked.  As grandpa was about to “whip” him, he said he remembered his grandma (Mattie Olivia Smith) as he put it – fly off the porch and begin beating on Eulon to stop “whipping” the children.  Vander was been laid to rest in the Leaf River Baptist Church Cemetery in Smith Co. MS after his death on 30 Dec 1970 at the age of 89.  His wife Mattie followed him on 28 Nov 1974 in Brandon, MS.  

Now Vera Darlene, Vander’s granddaughter, had this to say:

    “I don't have many memories of my grandparents.  Grandpa Taylor died before I was born and the others died when I was very young. I remember Grandma Taylor always being kind of sickly. When we would go to the house where she and Dimple (Thelma) lived, she would want me to sing for her.  I was very young and shy and wouldn't stay in her bedroom to sing.  I would sit on the front porch and sing loud enough for her to hear.  That's probably why I have such a loud singing voice today.  We would go and visit Uncle Claude and Aunt Annie often.  He and Daddy did a lot of hunting.  I remember going to Grandma and Grandpa Smith's (Vander and Mattie Smith) place and how they always smelled like the fireplace to me.  I remember the well and the out house.  They always had snuff in their mouths and could spit with wonderful accuracy.  Grandpa Smith was always sitting on the front porch.”

What about that last sentence?  Every memory I have of our older generations always included a front porch.  I dreamed of owning a house with a porch all around the house so no matter where I was I could enjoy the porch.  I believe everyone in our family just enjoyed a porch.  The porch or veranda as some call it, represents peace, home, and family.  Where else did you get together and just sit and talk about things, new and old, good or bad?  Friendships were forged there and relationships sitting on the porch swing were solidified.  It was and is where I want to be.  Just to prove my point I will leave you with a picture on the next page of the entire family of which I had broken up to match with the stories above.  This is the picture taken in early 1915.  The family had anywhere in the world to take this photo.  Where did they choose to take it?

Smith Family - 1915

By: Jerry A. Smith,
Smith Family Researcher

1. Website About.Com:  http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa111100a.htm
2.  Wikipedia Free Online Encyclopaedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Barbary_War
3.  Ambrose, Stephen, “Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening if the American West”, 1997.
4.  Hickey, Donald R., “The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict”, 2004 reprint.
5.  Website “The History Place.com”:  http://www.historyplace.com/lincoln/dred.htm
6. Geoghegan, Ann A., “Natchez Massacre of 1729”, American Local History Network, Inc., 2003.
7.  Rowland, Dunbar, “History of Mississippi, the Heart of the South”, Clark Publishing Co., 1925. Vol. I.
8.  Martin, Sara Hines:  “Revelations of a Fort from Yesteryear”, http://homepages.rootsweb.com/%7Ejayken/hollingsworth/fort/#hist
9.  Irby, Richard E.:  Yazoo Land Fraud and Pine Barrens Scandal. http://ngeorgia.com/history/land.html
10. Miller, Nathan “The Founding Finaglers”, David McKay Company, Inc. 1976. p. 123-6.
11. Georgia Genealogical Society Quarterly Vol II Ser 3 March 1967 & Lavonia Times and Gauge, February 23, 1934.
12. Graham, Dr. Harold, Smith Family Researcher. Essay: “Chapter 1: Descendants of Isaac Hollingsworth, Sr. (1781-1866)”
13.  Lowrey, Charles, “The Great Migration to the Mississippi Territory, 1789 – 1819”, MS Historical Society, 2000. p. 1-5.
14. The treaty has be transcribed on the internet at: http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature14/doaks_1.html  
15. The treaty has be transcribed on the internet at: http://www.peaknet.net/~aardvark/treaty.html
16. The treaty has be transcribed on the internet at: https://sites.rootsweb.com/~msalhn/NativeAmerican/TreatyofPontotoc1832.htm

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