Landmarks, Dallas County, Texas, 1890

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(Updated December 5, 2001)



     If there is a man in Texas who really thinks Dallas has "about got its growth," the TIMES-HERALD invites him to visit the city and look about and listen. The statistics of banks, postoffice, railways, population, real estate transfers, building permits, etc., have, for two or three years, and now more than ever, shown that Dallas has enjoyed the most regular, substantial, rapid and satisfactory growth of any city in the entire west or south, until it has, in six years, advanced from fourth to first position in Texas; and, at the present rate of progress, will distance Kansas City in six more years.
     There are many large and valuable enterprises in Dallas now assuming shape for the coming spring. Two deals, respectively $400,000 and $600,000, will be announced in a few days. There are new rapid transit lines in contemplation and preparation; and, there is a great deal of private, but very earnest, talk on the streets and among prominent business men and property owners of lower Main and Commerce on the subject of building improvements to be made the coming spring. The Windsor Hotel is to be enlarged and raised two or three stories higher, remodeled and made a first-class modern hostelry, superior to everything now in the south. Sanger Bros. will tear down the Main and Austin corner of their block and erect a six-story addition to their house so attractive on the Elm front. The adjoining 50 feet on Main, occupied by Williams and Amato, will be supplanted by a modern store and office building, reaching six or seven stories high. The Pace drug corner, 50 feet owned by E. M. Kahn, will be rebuilt in the same high and modern style. The next 50 feet, adjoining the North Texas National Bank, will be among the first to be torn down and rebuilt by Col. Exall. The Lindsay corner, now being remodeled for the American National Bank, will be made higher. $75,000 was offered for the building the other day, but $100,000 was asked. It is also reported that the corner on Commerce and Jefferson, lately gutted by fire, will be rebuilt in handsome style, possibly as Dallas & Oak Cliff Railway depot. A new opera house, three or four times as large as the present one, should be erected on the opera block this summer, to be in keeping with the enlarged Windsor, the six-story structure to be built opposite the News office, and other improvements surrounding that locality. There are many other ordinary two-story structures in this prominent and valuable part of the city which should be torn down to give place to larger and more modern buildings in keeping with the growth and progress of Dallas. The class of buildings in the eastern edge of the business area is more in accord with Dallas' general progress; and, it will pay the owners of property in west end and other business sections to follow this example and erect modern six and seven-story buildings. Ground in the business centre of Dallas is too valuable now for the two-story bricks which were put up there ten and fifteen years ago. The owners cannot expect to rent such buildings or offices in them to the most desirable class of tenants. The people of Dallas are progressive in their tastes and ideas of comfort, as well as in business and thrift. To owners of such buildings, we would say: Down with all the old timers and put up something which will pay a good interest, reflect credit on yourselves and Dallas, and keep up the growth of the section you live or own property in. Progress is the word.

- January 25, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 4, col. 1.
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Dallas Laying More Brick than All
Texas Cities Combined.

     No idle workmen are hanging around Dallas. They are all busy. A brick mason who left Dallas last fall and spent three months in California, returned the other day. He says Dallas is doing more brick laying than any of the California cities, and he says the California boom, when it was at its highest level, never reached the growth of Dallas.
     A brick maker, who was located in one of the lower towns, after making a canvas of the state, with a view of making a change, gives as his opinion that more brick is being laid in Dallas than in all other aspiring Texas cities combined, and he will locate here.
     The brick demand is being supplied from Arlington, Denton, Terrell and other adjacent towns.
     The foundations for the half million dollar Oriental Hotel are about complete.
     Next Saturday, Col. Henry Exall will start a force to tearing away the two-story brick building adjoining the North Texas National Bank building on the west. As soon as the debris is moved, work will begin on a six-story structure, which will be a counterpart of the bank building. Col. Exall says he will spare no money to make it the finest and most complete modern structure in the city.
     The Middleton and Bookhout block in front of the postoffice is nearing completion Its grandeur and beauty commands admiration from every passerby.
     The seven-story McLeod hotel will soon be ready for occupancy.
     The Central National Bank building, located on the point at the intersection of Elm, Live Oak and Ervay streets, has reached the third story. It will be a little gem.
     The walls of the third story of Sanger Bros.' five-story building are going up. Here will be the finest building in the city used for mercantile business.
     Work is being pushed on the T
IMES-HERALD'S three story building on Commerce street. It is a model in architectural design and will be ready for occupancy April 1.
     J. E. Henderson's magnificent little office building on Commerce street is being finished inside.
     The walls of the First Baptist Church, to be one of the finest temples of worship in the south, are rising. The building committee says with $1200 a month for six months, the heavy part of the work will be completed. The liberal spirit of the congregation guarantees that amount.
     The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway Company is finishing a gem of a passenger depot on Jefferson street. They have also completed a fine freight depot.
     The five-story Oram and Chilton building on Elm street makes slow progress. The street at that point has been crowded with material for the past five months.
     The four-story Mitchell building on Elm street is rising.
     The Fort Wayne Electric light company has under way, a $15,000 building at the foot of Jefferson street.
     The three-story $35,000 building being constructed for Mr. Thomas for manufacturing purposes at the corner of Pacific avenue, Griffin and Camp streets, has reached the third story.
     Workmen are trimming up the front of the five-story Guild building, which occupies 50 feet front on Elm by sixty feet front on Pacific avenue.
     Numerous other structures will be under way within the next thirty days.

- January 29, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 5, col. 2.
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Dallas Temple of Justice Burned
a Second Time.




The Most Costly Conflagration of the
Year--The Court Records and
the Records in the Clerks'
Offices Saved.


Loss $80,000, Insurance $40,000---
Incidents of the Fire--Narrow
Escapes and Heroism of the

     At 2 o'clock this afternoon, smoke was seen emerging from the county court room on the second floor of the court building. The alarm was turned in at once and the fire department responded with alacrity, while the occupants of the various offices lost no time in gathering up all the records and valuable papers, and hastened to removed them to a place of safety. Thousands gathered about the building, and it was thought for a time that the flames would be extinguished without any great loss.
     A strong northern breeze, however, fanned the flames, and in scarcely no time whatever, great clouds of smoke poured from the windows of the second and third story and the cupola. The firemen fought heroically, but the wood work of the great building burned like tinder and the heat grew intense. Inch by inch, they fought the flames, but it soon became apparent that the building was doomed, and then an effort was made to save the office of the county and district clerks, where all valuable records are stored. In this, they were highly successful. At 3:30, all that remained of the main building were the unsightly and blackened walls.
     The papers and records in Judge Tucker's court were swept away, and also the books and papers in the assessor's office, on the same floor. Sheriff Lewis and his deputies saved the greatest part of the books and valuable papers in his office, but he is fearful that his loss is heavy. The books and cash in the office of the treasurer were placed in the fire-proof vaults and will probably be found intact and unharmed. County Clerk Scott and District Clerk Stewart are sanguine that nearly all the valuable records, court papers and files in their offices were rescued from the flames. Colonel D. W. Williams and his assistants suffer severely. Their libraries, valued at $3500, are a total loss, and only a slight insurance was carried on the property. At this hour, it is impossible to ascertain just what papers have been consumed by fire, but strong hopes are entertained that the loss in that direction is small.
     The origin of the fire can be traced without difficulty to the new heating apparatus just placed in the building. As before stated, the papers became heated and ignited the wood work in the county court room. The flames spread with astonishing [rapidity] and communicated with the third floor and, from there, spread in all directions. The building was erected at an expenditure of $125,000, and was one of the finest in the state. Judge Bower was questioned as to the amount of insurance carried, and he informed the T
IMES-HERALD reporter that just $40,000 was carried on the building, in the leading eastern companies. The loss is placed in the neighborhood of $80,000, and it may run to higher figures.


     When the fire alarm startled the inmates of the burning building, County Commissioner McAdams was lying on a sick bed in a room on the second floor, unable scarcely to raise his head. A rush was made for the room and willing hands lifted the patient from his couch and bore him to a place of safety.
     The county officials and their assistants are entitled to great credit for the heroism which they displayed in the work of saving records of priceless value from destruction. Several clerks, in the employ of Bev Scott, came near losing their lives by being caught on the third floor. Fire and smoke prevented their escape by the stairway. At last, just in the nick of time, a ladder was elevated to a window and the boys made their escape to the ground below, red in the face and giving evidence of having experienced a close call.
     All the criminal papers in the Forty-fourth district court are destroyed.
     Steps will be taken at once to build the grandest temple of justice in the southwest. There is talk of appropriating at least $200,000 for a new building.
     The firemen of Dallas are incomparable. They worked like tigers with the high wind against them, low pressure of water and the heat so intense, that it blistered and scorched and fired the building, fronting on all sides of the public square. The building is gone, but they did all that human beings could do to save it.
     It is recalled by old-time citizens that the Dallas county courthouse was the victim of the flames once before, in February, 1880, under circumstances a good deal similar to the present. The Grand Lodge I. O. O. F. was in session in Dallas, then as now, and it was remarked by Hon. Barnett Gibbs in his speech before the Odd Fellows at the city hall, that though Dallas could not burn the city hall in their honor this time, she would show equal hospitality in other ways.
     But, the courthouse is burned again.
     The walls of the building which was destroyed this afternoon, are the same as those which endured the fiery ordeal before, they having remained intact after the other blaze, a mansard roof only having been put on. The first fire occurred about 2 o'clock in the morning, and the sheriff (Moon held the office then) knew nothing about it till next day.


     At this hour, 5:30 p. m., the flames have been extinguished. The office of the county attorney escaped the ravages of the flames. District Clerk Stewarts says that all valuable records and documents are safe, except in Judge Tucker's court. The minutes, alone, were rescued. The judge lost his valuable library, which was uninsured. Assistant Prosecuting Attorney Miller rescued the books and papers in Judge Bower's rooms with the assistance of the court officials, and nearly all the books in the office of the assessor are in good hands. The people of Dallas have cause for congratulation. The building is gone, but that is the extent of the calamity. It is understood that in addition to the $40,000 insurance on the buildings, the office fixtures and furniture are insured for $10,000.
     Court has adjourned indefinitely.

- February 7, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 1, col. 2-4.
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     One of the best posted men in Dallas county said to-day to a TIMES-HERALD reporter: "The claim that if the court house is located other than on its old site, the square will revert to the heirs of John Neely Bryan is moonshine. I investigated the case years ago, and the facts in the case, as given by the TIMES-HERALD last Saturday, are substantially correct. The square and several lots in other portions of the city were deeded by John Neely Bryan and wife to the county on condition that the seat of government should be established in the town of Dallas. The deed was unconditional, and the heirs have no more claim to it, even in the event of another location being selected, than the man in the moon. Lancaster, Oak Cliff and Dallas were the rivals for county seat honors at the time, and Dallas won. The square belongs to Dallas county, to dispose of as a majority of the voters deem most advantageous.

- February 10, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 1, col. 3.
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Enjoyed Yesterday By Many--The
Country a Vast Park But It Has
Been Divided Into
Town Lots.

     The Dallas Manufacturers Aid and Improvement Company, yesterday, placed at the disposal of the public, trains running every hour out the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway to Forrest Park station, some four miles north of the city on the grounds of the company. This hospitality was enjoyed by many who accepted the holiday and the facilities at their disposal to take their families out for a breathing spell.
     A T
IMES-HERALD reporter went out in the afternoon. When he reached the beautiful brick depot at the foot of Houston street, the people were gathering into the coaches. Many of them were laboring men who were off for a holiday and it was a jolly crowd.
     "Hello, Chock! Come in. Where are you working?" was the greeting and inquiry of one laborer to another.
     "Oh, I'm at work on the waterworks, but the rain drove us out today."
     "How is the buggy factory?" enquired a party of Mr.. Potter, the contractor for the buildings for this magnificent enterprise, which is located on a site donated by the Aid and Improvement Company.
     "We will have the buildings completed in about two weeks more," was his reply, and then the questioner desired to know if he could engage work with the company for a year.
     It should be so that every man in Dallas thrown out of employment by the cessation of public improvement and building could find work awaiting him in a factory. Dallas must win on the line of productive industry and she cannot build too many factories. The Manufacturers' Aid and Improvement Company is doing a good work on this line.
     Every little detail to make the trip to the park pleasant had been arranged--free ice water, fans and cushioned seats, all free--nothing to do but climb on the train and ride out and back at will. Many of the excursionists seemed puzzled to comprehend such whole-souled generosity. Refreshments and a band of music had been provided also, but owing to the rain and the threatening condition of the weather, these items were omitted.
     The train drew out with its jolly, good-natured crowd of men, women and children, passed the gas works, the brewery, electric light works, the glue factory, brick yards, Mr. Loeb's soap factory, the mellow odors from which, blend with the fumes from the city's dumping grounds, out by the city's water works and the immense reservoirs which are now being built, on beyond Long's Lake, a beautiful body of water, and then through beautiful groves and out on the broad prairies to Forrest Station, after passing the buildings for the large buggy factory. Just across a little stream beyond the station was the park pavilion, a very pleasant resort. Here is plenty of breathing room and a strong breeze, which is bracing and refreshing even on a Fourth of July day. The roadways there are graded and macadamized and people were out in their carriages and buggies enjoying the drives. This is a beautiful stretch of country gently sloping towards the river. The soil is extremely rich and it has been cultivated, but the far-seeing speculator has divided the broad acres into city lots, and now a large crop of cockleburs cover the ground where was wont to grow grain and cotton, which found its way to the Dallas markets. The reporter was told that a mile and a half beyond the park, the land is reserved and a great deal of it plotted into town lots. What a city Dallas will be when all that vast expanse of country is covered with homes! And, if some way was provided by which this section could be connected with the city by quick transit, no doubt it would soon be possessed by the home seeker. The elevation, the scenery and every other consideration to render the location desirable has been amply provided by nature. Talk about parks, when the whole country outside is nothing but a park and the only thing required is some way to reach it.
     The Aid and Improvement Company owns very fine property and with the liberal inducements held out to manufactures, this promises to become a manufacturing center. There is a reservation for sites for factories and another plat of ground is reserved for the houses of employes. Even out this far, building is underway. Across the hill, three half-finished residences, one two stories high, greeted the visitor, and near the station, the Aid and Improvement Company is having a roomy cottage erected.

- July 5, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 8, col. 2-3.
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Oak Cliff's Magnificent Hotel In-
spected by the Public Last Night.

     "The Oak Cliff," that beautiful suburb's magnificent new hotel, opened last night with an elegant spread, a blaze of light, delightful music and a large and representative company. The hotel, built on the plan combining beauty and comfort, is a three-story structure with a basement story of brick. It stands on Park street, about 150 feet from Oak Cliff railway, and at Park street station and within earshot of the music at the summer theater. It has a broad facing to the south and east, with no immediate obstruction to the balmy breezes for which Oak Cliff is famed. Spacious grounds stretch away to the south side and rear of the building, which will be devoted to lawn tennis, croquet and other amusements. Around two sides of the house on the first and second stories, broad ornamental piazzas extend, lighted at intervals by electric lights. On the northeast corner is a tower presenting oval windows in each of the corner rooms, and a broad bay window on each side fronting the street.
     The furnishings throughout, which were ordered from designs furnished by special artists, are superb and attractive in the extreme. The carpets on the first and second floors being all of Wilton velvet, showing old tapestry tints in coral, old blue and parchment tints, which beautifully harmonize with the exquisite draperies of two-toned silk and Irish point lace and elegant velour portieres that ornament the handsome parlors, while dainty, mechlin point gracefully drape all the boudoir windows. The furniture throughout is of English style with the dainty elegance, superb finish and trimmings of the old regime, which, combined with the modern completeness and convenience of the present day, converts the apartments into all that could be desired. The boudoir china and much of the table is all imported and of the most artistic design, while the plate is of solid silver, delicately engraved with the words, "The Oak Cliff," which with the fine linen, gives the board a very rich effect. Every arrangement appointment and detail suggests faultless taste and comfort that could only be reached regardless of cost, care and trouble by the progressive management, who more than deserved the admiration, and unstinted praise that was showered upon them by all who gazed upon the unfolding of their grand enterprise. The initial dinner was in keeping with the house in style, menu and the careful and dainty way it was served was highly commendable to Mr. Milton Powell, the efficient manager, who had only a short time to arrange and prepare for this occasion, considering how difficult a matter it is to get a retinue of waiters to work in unison. However, the public can rest assured that in a few days, at the farthest, no better hotel service can be found in the South than that which will be given to the patrons of the Oak Cliff.

- July 11, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 4, col. 5.
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Levels Three Fine Business






The Texas and Pacific Railway
Headquarters, Merchants'
Exchange and Hender-
son Buildings
Destroyed -- Sched-
ule of Losses and Insu-

     This morning, shortly after 12 o'clock, the fire bells in the chorus of a general alarm announced one of the most serious and devastating conflagrations which has visited the city since the great fire in 1886.
     Soon, the apparatus of the fire department was rattling over the bois d'arc pavement down Commerce street. There was no trouble in locating the dreaded midnight monster of destruction, for already, the flames were leaping and darting through the openings on the second floor of the office building of the Texas & Pacific Railway Company on Commerce street.
     This was a beautiful three-story brick and stone building. It was wedged in between the splendid building of Gaston Bros., formerly the Merchants Exchange, on the west and the three-story Henderson office building and the beautiful four-story club building on the east. These fine, costly buildings made up the south half of one of the magnificent blocks in the city, lying between Poydras and Lamar streets. The north half of the block is composed of the three-story building of the National Exchange bank, Fendrich's cigar store, the Coney Island saloon and club building, Domnau & Samuels' pawn shop, J. W. Webb's jewelry story, C. H. Clancey's shirt factory, Austin's jewelry store, the city ticket office of the Houston & Texas Central Railway Company and Knepfly & Son's fine three-story jewelry and office building. some of the most costly property in the city was at stake and in eminent peril with the flame wedged in the center of the south side of the block.
     In a very brief space of time, two lines of hose were laid. The crackling flames were leaping higher and higher every second. The fire spread rapidly through the building, an excited citizenship gathered from every direction and the southern breeze wafted blazing cinders to the north and east and deposited them on buildings on Main and Elm streets, threatening the ultimate destruction of the business center of the city. Seeing the great damage to buildings in the vicinity, they were soon covered by thoughtful people who smothered the blazing fragments as they landed on the tops of the houses.
     When pressure in the water mains came with full force, five streams were set to playing upon the fierce flames, which now lighted up the whole city, and which, were beyond control so far as the Texas & Pacific and Henderson office buildings and the Gaston building were concerned. Two streams were playing in front and three in the rear of the Texas & Pacific building, while one was carried inside the Gaston building on the second floor, where the Board of Trade rooms were located. The beautiful curly pine finish on the inside of this building was combustible material of the first order and the fire fed upon it and spread rapidly. Another stream of water was playing upon the Henderson office building from the top of the Dallas Club building, and thus [creating] a gleam of hope, cheered the firemen on to the strongest effort to confine the fire to its limits, though nothing but the coolest judgment directing the best efforts could accomplish this.
     It was only a few minutes more until the district became a solid mass of seething flame, throwing out intense heat, which kept back the great crowd of people who had collected at a respectful distance. A portion of the wall of the Texas & Pacific building fell, and this was almost immediately followed by a loud crash caused by the precipitation of a part of the heavy brick work of the Gaston building.
     Within an hour, the flames had accomplished their worst, but the danger line was by no means passed.


     Chief Wilkerson, of the fire department, said this morning: "We had six distinct fire all going at the same time. There was the fire in the Texas & Pacific office building, where it originated; there was the fire in the Gaston building; another in the rear of the Henderson building; one in the rear of the new building adjoining the North Texas National Bank; another at Benedikt's on Elm street, and one on the roof of Walker's China Hall. I had my hands full looking after all these fires. The entire department worked desperately, but our force is not large enough. We need more apparatus. The suction pipe of engine No. 2 gave way, and that was a serious mishap."


     Early in the engagement, a carriage was sent for Mayor W. C. Connor, who can size up a fire as well as any man in the country, having spent eleven years in the service, and being, at one time, chief of the Dallas department. He rendered valuable assistance in giving directions where to throw streams and in aiding Chief Wilkerson, who had more than his hands full. While Mayor Connor was thus engaged, a policeman rushed up to him and said, "Here, you get out, or I'll run you in!" The mayor replied, "Give me your number and I'll let you off in the morning!" The policeman reeled beneath the force of the blow, blurted out an apology and vanished. During the fire, Mr. Connor missed his footing and stepped unexpectedly off the curbing, receiving a sprain in his right leg. He said this morning: "We have a very efficient, but small fire department and the fire was handled well. As is the case at all large fires, people will run in from the crowd and offer suggestions to the firemen. This results only in confusion and people should remember to leave the work of giving directions to experienced heads who are employed for that purpose."


     Not a word of complaint was heard from a member of the fire department about deficient pressure in the mains. Upon the other hand, the chief states that the pressure was very good from the start. The register at the pump house showed 82 pounds pressure at the time the fire started, and it did not fall below this during the fire. The engineer states that the water was within a foot and a half of the top of the stand-pipe. The gauge in the office of the superintendent of waterworks, which is in the second story of the city hall, registered 42 pounds at 10 o'clock, 47 pounds at 11, over 49 pounds at 12, and 40 pounds at 1 o'clock. This was equal to a pressure of between 80 and 85 pounds at the pumping station. The superintendent states that it was a good average pressure for a fire.


     The schedule of losses is approximated, the insurance is authentic from the agents:
     Gaston building, three stories and a basement, 75x100 feet, corner Lamar and Commerce streets, loss $50,000, insured as follows: Phoenix of London, $2000, Commercial Union $2000, Queen $2000, Norwich Union $1500, German of Frankford $2500, Empire State $2500, Southern of California $2500, Liberty of New York $2300, German American $5000, North British Mercantile $3000, Teutonic of New Orleans $2500, Sun Fire Office of London $4000, Pennsylvania of Philadelphia $3000. Niagra of New York $3000, total $38,000.
     In this building, the following were located: In the basement, Garsia & Co., merchandise brokers, loss and insurance not ascertained; Texas & Pacific Railway Company supplies, loss and insurance included in the office building estimate; Choctaw Coal and Railway Company not ascertained; Fonda @ Co., brokers, not ascertained; A. C. Silvia & Co., brokers, not ascertained. First floor Gaston & Gaston, bankers, fixtures and office furniture, etc., loss $5000, insurance $2500, in the North British and Mercantile; Texas Land & Mortgage Co., limited, not ascertained; Robertson & Coke, loss unknown, insured for $3000 in the Royal of Liverpool. Second floor: Board of Trade, loss $500, no insurance; Texas State Fair Association, actual loss $2000, pecuniary loss heavy and no insurance; Dallas clearinghouse, loss $250 in furniture, stationery and fixtures, no insurance; N. Toby, architect, not ascertained. Third floor: Texas School Supply Company, not ascertained; Davis & Hutchins, attorneys, loss not known, insurance $1200 in the London & Lankenshire Company.
     The Texas & Pacific office building was the property of Maj. R. V. Tompkins, who is absent in Kansas City, but an approximate of his loss fixes it at $35,000, insured with the Royal for $5000, Sun, Globe & Liverpool, $5000; Home of New York $5000; total $15,000. This building was tenanted by the Texas & Pacific Railway Company for their general southwestern headquarters. The actual loss of the company is estimated at $25,000, the amount of insurance is uncertain, it being on a general line. Of course, the company sustained irreparable damage in the loss of papers, schedules, etc., which can never be replaced. A large supply of tickets were in a safe, and they are thought to be secure. General Manager Grant is absent. Auditor Fenby arrived over the Central last night, just about the time the fire broke out. Messrs. Fenby, Miller, Metcalf and others are hustling to-day for new quarters.
     Mr. Henderson is not in town. His building was valued at $20,000; insured for $10,000. It was not completed. The second story was occupied by the 'Texas and Pacific Railway Company, and here the loss was complete. The basement occupants were damaged by water and smoke to a greater extent than the damage by fire.
     The Dallas club building was slightly damaged, but fully insured.


     Mr. Hunter says Major Tompkins will rebuild.
     Mr. John Gaston says the Gaston building will be rebuilt, provided the walls can be used in reconstructing.
     The Henderson building, while the second and third stores are wrecked, is not a total loss. The beautiful white stone front is as pretty as ever, while the walls of the building are in good shape, except, perhaps, at the rear. It was supposed Mr. Henderson will rebuild.
     The management of the fair association requests that those who filed applications for race programmes and premium lists, renew them in order that they may receive attention. Applications for space should be renewed to insure them. The secretary's office will be located temporarily in the office of the president in Armstrong & Co.'s wholesale grocery store, on Commerce street. A transfer will soon be made to permanent headquarters at the fair grounds. The office force was doubled this morning and work will be pushed until every paper will be replaced as far as possible.
     Mr. Leo Wolfson, secretary of the Board of Trade, and manager of the clearing house, will have temporary headquarters at the Fourth National bank.


     Col. Henry Exall, like a great many other citizens, did not know of the fire until this morning. He says he is very grateful to the firemen and his friends who worked to save his new building from destruction.
     No ones seems to know the origin of the fire. The watchman who was on duty in the Texas & Pacific building, states that he was making his usual midnight round, when he discovered a small blaze in the store room under the stairway on the ground floor. He tried to put it out, but he failed, and soon, the flames were leaping through the three floors and out the openings in the building.
     The magnificent block of four-story buildings standing in front of the burning block were in great danger, but they were unscathed by the flame.
     The firemen worked well. The work speaks for itself. The adjoining buildings, which stood within eight and ten feet of the doomed structures, speak volumes for the efficiency of the fire department. It has been suggested that the Gaston building could have been saved, and so, it might with the use of enlarged facilities and more men than the department numbers. But, with so much property endangered, and with the cry of fire coming from so many buildings, the force could not be concentrated.
     Capt. Ben McCulloch, of the passenger department of the Texas & Pacific, has located quarters in the second story of the Leonard building on Elm street and business was running as smoothly this afternoon as though nothing had happened.
     Daylight, this morning, found the Texas and Pacific office building, commonly known as the Gould building, the Henderson office building and the old Merchants' Exchange building, a mass of smoking ruins.
     A large crowd lined the street in front of the debris, which marked the spot where, but a few hours before, stood three structures which ranked among the finest buildings in the city. Overworked firemen were throwing streams of water on the heap, which sent up a volume of smoke. It was a chaotic mass of tumbled walls and broken columns.

- July 14, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 2, col. 1-4
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It Will Cost $90,000--A Magnif-
icent Private Enterprise
Now Under Way.

     The market house, which the TIMES-HERALD has referred to upon several occasions, is a magnificent enterprise combining a fine auditorium, public library and business apartments.
     The site for this structure is well located, fronting on Ervay, Jackson and Lane streets, while a thirty-foot granitoyd paved driveway will serve as a shipping alley on the south side.

     The building proper will be 85x200 feet and will be three stories high, of which the first two stories are constructed arcade-like. By the two main through-passages, the building is cut into four divisions, forming a rotunda, with a sparkling fountain at the crossing point. These passages are open to the second-story ceiling and are surrounded with galleries at the second floor, which are again connected by cross-bridges.
     A grand iron stair-case will connect the first and second stories from the rotunda out, adding greatly to the open and light effect of this interior, together with the open iron balustrade of the galleries and the suspended chandeliers from the second-story ceiling.
     One of the accompanying drawings give a sectional view of the structure, illustrates the divisions lined by marble counters in the first story, subdivided by light, low partitions for the different compartments, otherwise all open to the ceiling, and the second story inside the galleries enclosed by large plate glass.
     The floors being constructed on the slow combustion style, lays bare to the eye the heavy timber and iron girders, which are neatly finished off, paneled, and never fail to give a feeling of cleanliness and stability in a building of this class.
     The floors are all to be covered with marble and the walls inside lined to a height of eight feet above base with glazed brick, while the remaining portion is lined with pressed brick and terra cotta trimming, same as outside walls.
     The second story will contain restaurants, library, a branch exchange, bank and such other places as will add to the compactness and completeness of the enterprise.


     Surrounding the outside of main building, on the first floor, except on Ervay street, for a distance of twelve feet, will be a porch one story high, the roof of which, will reach over the sidewalks, thus shading the same and making the stands, which will be located under these porches, accessible and agreeable. These stands will be largely used for fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc., and will be enclosed by glass fronts in cold weather.
     A basement will be under part of the building for boilers and electric machinery.
     There will be a large general refrigerator, containing separate cooling rooms for the use of the patrons of the markets.
     On Ervay street, the building will reach to the sidewalk and will, as a main entrance for the third story, contain a large open vestibule, twenty feet square, with a large staircase at each side, leading to second and third stories, in addition to the grand staircase in rotunda or arcade. This third story will contain an auditorium, capable of seating 3500 people comfortably.
     A stage and stage rooms will be at the Lane street end, for the use of which, there will be an elevator and small private staircase. There will be six exits in addition to the staircases to serve in case of a panic. It can easily be imagined what delightful promenades can be had on the galleries of the second floor in connection with the auditorium room in day-time, or at night, when a hundred electric lights cast their light over this most generous enterprise for the city of Dallas.
     This building having been planned in conjunction with some of our enterprising citizens, by the well known architect, Mr. Isaac S. Taylor, we are assured that we will receive an additional edifice and ornament for this city.
     The building alone will cost about $90,000. The material to be used in its construction will be steel, pressed brick, marble and terra cotta. It will be covered with slate.
     This is simply a private enterprise, and there is no disposition, nor will there be any effort made to compel market men to occupy it.
     About one-half of the stock has been subscribed, and with such a magnificent and paying enterprise promised, there will be no trouble in securing the balance needed.

- July 29, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 5, col. 2-3.
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Contractor James and the Arch-
itect on the Ground Super-
intending Affairs.

     The commissioners' court, as anticipated by the TIMES-HERALD yesterday, made a number of changes in the courthouse bids, and finally, when Mr. James signed the contract, Honey Grove stone did not appear in the same. In fact, it was rejected altogether by the court for reasons best known to themselves. Mr. James gets $56,000 more for the job than the amount in the original bid. The changes referred to simply amount to the substitution of blue Arkansas granite for Pecos stone and the Pecos stone for Honey Grove stone, as originally intended. A gentleman interested in a quarry at Little Rock presented the claims of his granite and made a proposition, which was accepted. Mr. James agreed to the change, provided that the county paid the difference in cost of material, which increased the contract price from $276,000 to $336,000.
     The first story will be constructed of blue granite and all above, Red Pecos sand stone and trimmings of granite. The columns at entrances and the steps are to be red granite and the combination, according to experts, will make the Dallas courthouse one of the prettiest buildings in the United States.
     A T
IMES-HERALD reporter visited the courthouse site to-day and found the architect, Mr. James, foreman, and a gang of men at work setting stakes for the foundation for the new building. The walls of the old building will be removed by Mr. James immediately and the material will be utilized in the foundation for the new structure. The commissioners have ordered this.
     The architect and the contractor say that the work will be pushed rapidly.

- August 7, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 4, col. 2.
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The Corner Stone of the Old
Court House Soon to Be


What Justice Brown Has to Say
Concerning Its History and
Things Deposited In It.

     A TIMES-HERALD reporter chanced upon a party of gentlemen this forenoon, who were standing at the Main street gate of the court house enclosure watching the men breaking ground for the foundations of the new building. Among them were Judge Nat M. Burford and Justice John Henry Brown, and the subject of their conversation was the laying of the cornerstone of the building recently destroyed by fire.
     The reporter became interested, and after the party separated, he went over to the office of Justice Brown and sought to obtain from him such information concerning that interesting event in the history of Dallas county as he might be able to give.
     As soon as Justice Brown understood the reporter's mission, he said:
     "Several gentlemen and myself have just been talking about the matter, and you, therefore, do not take me by surprise. I arrived in Dallas June 17, 1871, and it was some time in September following, that the corner stone of the court house was laid. I was present at the time. Henry Boll, who is still living and a resident of the city, was master of the Masonic lodge here at the time, and officiated upon the occasion. There were also present as members of the lodge, Judge Burke, Judge E. G. Bower, Judge Z. E. Coombs and Judge Nat M. Burford. The Herald, then a weekly paper, contained a full account of the proceedings, and if you can get at a file of it, it will give all the information desired. There is, I believe, a file in the county clerk's office. As near as I can recollect, there were deposited in the corner stone, among other things, copies of the Herald, old coins, and, so Judge Burford says, a history of Dallas county sealed up in a bottle and written by Col. John C. McCoy. Judge Burford also says that a lady in the assemblage, whom he thinks was Mrs. Henry Ervay, took from her neck, a valuable necklace, and it was deposited with the other things in the stone.
     Judge Burford is interested, himself, in having the occasion of the re-opening of the stone one that shall bring together all the members of the Masonic lodge who were present when it was laid. Henry Boll will act as master of ceremonies and the masons will see that the contents are preserved and re-deposited in the corner stone of the new building when it is laid."
     Justice Brown went with the reporter to the county clerk's office to examine the file of the Herald, but there learned that Mr. W. L. Hall, who owns it, had taken it away. A visit was next made to Mr. Hall's office, but he was absent, attending to business in the county court.
     The occasion of the re-opening of the old corner stone will be an interesting one and will revive many of the memories of the early days of Dallas. It ought to be observed as a day of reunion for all the old settlers and pioneers of the city and county.

- August 28, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 1, col. 4-5.
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The Music Hall and Amphithe-
atre at the Fair Grounds
Nearly Completed.


Exposition Park, Fair Land
and North Dallas Improve-
ment Notes.

     A TIMES-HERALD reporter took a ramble through Exposition Park and the Fair Grounds this morning in search of improvement notes, and on every hand, evidences of the great activity in building and street improvement are to be seen. The streets of Exposition Park are nearly all graded and macadamized and concrete sidewalks laid.
     At the fair grounds, the greatest improvement is going on. Inside the Exposition avenue entrance, between the roller coaster and the ticket offices, is located the amphitheatre and arena for the exhibition of live stock of all kinds. The amphitheatre has a seating capacity of over one thousand, under which there are ten stalls, or booths, for the accommodation of the various classes desiring such apartments. Adjoining the northeast corner of the exposition building is located the music hall, which will be finished by the latter part of next week.
     This building is constructed after the fashion of an amphitheatre, two stories with graduating seats, with a comfortable seating capacity of 4000, but the contractor in charge, says it will hold a good many more if the music this season is of sufficient attraction to draw.
     The North Dallas electric street railway is building a track around the race course and through the grounds, entering them at the Texas & Pacific depot on the north side and will be a mile and a half in length.
     North Dallas is rapidly building up in every quarter, and since the citizens are assured of the cotton mill, they are pushing new enterprise with commendable energy. A few months ago, property that presented a barren and rugged appearance is now the even site of a neat cottage or elegant residence surrounded by well improved streets and sidewalks.
     Fairland, the progressive suburb of North Dallas, lies in the fork of the Houston & Texas Central and Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways. While this suburb is nearly two and a half miles from the court house, the architecture of its residences, the metropolitan advantages they enjoy, such as water works, graded streets, concrete sidewalks, etc., give them the improving appearance of houses on Ross avenue or Ervay street. Everywhere is to be seen evidences of steady and substantial growth. Structures of modern architecture adorn the premises where wheat gave forth a bounteous yield three years ago. What has heretofore been a nuisance of a ravine and creek is now being converted into a beautiful little lake, surrounded by a nice and well-appointed park, all for the benefit of pleasure-seekers. This improvement was made at the exclusive expense of the company owning the Fairland addition, without the aid of a single dollar from any other source.
     Work was commenced on the People's Church, corner Parry avenue and Third street, in Exposition Park, this morning and will cost $2500.

- September 6, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 5, col. 3.
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The Railroad Planing Mills
Destroyed Early This


Almost a Total Loss, No Insur-
ance and the Origin of the
Fire Unknown.

     Just at the break of day this morning, the fire bells sounded an alarm and a bright glare shot up from the central portion of the city, indicating a fire of some magnitude. The fire fiend had assumed away in the main building of Leed & Conkling's railroad planing mill near the intersection of Pearl street and Pacific avenue. The first blaze burnt out from the southwest corner of the building which was constructed of light, combustible material and it burned very rapidly. The fire department was out promptly, but the flames spread so rapidly that the efforts of the department were required chiefly to keep the fire from reaching adjoining buildings. Notwithstanding the headway made, the flames were subdued before the building was entirely consumed, but practically, it was destroyed, because the charred timbers left standing are of little value. The machinery in the mill suffered considerable damage, but to what extent was not determined exactly, since some time will be required in removing the debris.
     The origin of the fire is not accounted for. The furnace was located in an adjoining building and it could not be attributed to that source. Mr. Leeds, one of the proprietors of the mills, estimates the loss at $20,000. No insurance was carried on the building and machinery. The work of clearing away the waste preparatory to rebuilding has been started and the mill, which employs about fifty operators will be running again as soon as practicable.

- November 8, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 1, col. 4-5.
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The Third Time in Thirty-Five Years
the Ceremony


Is Held in Dallas County--A Son of
the Founder of Dallas Present.

     The corner stone of Dallas county's new $380,000 court house was laid this afternoon, under the auspices of the Masonic fraternity. The ceremonies were conducted by the Tannehill lodge of Dallas for the State Grand lodge, Judge Bower acting as grand master. S. P. Morris, a member of, and grand lecturer of the grand lodge, delivered the address.
     The box, removed recently from the old corner stone laid in 1871, was replaced with its contents, a list of which, the TIMES-HERALD gave in a previous issue.
     Dallas Commandery A. F. and A. M. deposited a bottle containing a coy of the by-laws, a roster of the membership, a list of officers of Dallas commandery in 1890, and a copy of the invitation issued to the grand lodge to meet here last spring, with one of the silk badges worn on that occasion.
     Dr. Chapman, rabbi of the Congregation Temple Emanuel, deposited a roster of the membership of his church.
Individual deposits were made by a number of people and the tin box containing the articles was sealed and placed in the stone.
     The stone is blue granite, the face sides being polished. Its weight is 5760 pounds. Its size is two feet by three feet by three feet, six inches.
     Among the ladies present were Mrs. Judge Bower and her daughter, Miss Ruth, Mrs. Dr. Humston and Mrs. S. H. Cockrell, who was present when the corner stone of the Dallas county court house was first laid, along in the fifties.
     Mr. John Bryan, son of John Neely Bryan, the first settler in Dallas, and who deeded the county the present courthouse site, was also present. This is the third corner stone laying on this lot which Mr. Bryan has witnessed. He saw the logs in the first courthouse burned by the boys for a Christmas bonfire, after the first brick court house was built. Mr. Bryan has spent 17 years in southwestern Texas, where he fought, and was harassed by the Indians. He has returned to Dallas with his family to spend his remaining days in the city, which was founded less than half a century ago by his father.

- November 13, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 2, col. 4.
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A Midnight Conflagration in the
Heart of the Business Por-
tion of the City.


In Dangerous Proximity to the
Big Hotel--Incidents and
Scenes--Losses and

     Another disastrous fire visited the city this morning and laid waste the two upper stories of the Scollard three-story brick building on the north side of Main street, just across the alley from the annex to the McLeod six-story hotel.
     It was about 1:30 when the cries of fire and a subdued scampering and rushing of feet sent terror to those awakened from midnight dreams in the McLeod. The pealing of the fire bell and the rattling of the apparatus over the pavement, mingling with the piercing cries of "fire!" and an occasional pistol shot, soon aroused everybody for blocks around and the streets soon presented a scene of wild confusion. The lurid flame shot upwards and penetrated the gloom of the dark misty night, and to those a short distance away, it appeared that the awful destructive element had assumed sway in some of the taller buildings in that block, which is one of the finest in the city. Those who first saw the fire differ as to its location. Some say it was on the second floor, which was occupied by Taber Bros., manufacturers of jewelry, and others say it started on the third floor. The keeper of the confectionery stand on the opposite side of the street, says he was awakened by the alarm, and when he rushed out, the fire was in the third story.
     The fire department turned out in full force, and all the apparatus and every available member was on hand promptly. There was no time to lose, and they took in the situation at a glance. Some of the most valuable property in the city was in imminent peril and that must be protected while the awful monster was being held at bay. accordingly, several streams were turned upon the seat of the conflagration and others were located so that at a second's warning, they could be brought to bear on other quarters. It was desperate work, but the firemen were equal to the occasion, and with the two engines playing with all the pressure that could be brought to bear, the fire was continued to the second and third stories of the building, and after half an hour's work, it was well under control.
     The origin of the fire, like other fires, recently occurring in Dallas, is shrouded in mystery.
     Taber Bros., who were burned out not a great while since, on the corner of Main and Murphy streets, occupied the second and third floors with their jewelry manufacturing business. The third floor they used as a storage room. Their factory, the power for which was supplied from a gas engine, was on the second floor where, the general supposition is, the fire had its origin. This firm was the heaviest loser. Two safes, containing valuables were on the second floor about twenty-five feet from the front of the building, and the chief kept a hose playing in that vicinity as soon as Mr. Taber informed him of their location, for which he feels grateful and hopeful that the contents are comparatively safe. The stock and plant was valued at $35,000, but the actual loss has not yet been determined, although outside of the safes, it is though to be nearly a total loss. The firm was insured for $23,500 with Alford & Scurry, in the North British and Mercantile, for $7500, and in the following companies, all represented by Alford and Scurry, for smaller amounts: Burlington of Iowa, Trans-Atlantic, of Germany; Greenwich, of New York; State Investment, California; National, New York; Manufacturers and Builders, New York; Underwriters, Atlanta, Ga.
     Other losses are briefly summed up as follows:
     Crutcher Bros., in the real estate business, occupied a room on the first floor. They estimate their loss at $1000. No insurance.
     Kerfoot & Spears, fire insurance agents, also on the first floor, lost about $100. No insurance.
     Branch office of the St. Louis Republic on the first floor, loss about $25.
     Kauffman & Reed, merchant tailors, on the first floor, loss $1000. No insurance.
     E. R. Logan, agent of the Mutual Life Insurance Company, had his office on the first floor. Loss $100. No insurance.
     Bramlet & Harrell, architects, loss small.
     The McRosky Hardware Company, who occupied the whole north end of the building, had some of their goods slightly damaged. Loss about $50.
     The effects of the fire upon the guests of the McLeod Hotel contributed not a little to the excitement and interest of the crowd of gathered spectators, and lent a somewhat ludicrous aspect to an otherwise serious scene. Upon the first alarm, it was thought best by the hotel people to awaken every one in the house, that all might be ready for a quiet and orderly exit in the event of the spreading of the fire to that building, but the effect of this move was considerably more pronounced than was counted upon. Within the space of fifteen minutes, the halls, corridors and stairways were thickly populated by scantily-dressed humanity of both sexes, and the stairways blocked with trunks, bundles, valises and excited and fleeing guests. Clothing was recklessly thrown over the rotunda railings to the office floor, followed by bundles, packages and valises. Those who had taken refuge in the office were momentarily expecting that trunks and furniture would come next and betook themselves to the opposite side of the street. A lady guest grabbed up an armful of clothing and cast it from a front window, when it landed upon the telephone wires in various attitudes of decoration. Meanwhile, it will be remembered, the fire was in the next block. A well-known and popular little lady, the fond owner of a parrot and a dog, charged up and won the hall crying, "Save my parrot, save my dog;" and a drummer thrust his head out an upper window and cried out "look out below;" the crowed scattered--and down came paper collar. When excitement had sufficiently subsided to permit of calm reflection, the individuals composing the multitude of guests began to take note of their undress uniforms and fade off out of public view. One gentleman, arrayed in a night shirt and a pair of suspenders, carrying a shirt over one arm and trousers over the other, with a pair of cuffs and a collar in his hands, sidled off up stairs, followed by a Galveston man with one shoe on a sockless foot and a sock on the shoeless mate, dressed in a little more than a smile, and that not a happy one.
     The only person in the burning building was Mr. J. D. Ninson, a young man in the employ of the Texas Express company. He was sleeping in the office on first floor, and was not awakened until the chilly water from the hose found its way to his cot.
     Mr. D. R. Fawcett, agent of the Texas Express company, which had an office on the ground floor like many others, knew nothing about the fire, until he came down into the city this morning. He estimates the companies' damage and loss at $10,000. All express companies carry what is known as blanket insurance, and on that account, the exact amount of the insurance is not now determined. The company has opened a new office in the Cockrell building on Field street.
     The building was a modern three-story brick, the property of Capt.. Tom Scollard, who could not be found to-day. Excepting the outside walls, the building is a total loss. Its estimated value is $25,000. It was insured in companies represented by George Dexter, but the amount of the policies could not be ascertained.
     The building was insured for $10,000 in the following companies: Phoenix of London, $3000; Western Assurance, $3000; Continental, $2000; Fire Association, $2000.

- November 14, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 2, col. 3-4.
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In Striking Contrast With Mod-
ern Structures on Either


Showing the Rapid Progress of
Dallas in Business and

     The wonderful growth of Dallas, the striking changes that have taken place in the last few years, can no better be shown than by presenting the contrast between buildings of the past and those of to-day. Those represented in the cuts stand on the south side of Commerce street in front of the new TIMES-HERALD building, between Akard and Lacy streets, and are a splendid example of the growth and changes that have taken place in a few short years.

     The oldest and first, in point of interest, is the remains of an old-time building which now presents the appearance of a dug-out. The building was probably a representative one in its days, but from its meager remains, no idea of its style of architecture can be formed.

     The old frame building standing beside it shows another step forward. It has, however, been long deserted by its builder for a better and more modern building.

     The synagogue and Episcopal Church show another step forward. While there are many buildings that far surpass them, they are still of imposing appearance, especially the synagogue. Its attractive style is yet creditable to the city, and its substantial walls look as if they might stand the ravages of time for many years to come. The Episcopal Church is no longer serving the purpose for which it was built, but one entirely foreign to it.
     There is a contrast almost comical between the dug-out and old frame dwelling and the fine buildings all around them. On one side of them, east, rises the Oriental Hotel, the construction of which, costs $600,000, while to the west, stands a block of the largest manufacturing and wholesale houses in Texas. The presence of the dug-out and the old dwelling can only be explained by the rapid growth of Dallas. Time has not been found to remove them.
     The synagogue and Episcopal church, while they do credit to the city, must, in the near future, give way for business houses. The Episcopalians have already sold theirs and contracted for a metropolitan edifice in another part of the city for $75,000.
     Commerce is one of the leading business streets in the city and the enormous amount of traffic on it demand more business, and soon, every foot from the bridge crossing the river to the union depot, will be occupied by brick and stone. Houses on it that can not be converted into use must be moved away and the block where the dugout peeps from the earth will soon be covered with business houses.
     Dallas is a progressive city in a progressive age, and antiquated and useless structures will not be long permitted to remain on her business streets.

- December 24, 1890, Dallas Daily Times Herald, p. 5, col. 2-3.
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