Research Notes for Arnold Surname
After the events of September 11, 2001,
Sent: Wednesday, September 12, 2001 1:49 PM, Subject:
[SWITZ] Switzerland gives us a Hug!
Swiss Dialects, Date: 8/20/2001 1:29:54 AMPacific
Daylight Time, From: email@example.com (Jan
Blotz) To: SWITZERLAND-L@rootsweb.com
There are dialects of French, German and Italian languages in Switzerland, as well as of the Romansh and Laden language isolates. I am only, and to a small degree, familiar with development of the Germanic. Construction of Germanic dialects in Switzerland and Germanic northern Italy (GER: The Pomat / ITA: Piemonte) occurred broadly in three phases. In the north and east, the Alemanni had already penetrated over the Swiss Alps and into northern Italy by year 200. In 506, the Allemanni met their match and were defeated at the Rhine by the Frank (GER) Chlodwig. Finding protection under Theodoric who had conquered Italy and all of Rhaetia by 493, the fleeing Alemanni were settled in theTheodoric territories of Rhaetia I & II, (now Graubuenden and adjoining territories). Unable to escape the powerful invading Franks (GER) to the north, these Alemanni were incorporated into the advancing Frankish state in 538 by the Merovingian king Theudebert (by now Theodoric was dead). During this period, large groups of Alemanni continued to move south over the Splügen Pass. This constituted Phase I in the Germanization of Rhaetia and northern Italy. It was the descendants of these Alemanni who directed the linguistic development (including dialects) of south and eastern Switzerland. The situation in eastern situation was this: Rhaetia belonged secularly to the Frankish (GER) kingdom but the Bishopric for Rhaetia was at Chur and belonged to Milan.
Phase II began upon the death of Bishop Remedius in 806AD, when the Frankish King Charlemagne separated the secular authority from the bishopric and formed the duchy of Raetia Curiensis,or Curiensis, the precursor of modern Graubuenden. Full Germanization occurred in 843 when the Treaty of Verdun transferred authority over the bishopric of Chur from Milan in Italy to Mainz in Germany.
Phase III in the establishmentof German dialects in central (The Rhône River valley of Wallis/Valais) and eastern Switzerland as well as in northern Italy is marked by waves of German settlers passing over the Theodul and adjoining passes and settling in the Monte Rosa area of the Italian Piemonte. The establishment of various Germanic dialects in the resulting settlements was largely a function of their location in isolated high Alpine lateral valleys where they were effectively walled off from outside linguistic influences. Two generations later these hard-working Germans originally from Wallis (now known as The Walsers) were invited to settle in eastern Switzerland by the Lords of the Land in Curatia. Emigrating into eastern Switzerland both from northern Italy and from their original homeland of The Goms in the Rhônental, a large scale occupation of eastern Switzerland took place. These new settlers were hard-working and so effective at clearing land and served so effectively in the Barons armies in time of war, that they were given new liberties that were unprecedented at that time and in that place. Thus were born The Free Walsers. Organizations such as the Walser Vereinigung Graubuenden (Graubuenden), International Vereinigung für Walsertum (Brig, Switzerland), Die Walser Gemeinschaft (Gressoney-Eischëme), and others are dedicated to protecting the various Walser dialects in their pure original states.
Studies of Germanic dialects in central
and eastern Switzerland exist exclusively (to the best of
my knowledge) in the German and German-Swiss
languages.Studies of Germanic dialects in northern Italy
are in a few cases
One other English-language book needs
to be mentioned. German-Romance Contact:
Name-giving in WalserSettlements by the well known
American linguist and author Peter Nichols Richardson is
available at online bookstores from time to time. It
deals with naming traditions mainly, but is widely
quoted, even by Swiss
PS: I am always glad to share (snail mail) any of my Walser material with interested persons for the cost of postage. In this regard, I have fairly representative coverage of the German dialects found in the Aosta Valley (Italy), Bosco-Gurin (on the Swiss-Italian border), Rima, Rimella, Gressoney, Issemi, Alagna (all in the Aosta valley of northern Italy), as well as the dialects of Macugnaga and to a much lesser extent that of the Formazzatal in The Pomat (northern Italy).
This may give some insight on the travel to LeHavre (Havre): According to exerpts from my g-g-grandfather's diary written in 1858: The Amiet family departed from Moutier, Switzerland, at 2:00 in the morning on April 12, 1858; arrived at Basle at 1:00 in the morning of April 13th, and left Basle at 10:00 the same morning. They were "obliged to stop at St. Louis" where they were searched, "even into their shoes", by French Custom House officials. They took the train to Strasburg, were served dinner at the hotel "Ville de Viana", and went sightseeing in city. They left on the 8:00pm train to Paris, arriving at 11:00 (don't know if this was a.m. or p.m.), and then the train to Havre, where they arrived at 5:00 in the morning. Lodging was at the Hotel Swiss. (Employees at the hotel were Swiss, and were able to render service to the emigrants). After staying at Havre for 2 days, purchasing provisions for the voyage, the ship, Harvest, departed on April 17th, 1858, and arrived in New York harbor on May 19th. This diary contains much more, and is very detailed, including the amount of provisions taken on the voyage, costs, difficulties on the voyage, seasickness, quarantine in New York, etc. If anyone is interested in further details of this voyage, please contact me: firstname.lastname@example.org Joy Schaffter Wengerd
From: "Heinz Radde" <email@example.com>
Sent: Monday, August 20, 2001 6:06 AM Subject: RE:
[SWITZ] Swiss Dialects
German dialects are spoken in Germany, Austria, Belgium, South Tyrol (Italy), etc. (as far as I do remember, in 12 European countries and in Namibia is German one of the official languages, or at least used in certain regions). In fact, nowhere in private life they do speak real "Standard German" (the area of Hanover comes close to it, but they still do have their own pronunciation).
However, maybe the main difference about Swiss German is, that these dialects are used mostly in "official" life too. Even in churches, offices, TV, Radio (except news) etc. The German speaking Swiss do use Standard German only in company of French and Italian speaking Swiss and foreigners. It's worth to mention, that some Swiss dialects are more related to foreign German dialects than to other Swiss German dialects (for example Basel Dytsch comes close to the dialects in the neighbour regions of Baden (Germany) and Alsace (France), but is very different to the dialect in the Swiss Wallis. As in opposite the people from Baden do understand the Swiss much better than Low German (Plattdeutsch) speaking Germans from the Frisian islands. Hope, it helps a bit. Heinz Radde http://members.tripod.com/~radde/ Switzerland
Sent: Monday, August 20, 2001 2:53 AM Subject: Re:
[SWITZ] Swiss Dialects
If you are interested, books have been written on the dialects of these latter mentioned, as well as the very interesting dialect of Uri's Urseren Valley. I mention these because the books are written in English. If you wish to have their title and source, let me know. I have them in my library (somewhere!).
As you might expect, there is a not-very-well-defined line where you cross over from dialect to language. I suppose an example of this could be the Ladin language which is found in only a few valleys of northern Italy (around Bolzano) and also in Graubunden and The Tessin of eastern Switzerland. A language can become so restricted in geographical extent that it more resembles a local dialect. Ladin is still a language in it's own right, but with the advent of highways and motorized travel, its use has become less widespread as German, Italian and Romansch encroach.
Hopefully, Hanneli Grenny will also respond to your letter, a debillitating earache notwithstanding. Her knowledge in areas such as this is both seminal and authoritative. Pete Mattli firstname.lastname@example.org [3-ggg's] Ft. Myers, FL
----- Original Message ----- From: "Seelentag
Wolfhart Dr. KSSG_RO" <email@example.com>
"'Jan Blotz'" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Sent: Monday, August 20, 2001 2:06 AM Subject: AW:
[SWITZ] Swiss Dialects Von: Jan
Dear Jan, it's quite impossible to "explain" dialects in a few words (i.e. suitable for a mailing list). If your grandfather came from Brugg, Swiss-German will have been his native language (with dialects you should also consider Swiss-French and Swiss-Italian, though I've been told the differences are less pronounced than with Swiss-German and "proper" German). Like with all dialects, the differences will be most pronounced in the spoken language - and less obvious in the written language - I would guess this is pretty much the same with dialects accross the USA. Though there are quite a few specific "Swiss-German" words, translating a printed Swiss text shouldn't be much different from translating a German text. With a handwritten letter this might be different - some people try on purpose to put down the dialect in writing, or just by being less strict about grammar plus using a larger number of dialect words it becomes more difficult. Another problem might be the old script - plus the individual handwriting. Even if each of these points makes it only a little bit more diffocult, the sum of several such factors might cause real problems when translating. Best regards - Wolf
THE ORIGIN OF THE GERMAN TRIBES
THE GATHERING OF THE TRIBES
From: "Frank Stapel" <email@example.com>
Sent: Monday, September 03, 2001 7:01 PM, Todays Topics
#1 [SWITZ] Re: Swiss Dialects
From: "Hueber" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Sent: Monday, August 27, 2001 9:58 AM, Subject: [SWITZ]
Re: Swiss Dialects
From: <Outriggger@aol.com> Sent: Wednesday, September 12, 2001 11:09 PM, Subject: [SWITZ] German dialects
The website for this excellent presentation on German dialects was sent to me by Guillaume Roelly. The author, Frank Mailänder, has graciously permitted its posting to Switzerland-L. It is best viewed in your largest possible window. http://www.genealogienetz.de/genealogy.html, http://www.genealogienetz.de/news.html, http://www.genealogienetz.de/misc/tips.htm, http://www.genealogienetz.de/reg/regio.htm, http://www.genealogienetz.de/misc/dialect_gross.html
This list is an attempt to bring a little light into the jungle of German dialects. There is no claim of completeness. We would be glad to receive further information, expecially on the geographic distribution of the individual dialects. Please note that the terms "High German" and "Low German" are often used in a different sense from the scientific sense used here. The common, though technically incorrect linguistically, use of these terms is:
High German or Hochdeutsch The official language of Germany as promulgated in the schools, the press, the broadcast media, and specifically in the dictionary series called the Duden. Low German or Plattdeutsch Any dialect that differs from High German. This list adheres to the definitions used by linguists in describing German dialects, and thus differs from the common definitions given above. High German (Oberdeutsch): To the High German dialects belong Swabian-Alemannic (Schwäbisch-Alemannisch), Bavarian (Bairisch), East Franconian (Ostfränkisch) and South (Rhine) Franconian (Süd(rhein)fränkische). Swabian-Alemannic (Schwäbisch-Alemannisch): Includes Wuerttemberg (Württemberg), Baden, German-speaking Alsace (Elsaß), Bavaria (Bayern) west of the Lech, and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland (Schweiz) and Vorarlberg. Swabian (Schwäbisch) Low Alemannic (Niederalemannisch) High Alemannic (Hochalemannisch): High Alemannic is used in Switzerland. Highest Alemannic (Höchstalemannisch, or Walserdeutsch): A form of High Alemannic spoken in parts of the Canton of Wallis (in Oberwallis) is Highest Alemannic, also called Walserdeutsch or Walserish. The Walsers spread their dialect also into Graubünden and Vorarlberg and into other Walser settlements. Some parts of Walser German in Graubünden show influence from Rhaeto-Romanic. Alsatian (Elsässisch): Very ancient dialects, whose northern forms belong to Upper Rhenish, and whose southern forms belong to South Badensian and to Swiss German. To be pointed out especially is the so-called "Hanauer Land" near by Strassburg, the Münster valley country of the Vosges and to the south in the Sundgau. Bavarian (Bairisch): Bavarian is divided into South, Middle, and High Bavarian, where the broad plains on the Isar and Danube rivers connect Upper and Lower Bavaria with the main parts of Upper and Lower Austria to the central territories of the largest German dialectal region of Middle Bavarian. Through this north-south gradation goes the broad West-East Bavarian dialectal boundary through Upper Austria, Salzburg, the Styrian Enns valley, and Upper Carinthia. This boundary goes back to the time of the first Bavarian land acquisition and follows approximately the outer boundary of East Carolingia and the former Duchy of Austria. South Bavarian (Südbairisch) South Bavarian is spoken mostly in Styria, Carinthia, and Tyrolia. Salzburgish (Salzburgisch) Salzburgish is an intermediate form between South and Middle Bavarian. Middle Bavarian (Mittelbairisch or Donaubairisch): This dialect, also called Danube Bavarian, occupies most of the Bavarian region including the Danube and the middle and lower Inn valleys and already in the early Middle Ages extended from the Lech to Bratislava (Pressburg). North Bavarian (Nordbairisch or Oberpfälzerisch): This dialect, also called Upper Franconian, is spoken in the region around Regensburg, Naab, the Fichtelgebirge (Fir Mountains), and in the northern Bohemian Forest. East Franconian (Ostfränkisch, Main- or Oberfränkisch): This dialectal area, also called Main Franconian (after the river Main) or Upper Franconian, extends as a well-defined area around Würzburg, Bamberg, Bayreuth, to southern and western Thuringia and out to the Vogtland. Nuremburg and its vicinity are also included. South Franconian (Südfränkisch or Südrheinfränkisch): This is a linguistic region that lies as a border swath between the Swabian-Alemannic, North Bavarian, East Franconian, and Rhine Franconian regions.
Middle German (Mitteldeutsch): Middle German divides
into West Middle German, with Rhine Franconian, to which
Hessian belongs, and East Middle German, with Thuringian,
Upper Saxon, Lausitzian, and formerly also Silesian.
Mosel Franconian and Ripuarian also belong to Middle
German. Former Rhine Franconian or Hessian (Ehemaliges
Rheinfränkisch or Hessisch): The western part is taken
up by Rhine-Palatinian (the region around Mainz), the
eastern part by Hessian, and covers approximately the
Archbishopric of Mainz. A Rhine-Palatinian island
persists on the lower Rhine in Lower Franconia, where
Palatines, who wanted to emigrate to join their
countrymen in America, settled at the end of the 18th
century. They come mostly from Simmern and Kreuznach. The
boundary region between Hessian and Thuringian follows
the watershed between the Werra and Fulda valleys over
the High Meissen hills. Middle Franconian
(Mittelfränkisch): The entire Middle Franconian region
is one of linguistic transition between Rhine Franconian
and Lower Franconian. Mosel Frankconian
(Moselfränkisch): Mosel Franconian is spoken in the
region of the old Electorate of Trier. Ripuarian
(Ripuarisch): Ripuarian is the region of the old
Electorate of Cologne (Köln). Thuringian (Thüringisch):
The southern linguistic boundary to East Franconian is
formed by the ridge of the Thuringian forest. Central
Thuringian (Zentralthüringisch): Most strongly expressed
in the Arnstadt-Erfurt-Gotha triangle. Upper Saxon
(Obersächsisch or Meißnisch: Also called Meissenish, it
is marked by Thuringian and Hessian characteristics. Low
German, even Middle and Low Franconian (Flemish) elements
have influence in the north, while characteristics of
Main and last Franconianin appear in the south.
Osterlandic (Osterländisch): Ostlandic extends north of
around the Groitzsch-Grimma-Strehla line in a wedge shape
out past Leipzig to Lower Lusatia. North Meissenish
(Nordmeißnisch): The region of Grimma-Döbeln-Riesa.
Northeast Meissenish (Nordostmeißnisch): A small region
around Lommatzsch-Großenhain. West Meissenish
(Westmeißnisch): West Meissenish, on both sides of the
lower Zwickauer Mulde around Rochlitz, occupies an
intermediate position between North Meissenish and South
Meissenish on one side and Altenburgish on the other
side. South Meissenish (Südmeißnisch): Lies in the
region Öderan-Frankenberg-Hainichen-Freiberg. Southeast
Meissenish (Südostmeißnisch): Southeast Meissenish,
spoken in the region Dippoldswalde-Meißen-Radeburg-Bad
Schandau, was influenced extensively by Dresden. It is
identical in many circumstances with the former Silesian.
Osterzgebirgisch: Represents a transition dialect between
West Erzgebirgish and Meissenish. West Erzgebirgish
(Westerzgebirgisch): West Erzgebirgish lies in front of
the Hither Erzgebirgish (with strong features of slang)
in the north in the region, while in the west it borders
on the Vogtlandish. Lausitzian (Lausitzisch) and former
Silesian (Schlesisch): West Lausitzian (Westlausitzisch):
East of the upper course of the Pulsnitz and west of the
so-called "New Lausitzian" spoken in the
Sorbian region lies the small backwater territory of West
Lausitzian around Pulsnitz and Kamenz. Former Silesian
Low German (Niederdeutsch): Low German is more uniform than High or Middle German. There are three large dialect regions: Low Franconian, Low Saxon (also West Low German) with Westphalian and Eastphalian, and East Low German with Mark-Brandenburg (with Middle Pomeranian) and Mecklenburgish (with Anterior Pomeranian). Low Franconian (Niederfränkisch): It is not to be equated with Dutch, rather it is spoken even on the northern German Lower Rhine, while the northeastern part of the Netherlands around the region of Groningen is Lower Saxon. Lower Saxon (Niedersächsich): To Lower Saxon belong the dialect regions of North Lower Saxon, Westphalian, and Eastphalian. A sharp boundary from the Rothaar mountains on divides Lower Saxon from Franconian and Hessian. Westphalian (Westfälisch): Among other places in the region Soest-Gütersloh-Paderborn. Also in the Münster area, while in the Ruhr region only oldtimer farmers speak Westphalian any more. Eastphalian (Ostfälisch): In the southeast part of Eastphalian lies the Elbe Eastphalian region. North Lower Saxon (Nordniedersächsich, Holsteinisch, Plattdeutsch): Region between Kiel, Lübeck, Hamburg, and the North Sea coast. Includes Holsteinish and Plattdeutsch. Plattdeutsch: In addition to the aforementioned area, it is also spoken in the regions of East Frisia, Oldenburg, Bremen, Northern Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein, and in some parts of Mecklenburg. Mark-Brandenburgish (Märkisch-Brandenburgisch): Brandenburgish includes the March of Brandenburg and a basis determined by Low German settlements that is best preserved in the Prignitz and Lower Lusatian regions. Middle Markish (Mittelmärkisch): Shows characterstics that can be traced to the Netherlands. North Markish (Nordmärkisch) Middle Pomeranian (Mittelpommersch): A broad stripe west of the Oder to the Baltic Sea, in the south though there is no dialectal boundary to North Markish. Berlinish (Berlinisch): Differs from Mark-Brandenburgish phonetically and in the style of speaking. Mecklenburgish (Mecklenburgisch): Mecklenburgish is well delineated in the west and south. In the east it has extended its dialectal range since the German settlement of Anterior Pomerania and Rügen. That is why it is also called Mecklenburgish-Anterior Pomeranian. Frisian (Friesisch): It is not a dialect, but rather its own language, which tends toward English. West Frisian (Westfriesisch): The largest area is occupied today by West Frisian, and above all west of Groningen, including the islands of Schiermonnikoog and Terschelling. This region is bounded by North Lower Saxon and by the Zuidersee. City Frisian (Stadtfriesisch): Since the 16th century, a mixed dialect of Frisian and Dutch has been spoken in spots in the Dutch regions. This is the so-called "City Frisian", e.g., in Leeuwarden, the central point of the Dutch province of Friesland, in Dokkum, Franeker, Harlingen, and Staveren. East Frisian (Ostfriesisch): It is spoken between the Lauwersee and the mouth of the Weser, but especially on the island of Wangeroog. Saterlandish (Saterländisch): Only Saterlandish, with its parishes of Ramsloh, Stücklingen, and Scharrel in the high moors of the interior of northern Lower Saxony betwen the lower Weser and Ems in the vicinity of Friesoythe, has been able to maintain its identity in the midst of Middle Low German. North Frisian (Nordfriesisch): North Frisian is spoken on the Hallig islands and the neighboring strip of mainland on the western coast of southern Jutland and Schleswig, with elements of Danish and Low German mixed in. Helgoland Frisian (Helgoländer Friesisch): Quite different from the other Frisian dialects is the one spoken on the island of Helgoland.
Extracts from the book "Die Deutsche Sprache", 1969, published by VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, and translated by Jim Eggert, EggertJ@crosswinds.net) Last update: 18-Feb-2000 Please forward any comments and additions to this WWW-Page to: F.Mailaender@cenit.de Frank Mailänder or to http://www.genealogienetz.de/webmaster.html Webmaster, http://www.genealogienetz.de/disclaim.htm
I would greatly appreciate it if you would please comment on the accuracy of the following description of the Rhine River and the German language. (Time about 1600-1750. I am speaking of EGOLFF of Engstadt, District of Bahlinger, Dutchy of Wuettenberg. Lucas Chalet SHALLEY in Theirwassen, Palatinate. Johannes WILTENSINN - assumed to be from the Palatinate. MATTER from Engwiller and Duntzenheim, Bas-Rhin, Hochfelden, arrondissement of Strasbourg. The Rhine flowed north from its headwaters in the Alps, then west making the northern border of the Swiss Confederation. At the great Free City of Basel it turned abruptly north through the rich forest lands of the Palatine - this was the Middle Rhine Valley, ancestral home of this branch of our family. They were all German speaking, and since they lived so close together they all spoke the same Middle German dialect. It was neither the High German of the Swiss mountain folk nor the Low German of the lowlanders to the north. If you would be so kind as to take the time to comment I will thank you - sorry no other recompense. Regards Hal
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