Theories of our Beginnings

Theory #1: From whence we came

Where did you come from?  A standard and straight forward question, don’t you think?  Yet this one question will stir up all kinds of answers.  In general one would answer with the name of where they live or where they were born.  Fair enough, but where did your ancestors come from, then?  How far back can you trace your genealogy?  Or at least where were your beginnings?  Now we have opened a whole new can of worms.  For those who don’t really know and couldn’t be bothered finding out there are two standard answers.  For those who do not believe in God, their statement leans towards monkeys or evolution.  For those who believe in God, their statement will center on Adam and Eve.  Lets first start out by saying that I believe every person on earth can trace their linage to Adam and Eve.  As a matter of fact, we can even narrow that down to Noah and his children.  But this is the extent.  From a genealogical standpoint attempting to go any further would be pointless.  Why do I say this, you ask? 

The Bible, our oldest and greatest source of history, was not written in the context to be used as a history book.  It was written to bring glory to God, to Christ.  I don’t want to get into a biblical debate here, but the Bible is about Christ, who he was, where he came from, and who we must look to for salvation.  In order to do this, in order for man to understand, His history must be recorded thus proving His lineage.  With this said, this history included man and therefore we have pieces of history throughout.  Man has since tried to put these pieces together, me included, attempting to make sense of it all and along the way we began to learn about God, Christ, the real purpose.  Not everyone will understand as they read; most will only see the history or chronicles associated with it (and consequently will begin to create and believe other anecdotes to make up for the gaps they don’t understand rather than have faith).  But for those who do understand by the grace of God, we will notice that it’s all about Christ (no additives needed).  This means that from a genealogical stand point, the only complete lineage recorded is Christ’s.  There are several other genealogies but none are complete and as far as I can tell are only recorded for one purpose – to show that God honoured his promises to his people. And unless you are of Christ’s blood line there is no point.  But here lies one of the dilemmas.  First lets start by saying that know from the bible that Christ’s direct lineage was recorded in four different paths:  the first two being his earthly parents, Joseph & Mary; the third being his cousin, John the Baptist, and the last which dates all the way back to the time of the Kings of Judah, with King Zedekiah.  Christ’s direct physical blood line ended in three places as recorded by the Bible, with Christ himself as he died on the cross for us (Mark 15:22, Luke 23:46) with John the Baptist as he was beheaded (Matthew 14:3-12), and with another branch line recorded,  the Kings of Israel / Judah as King Zedekiah’s children were killed (2 Kings 25:1-7; 2 Chronicles 36:12; Jeremiah 32:4,5; 34:2, 3; 39:1-7; 52:4-11; Ezekiel 12:12).  Any other believed or assumed relatives were not recorded as they were not significant.  No other complete lineage was recorded?  Something tells me that out of all the folks around recorded by the bible, if the only full lineage recorded was Christ’s, then that might be what we need to focus on - meaning that the only thing that is really important is Christ - just food for thought.  No one really disputes the end of Christ’s lineage with his death (except in the FICTIONAL book of the Da Vinci Code).  No one really disputes the end of the lineage with John.  And based on the proof we will show later, no one should dispute the end of the line of the Kings.  However, this last line seems to be up for debate among many researchers.   

But our main point here is not to deliberate the Bible or its meanings, but to find out where we came from.  I know many of you have already asked yourself one question: If I already know my ultimate beginnings and I know where I am today, why in the world do I bother with the in between if it is pointless?  Two reasons, it is a matter of record from a personal point of view and it is because of an enjoyment of learning history.  What could be more personal than your own history; learning how your ancestors lived and acted during those major events in history which in turn is how we came to be where we are today.  The truth of the matter is you either enjoy it or you don’t as with most things in life.  I would assume if you have made it this far, you are still interested.  However, by this stage you may have notice a difference as well at times between what “we” call history and the Bible.  I look at this way - if God didn't put together those men in history and compel them to record things, we wouldn't know or understand what we know now – but to sum up the whole idea per my father, "History is good, but it cannot establish the Bible as true - that is done by faith".  Understanding our past, helps us understand why we do what we do now and in the future. 
According to the biblical research of Ussher (1581 – 1656)1, the earth was created some 6,000 years ago in what we would now call 4004 B.C.  From a genealogical point of view, this means we have over 6,000 years to cover.  Yet again, why are we looking at this if it is pointless?  There are many theories out there relating to family history from people who honestly believe they can trace their lineage to the Kings of Israel and Judah and therefore back to Adam or even Christ - and this all hinges on one little story.  But to understand the story we will have to attempt to cover the history before and after to understand what they are trying to do.  So we will get to the story shortly, but based on the Bible, let’s show what we do know from the beginning in order to disprove their theories. 

As stated, we can begin with Adam and Eve based on the information in Genesis (Chapters 5 – 9).  This same book will also give us Adam’s descendants.  Below is the direct descendant chart from Adam to Noah:

Adam (930 yrs)
    Seth (912 yrs)
        Enos (905 yrs)
            Cainan (910 yrs)
                Mahalaleel (895 yrs)
                    Jared (962 yrs)
                        Enoch (365 yrs)
                            Methuselah (969 yrs)
                                Lamech (777 yrs)
                                    Noah (950 yrs)  

Now it is recorded that these men had other children, yet most were not named as the direct line was all that was important.  If we ASSUME Adam was created in the year dot (year one), this will help us (just for now) to begin a history [this is not the current way of calculating time, but we will go back and re-calculate backwards when the time comes].  Adam lived from 1 to 930.  It was recorded that Adam begat Seth when he was 130 years old.  Ok this puts a marker down for us to calculate with.  Seth lived to be 912 years old. This added with Adam’s 130 years, pushes out the time to 1042.  Are you still with me?  I hope so because we are still moving on.  Seth, at the age of 105, begat Enos.  Enos lived 905 years in all.  This means that Enos was born in the year (as we are calculating forward for now) 235.  If we continue this line of calculation, we get to Noah being born in the year 1056, or based on Ussher’s time calculations (backwards) which is still used today, he would have been born 2948 B.C. (4004 minus 1056=2948).

Using these same backwards calculations, the Bible tells us that the flood came when Noah was 600 years old (Genesis 9:28-29) and wiped everyone and every thing out, save Noah, his family, and those animals he kept with him.  At this stage the time line would be at 2348 B.C.  The Bible says again, Noah’s family consisted of his wife and his three boys (including their families):  Shem, Ham, and Jeptha.  Now Jeptha is accredited for the repopulation of the European & Asian nations, Ham is accredited for repopulating the African nations, while Shem is accredited for repopulating the Arabic nations.  Not to say individuals from one area could not have migrated to another, but this is the general spread of the population.

Ok, unless you believe you evolved from a monkey over millions of years, then we have solved the mystery of our ultimate origins from a historical and/or genealogical stand point – all mankind derived from Adam and Eve.  Our lineage can only be narrowed down to Noah and his children.  If anyone attempts to tell you that they can trace their lineage back to Noah or Adam I would be inclined to say they were telling a bit of a tall tale.  As the direct lineage of Christ is the only complete line recorded, many people have also attempted to tie theirs lines to his.  Wow… what imaginations these people have but as we can see today many people try to make their existence important in many ways.  However, they do sound quite convincing no matter how untrue; and for this reason alone will I venture to discuss them. 

So let’s tackle one of the theories - the one little story or theory that the “so called genealogists” use to claim to be linked to Christ’s direct lineage or at least the Kings of Judea is needed to base their claim; so this discussion will cover 95% of all biblical lineage theories.  The story is in two parts.  If we continue with the lineage we started above from Adam to Noah, we will get the following beginning with the son of Noah:

Shem (600 yrs)
    Arphaxad (438 yrs)
        Salah (430 yrs)
            Eber (464 yrs)
                Peleg (239 yrs)
                    Reu (239 yrs)
                        Serug (230 yrs)
                            Nahor (148 yrs)
                                Terah (205 yrs)
                                    Abraham (175 yrs)

The first 10 generations (Adam to Noah) covered over 2,000 years of history.  The next 10 generations (Shem to Abraham) was still within Noah’s time.  Imagine being able to live to see your 9th great grandson.  So we will say that the first 20 generations are basically covered in these 2,000 years of history.  Remember this is the lineage of Christ from the beginning of what we call time.  Then there are the 14 generations from Abraham to David below:
Isaac (180 yrs)
        Jacob (147 yrs)
                Judah (129 yrs)
                        Pharez (???)
                                Hezron (???)
                                        Ram (???)
                                                Aminadab (???)
                                                        Nahshan (???)
                                                                Salmon (???)
                                                                        Boaz (???)
                                                                                    Obed (???)
                                                                                             Jesse (???)
                                                                                                     David (70 yrs)

This will bring us close to our current date calculations of 1000 B.C.  So without any issues, we have been able to cover roughly 3,000 years – half our existence on earth in just a few pages.  Here with David, though, the lineage becomes in question for a few people.  No one from any Christian faith will debate any of the above - but where to from here?  The direct lineage of Christ is split in three sections for reasons we will discuss in a bit.  The forth lineage would be from John the Baptist, but he is only mentioned as a cousin and his line is cut short as we already discussed.  The following splits are lineages from David’s sons:

Judean Kings
Joseph's Lineage
Mary's Lineage
Solomon (???)
Rehoboam (58 yrs)
Abija (???)
Asa (???)
Jehoshaphat (60 yrs)
Jehoram (50 yrs)
Ahaziah (23 yrs)

Athaliah (???) Queen

Joash (47 yrs)
Amaziah (54 yrs)
Uzziah (68 yrs)
Jotham (41 yrs)
Ahaz (38 yrs)
Hezekiah (54 yrs)
Manassah (67 yrs)
Amon (24 yrs)
Josiah (39 yrs)
Jehoahaz (23 yrs)

Jehoiakim (36 yrs)
Jeconiah (18 yrs)
Zedekiah (32 yrs)





















Wow, this is becoming a bit complex but still very doable.  King David had many children through his 8 wives (1 Chronicles 3), with Solomon being the most famous.  Every person on earth and their brother has heard of Solomon in one form or another.  Solomon took over as King when David died.  Then wouldn’t it be fair to say that through Solomon was the Kingly lineage?  This fits with most stories you have heard about where Christ came from doesn’t it?  It is true.  His lineage is Kingly even here on earth.  So why do we have a King’s lineage that is eradicated as well?  Meaning why do we have the last of King Zedekiah’s children being removed from this life in 2 Kings 25:1-7; 2 Chronicles 36:12; Jeremiah 32:4,5; 34:2, 3; 39:1-7; 52:4-11; and Ezekiel 12:12.  Would this mean that Christ did not come through the King’s Line?  No, it doesn’t mean that at all!  If you notice above, there are three lineages shown and the first two look similar.  Why is this? It is because Christ’s lineage did begin with the Kings but branched off.  If you notice the first 6 generations are exactly the same.  However, Joram had two sons, one of which was his first born, Ahaziah.  Ahaziah didn’t reign long as he was killed and his mother was power hungry and assumed the throne for a few years till the people brought Joram’s second son, Joash, out from hiding to assume the throne.  From here again, the next 11 generations are exactly the same as the Kingly lineage.  This time period is about what we would call 600 B.C.  This is the time where Jeconiah was the King of Judea.  God brought Nebuchadnezzar down from the north to attack Jeruselem.  Nebuchadnezzar removed Jeconiah from his throne because he would not submit to his rule and replaced him with his younger brother, Zedekiah.  Zedekiah was the last Judean King.  However, Jeconiah had several children, one of which was Shealtiel.  Once Zedekiah was killed Shealtiel assumed the leadership role of the house of David.  It was 11 generations later that produced an heir to the lineage of David, Joseph.  That is correct; this Joseph is the husband (not uncle, brother, or anything else) of Mary, the mother of Christ.

However, another line was recorded as well – Joseph’s wife, Mary’s line. David had many children as we mentioned earlier.  One of Solomon’s older brothers (but of the same mother) was named Nathan (the prophet).  Why in the world would the Bible record this?  I bet most of you don’t remember his name being taught in Sunday school.   Not only was Nathan used by God to speak to David but he used Nathan for something else.  After Nathan, 40 generations pass to get to one person, Mary, the mother of Christ here on earth (Luke 3:23-38).  I bet most of you didn’t know that one.  Ok, we have lines that are documented from Joseph and Mary both back to David and back to Adam.  As Christ came through Mary as God planned, on earth Christ was the child of Joseph and Mary.  Now the reason for the two separate lineages was to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that no matter what critic attempted to discredit the claim of Christ to David via his mother or earthly father, they would be thwarted from their efforts.  Christ is of the lineage of David no matter how you look at it.

Ok, we have finally covered the lineage of Christ.  Now how do we disprove the claim so many people have of belonging to such a lineage?  We will first begin by explaining certain proofs or facts found in the bible of which you can find and read and understand for yourself in order to refer to them later.  We will then discuss a short story during and after the time and demise of King Zedekiah verified by proofs and then jump ahead with a second story in order to eventually work backwards in time back to where we left off with Zedekiah.  This will sound a bit confusing but bear with me.

Proof #1
The Bible states in the book of Jeremiah Chapter 39:6-7, that Nebuchadnezzar, “(verse 6) then the king of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah in Riblah before his eyes: also the king of Babylon slew all the nobles of Judah. (verse 7) Moreover he put out Zedekiah’s eyes, and bound him with chains, to carry him to Babylon.” 

I don’t know about you but that verse is pretty plain to me.  It says that ALL the sons (or heirs to the throne) and ALL the nobles (or anyone else who might lay claim to the throne) we killed.  Did you see that or was it just me?  Please go back and read the whole chapter to verify for me.

Proof #2
In the book of Jeremiah 42:15-19, the bible states, “And now therefore hear the word of the LORD, ye remnant of Judah; Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there; Then it shall come to pass, that the sword, which ye feared, shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt, and the famine, whereof ye were afraid, shall follow close after you there in Egypt; and there ye shall die.   So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence: and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them.  For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; As mine anger and my fury hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem; so shall my fury be poured forth upon you, when ye shall enter into Egypt: and ye shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and ye shall see this place no more.  The LORD hath said concerning you, O ye remnant of Judah; Go ye not into Egypt: know certainly that I have admonished you this day.” 

I don’t know about you, but I think the LORD doesn’t want his people (Judah) to look towards or go near Egypt; what do you think?

Proof #3
In the book of Jeremiah 43:4-7, the Bible states: “So Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, and all the people, obeyed not the voice of the LORD, to dwell in the land of Judah.  But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remnant of Judah, that were returned from all nations, whither they had been driven, to dwell in the land of Judah;
Even men, and women, and children, and the king’s daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah.  So they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: thus came they even to Tahpanhes.” 

It appears that God’s people disobeyed him and went to Egypt anyway.  And it says that the captains too also the king’s daughters.  Don’t take my word for it, please read the chapter for your self. 

Proof #4
In the book of Jeremiah 44:7-14 states: “Therefore now thus saith the LORD, the God of hosts, the God of Israel; Wherefore commit ye this great evil against your souls, to cut off from you man and woman, child and suckling, out of Judah, to leave you none to remain;  In that ye provoke me unto wrath with the works of your hands, burning incense unto other gods in the land of Egypt, whither ye be gone to dwell, that ye might cut yourselves off, and that ye might be a curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth?  Have ye forgotten the wickedness of your fathers, and the wickedness of the kings of Judah, and the wickedness of their wives, and your own wickedness, and the wickedness of your wives, which they have committed in the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem?  They are not humbled even unto this day, neither have they feared, nor walked in my law, nor in my statutes, that I set before you and before your fathers.  Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will set my face against you for evil, and to cut off all Judah.  And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the sword and by the famine: they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the sword and by the famine: and they shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach.  For I will punish them that dwell in the land of Egypt, as I have punished Jerusalem, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence:  So that none of the remnant of Judah, which are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that they should return into the land of Judah, to the which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return but such as shall escape.”

I believe the little trip to Egypt made God mad.  So mad that I believe he said the “remnant” or all that were left of Judah were to die from the “least even to the greatest”.  I don’t know about you, but this means to me that God was going to wipe out the entire tribe.  Again, if God said he was going to do something, I for one believe him.

Proof #5
In the book of Numbers, Chapter 27:8, the Bible through Moses states, “And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter.”  That is fairly self explanatory, don’t you think.  Moses further stated in Numbers 36:8 that “every daughter, that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers.”  What do you think this last verse means?  It means that if a daughter does inherit from her father, then she is to marry within the tribe of her father so the inheritance will remain inside the tribe.  This means that if the daughter who did inherit could not marry outside the tribe and keep her inheritance; if she did she would loose it.  Does this little bit make sense?  Stay with me now. 

Proof #6
In the book of 1st Chronicles 17:11-15, the bibles says, “And it shall come to pass, when thy days be expired that thou must go to be with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons; and I will establish his kingdom.  He shall build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever.  I will be his father, and he shall be my son: and I will not take my mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee:  But I will settle him in mine house and in my kingdom for ever: and his throne shall be established for evermore.  According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak unto David.” 

In the book of 2nd Samuel 7:11-16, the Bible states, “And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel, and have caused thee to rest from all thine enemies. Also the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee an house.  And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.   He shall build an house for my name, and I will stablish the throne of his kingdom for ever.  I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men:  But my mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before thee.   And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.” 

From reading the first book, it appears that God had promised David that his lineage will live forever.  This promise seemed to be important enough to repeat it again in the second book.  Is it clear to you that there was a promise to David?

Proof #7
In the Bible, the book of 2nd Kings 23:31 states; “Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.” 

And again in 2nd Kings 24:18, the bible states; “Zedekiah was twenty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.”

The two verses above tell us what?  It tells us when Jehoahaz began to reign and for how long.  It tell us when Zedekiah began his reign and for how long.  They both tell us that they had the same mother, Hamutal, thus they were brothers.  And they both mention that Hamutal was the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.  Does everyone see this?

Proof #8
In the bible, the book of Jeremiah 16: 1-4 states: “The word of the LORD came also unto me, saying, Thou shalt not take thee a wife, neither shalt thou have sons nor daughters in this place.  For thus saith the LORD concerning the sons and concerning the daughters that are born in this place, and concerning their mothers that bare them, and concerning their fathers that begat them in this land; They shall die of grievous deaths; they shall not be lamented; neither shall they be buried; but they shall be as dung upon the face of the earth: and they shall be consumed by the sword, and by famine; and their carcasses shall be meat for the fowls of heaven, and for the beasts of the earth.”

Even with a third grade education, it would not be hard to figure out that the Lord didn’t want Jeremiah (and told him so in no uncertain terms) to get married and why.  He was going to destroy everyone and everything if they did not repent of their ways, of which He did as shown in Proof #4.

In summary of the proofs above:
Proof #1 – All heirs and apparent heirs to the throne we killed
Proof #2 – God said to his people, “Don’t go to Egypt”
Proof #3 – God’s people went to Egypt anyway taking the king’s daughters
Proof #4 – God was angry about this and promised to wipe out the entire people
Proof #5 – Daughters can inherit from their fathers but must keep the inheritance
                  In the tribe or family, if you will.
Proof #6 – God promised David many generations before Zedekiah that his lineage
                  Would live forevermore.
Proof #7 – Genealogically speaking, the brothers Jehoahaz and Zedekiah, had the    
                  Same mother, Hamutal, and thus the same grandfather, Jeremiah of Labnah
Proof #8 – God told Jeremiah never to marry.

Do you see or have you read with your own eyes these proofs?  Not just what I have written but the bible from which these verses, these proofs came?  We have shown all the heirs to the throne of Judah have been killed during an attack by Nebuchadnezzar brought about by God because his people turned from Him.  We have seen that God instructed his people to stay away from Egypt but they couldn’t even do that and as a result he promised he would wipe them out.  We have seen an earlier proclamation made by Moses about the inheritance issues toward the daughters amongst his people.  We have even seen and earlier promise made to King David about his lineage being forevermore.  Each of these proofs do exist, but already you are saying in your mind that there seems to be some conflict with all that you have read so far.  The first thing you should notice is the seemingly conflict between the fact that God promised David his lineage would live forever, yet just a few pages earlier we found out that the Kingly lineage was killed off by Nebuchadnezzar.  And if you kept thinking, you would have noticed that David’s other two lineages shown above both stopped with Christ.  There are no physical children recorded for Christ.  This in itself would seem enough conflicting data, don’t you think?  What does all this mean?  Now don’t get lost, we are getting to the point soon. 

If you didn’t follow the story within the proofs, let me quickly go over it again.  Throughout the lineage of David, the Kingdom was split between Israel and Judah.  Both Kingdoms were of David and Solomon.  With in each, the Kings were both “good” and “evil” according to God’s eyes.  However, there seemed to be fewer “good” kings than “evil” - this lead to the demise of the kingdoms with the last being of King Zedekiah.  God sent his prophets amongst his people (Daniel & Jeremiah), but none would heed the word of God.  He gave them every chance to turn around and not be destroyed, but alas, the heart of man is corrupt and cannot nor will not turn on its own.  God sent in the King of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, in to attack them and wake them up.  But they repented not.  He sent him in again, but with the same result.  God sent Nebuchadnezzar in a third time to destroy the land and all of its inhabitants.  In this last attack, there were still some who attempted to escape by fleeing to Egypt (the very place they were admonished not to go).  Even here God exposed and destroyed them.  None of those who turned against God survived as we see in Jeremiah – Chapter 44. 

Now jumping ahead as I promised, there is a second story, a legend if you will, amongst some genealogists and historians that seems to date back to this same time.  We will start the story in the Island or country of Ireland.  It is said that during this age of Jeremiah the Prophet, there also existed a people known as Scots Gaels who had set up a Dynasty called Tara (of Irish or Gaelic Royalty).  The first high king of Ireland was called The Heremon.  He was also known as Eochaidh.  He began his reign around the time of 590 B.C. – 580 B.C.  Legend and old folklore have it that he would marry a princess from the East as a prophetical dream told him as a boy.  This princess was to have travelled far from the east via Gibraltar and Spain (now Portugal).  Late in his age and unmarried, he heard of the actual arrival of a princess from the East, he immediately sent out his people to bring her to him safely believing she was part of his prophesy.  She was accompanied by two others, her guardian or mentor and his scribe and two large containers.  The guardian has also been rumored to be of her family (a grandfather) as well even though his name was Ollamh Fodhla (or simply Wise Sage or Teacher).  She, the princess, was given the name of Tea or Tamar Tephi (meaning the “Palm Beautiful”).  Just a note here, both names – Ollamh Fodhla and Tea Tephi are of Egyptian origin.  They were brought to Eochaidh along with their cargo of which no one ever knew the contents.  Imbedded in the poetry and historic folk lore of Ireland that seems to be some 2,500 years old, there really does seem to be some mention of this Ollamh Fodhla, a Tamar Tephi, and a Brug. 
To make a very long story much shorter, the wise man agreed to a marriage between the princess and King Eochaidh while the scribe recorded it all and they all lived happily ever after.  Not a bad story; actually a love story if you will.  A man is told in a dream as a boy to wait to marry because his future love would arrive from the east.  Years later a princess does arrive from the east and they fall in love and marry.  History records the children of this marriage and their descendants (there really is a list of these names) as the royal family all the way through the Gaelic Kings, the Scottish Kings (such as Robert de Bruce), and the English and British Royalty.  Believe me; the history alone associated with this lineage is quite impressive.  Below is a quick summary of those on the list:

Lineage of English Monarchy2
Kings of Ireland
50. Q. Tea Tephi (b. B.C. 565), marries Herremon, a Prince of the scarlet thread.
51. K. Irial Faidh (reigned 10 years).
52. K. Eithriall (reigned 20 years).
53. Follain.
54. K. Tighernmas (reigned 50 years).
55. Eanbotha.
56. Smiorguil.
57. K. Fiachadh Labhriane (reigned 24 years).
58. K. Aongus Ollmuchaidh (reigned 21 years).
59. Maoin.
60. K. Rotheachta (reigned 25 years).
61. Dein.
62. K. Siorna Saoghalach (reigned 21 years).
63. Oholla Olchaoin.
64. K. Giallchadh (reigned 9 years).
65. K. Aodhain Glas (reigned 20 years).
66. K. Simeon Breac (reigned 7 years).
67. K. Muirteadach Bolgrach (reigned 4 years).
68. K. Fiachadh Toigrach (reigned 7 years).
69 K. Duach Laidhrach (reigned 10 years).
70. Eochaidh Buailgllerg.
71. K. Ugaine More the Great (reigned 30 years).
72. K. Cobhthach Coalbreag (reigned 30 years).
73. Meilage.
74. K. Jaran Gleofathach (reigned 7 years).
75. K. Coula Cruaidh Cealgach (reigned 25 years).
76. K. Oiliolla Caisfhiachach (reigned 28 years).
77. K. Eochaidh Foltleathan (reigned 11 years).
78. K. Aongns Tuirmheach Teamharch (reigned 30 years).
79. K. Eana Aighneach (reigned 28 years).
80. Labhra Suire.
81. Blathucha.
82. Easamhuin Famhua.
83. Roighnein Ruadh.
84. Finlogha.
85. Fian.
86. K. Eodchaidh Feidhlioch (reigned 12 years).
87. Fineamhuas.
88. K. Lughaidh Raidhdearg.
89. K. Criomhthan Niadhnar (reigned 16 years).
90. Fearaidhach Fion Feachtnuigh.
91. K. Fiachadh Fionoluidh (reigned 20 years).
92. K. Tuathal Teachtmar (reigned 40 years).
93. K. Coun Ceadchathach (reigned 20 years).
94. K. Arb Aonflier (reigned 30 years).
95. K. Cormae Usada (reigned 40 years).
96. K. Caibre Liffeachair (reigned 27 years).
97. K. Fiachadh Sreabthuine (reigned 30 years.)
98. K. Muireadhach Tireach (reigned 30 years).
99. K. Eochaidh Moigmeodhin (reigned 7 years.)
100. K. Nail of the Nine Hostages.
101. Eogan.
102. K. Murireadhach.
103. Earca.
Kings of Argyleshire
104. K. Fergus More (A.D. 487).
105. K. Dongard (d. 457).
106. K. Conran (d. 535).
107. K. Aidan (d. 604).
108. K. Eugene IV. (d. 622).
109. K. Donald IV. (d. 650).
110. Dongard.
111. K. Eugene. V. (d. 692).
112. Findan.
113. K. Eugene VII. (d. A.D. 721), Spondan.
114. K. Etfinus (d. A.D. 761), Fergina.
115. K. Achaius (d. A.D. 819), Fergusia.
116. K. Alpin (d. A.D. 834).
Sovereigns of Scotland
117. K. Kenneth I. (842-858).
118. K. Constantin I. (862-876).
119. K. Donald II. (889-900).
120. K. Malcolm I. (943-954).
121. K. Kenneth II. (971-995, d. A.D. 995).
122. K. Malcolm II. (1005-1034, d. A.D. 1034).
123. Bethoc, married to Crinan, Mormaer of Atholl and lay abott of Dunkeld.
124. K. Duncan I. (1034-1040, d. A.D. 1040), Sybil.
125. K. Malcolm III. Canmore (A.D. 1058-1093), Margaret of England.
126. K. David I. (1124-1153, d. A.D. 1153), Matilda of Huntingdon.
127. Prince Henry (d. A.D. 1152), Ada of Surrey.
128. Earl David of Huntingdon(d. A.D. 1219), Matilda of Chester.
129. Isobel m. Robert Bruce III.
130. Robert Bruce IV. m. Isobel of Gloucester.
131. Robert Bruce V. m. Martha of Carrick.
132. K. Robert I. (The Bruce) (A.D. 1306-1329), Isobel, daughter of Earl of Mar.
133. Marjorie Bruce m. Walter Stewart III.
134. K. Robert II. (b. 1317, 1371-1390, d. A.D. 1390), Euphemia of Ross (d. A.D. 1376).
135. K. Robert III. (b. 1337, 1390-1406, d. A.D. 1406), Arabella Drummond (d. A.D. 1401).
136. K. James I. (A.D. 1406-1437), Joan Beaufort.
137. K. James II. (b. 1430, 1437-1460, d. A.D. 1460), Margaret of Gueldres (d. A.D. 1463).
138. K. James III. (b. 1451, 1460-1488, d. A.D. 1488), Margaret of Denmark (d. A.D. 1486).
139. K. James IV. (b. 1473, 1488-1513, d. A.D. 1543), Margaret of England (d. A.D. 1539).
140. K. James V. (b. 1513, 1513-1542, d. A.D. 1542), Mary of Lorraine (d. A.D. 1560).
141. Q. Mary (also known as Mary, Queen of Scots) (b. 1542, 1542-1567, d. A.D. 1587), Lord Henry Darnley (d. 1567). (Mary became Queen when she was just six days old. She was deposed as Queen in 1567 and was executed in 1587 ).
Sovereigns of Great Britain
142. K. James VI. and I. (A.D. 1603-1625), Ann of Denmark. (This King James was known as King James VI of Scotland when he reigned over that country from 1567 to 1625. He was known in England as King James I when he also ruled that country from 1603 to 1625. He was the first King over both Scotland and England. It was under this King's rule that a NEW translation of the Bible occured, which became known as the Authorised King James' Version of the Bible (also known as KJV Bible)).
143. Princess Elizabeth (d. 1662), Frederick V, Elector Palatine.
144. Princess Sophia, (d. 1714), m. Duke Ernest of Brunswick (d. 1698).
145. K. George I. (1714-1727), Sophia Dorothea of Zelle (1667-1726).
146. K. George II. (b. 1683, 1727-1760), Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Anspach (1683-1737).
147. Prince Frederick Lewis of Wales (1707-1751), Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenberg.
148. K. George III. (b. 1738, 1760-1820), Princess Sophia of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz (1744-1818).
149. Duke Edward of Kent (1767-1820), Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg (d. 1861)
150. Q. Victoria (b. 1819, 1837-1901), Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha.
151. K. Edward VII. (b. 1841, 1901-1910), Princess Alexandra
152. K. George V. (b. 1865, 1910-1936), Princess Mary
153. K. George VI. (b. 1895, 1936-1952), Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother) (b. 1900, d. 2002)
154. Q. Elizabeth II (b. 1926, 1952 to Present), Philip Duke of Edinburgh

Pretty cool, huh?  Imagine being able to trace your lineage back to a time even before Christ!  Then imagine being able to connect your lineage to Christ.  This would be something wouldn’t it?  This could justify someone’s existence on earth, don’t you think?  This is just what a royal would do to make their existence seem even more important.  WHY!!!!  Why can’t people just be satisfied with who they are?  Even in the biblical times, people asked who God was or who it was that sent the prophets and the reply many times was, “I AM”, “I AM THAT I AM”.  To me that just means that as those people were trying to justify in their minds who and where this God was, they missed the point that it doesn’t matter if we justify it or not, God just IS!  Therefore, why can’t we just be happy with ourselves because we just ARE!  It’s ok if you think I am crazy…in many ways I am.  To me it is very similar to today that we have to have a birth certificate to prove we are alive, yet if we are dead, there needs to be a death certificate to prove that as well.  Are we Dead or Alive?  There is no in between nor is there any need for the paperwork to prove it – we just are!

I am sorry, I just can’t help it.  Can’t you see a difference so far between the two stories?  It is subtle but there, nonetheless.  In the story using the Bible, everything was laid out and proven; there were no assumptions, no pretending, and no mystery.  God was hiding nothing, but here with this story in Ireland, we already have mystery and intrigue.  What does that tell you?  Only man would create such a story to ensure our natures would read it.  This story already has us wondering – Where did the princess come from and what was in her containers that no one ever knew about - so the writer of the story wanted to keep our attention. He was worried about our thoughts; he cared what we thought.  God did not.  He stated the facts as they were with no regard to what man’s thoughts or beliefs were.  There is no mystery in that.  Ok, off the soap box.

Alright, back to the task at hand.  Why have we shown you these two stories - the story of a doomed King, whose family try to run and hide in Egypt to escape the doom, yet are unsuccessful; and the Story of two people meeting by fate and living happily ever after?  There are those out there who believe the two are related and there are those out there who believe they are one in the same, or better yet, just continuations of each other (I mean who would want to end a story on a bad note, there must be a happy ending somewhere – we don’t see it, so let’s create our own).    There are those out there who believe that the old wise man, the princess, and the scribe are none other than Jeremiah the prophet, King Zedekiah’s eldest daughter, and Jeremiah’s servant, Baruch.  That is correct; there are those out there who claim the lineage of Zedekiah, the lineage of David, of Christ, is still physically alive and well today.  This is such a popular belief that there are those out there who are making tons of money selling a manipulation of this very story – ever heard of “The Da Vinci Code”?

We have shown two seemingly unrelated stories and how man has attempted to join the two with little to no proof so far.  Why did they do this?  What was their point in doing so?  The answer is two fold:  1) they were attempting to prove a prophecy of God made to King David that his lineage would live forever and who is the Israel / Judah of today; 2) in doing this, they could make a feeble attempt at drawing a personal connection to what ever that link would be today.   These people have even devised stories (none exactly the same) that tell the tale of Jeremiah hiding the king’s daughters in a cave under the “castle if you will” during the attack by Nebuchadnezzar [where the Ark of the Covenant and Jacob’s Pillar or Stone were kept] and sneaking off to Egypt to save their lives.  Some believe these travellers fled first to “Tahpanhes” and then to “Tanis” before the Pharaoh adopted Zedekiah’s daughters [now three daughters, not just one]; thus, giving them a palace in Tanis called “Quasr bint el Jehudi” or “the palace of the Daughter of Judah”3.  This palace is supposed to really exist in what experts believe is the ruins of Tanis.  Remember the movie “Raiders of the Lost Ark”, Tanis is one of the believed resting places of the Ark of the Covenant.  The movie is some what based on this story as well.  I said one of the believed resting places because there are some that believe the Ark was moved as we continue with our main story.  

Our main story continues and tells us that they [the daughters of Zedekiah] were not safe in Egypt as well and then left for an unknown island to the west.  As the Kings of Judah inhabited the lands we now consider the Middle East, an island to the west could very well be Crete, Madagascar, the Canary Islands, England, Iceland, Ireland, or many others.  So this information is little help.  Someone has even come up with all kinds of details along the proposed trip from Egypt to Ireland.  The base these details an the trip itself on an inscription found on a rock in side what they believe was the tomb of Ollamh Fodhla in Ireland.  To the right is a picture of this inscription4.
 We are given details all along the way in the story.  It is a lot like Peter Pan, but that doesn’t make them true, does it?  It is a shame that Pinocchio isn’t real!  There is no basis, no historical data, no nothing – but people want to believe.  You are more than welcome to read what these marks mean according to the same person who discovered the drawings at ; however, these meanings are strictly theory as there is no evidence of any of it being related.  It is more of the fact that there is a huge gap with scattered data that many cannot piece together.  Therefore, a great story is built around the unknown and over the years MAN begins to believe the story.  But this story has so many holes in it; it should have sunk ages ago.  I have not given you the complete story of the princess mainly because it would just take too long.  You can look at it for your self on the internet.  There are many out there but the best one I have found (a site that firmly believes this story is true) is at the following:  Extremely learned people have spent hours into their theories and many more have written papers on the debate of its validity.  It is truly amazing.  I will however take what I have shown you in both stories and compare them to disprove the non-biblical story. 

First of all lets tackle or answer the big question, “Did God keep his promise to David that his lineage would live forevermore?”  The answer is quite simply, “YES!”  What?  Aren’t we here to disprove the theory and show that what they believe is wrong?  Yes!  I know you are thinking I can’t have it both ways and again you would be right, so yes!  Confused?  God’s promise to David that his lineage would live forever was never a physical issue.  It just so happened that in order to make a point through Christ, the physical issue existed till the birth of Christ.  Once Christ died, the promise to David was no longer a physical one man could see – it turned into what it really or always was - a spiritual promise.  The promise was that David’s lineage would live forever.  We have proven Christ is of David’s lineage.  Christ still lives today… and will live forever.  However, most people attempt to associate themselves with things they can see or feel, such as with the kings.  Zedekiah was the last King of Judah and Israel.  This lineage is a lineage of Kings after David.  It is here that MEN confuse the promise God made to King David that his lineage would live on forever.  Men cannot and will not see without faith.  Men must see physical evidence.  This is fine if kept in its context.  But when there is no evidence, stories (theories) begin.  Notice the “???” in the lineages prior to David in the pages earlier; these question marks denote the fact that we have no evidence of any dates or times.  Why not?  Because this was not what was important; knowledge of the lineage was important, not when or where.  Christ is the important issue –always has been through out the Old Testament and still is today.  So Christ is the fulfilment of the promise.  The lineage of Christ is through His children.  No, not physical children, but his spiritual children. Are you confused yet?  Let’s look one more time.  From the Genealogist point of view - from God came Adam and from Adam came mankind, us - so far, so Good?  In this sense, we are all God’s children or creation if you will.  In this sense we are all connected to Christ.  We may not know all the in between data (which is why proving our personal genealogical link to Christ is really pointless) but we do know the beginning and the end as we are today at this point in time, don’t we?  But I am sure there are those somewhere in your personal family that are what we might call the Black Sheep.  These are those that in some retrospect (even though related) are not liked, loved, or even considered part of the family to an extent that they may even be hated.  God said in Roman 9:13, “As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.”  Not everyone in the family will be considered God’s children.  Only the chosen, those chosen spiritually are the children of Christ.  Therefore it is more than a belief; for even the Satan believes in God.  Sorry, no more preaching. 

The answer to the big question is yes.  Now to the second question, can a person lay claim to the lineage of Christ based on the evidence given, No!  Only Christ knows who his children are and he will reveal himself to them in his own time – not ours.  This pretty much limits man and men do not like limitations, so in order to make them selves feel better, feel important, or justify their existence they begin to lay claim in any way they can – we create stories.  But just to humour the rest of us, let’s continue looking at the comparisons. 

Through the Bible we have proven the demise of Judah.  In Proof #1, it is very clear that ALL the heirs to the throne of Judah were wiped out. So how could there be a Princess or Queen to the Judean throne?  All heirs were destroyed.  In Proof #2, it is very clear God didn’t want those Judeans that were left to go to Egypt.  In Proof #3, it is quite clear those Judeans went to Egypt anyway – including the king’s daughters.  In Proof #4, we have clearly shown that God was not happy about the move and wiped them all out, from the least to the greatest, none were left.  There was no mention in the bible about the “one that got away.”  But again, there are those who didn’t read this clearly, didn’t understand it, or just ignored it (as the Judeans did in the age of Jeremiah) and could not see a way that God’s promise to David was fulfilled.  I believe we have covered this, but there are those who still don’t see.  So they begin to look at other avenues.  Such as the hereditary issues of the king’s daughters.  The mere claim that the daughter of King Zedekiah was now the sole heir was funny.  But we entertained the idea and showed in the scriptures that a daughter could inherit from their father as long as it remained in the family tribe.  So someone made up a story of the king’s daughter marrying an Irish King.  This to me was marrying outside the family tribe.  But then again someone claimed that the Irish King was a descendant from the “lost tribe of Dan”.  Dan being one of the twelve tribes of Israel who apparently have a link to the legend of Troy.  There are two issues now to deal with.  First issue is the fact that assuming she did marry this descendant king from the tribe of Dan, she still married outside the TRIBE, her tribe, JUDAH.  All rights under the Jewish laws are forfeited.  The second issue is concerning the tribes of Israel.  As this is a bit lengthy I will wait till we prove our current point and discuss this in Theory #2.  

Then we had the issue of Jeremiah the prophet; the story of Jeremiah being the grandfather of the princess and much less taking her to Ireland.  In Proof #7 we shown two verses proving the grandfather of the princess’s was indeed a Jeremiah, but not our Jeremiah.  Both verses show a Jeremiah of Lebnah while our Jeremiah the prophet was from Jerusalem.  The confusion of the Jeremiahs derives from a Rabbinical Tradition of the Jewish faith where they believe the prophet Jeremiah descended from Rahab, the harlot that helped the Hebrew spies (Joshua 2:3).  Don’t ask me why, I think they believe Rahab was married to Joshua for some reason.  Then we have the very important yet very small proof (#8) where God instructed Jeremiah to not get married and why as he was going to destroy everyone.  If God was using Jeremiah to get his message across, then Jeremiah was God’s prophet.  God always protected Jeremiah as we see in the book of Jeremiah several times (for example, Ch.1:4-10; Ch. 1:18-19; Ch. 26:8-24).   If this is true, then why would Jeremiah fear for his life and flee to Egypt, especially after he was instructed not to.  The truth is Jeremiah never left for Egypt, especially with Zedekiah’s daughters. 

Next, we have the small issue with the Pillar Stone (aka Stone of Destiny or Coronation Stone) and the Ark of the Covenant.  Let’s first say a little about the significance of each.  The Pillar of Stone is more commonly known as the stone upon which Jacob laid his head when he dreamt of the ladder up to heaven.   Jacob’s name was changed by God to Israel at a place he called Bethel (House of God), where he set up this stone pillar he had used as a pillow and later anointed with oil.  Jacob-Israel had twelve sons who became the Twelve Tribes of Israel, the fifth of whom was called Dan, from whom it is believed the Irish and Danish people are descended. The eleventh of Jacob’s twelve sons was called Joseph, to whom Jacob/Israel gave the famous "Coat of Many Colours". Israel’s fourth son, Judah from whom the Jews claim descent and who sold his brother Joseph into slavery in Egypt, had twin sons called Zarah and Pharez (Genesis 38:27-30).  If you remember earlier, Jacob, Judah, and Pharez are each of the lineage of Adam, of Abraham, of David, of Christ.  The stone is reported to have been with the Kings of Judah, although I have no evidence of this.  What is believed to be the actual stone is now located in Scotland under glass after spending the last 700 years embedded in a chair where English Royals were always crowned. You can see the implied significance of this stone.  Again we will discuss the tribes of Israel in Theory #2. 

The Ark of the Covenant usually brings its reputation with it just with the name.  It is described as being made of acacia or shittah-tree wood. It was a cubit and a half broad and high, and two and a half cubits long. The Ark was covered all over with the purest gold.  Its upper surface or lid, the mercy seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold.  On each of the two sides were two gold rings, where two wooden poles are placed to allow the Ark to be carried (Num. 7:9; 10:21; 4:5,19, 20; 1 Kings 8:3, 6). On top of the mercy seat were two cherubim or angels, with their faces turned toward one another (Leviticus 16:2; Num. 7:89). Their outspread wings over the top of the Ark formed the throne of God, while the Ark itself was his footstool (Ex. 25:10-22; 37:1-9).  The only mention of the Ark by a prophet is by Jeremiah, who, speaking in the days of King Josiah (Jeremiah 3:16), prophesies a future time when the Ark will no longer be needed because of the righteousness of the people.  The Ark is reported to have contained the stone tablets upon which the Ten Commandments were written, Aaron’s rod, and a golden pot of manna from the trip in the wilderness with Moses.  There are also reports it contains the original scrolls of the first five books of the bible.  Again, we can see the implied significance of this relic. 
In the Irish story, we noticed the mystery and intrigue when the princess arrived with two containers that no one knew the contents of.  In general, people cannot accept not knowing things; thus, the interest in a mystery.  But then again, people in general cannot accept things at face value either.  They want or need to believe there are other meanings, motives behind statements and actions.  Knowing these things about people in general, we can understand the need to know what was in the two containers in the story.  As most didn’t know and began to believe the story of Jeremiah and the princess traveling, they automatically made an assumption that these containers had to contain both the pillar of stone and the Ark of the Covenant as they are religious.  Why?  Because no one knows where the ark is even today and no one really knows how this coronation stone traveled from the Middle East to Europe (remember I mentioned people filling up gaps with stories).  First, there are so many theories as to where the ark’s last resting place may be that it will make your head swim, but the fact is that no one seems to know; apart from the book of Revelation, chapter 11:19, where the ark is described as being in heaven.  Why do we need to know?  The bible spoke of unspeakable powers; that no army that carried the ark (thus God) before it could be defeated.  The point here is God, not the ark.  Here again, man is clinging to physical – tangible evidence rather than believing through faith.  So man has created another story to fill a void they cannot explain; thus, they filled the void of the unknown contents with the Ark.  Now this leaves us the last of the two containers.  Here it is believed that it contained Jacob’s pillar of stone.  Why do some believe this?  Because they have no other way of explaining the existence of what they call the stone of destiny which resided in the throne of the English Crown for so many years and they know not how this stone arrived.  Other than folklore and common beliefs, this stone could just be a 1,000 year old rock carved out of mountain some where – totally unrelated to the pillar of Jacob.  Just to add a little icing on the cake of this story, some have even claimed that the very word “BRITISH” as being derived from Hebrew and not English and meaning “the people of the Covenant”.  I too attempted to research this etymology to confirm, but I found that this word was of ancient Greek and origin – It really depends on who you ask, which tells me again it really isn’t important.
Alright, I hope I have shed some light on the two stories and how they are not one in the same or continuations of each other.  Using the Bible as our guide, we can see that there is no way to connect our lineages to the biblical paths, no matter how hard people try, no matter how much we would like to believe, nor how credible some stories seem to be.  There just is no proof to make the connection; yet, there is proof to substantiate the biblical story.   To whom do you believe, God or man?

Theory #2: The Branch Forged

This theory is more of a continuation of the first one but it goes a little side tracked when talking about the tribes of Israel and their connection to the lineage of Christ.  Let cover the beginning of the tribes.  We mentioned that Jacob was the son of Isaac and the grandson of Abraham; thus, he is of the lineage of Christ.  God made sure the bible gave many accounts of Jacob’s life in very good detail; from his birthright (Genesis 25:29 – 34), to his paternal blessings (Genesis 27:35), to his dream of heaven (Genesis 28:11-19), to his flight into the House of Laben and marriages to his two daughters (Genesis 29), to his return to his homeland (Genesis 32 ), to his struggle with God’s angel (Genesis 32), to his many sons of which he gave a coat of many colors to his son Joseph (Genesis 37:11), and finally his move to the land of Egypt (Genesis 47:29).  Why was this?  Not only that there were many lessons to learn in from him in our day to day life, but to also give a solid foundation to the patriarch of the Tribes of Israel which dominate many other books of the bible which all leads to the miracles’ of God and eventually the coming of Christ. 
At the outset let’s make one observation:  If Jacob (Israel) is proven to be of the Direct Lineage of Christ, then wouldn’t it be fair to say each of Jacob’s children could lay claim to the lineage of Christ, direct or not?  If this is so, then all of Jacob’s descendants could lay claim to this as well, right?  It is this mindset of which many researchers also attempt to lay claim to Christ’s lineage.  However, how does one know that they are part of the physical lineage of Christ?  How does one connect themselves to (more specifically) one of the twelve tribes of Israel?  How does one deny the bible when God said in Jeremiah 44:12, “And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the sword and by the famine: they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the sword and by the famine” and in ???? where it says, “ “.

There are many facets to talk about here and we will have to discuss a bit about each of the tribes in order to completely understand where some people are going with their theories; however, in the same process of understanding them we will also show how we disprove their absurd theories from a genealogical point of view.  Let’s begin with Jacob.  Jacob had twelve sons by his four wives, as follows:

•    By Leah:         Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun.
•    By Bilhah:         Dan and Naphtali.
•    By Zilpah:         Gad and Asher.
•    By Rachel:        Joseph and Benjamin.

Each of these children comprises the beginings of the twelve Tribes of Israel. However, when the land of Israel was apportioned among the tribes in the days of Joshua, the Tribe of Levi, being priests, did not receive land. Therefore, when the tribes are listed in reference to their receipt of land, as well as to their encampments during the 40 years of wandering in the desert [the Tribe of Joseph was replaced by the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh (the two sons of Joseph by his Egyptian wife Asenath, whom Jacob elevated to the status of full tribes)] - we see a different list.
Thus, the two divisions of the tribes are:

Traditional  division (the twelve sons):
1.    Reuben
2.    Simeon
3.    Levi      
4.    Judah  
 5.    Issachar
6.    Zebulun
7.    Dan      
8.    Naphtali
9.    Gad      
10.    Asher      
11.    Joseph    
12.    Benjamin

Division per apportionment of land in Israel:
1.    Reuben
2.    Simeon
3.    Judah  
  4.    Issachar
 5.    Zebulun
6.    Dan      
  7.    Naphtali
8.    Gad    
9.    Asher  
 10.    Benjamin
11.    Ephraim
  12.    Manasseh

Throughout history, ensigns (banners with emblems) have differentiated between families, clans, tribes, countries and nations. These identifying emblems or symbols, often displayed on flags, heraldry shields or clothing, generally feature animals, humans, weapons and other items. They identified friend from foe during battle or routine interactions.  Nevertheless, just because a symbol is used on two different banners does not mean that they are connected in any way.  The US Flag has the colors of Red, White, and Blue.  Does this mean that the US is genetically connected to Paraguay, Costa Rica, and France?  The US also has stars on it as well; does this mean that we are connected to all other countries with Flags that bare stars?   NO, there must be more proof that an emblem on a flag.  I may put a sickle on my personal coat of arms, but does that make me Russian or Turkish?  Bare this in mind as we go on.  
  In the book of Numbers chapter 2, the tribes of Israel came before Moses. For better organization as they grew in number, Moses was instructed said, “Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their father’s house: far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall they pitch” (vs. 2). Each tribe was to stand together, under the ensign representing it. These symbols, or coats of arms, were to make distinctions between the twelve tribes of Israel.  Next we will describe the tribes by telling a little bit more about each and then we will begin to discuss what others use in their genealogical claims with them.  Now obviously there are twelve individual tribes, however, God placed them in four groups of three tribes each.  Each of the groups united under the largest of the three tribes as we will see below:

Reuben:  The name Reuben means “See a Son” or “Behold, a [my] son”.   In this, it makes sense then that Reuben was the first born son of Jacob.  Most first born sons are the heir to the wealth of their fathers, but Reuben lost his rights and privilages.  He had an affair with his father’s concubine (Bilhah) and his father found out about it (Genesis 35:22).  However, Reuben played a part in not allowing his brother, Joseph, to be killed (Genesis 37:21-22) by his other siblings.  Therefore, we see that Reuben was kind hearted but weak minded.  Reuben had four sons: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.  From these four came the tribe of Reuben which by the time of the exodus from Egypt they numbered 46,500 men over 20 years old and able to fight (Numbers 1:20-21) and numbered 43,730 before entering into the promised land (Numbers 26:7).  The single tribe of Reuben united under a red banner with the symbol of a mandrake.  The red banner symbolized by the ruby on the breast plate of the High Priest as well the presence of God and the Blood of Christ.  The mandrake was representative of a gift Reuben gave his mother (Genesis 30:14).  The Tribes of Reuben, Simeon, & Gad united under a Standard that was gold in background with the emblem of a man.  This too seems fitting as Reuben was very much like man, kind hearted and weak minded.  These three tribes commonly called Reuben made up one of the four faces of Israel and took there place in the South of the camp around the tabernacle.  The greater tribe of Reuben (along with Simeon and Gad) represents Christ as a man.  As Christ came down amongst us as a man to save his people, this transformation is represented through the Tribe of Reuben.

Simeon:  The name Simeon (or Shim’on) means “hearing” or “God has heard my suffering”.  Simeon was the second son of Jacob, as Leah was attempting to gain favor over Rachel with Jacob by being able to bear sons.   Not much is mentioned about Simeon in the Bible except for maybe his defending the honor of his sister.  Jacob had a daughter, Dinah, who was rapped by man from a neighboring city.  Simeon and his brother Levi went to avenge her demise and decimated the inhabitants of the city (Genesis 34:25).  This put Simeon out of favor with Jacob and as we see God did not have much to do with him either.  The tribe of Simeon was divided and scattered as a result (Genesis 49:5-7) however still remained a Tribe of Israel.  They united under a green banner with either a sword or a symbol of the city they destroyed to represent they were violent and cruel, or men of the sword.   As they were a small tribe (59,300 into the desert and 22,200 out of the desert) they too came under the Standard of Reuben as they symbolized the face of man.

Gad:  The name of Gad means “fortune” or more to the root – “Good Fortune”.  He too was one of the lesser sons and very little is mentioned about him.  The tribe of Gad were “strong men of might, men of war for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, their faces the faces of lions, and like roes upon the mountains for swiftness" (1 Chronicles. 12:8; 5:19-22).  These too are traits of man and thus fit well under the Standard of Reuben.  The tribe united under a blend of black and white color flag with a Captain of the troops on horseback to symbolize they were always ready for the fight.  The tribe was not such a small tribe (46,650 before the desert and 40,500 after the desert) however smaller than Reuben.

Dan:  The name of Dan means “Judge” or “God has judged me”.  There is very little towards who Dan was as a person, however, his tribe played an important role amongst the tribes.  They proved dangerous to their foes and is why they are some times symbolized by the serpent.  In Genesis 49:17, the bible says, “Dan shall be a serpent in the way, a horned snake in the path that biteth the horse's heels, so that the rider falleth backward.”  This also fits with their major role of the tribes, as judge.  They represent the judgement of God and his Law.  The major figure of this tribe would be Samson.  This is why the Tribe of Dan became one of the greater tribes.  This greater tribe of Dan (also comprised of Naphtali and Asher) was represented as well by an Eagle and is one of the four faces of Israel.  As an Eagle sits upon high and watches, guides symbolizing greatness so to does God with his people.  He watches over us, guides us, and gives us direction with his law.   The greater tribe of Dan represents God’s law.  There are those who believe that the descendants of the tribe of Dan now reside in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales; however, there is no proof what so ever.   

Naphtali:  The name of Dan means “My Struggle” or “My wrestling”.  In Genesis 49:21, God says that “Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.”  Hind refers to the hind leg of a deer; strong and quick.  The tribe of Naphtali were great warriors and were in many battles.  They survived by being strong and quick.  However, I recall Jacob in a dream struggling (wrestling) against God’s angel.  I recall the portion where Jacob was strong and relentless but when God’s angel touched his thigh (his Hind) it withered and Jacob fell helpless.  I see Naphtali as being a symbol of those who struggle with God.  God is always in control and none may stand against him.  Only through God, we are allowed to be strong and quick.  There banner was light red with the symbol of a deer.

Asher:  The name of Dan means “Happy” or “Fortunate”.  When Jacob blesses his twelve sons in Genesis 49, he said that Asher would have a life blessed with an abundance of food and delicacies befitting a king (Genesis 49:20).  Even Moses predicted the prosperity of the tribe of Asher in Deuteronomy 33.  The Tribe of Asher increased in size from 41,500 to 53,400 adult males during the span of two censuses described in the Book of Numbers.  The tribe is accredited for their lack of help in defending the lands of Israel at times (Judges 5:17).  There are two symbols representing the tribe of Asher, the Goblet (to show the abundance) and the Olive branch/tree (to show their prosperity).  I see the tribe of Asher representing the fact that with God we shall prosper.                                           

Ephraim:  The name of Ephraim means “Fruitful” or “Double Fruitfulness”.  He was the younger of the two sons of Joseph.  The first incident recorded regarding him is his being placed, along with his brother Manasseh, before their grandfather, Jacob, so that Jacob might bless them (Genesis 48:10). The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of Jacob be placed on the head of the elder of the two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger before his brother, "guiding his hands wittingly."  Ephraim’s tribe became very fruitful as before Joseph’s death, there were already three generations.  The most notable person from the tribe of Ephraim would be Joshua.  This tribe was 40,500 strong going into the desert but going into the land of Canaan they had 32,500.  The tribe took precedence of the tribe of Manasseh by virtue of the blessing by Jacob.  This blessing also brought precedence over the tribe of Benjamin which made them the head tribe and all three tribes united under the standard of the Bull, Ox, or bullock.  Some times the symbol of a unicorn is used.  Although the unicorn is a fictional animal it is believed that there was an animal of bovine resemblance now extinct that was more of a wild ox that had a horn on it head.  The greater tribe of Ephraim (consisting of Ephraim, Manasseh, & Benjamin) was the third face out of four of Israel.

  Manasseh:  The name of Manasseh means “to forget” or “mercy”.  He was the oldest son of Joseph.  When Jacob blessed his grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim, he gave the preferential treatment to Ephraim, instead of the older brother Manasseh, explaining that Ephraim would become greater than Manasseh. Before his death Jacob adopted his grandchildren Manasseh and Ephraim to be equal with his own sons (Genesis 48:5).  In the census taken in Numbers 2, Manasseh had 32,200 but in Numbers 26, Manasseh had 52,700.  Manasseh united under a banner with the olive branch and / or a cache of arrows.  Some times they also are under the emblem of a wild ox or unicorn. 

Benjamin:  The name of Benjamin means “Son of my right hand.”  Benjamin was the last, the 12th, son of Jacob.  He really doesn’t come in to play until the second trip to Egypt by the sons of Jacob searching for food during the 7 years of famine.  Joseph tests his brothers over the concern for their brother Benjamin and they passed.  In Genesis 49:27, Jacob describes Benjamin as a “Wolf that prowls” who devours his enemies in the morning and divides the spoils in the evening.  The tribe was the smallest of the original tribes but coming out of the desert there were 45,600.  The tribe was almost wiped out, but God allowed them to remain.  The most notable of the Tribe of Benjamin would be King Saul (David’s nemesis), Mordecai, the Prophet Jeremiah, and Paul (Saul) the apostle.  The tribe united under a banner with the emblem of a howling wolf as per Jacob’s description.  I can’t help though thinking of the reference of the meaning of the name Benjamin.  Christ is said to sit at the right hand of God.  Christ is the son of God.  I can’t help think of Christ when hearing the name of Benjamin. 

Judah:  The name of Judah means “to praise”.  Judah was shown to be a natural leader among his people first by convincing his brothers not to kill Joseph and later many times in Genesis 43 & 44.  He proved him self many times.  Jacob blessed him by saying, “Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.  Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?  The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be” (Genesis 49:9).  Just from this it makes sense that the banner of Judah carried the symbol of a Lion.  The most notable from the tribe of Judah is King David and his lineage including Christ.  Before they go into the wilderness they numbered 314,600 but on their departure from the wilderness they numbered 316,500.  The shear numbers proves that God favored Judah above all.  Other emblems on their banner would be a sceptre or a crowned lion which is the fourth of four faces of Israel. 

Issachar:  The name of Issachar means “hireling” or “there is an award”.  Jacob said, “Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens: and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute” basically describing him as beasts of burden who would submit to forced labor (Genesis 19:14-15).  The tribe seemed to be dominated by wise men and scholars and eventually had two kings of Israel.  It appears that this tribe would be responsible for the teachings of God and his word.  They united under the black banner with the symbols of the sun and moon. 

Zebulun:  The name of Zebulun means “gifts”.  Some say it means “dwelling”.  There is nothing other than his birth recorded about the man himself.  Jacob’s blessings to his son said in Genesis 49:13, that “Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships”.  This came true apparently as the tribe were noted as sea farers.  Their banner also represents this as well.  The tribe of Zebulun was fairly large as they went into the desert at 57,400 but coming out of the desert there were 30,500.  It is believed the Jonah was out of the tribe of Zebulun. 
Just to complete the cycle, we shown at the outset that the tribe of Joseph was split into Ephraim and Manasseh.  This leaves out the tribe of Levi.  Who were they and what happened to them? 

Levi :  The name of Levi means “attached”.  Levi the person is a bit of a mystery as there is very little information given about him.  His descendants, however, the tribe of Levi are mentioned many times.  This tribe was given the task of guarding and serving the tabernacle of God.  The Levites' principle roles in the Temple included singing Psalms during Temple services, performing construction and maintenance for the Temple, serving as guards, and performing other services. Levites also served as teachers and judges, maintaining cities of refuge in Biblical times. The Book of Ezra reports that the Levites were responsible for the construction of the Second Temple and also translated and explained the five books of Moses when it was publicly read. All other tribes were stationed around the tabernacle thus the tribe of Levi as well.  As a result of being “attached” to God, they were not given any other duties.  They were to solely focus on God’s work.  Further to this they were not granted any lands in Israel like the other tribes.  Instead of a land allotment, Joshua, who led the conquest of Canaan, gave several towns, scattered throughout the land of Israel, to the Tribe of Levi. (Numbers 3:21-37). Moses and his brother, Aaron, were descendants of Levi.  In return for not owning any land and given the sole responsibility for taking care of God’s tabernacle, those tribes who were granted land were expected to give tithe to the Levites.


Wow… that was a little daunting.  And I didn’t really go into any depth.  So why did we cover all this?  This is not a bible class.  Since many researchers do realize the pointlessness of Theory #1, there are those researchers of this same group who attempt to use a back door, if you will, by claiming to use the tribal lineages to link themselves to the lineage of Christ and then back to Adam.  Now if we step back and look at the big picture we all know we came from Adam.  We have explained that other than the lineage of Christ there is no complete lineage to follow or trace back.  And once Christ died on the cross, all physical lineages or blood lines ceased in the direct capacity.  But the issue here with theory #2 is that people are claiming a connection to the lineage via the tribes of Israel or a branch of the direct line.  They just won’t give up.  And you know what?  I can’t prove them right.  Why is this?  Because there is no data!  No records, no prophecy, no nothing. This in itself should have been enough to stop, but people still insist on creating stories – sorry theories.  The bible ceases to record their whereabouts or migrations.  Further more in the book of Jeremiah (Chapters 39 & 44), God clearly states that he destroyed them all.   For example, “Behold, I will set my face against you for evil, and to cut off all Judah.  And I will take the remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the sword and by the famine: they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the sword and by the famine” (Jeremiah 44:7-14).  So to me it sounds like there would be no records because they were not around.  Why is this, again?  Because it wasn’t important!  Again, the Bible was written for the purpose of telling us about Christ, not our history – history is a bi-product.  Again it is pointless to attempt to make a correlation.  Every claim is of a misguided “guess.”  Yet to most, such a broad statement on my part is also pointless.  Many want to use the bible when it serves their purpose and then choose not to refer to it when it disagrees with them.  Tell me the world is not eclectic.  My grandfather survived off of eclecticism.  So here we go again.  Those that allege they know where the tribes have gone say the following (please remember this is not my words or beliefs):

France / Canada / Louisiana
In Gen.49:3, Jacob referred to Reuben as “my might” and “the Excellency of dignity.” France has portrayed these characteristics to the world. In the past, she was the greatest colonial power behind Britain and called the “queen of culture.”  Others note that, “during the 70 years of the third republic [1875-1945]…more than a hundred cabinets succeeded one another, in France, with an average tenure in office of less than eight months. The main cause of this ministerial instability was the lack of disciplined parties…” This “unstable” and fickle French political system has also produced eleven constitutions since 1791!  Jacob also goes on to say of Reuben that, “you shall not excel; because you went up to your father’s bed; then defiled you [it]: he went up to my couch” (vs. 4). It is interesting to note that kings and leaders of France usually have their own mistress—“concubine”—a pattern that has nearly become part of the national psyche.
The descendants of Simeon and Levi were prophesied to be scattered. Although the Levites are dispersed among modern Israel, their relative population among the Jews probably exceeds their concentration among the other tribes. The same is probably true of Simeon.
Switzerland / Gibraltar
The prophecy for the tribe of Gad is best rendered, “he shall be a troop.” The Swiss people (Switzerland) have a strong, group-like nature, reflecting fierce independence and neutrality, even when the world’s greatest wars were occurring all around them.  The Swiss army serves solely to protect the independence of a country that conscripts all males from 20 to 50 years old. Swiss soldiers keep their equipment, including arms and ammunitions, at home and perform their obligatory gunnery duty each year in civilian clothes, showing a close relationship between citizens and their national security force.
Denmark / Ireland
We find that Dan settled in Ireland and Denmark. Although some place Dan primarily in Ireland and Denmark, Dan is also strongly represented in Wales and in all Scandinavian countries. The flag of Wales depicts a dragon, which is one of the symbols of Dan.
Belgium / Canada
Belgium is famous for its use of hot vegetable oils and the creation of french fries (chips, or “frites”). Belgium is also famous for high-quality chocolates (the ultimate “royal dainty”?) and pralines. Since the fifteenth century, Belgium has been renowned for its lacework and tapestries, which decorate many castles and palaces throughout Europe.  Asher is also believed to have settled in Canada, among other places, with the similarity between the tree on Asher's Tribal Standard and the Maple-Leaf on the Canadian flag.  Another link between Asher and Canada is in the above prophecy - "Asher's bread shall be fat" - Canada was always a large supplier of Britain and the world's bread-wheat.
Sweden / South Africa
This female deer “let loose” denotes sexual immorality and promiscuity. This best describes modern Sweden.  Movement towards “equality” of the sexes in Sweden took hold long before many other countries experienced this same trend. The incidence of premarital sex exceeds 90% and divorce is granted on almost any grounds. Many pornographic materials, by other countries’ standards, are widespread in Sweden due to their liberal legislation. South African National Emblem being the Hind or Springbok.
Scotland / N. Ireland / Israel
Of course, Judah is the most recognized tribe today. Having endured much persecution throughout the centuries from counterfeit religions and various despots, they have fulfilled Zechariah 12 in returning to their ancient homeland, Israel. Only a fraction of Judah lives in the nation of Israel. New York City’s Jews alone outnumber those in Israel. Recall that the Zarah line of Judah originally settled in Ireland. It is also interesting that “the official flag of Northern Ireland has a Magen David Star in its center which symbol is traditionally associated with Judah and the Jewish people” (The Tribes, Davidy, p. 221). The scarlet hand, which typified the Zarah line, is in the very center of the seal of Northern Ireland. Jacob’s prophecy foretells Judah will be a “lion’s whelp.” A whelp is another name for a young lion cub. Jacob prophesied that Judah would be a very young nation in the latter-day period of time. This describes the modern Israeli nation, which was “born” in 1948 and is still a “young nation” by today’s standards.
Australia / New Zeland / Netherlands
Zebulun is believed to have settled in Holland; which has a province named Zebulund (Zealand); and also in Australia and New Zealand, among other places.  The boat and sea on Zebulun's Tribal Standard is also featured on New Zealand's (New Zebulund's) Coat-of-Arms.  “The Netherlands (Holland) features lions on its Coat of Arms. Lions symbolize all of Israel especially as united under the House of David from Judah whose special sign is a lion…The Dutch come mainly from Zebulon though other tribal groups (such as those from Naphtali) are also present” (The Tribes, p. 318). Prophesied to be a “haven of the sea,” Holland is composed of much rich farmland reclaimed from the ocean. Also, Amsterdam (at the mouth of the mighty Rhine River, with a vast flotilla of barges arriving daily) and Rotterdam (world-renowned as a Europort and vital shipping link for the European Union) were two of the world’s greatest ports in the early 1960s. Another prophecy in Deuteronomy shows that Zebulun would “Rejoice…in your going out” (33:18). Notice what author Luigi Barzini says about the Dutch peoples in his book, The Europeans: “This passion for the sea drove them [the Dutch] to conquer not neighboring provinces…but to set up distant trading points all over the world…They settled in New Amsterdam [which became New York City], a vast natural port, cluttered with flat sandy islands large and small, at the mouth of a big river, which evidently reminded them of home; in South Africa, Japan, Formosa, Brazil, Ceylon, Indonesia, the West Indies, and many other profitable places” (p. 208).  The prophecy continues by explaining that Zebulun would “suck [of] the abundance of the seas, and [of] treasures hid in the sand” (vs. 19). The Netherlands has always been able to do this in several ways. One is through international commerce by the use of her shipping fleet. Another way has been through the reclamation of land from the sea. The Dutch are well known for building dykes and reclaiming land for the use of farming.
Finland / Australia / New Zeland
Several sources state that the tribe of Issachar is primarily found in Finland. Davidy writes, “Finland has been identified in this work as belonging mainly to the Tribes of Gad, Simeon and especially Issachar. For many years, Finland was ruled by Sweden…and many Swedes remained in Finland…Both the Sword (Simeon) and the Lion (Gad) are prominent on the Finnish coat of arms” (p. 217).  From the twelfth century, Finland has been a battleground between Russia and Sweden. It was initially under Swedish rule until 1809. It then became a Russian grand duchy until 1917, when it officially declared its independence. Finland has had to balance careful neutrality, because of close proximity to Russia in the east, and its ethnic ties to Scandinavia and the West. It could be considered the “Switzerland of Scandinavia.”   Issachar is believed to have settled in Australia and New Zealand, among other places, with the stars on Issachar's Tribal Standard featured on both the Australian and the New Zealand flags.
English or British
Recall that Ephraim’s coat of arms was the unicorn and that Judah’s was a lion. In addition to this, the ensign for David’s royal lineage was a lion wearing a crown, as well as the Star of David. After the kingdoms divided, the kingdom of Israel, led by Jeroboam (an Ephraimite), selected the unicorn as their national seal. The kingdom of Judah selected the kingly lion.  In modern times, these emblems have carried over into Britain’s coat of arms—which features a lion wearing a crown—and a unicorn! The union of the national emblems of Israel and Judah represents the connection of the royal Pharez line, the bloodline of King David, to the Zarah line of kings in Britain.  Being greater than Manasseh is accredited to Britain for being a Commonwealth of Nations.
Recall that Manasseh’s two emblems incorporated an olive branch and a cache of arrows. One last fascinating insight into the identity of the British and American peoples is that the American seal has an eagle carrying an olive branch and arrows. While the American seal depicts thirteen stars to reflect the original thirteen colonies, Manasseh was in fact the thirteenth tribe of Israel. This is clear evidence linking America with the symbols described in the Bible for Manasseh!  They also refer to the prophesy of Jacob where he says Manasseh will be a great people.
“Many of these [Benjamites] settled in Scandinavia, giving their name to Norway and later to Normandy in France.”  Similar to the Levites, Benjamin (Jacob’s youngest son) was dispersed in Judah and remain so today. However, a higher concentration of Benjamites is within Norway and Iceland.  Both of these countries were heavily influenced by Viking exploration, which always involved plundering, pillaging and “dividing the spoil.” During the Viking Age, family was considered the most important unit of society, and blood feuds were legal and common. Consider how this coincides with the highly structured family unit of wolf packs.
The descendants of Simeon and Levi were prophesied to be scattered. Although the Levites are dispersed among modern Israel, their relative population among the Jews probably exceeds their concentration among the other tribes. The same is probably true of Simeon

From my point of view, it seems that man just cannot cope with the fact that God is in control.  I will say that God gave man a great ability to imagine and create as some of these theories seem to be made of such tales and yarns.  So why are we here?  We are here to show that their theories are absurd.  I will go though each of them briefly to show why.

Reuben – They associate the Tribe of Reuben with the Republic of France in general because they are promiscuous and have a high rate of political turnover.  King David of Judah killed a man to take his wife.  His son, Solomon had 300 wives and close to 700 concubines. Reuben screwed up once as he slept with one of his father’s concubines.  Who is more promiscuous?  And David and Solomon were of the Judean tribe.  As far as political turnover, including the American House of representatives, the Senate, and the Presidency, the US Government changes at least 65 times in a 70 year span.  Is this a sign of troubled waters as well?  The logic in their thinking just doesn’t add up to me.  I can think of many examples other that these to disprove this theory.

Simeon – They could not find anything to support their claims and so they had to resort to creating a story of being scattered.  I mean it couldn’t be as God said, now could it?  If they couldn’t find them, they must be scattered.  This is the same with the tribes of Levi and Benjamin.

Gad – I have no idea why some one said Gibraltar unless it was to create a story to support the presumed travels of the Egyptian princess to Ireland.  And then they associated the tribe of Gad with Switzerland based on nature and military habits.  How far fetched is this.  Didn’t the Americans during the revolutionary war keep their equipment at home to be ready at a moments notice?  I was in the military and I still kept my personal equipment with me at home.  This is totally off the wall.

Dan – This is one of the big ones for these guys.  This is a crucial part of the Tea Tephi story in Theory #1.  But the most anyone had to use in defense as to how the tribe of Dan ended up in Denmark or Ireland was the name – DENmark vs DANmark.  How lame is this defense!  Then as Dan is symbolized by an Eagle carrying a Snake, a combination of the two animals would seem to be a dragon (a flying snake).  They take the fact that Wales has a dragon on its flag that they are connected to the Tribe of Dan.  And I thought my children had imaginations.  Keep in mind, just because a symbol of similar appearance is found on two separate banners albeit miles and years apart, doesn’t make them connected in any way – there must be more proof. 

Asher – The tribe of Asher is said to be “fat” and with “royal dainty”.  Because Belgium has special chocolates, special fries, and special oils and because they have decorative tapestries we are to believe they are the tribe of Asher.  Is it just me or is this crazy?  This must mean the decorative Barbie Doll house really belongs to the Tribe of Asher as well.  Then they try to say that they could be wrong as the tribe may be part of Canada.  Why, because the Canadian flag has a maple leaf on it.  The maple leaf was supposed to be on the flag of the tribe as well – not to mention Canada is a supplier of Wheat, so they make our bread fat.  Had enough yet!

Naphtali – The tribe of Naphtali has a deer or “hind” on it flag.  This is to symbolize the struggle and wrestling of man.  Yet these guys think the deer is “let loose” or let go on a sexual nature.  When did the sex enter in on this?  Then they point a finger at Sweden for being promiscuous and having stats on premarital sex around 90%.  Wait I thought the tribe of Reuben and France were the promiscuous ones?  I say that the Swedish are just honest.  I hail from America and Australia and I am sure that premarital sex figure would be higher than 90% in both countries.  I have been to other countries such as Germany and the porn and promiscuous nature of people flourishes big time there.  If what they say is true, then the whole world is really the tribe.

Judah – The tribe of Judah is the big one.  Because of the symbol of the Lion, the Tribe of Judah is supposed to be connected to the Royal House in England.  Because of the Star of David is on the Northern Ireland flag they are connected to Judah.  Because there are more Jews in New York than in Israel, America is connected to Judah.  Because the “modern” Israel is a now a young nation, they claim to be linked to Judah as a young cub or “lion’s whelp”.  These people cannot make up their minds.  However they stick with the Ireland story for the royal connection mostly.  This is just too sad to laugh.  All I can think about is Jeremiah 44:7-14.

Zebulun – Can you see how “Zebulun” and “New Zeland” are connected?  The names are in no way similar.  Oh, sorry, they both start with “Z”.  Because the same symbols on the New Zeland flag seem to match those on the Zebulun’s they are supposed to be linked.  Come on – The New Zealand flag is blue with two symbols – the Union Jack and the Southern Cross stars.  The Union Jack is to tie itself back to the commonwealth of England and the stars are called the Crux or the stars comprising the Southern Cross.  They were visible from the Mediterranean area in the old days and enabled focal points for ancient navigators.   The five brightest stars of Crux also appear on the flags of Brazil, Australia, Papua New Guinea and Samoa.  I suppose this means the Zebulun is in these countries as well. Oh, the states have a star on their flag too.  They must be tied together too.   If this wasn’t enough this tribe is also supposed to be part of the Netherlands (Holland) based on the shipping aspect of their nature and the reclaiming of land (treasures in the sand).  These guys had more to say about Zebulun than God did in the whole book of Genesis.

Isshachar – Here again it is believed because of the tribal flags, they are linked to Australia and New Zealand.  Prove it … I say.  So if this didn’t work for you they also claimed connection to Finland and created a story to match this.  This is getting old.

Ephraim – Forgetting that King David was of the Judean Lineage, England uses the unicorn and the Lion as links to King David through Ephraim by using these same emblems on the British coat of Arms.  They take this a bit further by saying that because Britain controls the Commonwealth they are a greater nation than America, and thus the illusion of Ephraim and Manasseh.   Do you see a link here?  I see a creation or fabrication of a story and fable that is slowly becoming legend to many.  I have a theory:  many hundred of years ago, I theorize that the monarchy wanted to make themselves god-like and couldn’t.  The closest they could get to be a god was to claim they were descendants of the lineage of God.  I theorize they threatened the researchers with their very lives if they didn’t find a link.  This would preclude the assumption that when they couldn’t find any proof they fabricated a lineage along with a story to match all in the effort to save their lives.  I mean who would refute them?  I have as much proof of this theory as they do wit theirs, but mine is probably more to the truth. 

Manasseh – We can’t leave out the Americans, even though they have more nationalities than many countries combined.  The tribe’s emblems are an olive branch and some arrows.  Just by luck, the American eagle holds both in its claws on the flags.  Shoot, this must mean the Americans are “Manassehians”.  I am convinced – how about you?  Oh, I forgot about the stars.  Not only does the American flag having stars (which connects them to many other places and tribes) but the count of the original flag had 13 stars.  All these years I bet you thought the 13 stars represented the 13 original colonies.  According to this guy, the 13 stars represent the 13 tribes of Israel.  I know you also thought there were 12 tribes, but this guy says that Manasseh is the 13th tribe of Israel.  If you look at his way, there still would be 14 tribes, not 13.  Can you see the connections?  I cannot!  Sorry, one more thing.  Someone used the bible for this one.  In Genesis 21:12, God told Abraham that “in Isaac shall your seed be called”.  They took this and extrapolated Isaac into Isaac’s sons as well.  Then they took Isaac’s sons and went crazy (Isaac’s sons = Saac’s sons = Saxons=British)(Anglo-Saxons=Americans).  The human mind really does stretch things.

Benjamin – It is believed that the tribe of Benjamin are scattered to the wind as Levi and Simeon basically because there are no symbols to represent them today.  There are those who believe they migrated to Norway and Iceland.  How is this you say?  It is the Vikings!  The Vikings were plunderers and pillagers gathering the spoils as they went and dividing them amongst themselves.  Low and behold, the Benjaminites were dubbed people who would conquer in the morning and divide the spoils in the evening.  This must mean they are one in the same people.  No one else would ever fit this description, would they? 

Levi - They could not find anything to support their claims and so they had to resort to creating a story of being scattered.  If they couldn’t find them, they must be scattered.  This is the same with the tribes of Simeon and Benjamin.


The moral of the story is that all the tribes of Israel have been lost.  They were lost on purpose.  They were in fact scattered and destroyed.  No matter what fantastical fabrication man derives there just is no evidence to prove otherwise, nor will there ever be as we have shown through the bible.  Man’s feeble attempts to make their lives seem more important, to justify their existence though the links to Christ are very elaborate and deceiving.  Read and study for your self the bible and do not accept another’s word for it.  Don’t take my word, look it up and study for yourself.   Man, as hard as it is to accept, is not what is important – only Christ.  From the beginning of time till the end of time, the more we learn about the Bible, more about God and ourselves, we will eventually determine that the Bible is indeed the true inspired word of God.  We will learn that the Bible does not have contradictions, and the Bible is not myth.  God’s word is what we build our faith upon, and his word has not, nor will it ever fail.  Our salvation is not based on a genealogical connection to Christ, but on being a part of His spiritual lineage, we are God’s children through Christ.

There is one last question we can not leave out concerning the tribes of Israel and we will answer this very quickly.  Many claim there are 10 lost tribes of Israel as.  First of all, as my father has replied, “God never lost any tribes.  What he did do is fulfill his covenant with them and destroyed them as being his nation, in 70AD.  The only Israel of any consequence today is Spiritual Israel, of which we are the Seed of Christ.  The only reason to study Israel (the country) is to see how God kept his promises and how that he brought the line of Christ through all the ages.”

Yet some small groups also believe there is one last connection or link with modern day history and the tribes of Israel.  The belief centers around a rose.  Have you ever seen such a rose before?  If you have ever studied or glanced over any English Royal history and lineages you would have seen this symbol.  The rose is commonly called the Tudor Rose and is associated with the “War of the Roses”.  But what does it have to with the tribes of Israel? 

The War of the Roses was actually a real and historical event.  During the years of 1455 through to 1487 a series of “civil wars” were fought in medieval England.  As King Henry VI had no heir to the throne, those closest to kinship to the King would be his successor.  There were two nobles that were in line and both laid claim to the role of successor.  These nobles were the Duke of York (Sir Richard Plantagenet) and the Duke of Somerset (Sir Edmund Beaufort).  York was very wealthy and even supported his own position militarily while in posted in France.  He was extremely powerful and well liked by the people.  Somerset was a personal favourite of King Henry and therefore had his backing.  King Henry surrounded him self with nobles that were unpopular with the people, including Somerset.  This group, the King and his unpopular council, were called the Lancastrians based on the House of Lancaster of where Henry VI derived from.  All these small factors along with the facts of King Henry’s mental illness and the unrest of most of the population, a dispute rang out as to whom should be the King’s successor.    See the following chart for dates6.

Royal Timeline

                                      Royals:   Henry V   Henry VI   Edward IV   Edward V   Richard III   Henry VII
                                                  Other Important People:   Margaret of Anjou   Richard, Duke of York   Warwick, the Kingmaker

Battle Timeline

The War of the Roses was between these two Houses and each house became to be represented with a symbol of a Rose.  Those who belonged to and supported the House of York were represented by a White Rose while those who belonged to and supported the House of Lancaster were represented by a Red Rose.  In the end, during the battle of Bosworth in 1485, Sir Richard was killed and effectively ended the struggle.  This placed the House of Lancaster back in complete control and Henry Tudor ended up as King.  He was a wise king and from the beginning attempted to make the peace by choosing a symbol for his house as a rose but of both red and white.  Obviously the Red rose was bigger.  Nice little bit of history there, but what about the tribes of Israel.  It is said that the rose (the red and white rose) is a symbol for the royalty of Israel.  It is said that the original rose symbol had 13 petals to represent all the tribes before the split, but the petal of the English royalty has only 10 petals.  The 10 petals are supposed to represent all the tribes of Israel (after the split) which were 10. 

Ok, we have two different rose symbols.  I have no trouble with the Tudor Rose story representing both sides of the dispute.  But I don’t subscribe to the Rose of Israel theory.  Many based this theory on a verse of scripture found in Hosea 14:5 which states: “I will be as the dew unto Israel: he shall grow as the lily, and cast forth his roots as Lebanon” Did you see anywhere in this verse about a Rose?  Neither did I.  So how can they do this?  They attempt to change the word of God to fit what they want.  They have taken the word “lily” and said that this actually means “rose”.  From here they just went to town with the Israel – English connection via the rose.  They even attempted to tie their claim to another argument of England being of the Tribe of Ephraim who was part of the 10 tribes; thus, the rose of 10 petals is now to also represent the 10 tribes of Israel. 

Is there no limit to the imagination of man?  Can you see that MAN has taken one word out of context in lieu of accepting what it actually says and has virtually created a small cult of believers?  How else were these guys to prove their false claims?  My father once again states, “Obviously it will require more than a simple note, to summarize hundreds of years of history. But for now, during the New Testament, the area also known as Samaria which was the corrupted nation of Israel and Judah (and Simeon) were known as the chosen of the Lord and they were the heirs of the nation of Israel.  So the old nation of Israel was already gone [as we can see in II Kings] and in 70 AD the New Nation (Judah) of Israel was destroyed.  While there are a people who are Hebrews today that occupy a land called Israel, they have no resemblance to the twelve tribes of Israel.”  How / Why?  My father explains it better than I as the following: “Let me begin by saying that you remember how that when the New Testament was written the Jews hated the Samaritans?  So much so they would not cross the land.  That is why it was such a revelation when Christ said, "I must needs go through Samaria" [John 4:1-4], and why the women at the well in the book of John (chapter 4:7-28), ask the Lord why he was talking to her, a Samaritan?  The Reason they were hated is because they were a mongrel race or mixed blood.  When Assyria captured Samaria (which was Israel or the ten northern tribes - see II Kings chapters 17 and 18), the Assyrians did two things:

1.  First they took people from other lands and brought then into Samaria and the country and inter-mingled them with the ten tribes.  Diluting the race and taking away national pride.  See II Kings 17:24.
2. They took the leaders of Israel and carried them and many others into the other lands and mingled them with the nations.  See II Kings 18: 10.

Therefore, any hope of having a national revival of these peoples would be silly.  They were diluted and their pride and religion was erased.  Now they were like everyone else.  The ten tribes are forever gone (II Kings 17:20-23).  Judah took over the reign as the sole heir to the Messiah.  The Messiah came, they rejected him, and he judged them and eventually destroyed them in 70 AD; thus, keeping the promise of II Kings 23:27.  The difference in Judah and Israel from II Kings is that God did not utterly destroy Judah.  Even in 70 AD, he took out the worship, sacrifices and killed over a million people in one day, but a people were left.  Not the old national people of God’s Israel, but a nation nonetheless.  From 70 AD, the people of God became a Spiritual People (Romans 2:28-29).  No longer was the circumcision in the flesh, but in the heart.  God’s chosen, the believers, are Spiritual Israel and in them all the promises ever made are fulfilled.  That’s why people are so confused.  They try to put the promises on the Nation of Israel and not on God's Chosen people.” 

An interesting thought provoked by my father was this:  Today, America is defending a nation while the Arabs are trying to destroy a nation that according to the Old Testament doesn’t exist any more.   It is as if one nation is united to fight for what they think are the people of God as another is bent on the destruction of a people they feel are the illegitimate children of God.  Some men need something to believe in and defend, while there are those who need something to hate and destroy; thus, generations of people have lived and died in the defence of or seeking the destruction of a myth.  Think about it!


Theory #3: A Migrating Belief

If you haven’t had enough yet, there are more theories out there.  This one is not so complex nor is it so controversial.  This one actually is a more direct theory of our Smith’s but still hinging on much of the above.  My research has shown that the earliest known recorded Smith was in and around the years of 975 AD.  Current internet records show that an Ecceard Smith lived in Durham County, England at this time7
ECCEARD (ECCARD) SMYTH of Durham, circa 9758
•    Spelled the TH in Smythe with Celtic Runic letters suggested he was either a Celt, Pict or Norse
•    Recent yDNA on this line connects the Smyth pedigree most closely with common Icelandic yDNA markers that were of both Celt and Norse               origins having migrated before 1000 AD to Iceland.
•    Therefore, the origin of the Smythe forbearers were not likely of Anglo-Saxon stock.

There you have it, from two sources that the first Smith recorded in modern times (meaning records that do exist today) was poor old Ecceard.  The last source even begins to surmise to where he derived using a DNA model.  To this day no one has any proof that can link their lineages to this guy.  I even found a site that claims old Ecceard is the father of all Smiths.  I think it is just easier for people to believe a lie rather than find the truth.  The point here is that even though we have a record dated back to 975 AD, we still don’t know anything more than we did.  All we know is that Smith’s did exist way back when.  See the beginning of the section entitled “What’s in a Name?” at the beginning of the volume for further explanation of the origins on the Smith name.

Keep in mind the connections of the man mentioned above, Mr. Ecceard Smith, to anyone afterwards is purely a guess; let’s look at what some have theorized.  For the next few years the name of Smith seems to be growing for one reason or another.  One of the two most popular reasons was the increase in the craftsman trades (metal and woodwork) of which were dubbed Smiths, such as silver smith or gold smith or black smith.  We have already shown earlier that at this time these craftsmen were in high demand and very skilled.  Therefore, it was advantageous to be a “Smith” – much like it is today – and many Smith’s began to spring up.  It wasn’t until around the 1200s and 1300s that the use of a surname caught on; so everyone was called by their first name and their surname was one of the following:  a tag of who their father is or was a tag of what they did for a living, or a tag of where they were from.  The second most popular reason it was advantageous to be a Smith was the anonymity.  There were so many Smiths that it was hard to find a particular one if you were searching; thus, if someone didn’t wish to be found then they would change their name to Smith.  Why would someone wish not to be found? 

In the 1100s, specifically between 1187 and 1191, a battle occurred in what we call the Siege of Acre.  This siege was of the Third Crusade by King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France against Saladin, the general of the Muslim army.  Acre was one of the last port town held by the Christian army as Jerusalem had already fallen.   Briefly, the battle turned for the Crusaders at first as the Muslims couldn’t break through.  As the Crusaders stood down and were resting, Saladin reassembled his troops and surged in and killed about 7000 crusaders and effectively had the port city.  But the Crusaders regrouped and charged the city from a side of the city Saladin was not watching and pushed them back for good. 

The reason for the surprise on the Muslims was they were not defending their rear of which was a wall with a locked gate.  Five men scaled the walls and unlocked the gate for the regrouped troops to attach from behind and scattered the Muslim army.  In doing this, the men were able to re-erect the Christian flag of King Richard.  As a reward for the valor of these men they were knighted on that day by King Richard.  One was even given what is now called Ashton Hall which still exists today in England.  Two of these men were named Robert Lawrence and Michael Carrington.  It was Sir Robert Lawrence, now, who received the Ashton Hall for actually opening the gates of the city.  Michael was knighted for actually raising the flag and was give the post of “Standard Bearer” to the King himself.  A Standard Bearer is one who hold and protects the "Standard" which is a long mast pole placed on a wagon of sorts covered in Iron holding the King's Flag.  Now this doesn't seem like much to us now, but in those days, the Flag meant everything.  If the Flag fell it was a sign of dishonour and defeat (much the way the American Military feel today about their flag).  Therefore, the Kings put their best defenders, their best protectors in charge of an elite force that guarded the "Standard".  This would infer that our Sir Michael Carrington was a trusted member of King Richard 1st as he was in an honoured position being in charge of the Force.  [The photo to the right is:  “The Siege of Acre - illustration c.1280 - Biblothèque Municipale de Lyon, France”]

Right, nice little story about our history but what does it have to do with our Smiths?  Well, remember in the last section of theory #2 we talked about an English civil war called the War of Roses?  And the winning side of the war was with the Lancastrians or the House of Lancaster with Henry Tudor in 1455 – 1487.  Those members from the opposition, the House of York, were not very popular any more and many wished to hide and not be found just in order to stay alive.  How does a person disappear without leaving the area?   The best way is to move and change your name.  All though there is no document proving such a move or change, this is what is supposed when we begin attempting to trace the Carrington name.

The lineage of Sir Michael Carrington is proposed as follows (with no dates):
1.    Sir Michael of Carrington (about 1150)
2.    Sir William of Carrington
3.    Sir William of Carrington
4.    Sir Edmond of Carrington
5.    Sir William of Carrington
6.    Sir Thomas of Carrington (about 1300)
Sir Thomas of Carrington is reported to have been a steward to King Edward III and to have had three children:  Edmond, Anne, and John.  Each of these three children began to take on the surname of Smythe; for example, John Smythe of Carrington.  I have little records of Edmond and Anne, but John seems to keep going.  It is reported the John Smythe of Carrington was born about 1356 and died around 1446.  He had seven children.  First, we notice that he was not titled as ‘Sir’ which means he was not in favour with the King.  This could explain the name change to Smythe.  I have no proof to support or deny this.  However based on the marriages of his many children, it is evident that he maintained close contact with several still influential people.
John’s children were as follows:
1.    Hugh Smythe
2.    Thomas Smythe
3.    John Smythe (of Ivor Bucks)
4.    Christopher Smythe
5.    Thomas Smythe (2nd son of same name)
6.    Margaret Smythe
7.    Jane Smythe
First we notice that none of the children took on the Carrington name.  Also we notice that this is the same time period of the War of the Roses.  Without any proof, it appears that John Smythe and his children may have been supporters of one Duke of York.  But another researcher has the following to say about this:  “A later Generation Carrington - after a spell in exile (temp. War of the Roses - a civil war among two families in England) changed his name to SMYTH for ‘security reasons’.”9

It was reported that John, in 1399 as King Richard II was deposed, John of Carrington had to flee the country and changed his name to Smythe and later returned back to England.  It is also suggested that he was considered to be the founder of the “Templar” Smythe’s of Cressing Temple.  This suggests again that Sir Michael Smythe (Carrington) in 1187 was associated with the Templar Order.  The Templar Order are an ancient organization which was created in the aftermath of the First Crusade of 1096 to ensure the safety of the large numbers of European pilgrims who flowed toward Jerusalem after its conquest.  The closest organization we have to them today is the freemasons. 

From here the lineage narrows down greatly to one person, John Smythe of Ivor Bucks.  This lineage continues till today and has remained in England.10   I have found no information concerning the other children of John Smythe of Carrington (b. 1356 d. 1446).   Until confirmed there is always hope of a connection, but however unlikely. 


Theory #4: From Kings and Queens

Everybody wants to be somebody.  And rightfully so; why shouldn’t we – for each of us is somebody with a purpose.  We may or may never know our purpose but God always does, and he will use us as he sees fit for his purposes.  The problem lies, however, when we are not satisfied with whom we are.  We want to be more in our eyes, in another’s eyes, when it is God’s eyes that we should be thinking about – and he already knows our importance.  Being unsatisfied, we try to personify our existence to a perceived higher status.  By perceived I mean what one person deems greater may or may not be what another deems greater.  I, myself, feel I am at my pinnacle here on this earth and any elevation that someone (including myself) perceives to be greater would just be “gravy” as far as I am concerned.  I have no desire for fame, status, or even money.  My desire lies with my family – my wife and my children, my siblings, my parents, my kinfolk and friends.  Out side of this circle there is little relevance or importance for me on this earth.  I know in my heart that God gave them all to me and therefore I thank him daily for my gifts.  Yet God has given so much more: my health, my job (the means to support my family), and the desire and means to learn more about him.  You on the other hand, may not feel the same as me. 

It is quite obvious that others don’t feel the same as me either.  But a few of these others go in different routes.  In genealogy, many try to make them selves more important by the attachment or linking of their lineage to someone of perceived importance.  I have done it.  I have found connections in my family tree that links to presidents, generals, explorers, and a queen.  These were merely coincidence and have no bearing on my family at all.  Others like to take things a bit further. 
I have found family trees which have connections to my own that claim to be connected to most every royal lineage known to man.  There are links to the Danish Kings which go back to the 400s AD.  There are links to Constantinople, the German Franks, the Kings of France, and one that leads to the Roman Caesars.11 & 12   I am not here to confirm or deny these claims.  I personally don’t believe them but I have no proof to say yea or nay.  We are here to discuss theories of those connected to us. Of the many genealogies out there of which I would venture to say I have only scratched the surface of I have only found one theory that seems almost creditable and even though extrapolates on my own research it does seem to fit my own.

Mr. Gordon Banks has put together a very professional and convincing argument with his genealogy.  As to not diminish any of his work, I will copy it below and will discuss afterwards.

Line 1: King Edward I Plantagenet "Longshanks" to Meriwether Lewis13

1. King Edward I of England "Longshanks" was born on 17 June 1239 at Westminster, Middlesex, England. He married Princess Marguerite of France, daughter of King Philippe III of France ("the Bold"), on 8 September 1299 at Canterbury, Kent, England, as his second wife. He died on 7 July 1307 at Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland, England, at age 68. [3: 282]

2. Thomas, Earl of Norfolk was the son of King Edward I of England "Longshanks" and Princess Marguerite of France. He was born on 1 June 1300 at Brotherton, Yorkshire, England. He married Alice de Hales between 1316 and 1320. He died circa August 1338. He was buried at Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England. [3: 256, 282]

3. Countess Margaret of Norfolk was the daughter of Thomas of Norfolk and Alice de Hales. She was born circa 1320. She married Lord John de Segrave circa 1337. She died on 24 March 1399. She was buried at Greyfriars' Church, London, Middlesex, England. [3: 256]

4. Elizabeth de Segrave was the daughter of Lord John de Segrave and Countess Margaret of Norfolk. She was born on 25 October 1338 at Croxton Abbey, Leicestershire, England. She married Sir John de Mowbray, Knt. circa 1349. She died before October 1368. She lived at Axholme, Lincolnshire, England. [3: 247]

5. Alianor de Mowbray was the daughter of Sir John de Mowbray Knt. and Elizabeth de Segrave. She was born before 25 March 1364. She married Lord John de Welles before May 1386. She died on 8 April 1426. [3: 247, 371]

6. Eudes de Welles was the son of Lord John de Welles and Alianor de Mowbray. He married Maud de Greystoke, daughter of Lord Ralph de Greystoke and Katherine de Clifford. He died before 26 August 1421. [3: 371]

7. Sir Lionel de Welles, K.G. was the son of Eudes de Welles and Maud de Greystoke. He was born in 1406. He married Joan de Waterton, daughter of Sir Robert de Waterton Knt., on 15 August 1417 at St. Oswald's, Methley, Yorkshire, England. He died on 29 March 1461 (slain at the battle of Towton.) He was buried at Methley, Yorkshire, England. He was a Member of Parliament from 25 February 1431. [3: 306, 371-2]

8. Margaret de Welles was the daughter of Sir Lionel de Welles K.G. and Joan de Waterton. She married Sir Thomas Dymoke, Knt., son of Sir Philip Dymoke Knt. and Joan Conyers. She died on 13 July 1480. [3: 306, 372]

9. Sir Robert Dymoke, Knt. was the son of Sir Thomas Dymoke, Knt. and Margaret de Welles. He was born in 1461. He married Anne Sparrow, daughter of John Sparrow. He died on 13 April 1544. He was the King's Champion at the coronation of Richard III, Henry VII, and Henry VIII and a commander at the seige of Tournai. He lived at Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire, England. [3: 306-7]

10. Sir Edward Dymoke, Knt. was the son of Sir Robert Dymoke, Knt. and Anne Sparrow. He was born in 1508. He married Anne Tailboys (2-10). He died on 16 September 1566. He was Sheriff of Lincolnshire. He lived at Scrivelsby, Lincolnshire, England. [3: 306-7]

11. Frances Dymoke was the daughter of Sir Edward Dymoke, Knt. and Anne Tailboys. She married Sir Thomas Windebank, Knt., son of Richard Windebank and Margaret verch Griffith, on 20 August 1566. She died after 3 March 1611. [3: 307]

12. Mildred Windebank was the daughter of Sir Thomas Windebank, Knt. and Frances Dymoke. She married Robert Reade, Esq., son of Andrew Reade, on 31 July 1600, as his third wife. She left a will on 15 August 1630. [3: 307]

13. Col. George Reade was the son of Robert Reade, Esq. and Mildred Windebank. He was born on 25 October 1608. He married Elizabeth Martiau. He died in 1671. [3: 307]

14. Mildred Reade was the daughter of Col. George Reade and Elizabeth Martiau. She married Col. Augustine Warner, Jr., son of Capt. Augustine Warner and Mary Towneley. Mary Warner, daughter of Mildred Reade and Col. Augustine Warner, Jr. was the grandmother of President George Washington (1732-1799). [2: 330; 3: 307]

15. Elizabeth Warner was the daughter of Col. Augustine Warner Jr. and Mildred Reade. She was born on 24 November 1672 at Gloucester, VA.2 She married John Lewis, Jr., son of John Lewis and Isabella Warner. She died on 5 February 1720 at Gloucester, VA, at age 47. [2: 330; 9: v.1,129]

16. Col. Robert Lewis was the son of John Lewis, Jr. and Elizabeth Warner. He was born in 1704 at Warner Hall, Gloucester, VA. He was christened on 4 May 1704 at Abingdon Parish, Gloucester, VA. He married Jane Meriwether, daughter of Thomas Meriwether, in 1725 at Gloucester, VA. He died on 21 February 1765 at Albemarle, VA. [1:5]

17. William Lewis was the son of Col. Robert Lewis and Jane Meriwether. He was born in 1735 at Locust Hill, Albemarle, VA. He married Lucy Meriwether, daughter of Thomas Meriwether and Elizabeth Thornton. He died on 14 November 1779 at Albemarle, VA. [1: 5; 6: 42]

18. Capt. Meriwether Lewis was the son of William Lewis and Lucy Meriwether (6-21). He was born on 18 August 1774 at Locust Hill, Albemarle, VA. He died on 11 October 1809 at Natchez Trace, TN, at age 35. [1: 5; 6: 42]

Line 6: William, "the Lion", King of Scotland to Lucy Meriwether (1-17)

1. King William I of Scotland, "the Lion" was the son of Henry of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland and Ada de Warenne. He was born in 1143. He had as a mistress, (?) Avenal, daughter of Richard Avenal. He died on 4 December 1214 at Stirling, Scotland. [2: 330; 4: line 170-22-24].

2. Isabel of Scotland was the daughter of King William I of Scotland "the Lion" and (?) Avenal. She married Sir Robert de Ros, Knight Templar in 1191 at Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland. [2: 330; 4: line 170, 24-25]

3. Sir William de Ros, M.P. was the son of Sir Robert de Ros, Knight Templar and Isabel of Scotland. He married Lucy FitzPiers. He died circa 1264. He was a Member of Parliament between 1235 and 1236. He lived at Helmsley in Holderness, Yorkshire, England. [2: 330; 4: line 170, 23-26].

4. Sir William de Ros was the son of Sir William de Ros M.P. and Lucy FitzPiers. He married Eustache FitzHugh. He died on 28 May 1310. He lived at Ingmanthorpe, Yorkshire, England. [2: 330].

5. Lucy de Ros was the daughter of Sir William de Ros and Eustache FitzHugh. She married Sir Robert de Plumpton. [2: 330]

6. Sir William de Plumpton was the son of Sir Robert de Plumpton and Lucy de Ros. He married Christiana Mowbray before 1338. He died in 1362. He lived at Plumpton, Yorkshire, England. [2: 330; 4: line 170, 29]

7. Alice de Plumpton was the daughter of Sir William de Plumpton and Christiana Mowbray. She married Sir Richard Sherburne in 1352. [2: 330; 4: line 170, 29-30]

8. Margaret Sherburne was the daughter of Sir Richard Sherburne and Alice de Plumpton. She married Richard Bayley. [2: 330; 8: 181]

9. Richard Sherburne (alias Richard Bayley) was the son of Richard Bayley and Margaret Sherburne. He married Agnes Stanley. [2: 330; 8: 181]

10. Isabel Sherburne was the daughter of Richard Sherburne and Matilda Hamerton. She married John Towneley. [2: 330; 8: 181]

11. Lawrence Towneley was the son of John Towneley and Isabel Sherburne. [2: 330; 8: 181]

12. Henry Towneley was the son of Lawrence Towneley. [2: 330; 8: 181]

13. Lawrence Towneley was the son of Henry Towneley. He married Helen Hesketh. [2: 330; 8: 181]

14. Lawrence Towneley was the son of Lawrence Towneley and Helen Hesketh. He married Margaret Hartley. He died before 19 January 1598. [2: 330; 8: 181]

15. Lawrence Towneley was the son of Lawrence Towneley and Margaret Hartley. He married Jennet Halstead. He died before 12 February 1655. [2: 330; 8: 181]

16a. Mary Towneley was the daughter of Lawrence Towneley and Jennet Halstead. She was born on 13 May 1614. She married Capt. Augustine Warner. She died on 11 August 1662 at age 48. Their son was Col. Augustine Warner (1-14). [2: 330; 8: 181]

16b. Elizabeth Towneley was the daughter of Lawrence Towneley and Jennet Halstead. She married Christopher Smith. [2: 331]

17. Col. Lawrence Smith was the son of Christopher Smith and Elizabeth Towneley. He was born betwen 1621 and 1629 at Stonirakes, England. He married Mary Debnam. He left a will dated 8 August 1700. [1: 5; 2: 331]

18. Sarah Smith was the daughter of Col. Lawrence Smith and Mary Debnam. She was born on 1 January 1660/61. She was baptized on 8 January 1660/61 at Hull Parish, Yorkshire, England. She married Col. John Taliaferro, "the Ranger" in 1682. She died in 1720 at Westmoreland, VA. [1: 5; 5: 126; 7: 394]

19. Mary Taliaferro was the daughter of Col. John Taliaferro, "the Ranger" and Sarah Smith. She was born in 1686 at Powhatton Plantation, Essex, VA. She married Col. Francis Thornton, Jr. She died after 1720 at Snow Creek, Essex, VA. [1: 5; 5: 126]

20. Elizabeth Thornton was the daughter of Col. Francis Thornton, Jr. and Mary Taliaferro. She was born in 1719 at Snow Creek, Spotsylvania, VA. She married Thomas Meriwether in 1735 at Spotsylvania, VA. She died in 1774 at Albemarle, VA. [1: 5; 5: 126; 6: 41]

21. Lucy Meriwether (1-17) was the daughter of Thomas Meriwether and Elizabeth Thornton. She was born on 4 February 1751 at Albemarle, VA. She married William Lewis, son of Col. Robert Lewis and Jane Meriwether. She died on 8 September 1837 at Albemarle, VA, at age 86. [1: 5; 6: 41-2].

22. Capt. Meriwether Lewis was the son of William Lewis and Lucy Meriwether (6-21). He was born on 18 August 1774 at Locust Hill, Albemarle, VA. He died on 11 October 1809 at Natchez Trace, TN, at age 35. [1: 5; 6: 42]
[1] Gary Boyd Roberts, Notable Kin (Santa Clarita, CA: Carl Boyer, 1998).
[2] Gary Boyd Roberts, Royal Descents of 500 Immigrants to the American Colonies or the United States (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002).
[3] David Faris, Plantagenet Ancestry of 17th Century Colonists, 2nd ed. (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1999).
[4] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to American before 1700, 7th ed. (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1999).
[5] Walter Garland Duke, Henry Duke, Councilor: His Descendants and Connections (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1949).
[6] William Terrell Lewis, Genealogy of the Lewis and Kindred Families (KY: Courier-Journal Job Printing Company, 1893).
[7] Margaret C. Pilcher, Historical Sketches of the Campbell, Pilcher, and Kindred Families (Nashville: Marshall Bruce & Co., 1911).
[8] Gary Boyd Roberts, Ancestors of American Presidents, 2nd ed.(Santa Clarita, CA.: Carl Boyer, 1995).
[9] Colonial Dames of America, Ancestral Records and Portraits (New York: Grafton Press, 1910).

If what we see above is true, it may very well be that we have an official link to two different royal lineages.  First we notice that both lineages end with one Captain Meriwether Lewis.  And for those of you who don’t know Mr. Lewis, he was a famous explorer, commissioned by Thomas Jefferson himself, to find an all water route to the Pacific Ocean across North America.  Along the way he made many explorations and observations that made him very famous.  His family tree has been researched thoroughly on his mother and father’s side.  From his father he is a descendant of the once King of England, King Edward I (“Longshanks” – remember the movie Brave Heart:  Longshanks was the ruthless King of England).  From his mother he is a descendant of the King of Scotland, King William I.  I will leave it to you to research the extents of these two lines.  Just for a last foot note, our Smith connection comes with the Towneley / Warners.

Theory #5: Unknown

At this stage I have no further  theories of which I feel were of some importance enough to discuss.  This document will be a living document in which as more information is found, it will be updated.  Until then!

By: Jerry A. Smith,
Smith Family Researcher

1.  Ussher, J, 1650. Annals of the World: James Ussher's Classic Survey of World History ISBN 0-89051-360-0 (Modern English republication, ed. Larry and Marion Pierce, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2003)
3. Loughcrew, Cairn T., Jeremiah’s Tomb: the Tomb of Ollamh Fodhla, 1998.
4. Loughcrew, Cairn T., Jeremiah’s Tomb: the Tomb of Ollamh Fodhla, 1998.
6. Battle of Wakefield 1460 by Philip A. Haigh (published by Sutton (UK) 1996)
8.  Genealogy of Rt. Rev’d Dr. Norman Kenneth Smith, Abbot, ThD, DD, 76-770 Hualalai Road, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740
9.   Source:  Daniel King recorded the armorial bearings of over 500 landed families of Cheshire in his 1656 Book, the Vale Royal of England.  It is thought that the arms were in use in about 1630.  The lozenges, associated with CAIRINGTON are significant in considering the armorial motif of the Smyth families of Ireland.
13.  Banks, Gordon:  The Descent of Captain Meriwether Lewis (from the Kings of England and Scotland) - 
14 . 


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