William MacKintosh of Borlum

William MacKintosh
of Borlum

UPDATED Monday 6 April 2001

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Encyclopaedia Britannica reference to Thomas Forster

English Jacobite and leader of the 1715 uprising in Scotland and northern England. Forster was a member of Parliament from 1708 to 1716, but his Jacobite proclivities became known, and in 1715 he was ordered under arrest by the House of Commons. He fled before this could be done, however, and at Greenrig in Northumberland on Oct. 6, 1715, he proclaimed the Old Pretender as James III. Forster assumed command of his small band of followers but proved a poor general. After failing to take Newcastle he allowed the rebellion to degenerate into a series of purposeless marches. He was joined by the rebels from southern Scotland under William Gordon, Lord Kenmure, and the combined force marched to Kelso in Roxburghshire, where on October 22 it was further reinforced by a detachment of Highlanders under Brigadier William Mackintosh of Borlum. Mackintosh had considerable military talents but was obliged to serve under the incompetent Kenmure in Scotland and the no less incompetent Forster once the rebels had crossed into England. Forster expected reinforcements from the Roman Catholic gentry of the northwestern shires of England, but these failed to appear. At Preston on November 17 he capitulated, despite the protests of his officers. He escaped from prison to France, where he died some 23 years later.

John GRANT (III of Glenmoriston)


ABT 1550 - 31 Mar 1637

  • TITLE: III of Glenmoriston
  • BIRTH: ABT 1550, Glenmoriston,Urquhart,Inverness,Scotland
  • DEATH: 31 Mar 1637, Glenmoriston,Urquhart,Inverness,Scotland

BRITISH BOOK AREA 929.241 G767f THE CHIEFS OF GRANT / by William Fraser. Page 522.

He was retoured heir to his father in the lands and barony of Glenmoriston on 19 February 1585, and in the lands of Culcabock, etc., on 3 March 1600. He also obtained service to the latter lands on 29 Aug 1615 as heir of his grandfather, John Grant of Culcabock, the retour starting that these lands had been in the king's hands for sixty-seven years, or since September 1548. John Grant took an important part in the affairs of his time. He was appointed in 1592 a justice and commissioner for the suppression of disorders in the district, and again in 1622 in the proceedings against the Camerons of Lochiel. He was frequently arbiter in disputes between neighboring lairdsd. He held in wadset from the Laird of Freuchie for some time the Forest of Cluny, and the lands of Borlum and Balmacaan, in Urquhart; and he also acted as Bailie of the lordship of Urquhart for the Laird of Freuchie. In 1621 he purchased the lands of Kinchirdie for his son John, but sold them again in 1633 to Alexander Cumming. He married Elizabeth Grant, and died before 31 Mar 1637, leaving issue. From Major Alpin's Ancestors: "Ian Mor A Chasteil" John Grant, III of Glenmoriston. "Big John of the Castle." He was served heir to his father in 1585 (Glenmoriston) and 1600 (Culcabock). He died in 1637, having married Elizabeth Grant, with issue. From "Genealogy of the Family of Glenmoriston" John Mor Grant 3rd Laird and 2nd of that name built the castle of Invermoriston [the ruins of which still exist] in the year 1603 and married Campbell of Calder's Daughter and Niece of the Duke of Argyle, her father was the Earl of Isla. He had four sons and two daughters Patrick Oge, John and Duncan, the other died young. John was commonly called the Tutor; it was he who lost the land of Urquhart and Straith Clouney. Duncan was the first of the Daldregan family. One of the daughters married McKenzie of Fairbourn - lived very old.

The Jacobite Rising of 1715 and its aftermath.

A major event of this period was the Jacobite Rising of 1715. After the Oates plot was exposed, anti-Catholic feeling subsided, and the Catholic Duke of York was able to succeed Charles as King James II in 1685. He attempted to restore the Catholic faith in England and appointed Catholics to many important offices. This brought him into immediate conflict with Parliament, which in 1688 invited James's Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange, to take the throne. William landed in force, and James fled to France without any significant resistance. He kept a "court" at St. Germain until his death in 1701, when he was succeeded by his Catholic son James, the Old Pretender, who styled himself James III. When William of Orange died in 1702, the English throne went to Anne, younger sister of Queen Mary (and daughter of James II). Rebellion against Queen Anne was contemplated at least once, but she was a Stuart and most Jacobite hopes focussed on the succession. They bided their time, hoping that James would succeed Queen Anne.

Queen Anne died in 1714, but the Jacobite restoration did not take place. The Jacobite plan to proclaim James III as King was bungled. George, the Elector of Hanover, was invited to take the English throne as King George I. This caused great unrest among the English Catholics and the Tory gentry: there were riots in cities throughout the country, and a rising was planned. The original intention was for a Jacobite landing in Northumberland, and King Louis XIV of France promised support. With this in mind, the Jacobites in Northumberland, led by James Radcliffe, third Earl of Derwentwater, and Lord William Widdrington (great-great-grandson of Sir Henry Widdrington, sometime part-owner of Tudhoe Hall) planned a rising in support of the invasion. Derwentwater had been brought up at the Old Pretender's court at St. Germain, but was allowed to return to England in 1709, ostensibly to manage his estates in Northumberland.

Ralph Salvin of Tudhoe was undoubtedly a Jacobite sympathiser. His wife's father, Lord Henry Montagu, had been Secretary of State to James II in exile at St. Germain. His wife's sister was married to George Collingwood of Eslington Hall, and was said to have persuaded him to join the Rebellion. Ralph Salvin was in close social contact with the Northumbrian Jacobites, and was clearly courted by them. In 1713, George Collingwood wrote to him after a "fortnight at Widdrington where some of us always toasted your health and all diversions and everything went forwards with so much ease and freedom that certainly my Lord is one of the best noblemen in the world." At Callaly Castle, in January 1715, Collingwood drank to Salvin's health and to "all other friends in your parts. My Lord Widdrington told me he drank the best wine with you and stayed at Tudhoe till three o'clock in the morning and was very merry". (L. Gooch, The Desperate Faction? The Jacobites of North-East England, 1688-1745) This was shortly after the accession of George I, and there can be little doubt that Widdrington sought Salvin's support in the rebellion that was then being contemplated.

Jerrard Salvin of Croxdale was aged 61, and too old to be an active rebel. However, he too was certainly sympathetic: in 1710 he wrote to Ralph to ask him to look out for and send him pamphlets about "the good old cause". In February 1715, Jerrard was summoned to appear before the Quarter Sessions, "to answer such matters and things as shall be objected against him": however, in the event no action was taken against him.

The Rising was abortive. The Jacobite "General" was Thomas Forster, Member of Parliament for the county of Northumberland. He was chosen largely because he was non-Catholic, rather than for any military qualifications. The rebellion began on 6 October, a few days earlier than planned, because news of the enterprise escaped and the Jacobites felt threatened with arrest. Forster's first objective was support the anticipated Jacobite invasion from France, and the site chosen for the landing was Holy Island (Lindisfarne). On 10 October, Lancelot and Mark Errington succeeded (by themselves) in taking control of the castle on Holy Island. The laxness of the castle's security is remarkable: Lancelot Errington first visited the master gunner, who also practised as a barber, to ask for a shave. He found that most of the garrison was absent in the town. Later the same day, he returned with his nephew Mark, claiming that he had lost the key to his watch. The Erringtons were allowed in, and managed to overpower the three people in the castle.

Despite the importance of the castle, Forster inexplicably failed to reinforce the Erringtons; a detachment of 100 men was sent from Berwick to retake it, and the Erringtons held it for only one day. When the loyalist soldiers aproached, the Erringtons fled, but were captured and imprisoned in the Tolbooth at Berwick. Once again, security was so lax that they were able to tunnel out and escape.

Two days later, Forster gave up waiting for French assistance, broke camp, and proclaimed James III on 13 October in Alnwick and on 15 October in Hexham.

If Forster had reinforced Errington on Holy Island, the eventual outcome might have been very different. Two French ships signalled Holy Island castle on 13 October, but received no reply and withdrew.

The Jacobites spent almost a week moving around the Borders, trying to decide whether to try to take Newcastle. Their numbers were very small, around 350, but there was some hope that the keelmen of the Tyne, who carried coal out to seagoing ships, would rise and join them. It was not to be: by 18 October, a force of about 900 dragoons under Lieutenant General Carpenter had arrived to defend the city. The lightly-armed and untrained Northumbrian Jacobites could not hope to defeat such a force of trained soldiers. On 22 October, at Kelso, Forster eventually succeeded in joining forces with a detachment of Scottish Highlanders under William Mackintosh, Laird of Borlum. Unlike Forster, Mackintosh was an experienced military man. However, the agreement was that Forster would command on English soil and Mackintosh in Scotland. Their combined force was about 2000 men, and once again an assault on Newcastle was considered. However, the Scots and English leaders could not agree; the Scots had no wish to fight under Forster's command. Then, on 31 October, Widdrington brought news that the Jacobites of Manchester were ready and waiting, and would rise in force if the Highlanders appeared. It was too tempting; though some of the Scots refused to come, the main Jacobite force headed for Lancashire, by way of Cumbria.

The Jacobites were much heartened by an episode on 3 November. The Bishop of Carlisle and Viscount Lonsdale had assembled 14000 men of the county militia on Penrith Fell. However, when they heard the Jacobites approaching, the militia broke ranks and fled, leaving their arms behind them. Since the Jacobites numbered only 1700, they were enormously encouraged by this demonstration of their reputation.

The Jacobites moved on, through Penrith, Appleby and Kendal, arriving at Lancaster on 7 November. They then moved on to Preston, where for the first time they were joined by substantial numbers of new recruits. They seem to have responded by spending their time feasting, instead of making for Manchester and its promised much greater support. But while this was going on, seven regiments under General Wills converged on Preston. Forster and Mackintosh had no choice but to stand and fight.

On the morning of the 12 November, Forster and Mackintosh (who had never liked one another) had a falling out. Forster retired to his quarters. Meanwhile, Widdrington suffered an attack of gout and kept to his bed. Wills arrived at midday, and spent the rest of the day trying to gain control of the city, without much success. However, the next morning Carpenter arrived to reinforce him; with the city surrounded, Forster decided (without consulting Mackintosh) to negotiate terms. On 14 November, 1500 hundred Jacobites surrendered.

There were only about 700 English Jacobites among those captured at Preston, with few if any from County Durham. There were about 300 Northumbrians, of whom many were from the estates of Derwentwater (56), Widdrington (16), Collingwood (26), and other Jacobite leaders; they were probably out under duress. In the event, there is no evidence that any Salvin took part. However, if matters had turned out differently, and the Rebellion had had success at the beginning, it is highly likely that the Catholic gentry of County Durham would have turned out, and Ralph Salvin would have been among them.

The 1715 Rebellion led to a crackdown on Catholics, mostly financial. In 1717, papists were required to declare their land ownership for tax purposes. Gooch records that Ralph Salvin considered refusing, but was persuaded to register by his lawyer. His entry lists "all that capitall messuage, mansion or tenement... in the town of Tuddoe... wherein I now dwell with all orchards gardens lands and closes therewith held and enjoyed with their appurtenances of the yearly value (as near as I can compute) of sixty two pounds tenn shillings". The valuation of papist estates in 1723 lists Ralph Salvin as owning "a capitall messuage or mansion house in Tuddoe with orchards, gardens, lands and grounds thereunto belonging worth as is compoted 60-10-0" as well as 7 other farms, 9 cottages and other lands.

The failure of the Fifteen seems to have turned Ralph Salvin into a recluse. In 1719, his lawyer, David Dixon, wrote to him "I would desire you not to immure yourself within the walls of Tudhoe. Melancholy comes fast enough without courting, and a man may be a good Christian without living in a cloister or cell." Salvin had reason to be depressed: Derwentwater had been beheaded in the Tower of London, and George Collingwood had been hung, drawn and quartered at Liverpool. Widdrington had been reprieved, but deprived of his title. They and many others had forfeited their estates.

Relatively little is known about Ralph Salvin's later years. A few leases of Tudhoe farms survive, to Thomas Harrison in 1714, Thomas Wilson and John Richardson in 1719, and Edward Crosby in 1721. Ralph Salvin left a rent book in which he recorded rents paid and a few other details for the period 1724-1729. For example, in 1727, John Richardson clearly moved to a larger house; Thomas Johnson left "the tiled house in the street" for John Richardson's old house, and then in 1729 Johnson "goes to his own little house". Ralph Salvin also carried out building works at Tudhoe Hall in this period: it is likely that the panelling in the first-floor rooms at the south end dates from the 1720s, and it is possible that this end of the Hall was raised from one and a half to two and a half storeys at the same time.

McIntosh genealogy, by Mattie R. Gladstone 1994-95

William Mackintosh (3rd Proprietor of Borlum) of Invernesshire, Scotland, marr. 1656; Mary Baillie of Dunain. son:
William Mackintosh, b. 1658 d. 1743, Brig. Gen (1715) Jacobite - marr. Mary Reade
1. Benjamin, marr. Catherine ___
children of above:
1.1. John, marr. Margaret McGillivray
1.1.1. William, Capt, "of Mallow" (b. d. 1794)
1.1.2. Catherine - marr. Capt. Geo. Troup (Tory) sons of above (others): George M. Troup, James Troup, M.D.
1.2. Roderick (Ol' Rory) never married
1.3. Winnewood (daughter- d, 1786)
2. Lachlan (of Knocknagail), marr. Mary Lockhart (dau. of John Lockhart of Inverness)
2.1. John Mor (of Badenoch) marr. Marjory Fraser (see below)

marr. 3-4-1725 to MARJORY FRASER (1701 - ?, dau. of John Fraser of Garthmore & Elizabeth) children:
1. William, Col., "the elder" (1726-1801) Borlum, Invernesshire, Scot., marr. Jeanne (Mary Jane) Mackay, dau of James & Barbara Mackay children:
1.1. John, Lt. Col. Cont. Army, (1748-1786), marr. (1) Sarah Swinton, (2) Mrs. Stevens (3) Mrs. Agnes Hillary
1.2. Lachlan, Major (1750- )
1.3. William (1752- )
1.4. Marjery (1754 - 1818) marr. in 1772, James Spalding
1.4.1. Thomas Spalding (1774-1851) marr. Sarah Leake (1778-1843)
1.5. Barbara (b. ca. 1760) marr. Capt. William McIntosh of Mallow
1.6. Hester, (b. 1765) marr. Alexander Baillie
1.7. Donald (b. 1770) never married
2. Lachlan, Gen. (1727-1806), marr. Sarah Threadcroft
3. John (Loyalist) (1728-1796) never marr.
4. Alexander (d. in Scotland)
5. Mary (d.o.)
6. Phineas
7. Lewis
8. Janet (twins)
9. Ann (Mary Anne) (1737- ), marr. Robert Baillie (Tory)
10. George (1739-1779) marr. Ann Priscilla Houston 10.1. John Houston, of Camden Co.

The Jacobite Rebellion of 1715

The politics behind the Jacobite rebellions of the 18th century were as simple and as complex as the blood relationships which governed the lives of royal families all over Europe at that time. In 1688 an overwhelmingly Protestant English people grew heartily sick of their Catholic Stuart king and his pretentions to absolutism. James II, whose father had been beheaded on the orders of Oliver Cromwell and whose brother had only been restored to the throne in 1661, was deposed in favour of his sister Mary and her Dutch Protestant husband William of Orange. Unfortunately, they died childless and the throne passed to James' second sister Anne. This poor woman spent most of her life in childbirth and her tragedy was to bear seventeen children in all and see not one of them live past infancy. The next in line were the children of Sophia the Electress of Hanover and when Queen Anne died in 1714, George Elector of Hanover became George I of Great Britain. In Scotland he was known as the "wee German lairdie". All the time the exiled James and his son brooded in their palace of St.Germain in France.

Those who supported James were known as Jacobites, from Jacobus the Latin rendering of James. Though Jacobite sympathies in England grew hot and cold in parallel with the general level of political contentment, there was little chance that England would ever seriously contemplate a Stuart restoration with it's accompanying Catholic baggage. In one place, however, the Stuarts could depend on a great deal of support and that was in the Highlands of Scotland. There had been an invasion scare in 1708 and a French fleet had actually got as far as the Firth of Forth before Admiral Byng and the Royal Navy drove it off. The most serious of all the Jacobite attempts to overthrow the government, however, came in 1715. It was led by a Scots lord, the Earl of Mar who had the unfortunate nickname of 'Bobbing John'. Mar had originally been an enthusiatic supporter of the Hanoverians, but when he was snubbed by the new king he took himself north and somewhere on the journey became a committed Jacobite. He raised the standard of the Stuarts on the Braes o' Mar and the Mackintoshes and the Mcdonalds came to join him. Stirling was held for the government by the Duke of Argyll and in an attempt to take the rebellion into England, Mar sent Mackintosh of Borlum and 2,000 men across the River Forth, down through the Borders and into the northern counties of England. Borlum picked up some support along the way, notably Viscount Kenmure and his borderers, but the ordinary folk gave him no help and in England were downright hostile. Linking up with the Earl of Derwentwater and his English Catholics, the Jacobites attempted to invade Lancashire but were stopped at the town of Preston. For two days of bitter street fighting they battled a superior government army but were finally forced to surrender.

Back in the north Mar was indecisive and unable to provide the passionate leadership that a call to rebellion requires. Early on his men had occupied Perth and Inverness but no French warships bearing either the 'rightful king', gold or weapons had come to his aid. In October after sending Borlum on his melancholy mission to defeat at Preston, Mar came came down from the Highlands and in the shadow of the Ochil Hills, not far from the town of Dunblane, his men met the Duke of Argyll in open battle on the field of Sheriffmuir. Mar's army was twice as large as his opponent's and on the right of the Jacobite line the MacDonalds broke the government infantry and the horse behind them. On the left, however, Argyll's men did much the same and like some great bloody rotating wheel the battle was fought out indecisively. It was not a fight that either could claim a victory (though both did) and at the end of the day Mar retreated to Perth and Argyll still held Stirling and the roads to the south. The battle had been fought on that same Sunday that saw Borlum surrender at Preston.

Just before Christmas James II's son, who had styled himself James III since his father's death in 1701 and whose reputation has laboured under history's title of 'the Old Pretender', finally landed at Stonehaven in the north-east of Scotland. He was a cold man and did little to inspire those few who had stayed loyal to Mar after Sheriffmuir. With winter raging, no French troops or supplies and Argyll marching north against him, on February 4th he and Mar took ship for France. Neither would ever see Scotland again.

The government were not as vicious in their pacification as they would be after the next great rising and only two of the leaders, Derwentwater and Kenmure, were beheaded. A series of roads were built into the Highlands by General Wade and a string of forts constructed down the line of the Great Glen. The clans were ordered to disarm but they handed in only old and rusty weapons, hiding the best for later use. That would come almost thirty years later and would be led by the Old Pretender's dashing young son - Bonnie Prince Charlie.

St Peter's Church, Thurso

Mention of Sinclair of Borlum and WIlliam MacIntosh is the Minister in 1805.


In considering the sucession to the chiefship after the breakup of the clan, about the end of the seventeenth century, it will be convenient to recall for a moment the sons of Iain Mor. These, in chronological order of their birth, were John, Alexander, James, Robert, Thomas and Angus, all of whom are amply documented in the records of the period, (1) and Donald, who is never mentioned as a son of Iain Mor in any contemporary document, but who is nevertheless held by tradition to have been his youngest son.(2)

Of the six elder sons, John and Robert, respectively the eldest and fourth, were killed in the skirmish at Drumgley in 1673, leaving no issue. Alexander, the second son, who married an Ogilvie and had a son, Alexander, traditionally drowned in the Tay near Errol, unmarried, in 1697,3 and a daughter, Elizabeth, who married Duncan Mackintosh, brother of Brigadier William Mackintosh of Borlum of << Fifteen >>fame, died in October 1687,(4) having been passed over in the succession to the chiefship by his younger brothers; James ( the third son ), who succeeded as 8th chief of the clan in 1674, and Thomas ( the fifth son ), who in turn succeeded as 9th chief in 1676, neither of them apparently leaving male issue. Upon the death of the latter, therefore, the chiefship of the clan, which, as stated earlier, was not at the time considered worth the trouble of claiming once the family lands had been lost and the clan scattered, lay in the family of Angus, the sixth son of Iain Mor, of whom we shall now treat.

The Easter Raitts Project

When the inhabitants of Easter Raitts were evicted in 1803, the village had apparently been occupied for at least 400 years. It was typical of many highland settlements, with its turf and timber houses, barns, kilns and yards. Today only the footings of buildings and the outlines of roadways and fields remain, but nearby is a magnificent souterrain (artificial cave) built of stone slabs, which could be used for food storage and as a hideout in times of trouble.

The site lies on a south-east facing slope, just north of Kingussie, looking across the river Spey towards Ruthven Barracks near the site of the medieval castle of the lords of Badenoch.

In 1995 The Highland Council's Archaeology unit joined forces with the University of Aberdeen's Centre for Continuing Education and the Highland Vernacular Buildings Trust to investigate. Excavations have taken place each summer since then, with Historic Scotland assisting with funding in 1998 and 1999.

The work has several aims:

(1) to provide information on the construction and use of the village buildings which is being used to create an experimental reconstruction of a highland township at the Highland Folk Park at Newtonmore
(2) to research the way of life of ordinary folk in the highlands before the 19th century agricultural improvements. Surprisingly, very little archaeological excavation has ever been done on this type of site although thousands of deserted villages exist in the highlands. The results will help to inform future conservation and cultural tourism projects
(3) to provide training in archaeological fieldwork through the University of Aberdeen
(4) to link to other initiatives such as the Badenoch and Strathspey Community Archaeologist.

The project is managed by John Wood, the Highland Council's Senior Archaeologist, with fieldwork directed by Olivia Lelong.

Easter Raitts, with Wester and Mid Raitts, form a group of three settlements whose origins date back at least to the 13th century. A chapel is recorded at Raitts at that time, dedicated to the Celtic saint Mol&Mac250;og, suggesting it pre-dated Norman influence in the area. The farm on which the township lies is called Chapelpark Farm, although the origins of this name and the location of any chapel remains are unknown at present.

Archaeological remains in the vicinity also contribute to a picture of Raitts' early importance. The line of a medieval road runs along the terrace c 250 m south of the township, past a very large souterrain. Although souterrains are generally considered to date from the Iron Age (c. 500 BC to 500 AD), local tradition connects episodes of robbery on the road to the use of the souterrain and an associated structure in the fifteenth century.

Norman influence held sway in this area from the thirteenth century onward, with the Red Comyns constructing a castle at Ruthven, on the natural mound now occupied by Ruthven Barracks and within sight of Raitts. Control of the area and castle later passed to Alexander, the Wolf of Badenoch, fourth son of Robert II. He quarrelled with the Bishop of Moray over, among other issues, ownership of the chapel at Raitts. By 1452 the lands which included Raitts had passed to the Gordon family, Earls of Huntly. In the late 15th.c, the Mackintoshes of Borlum came to hold Raitts in feu from the Gordons. In 1788 they sold the estate to James Macpherson, the controversial translator of Gaelic (so-called Ossianic) poetry; he carried out improvements on the property, and it was probably his son who removed people from the townships in order to put sheep on the land.

The earliest reference to people living at Raitts is in the form of rentals dating to the 1400s among the Gordon family papers. Timothy Pont's map of the 1590s, published in Blaeu's atlas of 1654, shows West Rait, Mid Rait and Rait in locations corresponding to their present positions on the north side of Strathspey.

After the 1715 Jacobite uprising the British government built Ruthven Barracks and a military road just below the township, close to the line of the medieval road.


Wesley letter

I suppose you have heard that Brigadier Mackintosh [William Mackintosh (1662-1743). of Borlum, Inverness-shire was Brigadier in the Old Pretender's service took a prominent part in the Jacobite Rising 1714, escaped to France 1716, returned to Scotland probably in 1719, and was imprisoned for life in Edinburgh Castle. See Dic. Nat. Biog.] was once more taken, but made his escape from a messenger and six dragoons after an obstinate fight.

Walter Scott's Rob Roy

Chapter Thirty Eight

Memorabilia of Inverness

Book review
Grant Family History
Shaw history
general history
Borlum entries

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