Civil War Journal of George H. Palmer

The Journal of Major George H. Palmer
Medal of Honor Recipient

A Chronicle of His Early Life
and Participation in the U.S. Civil and Plains Indian Wars
 
 
 

Transcribed, Researched, Compiled,
and Edited by
David A. Luff
 
 

Copyright © 1999-2000 David A. Luff
All Rights Reserved.
 
 
 

David Alan Luff
390 Frances St.
Ventura, California  93003



 
 

Dedicated

In Honor of Major George Henry Palmer
Recipient at age 20 of Our Nations Highest Military Award, the

Medal of Honor


 
 

And to
My wife Cindy, son Noah, and in loving memory of Grandpa Harding and especially Grandma Amy
Thank you



 Table of Contents

Dedication
Acknowledgments
Foreword
Preface
Introduction

Journal
Battle of Lexington
Battle of Fort Donelson
Interview with President Lincoln
My mounted command - scouting after guerrillas
A Night Adventure and Fight with Guerrillas
Ordered to Dacota
Indian Fight
Reconstruction
U.S. Revenue Enforcement
Centennial Exhibition
Preserving peace between the Union & Rebel Legislatures
Back to Indian Territory to round up Indians
Indian Territory to protect Indians

Medal of Honor
Antiques Road Show
Genealogy
Appendix
Bibliography
Sources
Names Index
Places Index



Acknowledgments

I’d like to thank my Aunt Barbara (Palmer) Carr for providing me with her copy of the Journal and affording me the patience and time necessary for me to get my act together and move ahead with this project.  I’d like to express my thanks to my Grandfather Harding Palmer for his extraordinary effort, expertise and devotion in researching our family genealogy.  I’d like to give thanks to my Grandmother Amy (Rickard) Palmer for preserving George’s military effects for all those years.  And I’d like to thank my wife Cindy and son Noah for allowing “Daddy” some time to dive into the Journal and transcribe it into this form.
 

Foreword

It is with great honor that I am able to offer this transcription of my Great Great Grandfather’s journal for your research and enjoyment.  I have told many people when discussing the Journal that I wish I had known about it much earlier in life because I would probably have paid closer attention to my History classes knowing that I had relatives who were directly involved in such an important part of our nations history.

I have tried to preserve and present the actual written style used by George including his use of punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure, and hope I have accurately interpreted his work.  There are however, a few words that I was not quite certain of, which you will note as containing question marks within them or followed by “(?)”.
Though George was relatively well written for the time, there are a few instances where, in order to accurately represent his journal, I’ve transcribed it verbatim and used “[sic]” to denote those areas where the reader might have reason to question.



(Page: 1)
 
 

The Journal of Major George H. Palmer
 
 
 
 

Palmam qui meruit ferat.

Journal.

(Margin Note:  1841)
         I was Born on the 16th day of April 1840  in the town of Leonardsville Madison County, New York in an old house belonging to my uncle Dennis Harding.  Lived at Leonardsville Bridgewater and Unadilla until 1845 when my family moved to Illinois.  At this time RailRoads were but little know and the journey was made by river Lake & Canal.  We took a Canal Boat at Utica.  The start was made from Genessee Street.  The journey occupied almost as many months as it now takes days to accomplish.
          In crossing Lake Erie all were sick, one day I heard a commotion on deck as of groaning and hilloaing and going out I looked up and saw in the sky an arm and hand holding a sword.  It floated along with the clouds, thinking of it now  it seems as if I could not have seen such a sight.  But the more I think of it and the more I try to remember it, the more I am convinced that I did see it.  Following the examples in ancient Herraldry [sic] I have adopted this sign or symbol as a seal.  At Cincinnatti I left the steamer and got lost in the City.  One of my uncles found me and took me aboard the steamer just as they were about to haul in the gangplank and steam away.
(Margin Note:  1845)
          We Settled in Monmouth Warren County Illinois.
                 My Great Grandfather  was a Colonel in the Revolutionary War and was at Saratoga at Burgoyne’s surrender.  My Grandfather  was a Major General of New York Militia.  My Father  was Paymaster and Captain of Dragoons.  Commissioned by Wm. H. Seward, Gov. of New York.  He was an officer of Cavalry in the Mexican War and Capt. of the First Ills. Cavalry in the Rebellion.

(Margin Note:  1856)
          I lived in Monmouth until 1855 when I went to live with my Grandfather (Harding)  at West Winfield New York.  During the winters I walked two miles & back to attend the West Winfield Academy.  I went in rain in snow & in hail.  I returned to Monmouth in 1857.  Lived at Elison (near Harding) Monmouth until 1860 when I went to Chicago to attend

(Page: 2)

    (B.F. Howard – Chicago Printer)(?)

Sloanes Commercial College.  Then on Washington street near the Court House.  It took me three months to get through for the following reasons.  About the middle of the term my funds gave out, my treasury reduced to nothing, it was worse than nothing.  I owed Sixteen dollars for Board.  I had an old English bull’s eye watch which I hawked for $1.70.  Here is the ticket (ticket inserted into body of Journal)
I never redeemed the watch.  I went to my landlord and told him how I was fixed; that I should go into the Country and work until I had earned enough to pay him & finish the school.  I showed him my trunk, clothes and books and he agreed that they would be sufficient security.  I left them with him and taking a few articles of clothing in a handkerchief I bought a Rail Road Ticket on the Chicago & North Western road to McHenry County.  I landed at Ringold Station and walked six miles to the house of a farmer whose son had been in the School with me.  I hired out to him and remained six weeks hauling corn and working in the harvest fields.  At this time there was great excitement on account of the Lincoln and Douglas senatorial campaign.  Young Stilson, the son of the farmer whom I lived, and I went to a German settlement six miles distant.  On the way there we arranged between ourselves that we would get the dutchmen collected in a store and make speeches for Lincoln.  The place was strongly Democratic and we were conceited enough to think that we could show them the error of their way.  We succeeded in getting about twenty of them together in a store.  After Stilson had made his speech the crowd began to intimate that we ought to treat; saying that when speakers came there they generally bought and set up a keg of beer (There was a brewery in the place) and finaly [sic] they became very earnest in their request.  We began to think we were in for; we replied that we were advocates of temperance that we never drank.  And besides that our finances would not admit of our buying the beer.  They insisted and became boisterous and threatening in their demands

(Page: 3)
(Margin Note:  July 1860)
and we became somewhat alarmed and began to think of some way to escape.  A plan struck me that I thought would let us out.  I told Stilson to pretend to go out for the beer but not to get beer but to get our buggy and drive carefully up to the door and when all was ready to give a long whistle and I would be with him.  I then said as he went out the door, “well gentlemen while my young friend is out gathering in the beer I desire to present to you a few ideas upon the present political questions which are agitating our country.  (I moved near the door)  I shall preface my remarks by honestly informing you that I have made but few political speeches in my life you will therefore excuse me if I say (just then Stilson whistled) good evening gentlemen!” and before they knew what was up I was out the door and in the buggy.  As they rushed out the door they saw us sailing out of town at a 2.40 gait.  The dutchmen scared us and must have enjoyed the joke.
          In August I left Stilson and returned to Chicago and finished in the Commercial College.  Returned to Monmouth in October.  I worked for J.W. Scott and A.M. Nelson until 1861.
(Margin Note:  1861-)
In April 1861 I enlisted in the 17th Ills Infty for the war of the Rebellion which had broken out.  I was the first person that enlisted in Warren County.  In May I withdrew from the 17th and went into Co. “G” 1st Ills Cavalry.  A Company of which my father was the Captain.
In July I marched with my Company to Quincy Illinois and went into camp at the Fair Grounds (Called Camp Flagg)
We were mustered into Service July 15th here by Captain Jeff G. Davis.  Afterwards Major General.  In August 1861 we went to Brookville Mo. On the Hanibal and St. Joseph Rail Road.  We camped here about one month without arms of any kind.  Neither had we a uniform.  About the last of Aug. we returned to St. Louis and camped at Jefferson Barracks.  Here we were armed with swords and one barreled horse pistols.  The swords were rotten and the pistols were worthless.  Both were bought by Freemont in Europe.  From here we marched for Lexington Mo.  Near Georgetown I was taken quite ill and was compelled to fall out of the column and lie under a tree.  Towards evening a farmer came along and took me to camp.

(Page: 4)
(Margin Note:  March to Warrensburg And Lexington Missouri Sept. 1861-
We reached Lexington Mo. About the 10th of September 1861 and marched immediately for Warrensburg south of Lexington.  We reached Warrensburg at about 8 P.M. when we heard that Gn. Price Comdg the Rebel Army was only a few miles from the place and would attack us in the morning.  We retreated that night towards Lexington.  In the darkness several wagons containing supplies were overturned and broken and we were compelled to burn them. ((Small note within body of paragraph: Night interview with Col. Peabody))
We reached Lexington on the 11th of September and here joined forces with General Mulligan Commanding a Chicago Regiment (The 23rd Ills Inf ). Genl Mulligan being the Senior Officer assumed command. Price had closely followed us up and made his camp at the Fair Grounds South of the town.  While we were stationed near the Seminary on the north.  We had Earth works which were of little use.
(Margin Note:  A Skirmish)
On the afternoon of the 12th of Sept. Price attacked our position but withdrew to his camp at dark, having merely introduced himself to us by firing a few canon and musket shots while he reconnoitered our position.  Genl Mulligan began at once to put the place in a better state of defense.  I passed a few days in riding about the Rebel outposts.  I went on the 13th to some of the houses between the Rebel and our outpost in one of these I found a
(Margin Note:  Prisoners)
Reb Surgeon and an Artillery man slightly wounded in our late skirmish.  I brought them both in not knowing that Surgeons should not be taken, but he had no business to be where he was found.  He was released by Genl Mulligan but the Artilleryman was kept a prisoner.
(Margin Note:  An Interview with Rebel Pickets and Others.)
 On the 15th of Sept. I disguised myself in an old check shirt blue overalls and an old straw hat and telling one or two of my companions that I was going into the Rebel camp.  I took french leave  and made directly along the river road towards the Rebs.  After getting about half a mile to the south of the town the road ran along a dense wood on the side toward the river on the left the hills rose steeply and on top of these were corn fields. Right there my heart jumped into my throat when I heard a man yell out “hilloa there!” I looked up towards the field and

(Page: 5)
saw four Rebels sitting on their Horses looking at me.  One called out “Come up here!”
My limbs shook but I started up boldly and after I had climbed a short distance all feeling of fear left me and I felt perfect confidence in myself.  I went close up and said “how are you!”  Then they dismounted and began to ply me with questions.  My name.  Where I lived.  How many Yanks?  Had they a band? (one saying he could play a horn and would soon play one of the Yankey bugles” & I presume he got a bugle)  I told them I was not very well acquanted [sic] round there as I had just come from Kentucky.  That I was living with a widow woman in town and had come out to look for a cow she had lost.  That I did not know much about the Yanks as they would not let any one in the Fort that they were stealing all the chickens and hogs around there.  I asked if they had any canon and a good many idiotic questions and wound up by saying, as I saw them make a move as if to mount, that I would like to go over to camp with them and look around.  This seemed to disarm them of any suspicion they might have had.  And I believe they looked upon me as a young partial idiot.
They said they could not take me there as it was quite a distance to ride and they were not then going to camp.  They moved off and I regained the road.  My first thought was to return to camp and looking up I saw the Rebs looking toward me and I concluded to continue south which I did.  I came to a house half a mile further on when I saw several men and they saw me.
I walked boldly up and asked if they had seen a broken horned cow.  The Rebel camp was but a short distance from here and the men about the house were Rebs.  The owner of the house said he had seen none and began to question me.  When he said he did not know the widow whom I mentioned as living with.  I thought he began to smell a mice.  Fortunately for me it was growing dark and I said the widow had moved in about six months ago and asked for a drink of water and swallowing it said well it is getting late and I must be

(Page 6)
going and I went.  As soon as I reached the road I turned again south as if to go on away from the town this gave me a chance to look toward the house where I saw the men talking together and looking at me.  I walked on and as soon as the trees hid me from view I left the road and dove into the woods to the west and towards the river.  I ran until I was out of breath then walked until it became pitch dark and I approached voices and I thought the fellows were after me ??? but I found by listening that the voices came from persons attending the their cattle.  I was now lost in a dense woods and imagined that a Rebel was behind every tree; that old stumps were Rebs aiming their guns at me and every moment I expected some devil to yell Halt!
 I stopped to think and made up my mind that if I could reach the river and find the direction of the current I could follow it up and reach Lexington.  I found the river and stumbling over logs and sinking in mire I at last got my direction and followed the windings of the river up to the town and our camp which I reached at day break.  I went to Genl. Mulligan and reported what I had done.  He complimented me when he ought to have given me a dressing down for leaving the camp.
 While in this regiment I was a “free rover”
My father was Captain of the Co. but was absent sick at this time.  Discipline was not very sever and I was allowed to go and come where and when I pleased.  And I missed no opportunity to avail myself of my chances.

(Margin note:  The Battle of Lexington  Sept 18th, 19th, 20th 1861
 On the 18th of September 1861 Price with 25,000 men attacked our position.  Our force consisted of 7 Companies of the First Ills. Cavly. The 23rd Ills. Inf. (Mulligan) 25th and 27th Mo. Vols and 13th and 14th Mo. Home Guards.  The Mo. Troops were under command of Colonels Peabody and White who were both brave men.  Our Reg. was commanded by its very inefficient Colonel Sam Marshall  whom I saw two or three times during the battle.  He laid hid during the whole of the fighting in the deepest trench he

(Page 7)
(Margin note:  Slept under the horses this night hold reins on our arms-)
could find.  Once I saw him on his hands and knees urinating, fearing to stand upright.
Our whole force numbered about 2700 men.
 My Company with horses saddled was held in reserve and posted in a depression of ground within our lines under command of Leut. Douglass .  Finding the Reserve position a very monotonous place I left my Company giving my horse to a comrade to take care of.  I got a musket and ammunition and went to the place marked (a) where the firing was pretty heavy.  On the 19th the Rebels took our hospital  just outside our west line.  The house was build of brick and afforded a good position for them to fire from the upper story.  They fired directly into our trenches and after killing and wounding a number of our men.  Genl Mulligan saw that they must be dislodged.  He sent two companies of his Regiment down through our works on the charge to drive them out.  They came along on the run and just as they emerged from our line of trench at (b) I joined them in the charge.  We reached into the building and drove the enemy from the lower floor some of them running toward the river and some running up the stairs.  They kept up a fire from the upper story and from the direction of the River so that many were killed and wounded of our party.  After getting possession of the lower floor we were no better off than we would have been had we nothing at all of the house.  I saw the officers trying to get their men to go up the broad stairway to drive the enemy from the upper story.  With urging and ordering and threatening no one offered to take the lead up the stairs.  It looked like a desperate attempt.  I was now filled with dash and enthusiasm.  I ran forward and jumped onto the second step of the stairs and turned to the men and said “If you will follow me I will lead you!  We must drive them out!”  They cheered and came forward like dear brave men as they were.  And on we went with a yell and a rush.  We went to the doors which were closed and locked.  I knocked open one door with the but end of my musket and stepped into the room, there were five Rebs there 2 of whom raised their guns to shoot me.  I yelled at them to surrender which they at once did after seeing the men behind me.
I had five prisoners and five guns.  I took all

(Page 8)
the guns in my arms and ordered the prisoners to march.  The men with me made a move to kill them, swore and threatened but I succeeded in getting them down the stairs when the soldiers below seeing them and being maddened by their numbers killed rushed at them and shot and bayoneted the whole five.  I was powerless to save them.  It was a horrible sickening butchery.  I came near being killed myself as I was quite near them and trying to save them.  I pushed aside bayonets and said the prisoners should not be killed.  The Irishmen answered “See our men they have killed” and rushed upon them.  Pollard in his “History of the Lost Cause” speaks of the killing of these prisoners.
 The only justification for killing them (and that is not sufficient) was that they violated the rules of civilized war by taking possession of our hospital when we had both sick and wounded and opened fire upon us.  They killed many of our men because we were compelled to be careful in returning their fire not to shoot our men in the hospital.   Some of them when we took the hospital crouched behind the beds whereon our sick were lying.  Thirty of the men who were in the charge were left dead and wounded around the hospital
 With the five guns taken from these prisoners I started for our trenches.  I was shot at several times one bullet passing under my foot just as I raised it in stepping.  The guns I distributed to Captain Burunap’s  Company 1st Ills Cavly who were much in need of them.  This Co. was in the trenches opposite our hospital.
 Our men held the hospital not more than one hour.  The Rebels charged in and retook it holding it to the end.
On the 20th in the morning we discovered that during the night the enemy had made a breast work of hemp bales  close up to our works on the west and north.  Things began to look bad for us.  My Company was ordered to charge mounted these breast works (A thing perfectly absurd)  We were armed with horse pistols and sabres We would have had to ride all the way under the enemy’s fire And would have had to jump or make our horses climb over our own ditches to reach the

(Page 9)
enemy’s infantry who were strongly posted behind hemp Bales with two pieces of artillery in position behind the bales.  We mounted and at the Command forward rode out of the ravine.  The Charge ended just as I supposed it would.  Lt. Douglass  rode at the head of the column.  I was near him.  The head of column had no sooner debouched than a terrific fire met it.  Douglas received a wound in his leg and went at once to the rear.  Two men and several horses were shot, the column hesitated then became confused, and went back to cover; which I thought a very wise thing to do.
 After this abortive attempt at a charge I again left my Company and went to the trenches at the place marked (d) opposite the hemp bale defenses of the enemy.  Soon most of our men were driven from this position. (e) Three men near me were killed, our fire was rapidly diminishing.  About this time some officer in our rear and near the Seminary building raised a white flag.  The firing ceased and the enemy at once took advantage of this and came out from behind their hemp bales and filed right into our camp.  A flag was set on the parapet in front of me and opposite the hemp bales.  Seeing that we were done for when the rebs came near our line I seized this flag, tore it from the staff and secreted it in my boot.  I brought it away with me.   We laid down our arms and were collected together as prisoners (in the place marked C map) and paroled.  All were drawn up in lines and holding up their hands took an oath not to serve against the Confederacy until duly exchanged.  I never took this oath and was not with our men when they took it.  Our Regiment had not been uniformed and we looked very much like rebels.  I took advantage of this and slipped out of the enclosure before the oath was administered.
 The next morning the 21st Sept. we were landed on the north side of the Mo. River and took up our march north to the Hanibal & St. Joe R.R.  The Rebels started us off (about 2000 of us) without a mouthful of food altho they had captured supplies at Lexington and had sufficient to have given us two or three days rations.  We were compelled to beg along the road.  We [Continued on page 11]

(Page 10)
(small insert(s)
At this point we had two or three cannons

We had two cannons at O.  The gunners were all driven away or killed except our man whose name I could never learn.  I was near him.  He served a gun alone & fired our last canon shot.  The Rebs were ??? this position.  & had shot partly off a large limb of a tree on our line of trench the limb drooped & hung in front of the gun which this man was serving
 He jumped on top of the parapet, the shots flew all around him while he was in full view of the enemy, and seizing the limb tore it from the tree, threw it outside the parapet, and sprang to his gun and fired several more shots before the enemy came into our works.
In the confusion I could not learn his name and I do not remember of seeing him afterwards.  He was a hero and if he can be found at this late day he should be honored for his brave conduct at the battle of Lexington.
 Sent this to Col John Mc. Nulta???  Bloomington Ills.

(Page 11)
Map: Plan of Battle of Lexington
(Margin note:  Killed and Wounded)
In the battle of Lexington we had 42 killed and 108 wounded.  The Confederates had 25 killed & 75 wounded (official reports of Fremount?? & Price)

marched 40 miles to reach the railroad where we took cars and moved to Quincy Illinois.
(Mustered Out.)  From Quincy the Cavalry went to St. Louis where in October 1861 it was mustered out by order of the Secretary of War.  When this Regiment was organized it was one of the finest regiments in the Volunteer Army.  It was ruined by its Colonel.

((Looks like the map might have covered some text))
Plan of Battle of Lexington Missouri.  Sept. 18, 19, and 20th 1861  Not drawn to Scale
A) Town of Lexington
B) Rebel Batteries
‘B’)  Rebel Batteries of = Cotton Bales
C) Union Position  Heavy earth works but too contracted
D) Union Position  Light earth work thrown up hastily
X3)  Rebs had an enfilading fire on this position after they took our hospital marked E
E) Union hospital captured by Rebs & retaken by us and again taken by the Rebels.  I was at (aa)when they took the hospital and went with the charging party to drive them out.
(.)  Charging party 23rd  Inf started from here.
F) Rebel earth work lines
G) Co. “G” 1 Ills Cvly as reserve.
H) Horses???  (zzz my position at surrender flag taken from here
Xxx  Trees
Xxx  Orchard or garden
Xxx  Cultivated land
G’)  House burned on the ?? 1st attack
O) Union guns
P) I took the flag from the parapet Here and brought it away.  Just before the rebels marched in which they did at the point   Masonic college

(Page 12)
(Margin note:  Interview with Lincoln and Cameron???)
I returned to Monmouth Ills. In Oct. 1861.  On the 25th of Nov. 1861 I went to Washington to endeavor to get an appointment as Cadet to the West Point Academy.  I carried strong letters from General Mulligan, Col. Marshall, A. C. Harding, Govenor Yates & A. H. Browning.  After hanging around Washington several days trying to see President Lincoln I at last succeeded in getting an interview with him on the 7th of Dec.  He sent me to Genl Lotten?? with a letter asking if a person a few month over age could be appointed to the Academy.  Genl Hotten? answered, giving me the letter, that the law was imperative; that persons over age could not be appointed.  I took his answer to the President whom I succeeded in seeing again after several attempts on different days.  The halls and atirooms were full of men who wanted to see the president.  He was worried from morn till night by these cheeky office seekers.  In my second interview the President said he was sorry he could not appoint me to the academy; that he would do so if the law permitted it.  He said “I will recommend you to the secretary of war for appoint in the regular Army.”  He took my papers saying “you have good papers” and wrote on the envelope containing them as follows, “This young man’s letters show that he fought bravely at the battle of Lexington.  I recommend him for appointment as 2nd Lieut. in the Regular Army.  A. Lincoln.”  He handed them to me saying take these to Mr. Cameron and I think he can do something for you.  I went to the office of the Secretary of War a number of days in succession.  The halls & corridors were thronged with people anxious to see the Secretary.  At last I succeeded in getting in and presenting my papers.  Old selfish Cameron bluffed me off at once by saying “there are 500 applicants for appointment.  The law does not authorize the appointment of civilians to the Regular Army.  If you want to be an officer you had better go and enlist in the Regular Army and wait for promotion.”  I subsequently found out that this Cameron Appointed his friends of Pennsylvania to every position in the Regular Army where he could shove them in and bluffed all applicants from other states as he had me.  If I had persisted and remained in Washington and gone on with

(Page 13)
assurance and impudence I presume I could have got the appointment but I got tired and disgusted and gave it up.
 During my stay in Washington I remained several days in the Camp of the 7th Wisconsin Vols. On Arlington heights.  My old friend Stilson was in this Regiment.  I saw most? of McClellan’s Army from Alexandria to Washington and saw a Review by Genl McDowell? His wife was with him mounted on a pony.  The troops marched by in double time this was when she said “General put them around again, they look so pretty!”  The soldiers who were very tired and hungry and thirsty did not feel like going “around again” and so expressed themselves in language more forceable than elegant.

(Margin Note:  1862  Recruiting Co. “A” 83rd Ills.)
 On the 6th of January 1862 I left Washington Reached New York City the 7th Utica the 8th at Grandfathers in West Winfield on the 9th where I Remained until 17th of Feby when I returned to Monmouth Illinois.  I commenced to recruit a Company for the war with Philo E Reed and Davis M. Clark.  The Co. was completed and on the 17th of July held an Election for Officers.  Reed Elected Captain.  I First Lieutenant and Clark 2nd Lieutenant.  The Company was joined to the 83rd Ills. Infty and A. C. Harding appointed Colonel.
(Margin Note:  at Cairo Ills.)
On the 24th of August the Regiment left Camp at the Fair Grounds in Monmouth and moved to Cairo Illinois Where we went into Camp.  On the 3rd of September the Regiment received their Arms and on the Same day embarked for the Tennessee River.  On the 5th of September we reached Fort Henry about 5 P.M.  We immediately took up our line of march for Fort Donelson about 16 miles distant on the Cumberland River.
(Margin Note:  To Fort Donelson.)
This being our first march was a severe one on the men who thought they must carry all the ordinary utensils and clothing that they were accustomed to at home. They loaded themselves with about 50 pounds weight.  Young Hurd  of Galesburg marched near me and after we had gone about 12 miles he said “I am shitting blood!”  I took his musket and we lightened his knapsack and he got through to Donelson but from this night he grew worse

(Page 14)
and in a few months died of Consumption.
We reached Fort Donelson on the Morning of the 6th of September where we established our Camp.  Col. Lowe of the 5th Iowa Cavalry stationed at Fort Heiman? opposite Fort Henry on the Tennessee River was in Command of the District.
Hundreds of negroes came in to our post fleeing from Slavery and seeking liberty.  We employed some as cooks and servants.  Gave many of them passes to go North.
One night in September I went with a part of my Company 12 miles up the Cumberland River on a reconnaissance.  At the house of Mrs. Noris some of the men crawled under her house and took a goose.  Some months after I met this lady in Dover (Donelson) walking with another lady after we had passed I overheard her say to her companion “There goes the Officer that stole the last goose I had, a goose that had been in our family twenty years.”
(Margin note:  To Illinois with $7000)
 Between the 10th and 20th of September I was detailed to go to Illinois to carry money to families of the soldiers in our Regiment.  I had $7000 in packages of from $25 to $100.  This I carried in my breast, tail, and pantaloons pocket.  I was well stuffed and worried until I got rid of it.  I distributed all of it to the satisfaction of everybody.
 Sept 21st I marched with 40 men in direction of Lafayette Ky. & lay in ambush to intercept a party of rebels said to be on the road. They did not make their appearance.
Returned with one prisoner.
Sept 28th The Company under Command of Capt. Reed Marched to Lafayette and Roaring Springs Kentucky.  We returned on the 30th bringing in 25 prisoners and 60 horses.  We had no fighting.
(Margin Note:  A Court at Ft. Henry.)
 On the 7th of October detailed on a Genl Court Martial at Fort Henry.  Col. Smith of my Regiment also detailed on the Court.  We rode on horseback to Fort Henry.  The Court was held on board the Steamer “Ewing” where Col. Lowe has his Headquarters.  The Court adjourned on the 15th of November & we returned to Fort Donelson.
 20th of Nov. Marched on scout returned the 21st.
 22nd of Nov. took Steamboat and went to Cumberland City Returned the 28th.

(Page 15)
(Margin Note:  Guard to Hay Party 2 Prisoners)
On the 24th of November I was sent with my Company six miles south to guard a party pressing hay for the troops.
I returned on the 30th bringing in two Rebel prisoners.
During December I was sick with that nasty disease, the “jaundice”
(Margin Note:  1863 Battle of Donelson Feb 3rd 1863)
 February 4th  It is reported that General Forrest is marching to attack us.  All the troops were at once put to work to strengthen our position which was a bad one being in the town of Dover on rather low ground which was commanded by several neighboring elevations.  Our lines of trench were badly laid out and the parapets were all too low.
 On the 3rd of February at 9 A.M. our scouts reported the enemy advancing 8000 strong.  My Company was ordered to go one mile south and skirmish with the enemy.  We deployed a little in rear of the old rebel line of earth works and at 1 P.M. the advance of the enemy made its appearance.  We began to exchange shots when I noticed the enemy moving in a strong column to our right and preparing to cut us off.  I suggested to Capt. Reed that we must fall back or the Rebs would soon be between us and the Fort.  He told me to conduct the Co. to the rear.  We fell slowly back occasionally sending a shot at the advancing enemy.
 Forrest after placing his troops sent in an Officer and demanded the surrender of the place.  Col. Harding said he could not see it.  And the ball opened.  Forrest set seven pieces of Artillery to work on us.  Our Artillery replied as best it could.  The horses were hitched to the guns and had a very contracted place to maneuver it in.  In changing position during firing I saw one gun and its caisson go rolling over & over into an old cellar, that gun did no more work.  The Rebels had a plunging fire on us and soon killed many battery horses, a number of men and shot Lt. More, Comdg the battery.  Our guns were soon silenced.  Forrest then formed Line on the east and advanced down the hill to Charge us.  At this time most of our Infantry were under cover of the ravine marked (a).  Seeing the enemy advancing I went to Genl Harding and told him that we ought to charge them now or they would get our trenches.  He ordered the Regiment to Charge.  We went with a yell across our

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east line of trench and went for the rebs who were now ascending the hill and had almost reached our trenches.  Some of them had got over the parapet some were under the church marked (H) and we dragged them out & made them prisoners.  A number had got into the Artillery Camp (marked J) and others behind the houses in the vicinity.  We struck them just in the nick of time.  We broke their charge and sent them back badly crippled.  As soon as we had driven them from our trenches we commenced on those who had got among the houses and in the Camp.  Capt Reed raised himself, took aim at a Reb behind one of the tents (at J) when a shot struck him in the neck.  He fell back saying “I am killed” and immediately expired.  From this time on I took command of the Company.  In this charge a number of the enemy made a dash on the heavy gun (at (B).  Brave Sergeant Grant Abbey, of my Company, had command of the gun.  The rebels rode up to its very muzzle.  One of them calling out “Surrender this Gun!  We have it, it is ours!”
Abbey replied “You can have that end of it!” and fired.  The man and horse were blown to pieces and a number of others killed.  This event helped wonderfully to repel the charge.  Two of our Company Were stationed near the grave yard.  A charge on this place was also repelled.  The enemy withdrew to the hill near the house where they had their battery, reformed their lines and again moved forward to the attack.  Although our Artillery was lost in combat we were really better prepared to receive them than we were before because we were in our proper places, which we were not before, and our success in repelling the last charge filled us with confidence and enthusiasm.  Their dead and wounded lay thickly scattered over the ground in our immediate front.  On they came in a long unbroken line.  At the angle near the church (Marked E) stood an old smooth bore cannon captured by Grant at the first battle of Donelson ; it was mounted on low trucks and near it was a box of ammunition.  I thought I could scare the Rebels with it.  I loaded it and directed it with my own hands on the hard road just in front of the advancing enemy and when they reached the proper point I fired the old gun.  The shot struck just in front of them and in the road.  There was a commotion and a

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sudden falling back in that part of the line.  Our men cheered and opened a fire of musketry and the charge was broken.  The firing of this cannon led the rebels to think that our Artillery had been put again in fighting condition.  The sun had nearly set when Wheeler, Wharton and Forrest called together what was left of their Army and retreated badly whipped towards the Cumberland Iron works.
 In this battle the forces consisted on the Union side of the 83rd Reg. Ills Vols. 750 effective men and Flood’s Battery 2nd Ills Artillery 4 guns.  The Rebel force consisted of the United Commands of Wheeler, Wharton and Forrest.  They had 7 pieces of Artillery and their forces numbered about 8000 men.
 We had 16 killed and 60 wounded.
The Confederates had 140 killed 400 wounded and 130 taken prisoners.  (From Surgeon Generals Report the foregoing taken)
The total Confederate loss numbered ¾ of our whole fighting strength.
 After the enemy had withdrawn and began their retreat two or three gunboats made their appearance and shelled the woods on the line of retreat.  The 5th Iowa Cavalry also came after the fighting was over.  In the Surgeon Generals Report the 5th Iowa Cavalry is credited with being in the fight.  The fact is that Regiment arrived after the fighting was all over.
 I never could understand why Genl. Lowe did not pursue Forrest.  He could with his regiment, (and the 15000 Infantry which arrived the next morning, by boat, to back him up) have captured the whole rebel outfit.  That is, if he had been energetic and brave.  I never heard what he was accused of having either of these qualities.
 Captains Reed, McClanahan and Lt. Bissill of our Regiment were killed.  Lt. More of the Artillery died of his wounds a few days after the battle.
 The object of the attack by the rebels was to take the place in order to intercept reinforcements going to the Army of the Cumberland.  The morning after the battle transports carrying 15000 men to the front arrived at Donelson.  So our victory was very important For if Forrest had taken the place he would have held it long enough for important events to occur at the front and it is possible that our Army would have had to fall back.

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(Map of the Battle of Fort Donelson)
Battle of Donelson Attack by Forrest Feby 3rd 1863
A) Town of Dover
B) Siege gun Commanded by Sergt Grant Abbey
C) Camp of 83rd Ills. Vols Enclosed by parapet & ditch
D) Old gun Captured from Rebs when Donelson was taken by Genl Grant.
E) Capt. Reed killed
F) Headquarters building
G) Old house - near here Capt. McClanahan & Lt. Bissell were shot
H) Old wood Church.
I) Q.M. Store house & Office
J) Camp of battery. A Rebel behind one of these tents shot Capt. Reed.
K) Old log house taken by the Rebels who were driven out by Capt. Gilson and his Company.
L) Grave yard  {Hotel where Grant recvd surrender
M) Old vacant house on hill.  Rebs placed their guns here.  They fired one of their guns through the hall of the house at us.
N) Old fort taken by Grant
O) Ravine in which 83rd lay before making the charge.

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Soon after the battle I received my Commission from Governor Yates as Captain. To date from 3rd February 1863.
 On the 5th of March 1863 I went on steamer Emma Nor with my Company to escort her to Nashville.  We reached Nashville on the 7th went and took quarters in the large unfinished stone building since known as the Maxwell house.  Visited residence of Mrs. Ex President Polk who lives here in a large brick house with high stock supported by stone pillars.  The house is near the state Capitol.  The tomb of the Ex President is directly in front of the house and is a prominent object seen from the street.  It consists of four stone pillars resting on a base & supporting a square stone roof.  On the base rests an oblong stone block on which is inscribed the information that Wm.? Polk was member of Congress from Tenn. Govenor of Tenn., and President of the United States : born Nov. 2nd 1795 died June 15th 1849.
Mrs. Polk is a very polite and accomplished rebel but awfully plain looking and almost ugly.  She lives here with a niece (adopted daughter) who is very pretty and very fashionable.  She has a drunken husband whom she has turned out of the house.
 I returned to Donelson on the 12th instant and on this day news came that Col. Harding had been appointed Brigadier General by the President.  In May we were employed in building a fort near the site of the old rebel fort.
 On the 5th of June I marched from Donelson into Kentucky for the purpose of procuring horses on which to mount a portion of our Infantry.  Marched to Asbury church and to Lafayette Kentucky.  We returned on the 10th bringing with us 90 horses pressed from the inhabitants. Riciepts were given for the horses.
 On the 24th June I went with my Company to Clarksville Tenn. To guard transports to the place.
 On the 28th of July 8 Companies of the Regiment took a boat and went up Cumberland to a little town called New York.  Marched several miles into the country but discovered nothing of importance.  Returned to Donelson in the evening
 On the 6th of August I was detailed on Court of Inquiry in regard to absence with out leave of Luit. Casey  Regimental Adjutant.
 At Regimental Inspection my Company was reported as having cleanest Arms and Equipment.
On the 26th of August all the troops were paraded to witness the execution of Private Lane of Stenback’s Ills. Battery.  He was tried by the Genl Court at Fort Henry in which I was a member for robbery and desertion and sentenced to be shot.  He was seated in a wagon on his coffin and was carried along the lines to his grave where he was taken from the wagon, blindfolded and

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seated on his coffin near the open grave.  The firing party under Command of Capt. Morgan, 83rd Provost Marshal, were drawn up thirty paces in front of him.  They fired at the word and Lane fell without uttering a word or making a struggle.
September 1st At dress parade today the report of a Regimental Inspection was read.  My Company reported as having cleanest quarters, best kept books and the best discipline.
On the 12th of September I was detailed as member of a General Court Martial.  Tried three Officers for absence without leave.
On the 17th of September my Company with four others was ordered to take station at Clarksville Tennessee.  I remained at Donelson as member of the court until October 7th when I joined my Company at Clarksville.
 On the 24th of November I took my Company on board the steamer Poland and went down the river towards Donelson to intercept a party of rebels who had attacked Lafayette Ky. and were making their way south.  I returned to Clarksville on the 26th.  The rebels had crossed the Cumberland below Donelson at a place called Line Island.
On 10th of December I went with a number of other Officers on the gunboat “Silver Lake” to Fort Donelson where a ball was given on the boat.  Returned to Clarksville on the 12th instant.

1864  February 2nd 1864 I was detailed as member of Genl Court martial at Clarksville and continued on this duty until the 20th instant.
 During April a large number of destitute negroes came in from Kentucky.  They were collected together in a large camp and fed on Government rations.
On the 24th of July I went with 30 men of my Company on a steamer up the river 20 miles and Captured one rebel and 2 horses.
 On the 20th of August we learned that Capt. Turnbull and 8 men of his Company were killed near Donelson by Bushwhackers or Guerillas.
 On the 25th I marched with my Company twenty miles down the river and returned the 26th.
On the 29th August my Company together with the other Companies of the Regiment at Clarksville were ordered to Nashville to assist in driving out Forrest who was raiding in the vicinity of that City.  We took a steamer on the 30th and reached Nashville on the 31st at 5 P.M.  We at once moved out south on the Rail Road ten miles where we found the track destroyed.  At 10 P.M.

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we bivouacked in a field near the road.  I lay with Adjt. John Green.  He had an overcoat and I had a rubber blanket.  We put the rubber blanket under us & the overcoat over us and we there slept for several nights.
On the morning of September 1st we marched to the Murfeesboro Pike where we found Genl Rossou’s advance skirmishing with the enemy, Wheelers rear guard.  We remained in line of battle here about 3 hours.  We followed Wheeler to Franklin reaching that place at 2 P.M.  The weather was terribly warm and we marched as rapidly as possible many of the men gave out and came straggling into Camp after sun down.
 We were organized temporarily with two other Regiments into a Brigade.  When we halted at Franklin I had more men on the ground than any other Company in the Brigade.  Skirmishing was going on at Franklin when we reached there.  Col. Brownlow (son of the old Parson) had been wounded.  We continued on after the enemy to Columbia and Cullaoka? Where we went into camp.  The Cavalry continued the pursuit.  While in camp here I was looking at a Cavalryman load his Spencer Carbine.  He sat on the ground; his carbine between his legs the butt towards his face.  He dropped his cartridges into the magazine at the butt of the gun.  He dropped a cartridge down with the wrong end uppermost.  The Cap struck the end of a cartridge in the chamber and exploded.  A ball crashed through his head and he fell back a corps.  While here I made a foraging expedition into the country and collected several wagonloads of meal & bacon &c.  Our Regiment returned to Nashville on the 13th And went into camp on Cherry Street near the Medical College.
 On the 25th of September we again took the cars to go in pursuit of Forrest who was again raiding in the vicinity.  We reached Pulaski Tenn. on the 26th.  Forrest said to be near.  On the 27th our Regiment went into line of battle.  My Company was on the extreme right supporting a battery of the 5th Regular Artillery.  In a short time Forrest advanced his whole line and the skirmishers opened fire.  The firing of the skirmish line continued until dark.  The Artillery sent a number of shots plump Into the enemy’s ranks.  Forrest made no charge on our line but held his line of skirmishers up to their work while he drew off his main force and moved towards Nashville.  Genl Rossian? was in command of our force; he did not know where Forrest had gone until the next morning.  Forrest had outwitted him.

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The Artillery lost two or three men in this skirmish.
We remained all night in line of battle a drenching rain pouring upon us the whole time.
On the 28th we took cars and hurriedly returned to Nashville which place we reached at 9 A.M. of the 29th and at 2 P.M. of the same day we took cars and went to Tullahoma? Where we remained until the 2nd of October when we again returned to Nashville.  We reached Nashville at 8 P.M.  We got off the cars and formed line in the streets.  Details were made from each Company and sent to the Quartermasters depot for horses to mount the Regiment.  At 12 o’clock that night or 4 hours from the time we reached Nashville the whole Regiment was mounted.  At 6 A.M. of the 3rd of October we were on the march guarding a train of 200 wagons to Franklin Tennessee.
 Camped 5 miles south of Franklin and camped.
On the 4th we marched at 5 A.M.  We were this day Brigaded with the 51st Indiana Inf. Vols. (Straight’s Regiment) Col. Brott of our Regiment Commanding and I his Assistant Adjutant? General.  On the 4th we camped South of Cumberland near the Rebel General Pillow’s farm.  Marched this day 28 miles.  On the 5th at we marched south on the “Federal Road” made by General Jackson in the Indian war of 1812.  We passed through Lawrencburg a tumble down old town in the center of which stands a monument to the memory of Soldiers of the First Tennessee Regiment who fell at Monterey Mexico.  At 8 P.M. we camped near the Alabama line.
On the 7th we marched at 5 A.M. the roads were very bad many of our horses gave out and the Artillery left 2 Caissons in the mud.  Our bread gave out this day.  The advance there fighting during the day and we lost an officer and four men.
Forrest had stripped the country of everything eatable and both our men and horses were suffering for food.  We were all compelled to take corn from the fields and eat it.  It was grated on a grater made by driving a nail many times through a half of a canteen.  The meal thus made was mixed with water and baked or made into mush.
On the 8th of October we marched to Cheatam Ferry on the Tennessee River.  We foraged the Country here and found plenty to eat.
At daylight on the 9th the troops were put in march

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towards the river and soon after the order to countermarch was given.  Forrest had again escaped us.  He had crossed the river and the pursuit was given up.  Genl. Russeau was in command and had an ample number of troops but his marches were slow and ill timed.  We remained in camp near Florrence Alabama until the 13th when we started on the return march passing through Elkton where we crossed Elk river and Pulaski where we drew rations.  We had been without rations eight days depending on the already cleaned out country for something to eat.  We passed through Columbia and Franklin reaching Nashville on the 18th of October at 9 A.M. at 4 P.M of the same we had turned in our horses and equipments and were on board a steamer for Clarksville which place we reached the 19th.  (We had on this trip traveled 540 miles)
On the 13th of November I went to Nashville and got from Genl Sherman a Leave of Absence for 20 days.  Forty men of my Company also got furloughs to go home to vote.  I reached Monmouth on the 7th instant and returned to Clarksville on the 24th.
On the 13th of December I took train out on the Louisville Rail Road to stop a party of rebels who were reported destroying the track.  At 12 miles out I found a bridge burned.  I remained out all night patrolling the road.  The weather was very cold and much snow fell.  I returned on the 14th and in the afternoon of the same day I started with 100 men to guard the road and rebuild the bridge and after the work was completed I returned.
 From Dec 23rd to Jan 1 sick
1865
My Mounted Command

 On the 17th of January 1865 I was given command (by Col. Smith comdg the District) of forty mounted men picked from the best men in the Regiment and to be employed in scouting after guerrillas.
On the 19th I marched with 15 men to Garretsburg to make an arrest.  I returned on the 20th with the prisoner.- having marched 36 miles.

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On the 23rd I marched south east after Mick Kearney and his party of guerillas went up the Cumberland river to where he had crossed to the west side and near there found the corps of a citizen whom they had killed.  I took prisoner the man who had ferried Kearney across the river.
 On the 25th just before daylight I surprised, at the house of a man named Ford on Red river, two guerrillas.  They jumped out of bed and attempted to run but I got them both together with their two horses and six revolvers all of which I took to Clarksville.
 The mare taken from one of them was claimed a few days after my return by a man from Kentucky.  He feared to take her home with him lest she should again be stolen.  I bought her from him and took her home to Ills. After the war.  (She is now 1869 21 years old)
On the 29th of January I made a scout into Kentucky and Captured four rebel soldiers of Lyon’s Command and 4 horses 5 guns 10 revolvers powder, caps &c.  Marched 85 miles and returned on the 1st of February.  Turned the captured property over to Captain Morgan of our Regiment who was Provost Marshal.
On the 4th of February I marched on a scout between the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.  I marched towards Sailors Rest Furnace.  On these marches I always sent 4 men in advance a short distance with orders to never loose sight of the head of the Column and to charge at once any party of guerrillas they might see.  They were always in my view and whenever they started on the run I also started with the whole Command on the charge.  I also had constantly a rear guard and whenever practicable, flankers.  The country was very rough and densely wooded so that it was necessary to ever be on the lookout for ambushes.  Most of the inhabitants were in sympathy with the guerrillas

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(Margin Note:  July 4 ’65 Fight with Guerillas 3 of them killed – 2 of my men wounded.)
and it was difficult to discover them.
 As we approached a log cabin near Sailors Rest furnace my advanced guard started on the run.  I immediately followed.  As we turned an angle in the road I saw a number of saddled horses hitched around the cabin.  We drew pistols and charged at once.  As we approached the house the Guerrillas ran out shooting at us and attempting to get their horses.  We had a spirited skirmish for a short time in which we killed three guerrillas.  I had two men Pinkerton and Jones wounded.  Five horses with their equipment were captured also a number of arms.  I secured a carriage and sent Pinkerton and Jones back to Clarksville. The guerrillas at the time of the attack were eating breakfast which an old Colored woman had cooked for them.  They had put a little colored boy on guard outside the house, he gave the alarm as soon as he saw the advance guard, but we were upon them before they could mount their horses.  This day we camped on Yellow Creek 25 miles from Clarksville.  While in camp there I heard of a party of guerrillas 10 miles distant and at 2 o’clock on the morning of the 5th I started in pursuit of them.  When near their camp we dismounted and crawled up to surprise them.  They heard of our approach and mounting their horses made good their escape.  A few shots were sent after them as they were riding off.  This day we marched 30 miles and captured one Rebel soldier 2 horses arms and ammunition.
 On the 6th I marched at daylight dividing my command, sending Sergt.

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Brady and John Ivy? (our excellent guide) with a portion of the command down one branch of White Oak Creek while I went down the other branch.  About 10 in the morning while the command was halted to examine a house where a guerrilla lived I was suddenly fired on from an ambush.  The bullets buzzed around our heads fortunately the only damage done was a few holes made in coats and one horse shot in the neck.  At the first fire I had the men dismount to fight on foot and at once moved on the Rebs.  They mounted and took the road.  I immediately mounted and started in pursuit.  We chased them at highest speed four miles killing one of them and wounding another.  We pressed them so closely that they broke up and scattered in a dense wood.  We got two of their horses.  Sergt Brady and his party captured a rebel soldier.
 Marched this day 25 miles.
  On the 7th instant marched at daylight and when near the Tennessee River we ran on a camp of Rebels.  We killed one of them and capture two soldiers and 4 horses.  The party was commanded by a Lieutenant who made his escape.  We returned to Turkey Creek and burned an illicit still and blacksmith shop where guerillas got their horses shod = Camped on Turkey Creek having marched 20 miles.  In this camp I made an arrest of three men who harbored guerillas.  One of whom had in his possession a horse taken from an Artilleryman who had been murdered by guerillas near Donelson.  I learned that a soldier who was trying to make his escape from Johnsonville, at the time Forrest burned the boats there, had been killed near this man’s house by guerrillas and that he knew where the body lay.  I forced

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him to conduct me to the place where the body of the soldier lay.  I found it on a high hill in a thick wood some distance from any road or path.
 On the 8th instant we marched to Fort Donelson 28 miles.
 On the 9th marched for Clarksville reaching that place on the 10th instant and turned in to the Provost Marshal 7 Prisoners 17 horses 10 saddles 8 revolvers 3 muskets 3 shot guns.
 While I was absent on this expedition Captain C ____ of the 83rd preferred charges against me for disobedience of orders.  Specifying that I had turned captured property over to the Provost Marshal instead of turning it over to him.  I told him to go ahead that if he could stand it I was sure I could.  I was not put in arrest.  Col. Smith advised me to explain to Capt. C___ and have the matter settled.  I replied that I had no explanation to make as I had done nothing except what was right.  Capt. C___ happened to be the Senior Officer of the three mounted companies and was very jealous of his important position.  He never did any thing except to take his ease about the city.  In a few days he withdrew the charges and was relieved from command of the Mounted Battalion and Major Bond of the 83rd assigned to the command.

(Margin Note:  Dug up a Dead Guerrilla)
 On the 17th of February I marched west having with me a man named Poor who desired to see one of the guerrillas whom we had killed thinking that he was the same that had murdered his niece a short

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time before.  We dug the man out of his grave but Mr. Poor could not identify him.  Returned to Clarksville on the 18th having marched 50 miles.

On the 22nd of February marched on a scout into Kentucky.  Captured one of Lyon’s men near Faits Station.  On the 23rd marched to Keysburg.  On the 24th we marched to Haydensville and Trenton and on the 25th marched to Clarksville with two prisoners 4 horses 3 revolvers having marched 60 miles.  It rained furiously during nearly the whole time of this scout.
 On the 15th of March while I was standing talking to a number of Officers in the Provost Marshals Office Mrs. Tilman, wife of the Rebel General came in to take the oath of allegiance.  I laughed at something an Officer said and she thinking I laughed at her told her companion a Mr. McCormack who took me to task at once.  We both got angry he insinuated that I had lied and at once left with Mrs. Tilman.  I went home and sent him the usual note which leads to a duel, and demanded an apology.  He answered the note and making the proper excuses the matter was dropped.

On the 16th of March 1865 I wrote Aunt Lib Harding sending my photograph to be given to a young lady whom I had never seen nor heard of and whose name I did not know.  ??? ??? ??? ??? were married Jay 22 1866.

On the 19th of March I marched on scout down the Cumberland River.  Camped on the farm of Cane Johnson, once Post Master General of the United States.  On the 20th

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marched to the Cumberland River to capture a noted guerrilla named Outlaw.  Disguised as rebels with two men I rode to Outlaw’s house where we found his mother who taking us to be rebels wanting her son to ferry us across the river told us Bill was in the woods; riding toward the place she had directed we soon came upon Bill and took him in; a prisoner to Clarksville.  On the 21st we marched to Garretsburg Ky. and to Clarksville; having traveled 50 miles.

On the 22nd of March, marched on a scout east camped on Red River.  On the 23rd we chased a party of Rebel soldiers and captured Sergeant J. H. Jones 2nd Ky. Who belonged to Morgan's command – and took from a man on Buzzard Creek (named Hart) 5 guns.  On the 24th Captured 3 revolvers and 2 horses.  One of my horses died on the march. Reached Clarksville in the P.M. having marched 80 miles.

On the 2nd of April marched into Kentucky to look after a Rebel camp said to be some where in the woods.  Returned on the 3rd having found nothing.  Marched 25 miles.
Immediately on my return I marched at 1 o’clock P.M. to intercept a party of guerrillas reported to be near Garretsburg Kentucky.  We reached Garretsburg in the night.  On the 4th marched to Lafayette, Indian Mound, & camped at Duncan Town.  Returned to Clarksville on the 5th having marched 60 miles.

On the 14th President Lincoln has been assassinated by Booth at Fords Theater Washington.  When we heard this news every body became speechless with sorrow and horror.  In a short time everybody cursed and raved and cried.  Jeff Davis may thank his stars that he was not here.

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He never would have dragged his rotten carcass and traitorous heart again into the Senate of the United States to polute [sic] It as he has this year 18__

The welcome news has come that Lee has surrendered.  Johnson surrendered.  Mobile captured and the Rebel Armies are breaking up.

On the 23rd of April I marched east to summon witnesses before a Military Commission.  Captured Captain Dorch of the Rebel Army.  Returned on the 24th having marched 50 miles.

On the 29th of April it was reported that a strong party of the enemy were crossing the Cumberland near Eddyville and going North.  The commanding officer at Hopkinsville Ky. Sent to Col. Smith for troops.
At 10 o’clock at night I marched in command of two companies (my own and Cutlers under command of Lieut. Gamble)  numbering 60 men.  Marched all night reaching Hopkinsville 30 miles distant just at daylight.
On the 30th Ten (10) mounted men of Kentucky troops were added to my command and at 6 A.M. we marched for Princeton 30 miles distant reaching there at 5 P.M.
Here we learned that about 50 men of Forrest’s command were raiding through the country stealing everything they wanted and killing all who opposed them.  A force of Kentucky troops had attempted to stop them at this place and had stationed themselves in a lane.  The Rebels charge them and utterly routed them.  We found Seven of their dead at this place.  We rested here 2 hours and at 7 P.M. started in pursuit.  We marched all night reaching Providence at 10 A.M. on the 1st of May.  The rebels had gone through this town and

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robbed it.  They rode through one of the stores going in at the front door and out the back snatching from the shelves and counters every thing within reach.  From here we marched to Dixon.  Here the enemy had attacked the jail which was occupied by a detachment of 15 Kentucky troops under command of a Lieutenant.  They captured and burned the jail and took the Officer away with them a prisoner.  From here we followed the trail until 10 o’clock at night when we went into bivouac at a farm house ignorant of the fact, which we learned next morning, that the enemy were in camp only half a mile from us.  On the 2nd we marched at daylight and after going a few miles lost the trail.  We returned to our last camp and forced a citizen to guide us to the trail which we soon found and following it through fields, and dense woods and ponds and mire, we at 2 P.M. came in sight of the enemy.  Line was immediately formed and we charged them.  They ran down a lane and where it turned to the right and ended at the border of a wood they halted and opened fire on us.  Our speed was checked but we soon forced them to give way and we again pursued, a running fight was kept up until they made another stand for a few moments when they again fled and we pursued.  They left the main road and turned on a path into the woods where they again halted and attempted to stop us.  We forced them to give way.  They now broke up and fled in all directions.
 We had chased them five miles.  They were desperate and brave men and made a splendid fight.
 In the first charge as we neared their line, the Lieutenant whom they had captured took advantage of the fighting

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to break away from them and came towards us.  He was dressed in the Union uniform and when I saw him start for us I called out to the men in rear not to shoot him but some one taking him for one of the enemy (many of whom were dressed in our uniform) fired at him striking him in the head.  Not absolutely certain whether our man or the Rebs shot him.  I had him carried to a farmhouse and afterwards learned that he recovered.  In the fight from the wood to the Chapel the brave Sergeant Abbey of my company, who was always to the front, was shot through the bowels.  He continued to ride almost half a mile after being wounded.  We left him at the catholic chapel in the care of sisters of Charity who did all in their power for him.  He died there a few days after the fight.
 One man of the Kentucky troops was killed and Allen Palmer (my brother) was struck in the head by a ball which glanced from a fence rail.  He was not disabled.
 The Rebels were under command of Captain J. G. Lea.  During the chase we got his coat in the pockets of which we found orders and letters.  I took possession of these.  There [sic] very complimentary letters to him from Gov. Allen of Louisiana.  The Reb Genls Ross and E Kirby Smith.  From these it appears that he commanded an independent company of Cavalry.  We captured several horses a number of arms and several articles of property which has been stolen by them.
 This day we camped about 4 miles from the Ohio River and near Henderson Ky.  On the 3rd we marched at daylight and at 10 A.M. again struck the trail of the enemy which we followed to Slaughterville where we camped.  On the 4th marched to Madisonville where we learned that the enemy had crossed the Green river at Steamfort and that a Colonel ____ with Kentucky troops was

(Page 33)
(Note In Margin:  1865)

in pursuit.  We gave up the chase and on the 5th marched to Hopkinsville and on the 6th returned to Blanksville having marched in 7 days 300 miles.  In two days and one half in the first part of the trip we marched 150 miles.

On our return to Clarksville we learned that Genl Dick Taylor had surrendered, Mosby’s command dispanded [sic]. Forrest broken up into small detachments.  The rebels we had encountered in Kentucky probably were a portion of Forrest’s command.  Genl Wilson we learned was in pursuit of Jeff Davis.

(Note In Margin:  A Night Adventure and Fight with Guerrillas.)

On the 15th of May I learned from a citizen that Mick Kearney and his crowd of guerrillas were in the country and would probably be this night at a home about ten miles up the river on the west side.  A number of girls were in the family and they had been in the habit giving parties for their guerrilla lovers.
At sundown, with 15 men I marched three miles up the river which I crossed at Serse’s ferry.  After crossing we dismounted and silently and carefully lead our horses along the road until ten o’clock when we were about half a mile from the house sought for.  Here I left the horses and 5 men secreted in the woods and with the others moved cautiously forward across the fields towards the house.  John Ivy and 5 men went to the further side of the house and remained about 40 rods  from it to intercept any of the guerrillas that might run in that direction.  With the remaining five men I crawled towards the house and upon getting near stopped to listen.  The night

(Page 34)
was quite dark and we could see but a short distance.  We heard mens voices and heard horses eating corn near the house we heard spurs clanking and knew they were there.  We crawled along a fence until we were directly in front of the house and about 40 feet from it; here we lay flat on our bellies, it seemed to us an age looking through the cracks of the fence we watched the guerrillas courting the girls, going in and out the doors, sitting under the trees with their arms around their girls waists.  Their pistols shone their spurs rattled and their plumes waved.  Their horses were tied around a smokehouse about 50 feet from the house.  They, the horses, were a little to our right so that we could get to them as soon as the guerillas.  We waited for a favorable moment to attack.  Nothing could be done while they were with the girls and children about the house.  About 11 o’clock a movement indicated that they were going.  They said good by and started for their horses we opened fire on them, they were completely astonished and made a dash for their horses.  We made too a dash for their horses.  I turned the corner of the smokehouse just as one of them turned the next corner and we met face to face.  I was too quick for him and fired at him.  I was near enough to burn his face with powder.  He turned and ran across the fields.  I fired several shots after him but he got away.  I afterwards learned (from one of my men who had met him on a steamboat after the war) that this was Mick Kearney and that he carried a bullet in his shoulder and said that “it was put into him at the corner of the smoke house.”  They all got away in the darkness.  But the gang was broken up.  We got 4 fine horses 3 shot guns

(Page 35)
(Margin Note:  3 wounded They Surrender)
and the next day they sent a messenger in to ask permission to surrender saying that three of them were dangerously wounded in the fight last night.
 This gang had been a terror to the country; they had committed many robberies and murders and many who were afraid to inform on them were secretly glad that they were at last used up.
 This was the last of our fights.  The Rebelion [sic] was suppressed.  Peace had dawned and we were about to break up all our war associations and go to our homes.

This mounted company which I had the honor to command; in which I felt the highest pride, and which I loved was composed of as brave and dashing men as ever went into battle.  They never shrank from danger: They never hesitated to go whenever and wherever they were wanted.  John Ivy, a citizen of Tennessee had been persicuted [sic] on account of his Union sentiments by the Rebels; they drove him from his home destroyed his farm and drove off his cattle.  He came to Clarksville and was employed as guide by the Government.  He was constantly with me in my scouts and to his energy intelligence and superior bravery our success, in a great measure, was due.  After the war he moved to Illinois and now lives a few miles North of Monmouth in Warren Co.

(Page 36)
(Margin Note:  1865  Mustered out)
The war being ended and troops whose time expired before October 1st 1865 are to be discharge.  On the 16th of June my brother Allen Palmer was sent to Nashville as Orderly to Genl Kilpatrick.  On the 20th of June the Regiment was ordered to Nashville Tennessee to be mustered out.  The mounted portion marched overland, the other portion went by water.  We reached Nashville on the 22nd and turned in our horses, arms and equipage and were mustered out and on the 27th the Regiment proceeded by rail to Chicago where we arrived on the 29th.  Here the troops were paid off and sent to their homes.  The Regiment participated in a parade while in Chicago.  Attended a grand concert and heard Henry Winter Davis deliver a Eulogy on Abraham Lincoln.

(Margin Note:  September  Clerk at Washington)
I reached home on the 6th of July.  On the 24th of July I received Estelle's portrait.
On the 13th of September I left Monmouth for Washington with a purpose to get an appointment as Clerk on one of the Departments.  I reached Washington on the 16th and went through the fears and pleadings and waitings and tortures of mind incidents to the business of getting a government position.  On the 23rd I was duly installed as a clerk in the Indian Department at a salary of $1200 per year.  I had little to do.  Sat in a cushioned armchair.  Walked on soft carpets.  Bathed in free marble bath tubs but I disliked the business and felt that if I staid until I got over my dislike of it I would remain until I was as old and gray as many other clerks were, who had been there all their lives and never could get away, or as an old clerk told be “he had got into the rut and could not get out of it.”  On the 23rd of November I sent my resignation in to Mr. Cooley.  The Commissioner of Indian Affairs.  He sent for me and said he was sorry to have me go.  That although he had not seen me before, he had judged my character by my handwriting.  That I had made warm friends in the office and that he was

(Page 37)
(Margin Note:  1865)
thinking of giving me a better place.  I thanked him and said I felt gratified to have made friends in the office &c but that I disliked the confinement and felt that my time was being wasted and thought I could do better than than [sic] being a clerk in Washington.
(Margin Note:  Nov. 24th A sickly Sea voyage.)
On the 24th I left Washington on a screw steamer for New York which city I reached on the 27th.  During the voyage the weather was stormy.  The ship rolled fearfully and I was deathly seasick during the whole journey.  I had not energy to raise my eyes to look at the poetry of the sea.  The glowing “Sunset at sea” had no charm for me and every time I looked at the “rolling waves” my bowels rolled in unison with them.
 On the 21st I was at Utica N.J. On the 29th I went to Rome where I took the stage and went to North Western.  Here I stopped over night at a dilapidated little tavern kept by I. Griffith.  On the 30th of November 1865 I walked about three miles to Mr. Porters where at 9 A.M. I was for the first time Estelle.  I remained until the 2nd of Dec.  When I went to Grandfather Harding's at West Winfield.  I found Grandfather and Grandmother both helpless.  The former did not recognize me and seemed to have no recollection that I ever existed.  On the 16 & 17 & 18th I was with Estelle at Utica at Winfield until 30th when I went to Estelle at U & remained until 2nd May 1866.

(Margin Note:  1866  January 22)
On the 22nd of January 1866 I married Estelle and on the same day we started for Illinois.  Stopping at the Fremont house Chicago.
(Margin Note:  1867 Appointed 2nd Lieutenant in the Regular Army)
We lived in Monmouth until March 1867 when I received an appointment as 2nd Lient. In the Regular Army.

(Page 38)
(Margin Note:  1867  March  Examined and Ordered to Dacota. [sic])
On the 10th of March I went to Louisville Ky. To be examined by a Board of Army Officers.  Genl. Burbank being President of the Board.  On the 13th I passed a satisfactory examination and returned home.  On the 13th of April I received my Commission together with an order to report for duty to the Commanding Officer at Newport Barracks. Ky.  On the 20th I reported for duty.  Estelle coming with me as far as Chicago and going from there to Utica.  I remained at Newport Bks. Until the 3rd of May when I red’d orders and on the same day started to join my Regiment then at Fort Phil Kearney Dacota.   From Newport I went to Northwestern N?.Y. where Estelle was and on the 6th returned with her to Utica.  On the 8th we went to West Wrinfield returning on the 11th.  On the 15th I started for my Regiment reaching Omaha on the 19th.  On the 20th I took the U.P.R.R. for the North Platte station 300 miles west of Omaha and then the terminus of the road.
(Margin Note:  En route to Fort Phil Kearney)
On the 22nd I took Wells Fargo & Co. stage for Fort Sedgwick 106 miles distant.  On the eastern end of the rout [sic] 6 horses are driven to the stage.  They go at a lively canter between stations, which are 8 and 10 miles apart, and at each station the horses are changed.
(Margin Note:  A stage Coach Ride)
I was unwell and had to ride on the outside of the coach as the inside had been filled before I had secured a seat.  The sun poured down on us (Two other Officers of the Army were on the outside with me) and millions of buffalo Knats [sic] annoyed us.  They got into our hair and it was impossible to keep them out.  We rode all night and I became thoroughly chilled and felt quite sick when we reached Sedgwick at 4 o’clock on the morning of the 23rd of May.
On the 24th I crossed the Platte river and went into a tent in the Camp of the 4th Infty.  In the afternoon of this day Col. Smith of my Regiment, the 27th infy, Came in with

(Page 39)
200 recruits for his Regiment.  The weather was cold and chilly.  I had diarrhea and was compelled to lie in my tent which was wet until the 28th when Genl. Smith marched for Phil Kearney and I went into the hospital at Sedgwich being too sick to move with my Regiment.  I had a hospital tent floored for my quarters While here on the 3rd of June The Cheyenne’s attacked a stage 50 miles west of here.  Several of the passengers were killed but the Indians were driven off and one of them killed.  Mr. Davis of Georgetown D. C. one of the wounded passengers was brought into the tent with me.  He brought with him the Indians scalp.  I continued sick but was determined to go on if possible and on the 7th of June I crossed the river to the Camp of Lt. Col. Bradley of my Regiment.  On the 9th we marched towards Fort Laramie.  I rode in an ambulance.  Our party consisted of Col. Bradley, Maj. Van Voart 18th infy Lt. Seaton of the 42nd and Lieut. Sternburg of our Reg., who a few month later was killed by Indians at Fort C. F. Smith. ) and an escort of 20 men.  On the 12th of June camped at Fort Mitchel near Scotts Bluffs on the North Platte.  The fort is a small square stockade enclosing 4 or 5 low, log houses.  Capt. Hughes of the 18 Inf. stationed here.  On the 14th we reached Fort Laramie where we found Col. Smith of the 27th in camp.  Genl. Smith marched on the 15th and on the 17th we followed & camped on Little bitter Cotton wood 15 miles from Laramie.  We found good water here but little grass or wood.  At dark on the 17th we reached Bridgers ferry on North Platte 55 mi. from Laramie.  Here we joined Col. Smith.  We were compelled to remain here until men were sent back to Laramie to bring a large rope to be used in running the ferry boat.  The Platte here is narrower than below being

(Page 40)
(Margin Note:  1867  June)
confined between hills and bluffs, the current is quite rapid.
 On the 19th of June the 4th Infty under command of Col. Gibbon crossed the Platte.  While he was crossing the boat broke loose, became unmanageable and two men were drowned.  On the 23rd June we crossed and marched 16 miles.  On the 24th we marched through bad-lands and camped on the Platte at mouth of the La Prelle river near which place the 4th Infty. Is building Fort Fetterman.
 On the 25th marched to Sage Creek 14 miles leaving the Platte and going north west.  We had no wood in this camp and the water is strongly alkaline.  Near this camp we met Captain Green of the 2nd Cavalry who had been sent to escort trains to Fort Reno & Phil Kearney [sic].  The Indians stampeded his stock and took off all of his horses.  When we met him his Cavly. were riding in the ox wagons of the train he has escorted out.
(Margin Note:  Indians attempt to stampede our stock)
 While here in Camp a party of Indians made an attempt to run off our horses.  The troops were turned out and they were soon driven off.
 On the 26th June we marched to South Cheyenne river 15 miles & camped, water scarce and alkaline a very little cotton wood grows along the banks.  On the 27th we marched 8 miles and found water continued the march 22 miles to North Cheyanne river.  A spring was found to the east of the road here we found wood but poor grass and water.
On the 28th Marched 23 miles to dry fork of Powder river.  Water scarce and bad.  Plenty of wood and grass.  On the 29th we marched to Fort Reno 19 miles on Powder river Found plenty of wood, grass and water here.  The river is from 1 to 4 feet deep and full of quick sands.  We found no water for six miles east of the river.
 On the 1st of July we continued our march for Fort Phil Kearney [sic] and marched 10 miles to dry creek poor water and but little wood near camp here.  Marched 12 miles further to a lake to right of road and camped for the

(Page 41)
(Margin Note:  July 1867)
night, no wood and bad water.
On the 2nd marched 6 miles and crossed Crazy Woman fork where we found good water wood and grass.  Marched 6 miles further and made noon camp at Buffalo Springs.  Grass wood & water scarce here, from here to Phil Kearny is 26 miles.
It is said that the name “Crazy Woman” was given to stream from the following circumstances.  A white man and his wife were captured here by Indians the man was killed and the woman from brutal treatment became insane and wandered off along this stream and died.
On the 2nd made night camp at Connor’s on Chalk Springs 4 miles from Clear Creek.
July 3rd Marched at 5 A.M. at 7 A.M. we crossed Clear Creek a beautiful stream which rises in the Big horn Mountains.  The water is perfectly clear the bed of the creek gravel.  This stream is a most welcome sight to the traveler who has come hundreds of miles across a barren and almost a desert waste.  2 miles from Fort Phil Kearney [sic] we passed De Smidt Lake 7 miles wide and 2 long.  At 2 P.M. we reached Kearney and went into camp on Piney Creek.
(Margin Note:  At Fort Phil Kearney.)
This is a fine agricultural country.  The trail along the streams is rich.  The water fine.  Plenty of wood and stone.  And an abundance of coal.  The troops opened a galery [sic] and took out coal for blacksmithing and heating purposes.  On the 5th at night Indians fired on the sentinels.
On the 6th I was assigned to Co “E” 27th Infty. And Ordered to Fort C. F. Smith 100 miles west of here.
On the 9th of July Genl. Wessells  And 2 Companies of the 18th Inf. left Kearney for Fort Russell.

On the 12th a party of Indians came near the post and succeeded in getting away with 3 horses.
They appeared again on the 14th but were driven off.

(Page 42)
(Margin Note:  1867)
About 4? miles east on a high hill is a signal station  where 5 solders are kept posted.  They can see the country for a long distance around.  And on the trail to Reno  a train can be seen at a distance of 8 miles.  Whenever Indians or trains are on the road signals are given from the hill.  On the 15th A train of ox teams arrived with supplies.
On the 16th The Indians came near the post and attacked the herders but were soon driven away.  I marched after them a few miles but could not come up with them.
On the 17th of July Lt. Col. L. P. Bradley 27th Inf. with 2 companies marched for Fort Smith.  I marched with him.  Jim Bridger  accompanied us as guide.  For a distance of 8 or 10 miles from Kearney the country is quite rough.  But on the whole route to Smith water is found every few miles, the grass is abundant.  The streams are filled with mountain trout.  Large herds of Elk, Antelope and Buffaloes are seen along the road.  We marched by the place where, last year, Capt. Fetterman and 90 men were masacred [sic] by the Sioux.  Not one of the command escaped.  During the day we saw several parties of Indians who kept at a respectful distance.
On the 17th we camped on a small stream near Goose Creek 13 miles from Kearney.  We are having hard rain and the roads are bad.
On the 18th we marched but 3 miles and camped on Goose creek.  We saw growing along these streams wild hops, grapes, plums & cherries.  The sides of the big horn mountains along which we traveled are covered with a dense growth of fine trees.  Goose Creek has a broad rich valley and would make a fine farming country.
On the 19th A courier arrived in our camp from Col. Smith.  At Kearney who informed us that large bodies of Indians were in our front and directed us to delay our march until he could send Cavalry to accompany us.  About 2 P.M. a war party of Indians appeared in our rear.  The troops were turned out

(Page 43)
(Margin Note:  1867)
and the animals driven into the corral formed by arranging the wagons in a circle the ends touching each other.  This not only secures the animals but makes a good defense in case the Indians get too close.  The Indians seeing we were ready to receive them, rode away.  On the 20th we resumed the march.  I commanded the rear guard this day fortunately having a horse to carry me.  Today a friendly Crow, or Apsaroke Indian joined the command as scout & guide.  We marched 20 miles and camped on Middle fork of Tongue River in a fine valley.
Sunday 21st Marched 20 miles and camped on Trout Creek.  On the 22nd marched 11 miles to Rotten Grass Creek and made camp.  About 20 Crow Indians with their squaws & children came to us here and were fed.  The Chief White Mouth, Iron Bull, Winking Eye smoked with me.  Fort Smith is about 25 mi. from Rotten Grass Creek. On the 23rd we marched to Fort Smith reaching there at 5 P.M. and went into camp on the Big Horn River near the fort.  A small party of emigrants had accompanied us they crossed the Bighorn and continued their journey to Virginia City.  Fort Smith is on right bank of the Bighorn at the foot of the Bighorn Mountains.  The land is fertile.  A good site for a town.
In 1868 This fort was abandoned under treaty with the Indians.  The Crows who occupy this country came in large numbers to our camp to trade.  They are very fond of sugar and will give a good buffalo robe for two (2) pints of it.
On the 26th we moved inside the stockade and occupied tents until buildings were erected.
(Margin Note:  Sternburg Killed)
 On the 31st of July 1867 Liut. Sternburg  of the 27th Inf. with 30 men marched out three(3) miles from the post to protect a party of civilians cutting hay for the post.  In the afternoon some [Continued on Page 45]

(Page 44)
(Small letter in another hand dated Aug 1st 1867)

Luit. Palmer
 27th Infantry

 Fort C. F. Smith
  Aug 1st 1867

Mr. Palmer,
 I do not think you have anything to apprehend from Indians:  but keep your men well together & come in as soon as you can load up your teams.  I did not intend to have any teams go out to day.  & I prefer to have them return as soon as possible.
 Respectfully Yours
  L. P. Bradley
  Lt. Col.. Comdg.
(End of small letter)

(Page 45)
(Margin Note:  1867  Indian Fight.)
of the men who were coming in with loads of hay were fired on by Indians – fortunately none of them were hurt.
On the 1st of August I was sent out with 40 men and a number of teams to the mountains south of the post to bring in timbers.  On reaching the mountains I discovered Indians riding around on the hills and sent out men to watch their movements.  On going to the top of a hill I saw Lient. Sternburg’s camp which was on the north side of the post and under a bluff.  His camp could not be seen from the post.  I saw a large number of Indians which I estimated at 800 surrounding Sternburg.  This was about 12 P.M. at the same time quite a large number left the main body and came towards me.  They soon opened on Sternburg and set the hay on fire.  I collected my men and made my way to the wagons where I met a courier from Col. Bradly telling me to hasten to the post .  I could distinctly hear the firing at Sternburg’s camp.  I deployed the men to the front flanks & rear of the wagons and commenced my march.  And fortunately got out of the hills and on the plains before the Indians reached me.  They rode along my flank firing a few shots which I answered, until I reached the fort when they rode off to assist in the attack on Sternburg.  I reached the post at 1 P.M. and reported to Col. Bradley that Sternburg was fighting with 800 or 1000 Indians.  Bradley seemed to think that there were but a small number of Indians and that Sternburg could take care of them.  We could hear the firing at the camp but could not see see [sic] the fighting.  Though a large number of squaws could be seen on a bluff overlooking the battle field.
The companies were formed in line outside the stockade and a howitzer made ready for action.  Up to 4 P.M. not a man had

(Page 46)
been sent to the assistance of Sternburg nor had any one been sent to learn his situation, altho he had been fighting since about 8 A.M.
About 3 P.M. we saw from the post a soldier mounted on a horse coming at full speed from the direction of the fight.  He was chased by 4 or 5 Indians who seemed to be trying to knock him off his horse.  They followed him so near the post that several shots were fired at them when they drew off and the man came in safely.  This man was Bradley of Co. “E” 21st Infty.  He had volunteered to run the Indian lines and come to the post for assistance.  The Indians came so close as to strike him with their bows, which with them is considered a great act of bravery , Bradley reported that several had been killed among the number Liut. Sternburn and said that all would soon be killed if troops were not sent out.
No notice was ever taken of this man’s heroic deed.  After 4 P.M. 2 companies of Infty under Capt. Burrows were started to the battle.  The Indians withdrew upon their approach.  Lient Sternburg and 8 men were killed who might have been saved if troops had been sent out at the time I made the report.  Sternburg fought gallantly and was killed while in the act of firing a musket at the Indians.  He had made a small earthwork with wagons, bodies, tools & dirt.

(Margin Note:  Funeral of Sternburg)
 On the 2nd of August I commanded the escort to bury Sternburg.  The day he left the fort I bade him good by and as I took his hand I said jokingly “well Sternburg I suppose I shall see your fair scalp dangling from some noble red man’s belt in a few days”  Little did I think that I should so soon lay the noble fellow in his grave and fire the death knell over his corpse.  He still sleeps

(Page 47)
(Margin Note:  1867)
in deaths embraced on that lonely plain an ocean and a desert between his cradle and his grave.  He was born in Prussia, educated at the Military school of Berlin and served in the Union Army as a Captain.  In the fight with the Indians he killed two of them and the day before his death he led his men in a charge and drove a party of Indians away from his camp.  No order was published in regard to his death.
 

(Margin Note:  August March to Fort Reno)
On the 8th of August I marched as escort to train to Phil Kearny.  Indians seen on our line of march almost every day.  On the 10th we camped at noon on Reno Creek 5 miles from Kearney here the Indians attacked and attempted to drive off our herd.  A few shots sent them off.  We reached Kearny in the P.M.  The troops here while guarding wood choppers were attacked by Indians on the 2nd instant. Lieut. Jenness and six men of the 27th were killed.  The Indians drove off from the post 300 head of cattle.  It is supposed the Indians were 2000 strong.  30 of them were killed.
 On the 13th we continued our march for Fort Reno.  The country was full of hostile Indians whose signal fires we could see on every side.
(Margin Note:  One of our men killed)
 On the 14th when about 5 miles east of Common’s? springs the Indians attacked our advance guard and killed one man.  I took a small party and drove them off.  Several parties of Indians appeared during the march but always found us ready for them and did not attack.
 We buried the soldier man where he was killed.  On our return we found his grave opened by the wolves and most of his body gone.  But a few bones were found which we buried.  Today we met Capt. Freeman 27th Inf. with a main going to Phil Kearney.  He reported that Indians attacked him the night before at Crazy Woman and wounded three men.  On the 15th we reached Reno where we formed two large ox Trains here waiting escort to Kearney.  On the day

(Page 48)
(Margin Note:  1867 August)
we reached Kearney the train for Smith which was camped on the east side of Powder River was attacked by Indians.  They drove off all their cattle and killed and scalped one herder, cut off his nose, cut his face and body in a horrible manner and shot 4 arrows into him.  The train master was wounded and shortly after died.  I marched out with my Co. to protect the other herders.
On the 18th we marched for Phil Kearney [sic] and Smith escorting 75 wagons.  We reached Kearney on the 23rd where I received a letter from home saying that my boy Guy  was born on the 14th of July.
On the 24th we marched for Fort Smith.  I was compelled to ride in one of the wagons being too sick to sit on my horse.  We made noon camp on the 29th at Tongue River where we had fish, Elk & Buffalo in abundance.
(Margin Note:  September)
On the 1st of September we reached Fort Smith.  Couriers had been sent out during our absence to the Sioux & Cheyenne’s to invite them to a Council at Laramie.  On the 14th I was appointed post Commissary.
Sept. 15th Dr. Mathews (Brother of Rev. Dr. Mathews of Monmouth Ills) was at this place as special Indian Agent.  He held a council with the Crows who want the troops to leave the country.  On the 20th Sept. I rode out to the mountains where we found a great canyon at the bottom of which runs a large stream which from the top of the side of the canyon looks like a silver thread.  On the 22nd I rode out to find a place suitable for making hay and met a party of Crow Indians.
On the 5th of Oct. I purchased from John Richard $1800 worth of vegetables for the troops.  They were brought from Gallatin? Valley 250 miles distant.  This man was a half breed Sioux his father being a Frenchman.  Richard had a Sioux

(Page 49)
(Margin Note:  1867)
wife.  She was employed as guide and interpreter.  In 1870 he took offence at the whites and rode through Fort Fetterman shooting at every body he could killing one soldier.  He then rode off to the camp of the hostile Sioux and went with them in a number of their raids on the whites subsequently he went to Washington with Red Cloud  and other hostile Sioux.  He was not arrested tried and hung as he should have been but accompanied the Indians in their journey through the country.
(Margin Note:  John Richards)
They went to Illions? and at the Remmington Armory Col Smoot, the Secretary of the Co. gave each Chief a new rifle and ammunition which they took to the plains and used in killing soldiers.  Smoot was neither tried, nor arrested he was not even censured.  He should have been put into jail where he could do no more harm.
(Margin Note:  His death)
After Richards return from Washington he went to Fort Laramie where he quarreled with some of the Sioux Chiefs.  He went into one of their tepes [sic] to fight them when they jumped on him and cut him in pieces with knives.

(Margin Note:  October)
On the 10th of October a large number of Crow Indians came to the post, Squaws pappooses [sic] and dogs came to hold a powwow.  Seats were provided under a pauline? where the Chiefs and officers of the post collected and the Council began.  Each Chief in turn rose shook hands all around and made short speeches.  The substance of which was that they wanted the troops to go out of their country saying that we made it stink so that the Buffaloes would not come into the country.  They all wanted powder.  After receiving presents of tobacco, sugar & C the Indians left.  Today I purchased from one of the Montana Malitia, a pony for $53.00

(Page 50)
(Margin Note:  October 1867)
On the 15th of Oct. Dr. Mathews with a number of Crows left the post to go to Laramie to meet the peace Commissioners.
 On the 17th a train arrived escorted by the 27th Infty.  Maj. B. T. Smith Liutenants Wishart of the 27th & Luther of the 18th.
(Margin Note:  November)
 On the 7th of November a Crow Indian arrived bringing the mail from Fort Phil Kearney [sic].  On the 5th inst. Lieut.Shirley of the 27th escorting train en route to this post was attacked by Indians.  The Indians got 4 wagons carrying goods for the post trader at this place.  They killed three soldiers and sent an arrow through Shirley’s foot.  Shirley returned to Kearney.  A few months after this he ws placed on the Retired list.  The train escorted by Capt. Gordon 2nd Cavly. reached the post on the 2nd instant Lt. Bilden with the escort.
On the 18th a party of Sioux came near the post but were driven off.
On the 25th A train arrived bringing Capt. Burt and Lt. Miller with their families.  The mail brought me an appointment as First Lieutenant via Jenness killed at Kearney Also an order directing me to report for duty at Phil Kearny.
On the 28th I left the post with a train under command of Capt. Hartz.  The weather was very cold and stormy.  The snow fell during the day and several of the men froze their fingers and toes.  The snow had covered up the road so that we had great difficulty to find our course.
On the 29th we camped on Trout Creek near a large camp of Crow Indians.  Many of them came to our camp to exchange skins and furs for something to eat.  The weather continued very cold 3 men had their feet frozen in this camp.
On 14th of Dec. we camped on Pecco? Creek and here we had a chase after Buffaloes.  My horse was slow and after I had shot one bull he gave out.  The two men with me continued the chase.  One of them running too near a buffalo had his horse badly gored so

(Page 51)
(Margin Note:  1867 December)
that he died in a short time.
 On the 2nd of Dec we reached Kearney and I was assigned to the command of Co. “A” 27th Infty.
On the 3rd a messenger came in to report that the Indians had attacked a train at Crazy Woman.  Capt. Gordon with his Co. 2nd Cavly. was sent out to assist the train.  He brought it in.  The Indians had held the train 3 days and killed one soldier.
(Margin Note:  Main Attacked)
While stationed at Kearney I occupied quarters with Lient. Bilden 2nd Cavalry.  On my arrival he presented me with a fine silver mounted pistol.  He was a great hunter and Indian fighter.  And had many thrilling adventures and hairbreadth escapes.  Bilden 2nd Calv published in 1870 a book of his adventures Called “The White Chief”
(Margin Note:  Lt. Bilden 2nd Calvy.)
Bilden was dismissed from the Army and a few years after was killed by Indians.  When a boy he rode “Pony Express” across the plains.
 On the 9th a party of Indians attempted to drive off a herd of our cattle.  They were pursued and driven off and it was thought that one was killed or wounded as a bow and lance were found on the field.
 On the 10th a train under charge of Mathews, Indian Agent, arrived bringing presents for the Indians.  The Commission which met at Laramie did but little good as but few of the hostile Indians came to the Council.  Word was sent to the Sioux telling them that the country would be given up to them if they remained peaceable during the winter.
(Margin Note:  Attack on Citizens)
On the 14th 5 citizens who were hauling wood to the Post were attacked by Indians.  2 were wounded and all their horses taken away.
On the 21st of December about 150 Arapahoes and Cheyennes came to the post to hold council and get presents. (This is just one year from the massacre of Fetterman’s Command at this place)  They camped about ½ mile from the Post.  Bilden and I rode down to their camp.  Some one at the post had given them a fat but worthless dog.  And they were preparing him for the feast.  They had thrown him into the camp-kettle hair, entrails and all and were boiling him.  We saw them eating crows and cutting steaks from oxen that had died from disease or exhaustion.  The weather was very cold game was scarce and they were evidently very hungry.

(Page 52)

  January   1868

On the 2nd of January 1868 a large number of Sioux, Cheyanne, Arapahoes and Crows came to the post to hold a Council.  The Council was held in the post in a log building which we used as a Theatre.  Chiefs from each nation and the officers of the post attended the Council.  The men were kept in quarters under arms, every thing was kept in readiness for an outbreak by the Indians who came with arms concealed under their blankets.  The Indians were not apparantly [sic] disposed to make any attempt to capture the place, knowing that we were ready for them.  One of the Cheyannes thinking himself insulted by one of the soldiers strung his bow and looked all over the post for the man who hid himself and thus probably prevented trouble.  Red Cloud was not present but sent word that he would make peace when the soldiers left the country.  The speeches of the Chief were to the effect that they wanted the soldiers to leave the country and wanted us to give them powder.  I wrote to the Chicago Tribune a letter describing the Council.
 On the 17th we received a mail from the East in which came 10 letters from Estelle.
On the 21st Bilden and I rode out on a hunt – about 5 miles from the post we discovered a party of 20 Indians coming towards us, they were two miles off and we had ample time to regain the post.
 The peace Commission had concluded to pacify the Indians by moving the troops from Reno.  Kearney and C. J. Smith.
(Margin Note:  March)
 On the 19th of March a train arrived bringing orders for the abandonment of the Country by the troops.
On the 26th instant we made a picnic party and went to the hills.  A blind mule was all I could get to ride on.  Returning from the excursion I ran a race, the mule stumbled and fell throwing me over his head.  By this mishap I lost my pistol.

(Page 53)
(Page Margin:  1868  April)
On the 7th of April a number of Red Cloud’s band came near the post but would not talk though we rode towards them and tried to get them to come in.  They sent one bullet whizing [sic] into the fort and rode off.  On the 8th another party came in, among them Poor Elk – “Man afraid of his horse” and Red Clouds brother.  They smoked with us and departed in good humor.
(Margin Note:  May  Leave of Absence)
 On the 24th of April I received a Leave of Absence for forty days and on the 5th of May started with a train for the East.  Lt. Coole? 29th in Command of the escort.  Lt. Wishart also went East to meet his wife at Cheyenne who returned with him to Fort C. J. Smith.  We reached Fort Reno on the 6th of May at 6 P.M..  On the 7th marched 35 miles and camped at Antelope springs.  On the 8th marched to Brown’s springs 34 miles.  At this camp we found water but no wood.  3 men killed by Indians are burried [sic] here.  On the 9th we marched into Fort Fetterman.  A few miles west of Fetterman we met Capt. De Issay of the 27th on his way to join his Regiment and escorting a train to move the troops down from Fort Smith.
On the 10th we left Fetterman for Fort Laramie.  8 miles from Fetterman we struck the old road to California and continued on it until we reached Fort Laramie on the 11th inst.  The Indian Peace Commission had been in session here and adjourned a few days before our arrival. General Harvey and Mr. Sanbourn members of the Commission still at Laramie waiting to see “Man Afraid of his horse” who had not been present at the Councils.
 On the 13th I left Laramie in company with Capt. Mills and Lt. Bradley of the 18th Infty. For Cheyenne.  At Laramie Lt. Wishart was ordered back to Fort Smith to attend to the sale of stores at that place where he was Quartermaster.  He sent Mr. Smith his clerk to Cheyenne for his family.  We rode to Cheyenne in an ambulance which place we reached on the 15th inst.
(Margin Note:  At Cheyenne City.)
At this time Cheyenne was the terminus of the Union Pacific Rail Road and contained about 5000 inhabitants made up for the greater part of gamblers, ox drivers, thieves, and murderers.  A vigilance Committee attempted to keep order and nearly every night they hung some murderer or thief to a telegraph pole.  2/3 of the houses were gambling places Saloons and Bawdy dance houses where the women asked the men

(Page 54)
(Margin Note:  1868  May)
to dance and led them to the bar to take a drink.  Near the town was a grave yard where about 50 men were burried [sic] every one of whom had died a violent death.
On the 16th I took the cars and reached Omaha on the 17th.  I reached Chicago on the 19th where at the Adams House I met Estelle and saw for the first time Guy, who was 10 months old.  On the 21st we went to Monmouth where we remained until the 22nd of June when I started to join my Regiment.  Cars to Burlington and from there a boat to Clinton Iowa.  Reached Omaha on the 25th June.  I Reported to Hd. qrs. Dept Platte and was directed to proceed to Fort Russell and await the arrival at that place of my Regiment.  Reached Fort Russell on the 28th and temporarily assigned to duty with the 18th Infty.

(Margin Note:  August)
On the 4th of August I marched in command of Co. “G” 18th Infty and 20 teams to the Mountains to cut and bring in timber.  I marched to Cheyenne Pass and returned on the 8th instant, member of Genl. Court at Fort Russell.
On the 18th my Regiment arrived at Fort Russell and was sent to the Republican river to intercept the Indians who had been fighting Forsyth and who had either killed or stolen all his horses and almost succeeded in getting his whole command.
 My company was ordered to take station at Pine Bluff on the U.P.R.R. 50 miles east of Cheyenne.

(Margin Note:  Sept.)
On the 27th of September I went to Pine Bluff and took command of my Company.  I had the road to guard from Antelope Station to Cheyenne and had men at each station.  Estelle and Guy were with me. And we lived in two wall tents.  Lined with boards and having a sod wall built about 4 feet high around them.  We lived here nearly all winter.  The men dug holes in the ground over which they stretched their tents making stoves of old Camp kettles.
 On the 5th of October The First Sergeant reported that a Corporal of the Co. was trying to Shoot him.  I went out and found the Corporal walking back and forth in front of his tent in a state of great

(Page 55)
excitement.  He had torn off his stripes and Chevrons and was threatening and cursing.  His gun he had loaded and leaned against his tent.  I went up to him and asked him what he meant and at the same time took his musket and threw out the Cartridge.  He said he meant to shoot the First Sergeant.  I told him to go into his tent.  He said he would not.  I told him again & he refused.  I then struck him with the butt of the musket and knocked him senseless.  And brok [sic] the musket in two by the force of the blow.  He soon revived and went quietly to bed.  I had him reduced to the ranks.  He pleaded to be let off a Court Martial.  I did not bring him to trial and he gave me no trouble thereafter.  The soldiers of the Army at this time were of the worst possible.  Thieves, drunkards and thugs were in the majority and Officers had all they could do to control them.  (Now 1879, we have as a rule, excellent material in the Army)

(Margin Note:  1869)
 On the 10th of January 1869 I received orders to move with my Company to Omaha.  We reached Omaha on the 11th where Captain Bisbee took command of the Company.
By Act of Congress the No. of Regiments is reduced from 45 to 25.  My Regiment is to be consolidated with the 9th Infantry now in California and Alaska.
On the 29th of March my Company went to Fort Sedgwick to relieve Companies of the 18th Infty. which goes to Georgia to consolidate with the 24th Inf.  Reached Sedgwick on the 14th of April.  This post was on the South side of the Platte 400 miles west from Omaha.  Julesburg? A station on the U.P.R.R. was on the north side of the River 3 miles from the post.  The River is fordable at this place.  Though in time of high water it is dangerous on account of the quick sands and rapid current.  Sedgwick is now abandoned.  E.F Townsend Commanded at Sedgwick.
In the Consolidation of Regiments I was, being junior in rank, left out from a Regiment.  And ordered home to await orders.  We left Sedgwick on the 23rd of June reached Quincy Ills on the 28th Where Estelle and Guy left me and went to Louisville Ky.

(Page 56)
(Margin Note:  1869)
I went to Monmouth.
On the 5th of July Estelle telegraphed that Guy was very sick.  I went immediately to Louisville arriving there on the 7th.  Guy recovered and we went on the 13th to the farm in Winnebago? Co. Ills.  Where I remained until the 27th inst. when I proceeded under orders to Jackson Miss.  Leaving Estelle and Guy in Monmouth.  Reached Jackson on the 6th of August and was assigned, by ?hilty Governor Lt. Col. Ames to duty in connection with the reconstruction of the state of Miss.  Which duty I afterwards learned consisted in assisting to make Ames a Senator from Miss.  He was made a Senator which I think he lives to regret.  As he resigned from the Army, had but a brief and unhonored [sic] carreer [sic] as Senator and is now in some obscure corner of Minnesota running a mill  He was a selfish, cold blooded man ( Married Gen. Butlers daughter)

(Margin Note:  August)
On the 13th of August I was sent to Carthage? Miss to investigate the conduct of the Sheriff of Leak County who had been appointed by Ames and against whom complaints had been made.  I went by rail to Forrest on the Meridian Road and there hiring a horse rode 50 miles to Carthage.  The Sheriff was quite young.  He had no will force and was a tool in the hands of bad men.  He had appointed Ku Klux as his deputies and they robbed the negroes.  They collected taxes and put the money in their pockets.  Returned as insolvent many who had paid their taxes.  The Sheriff upon my report was removed from Office.
 I returned to Jackson on the 20th inst. having traveled 200 miles.
On the 21st instant I was assigned to duty at the post of Jackson with the 16th Infantry where I remained until October.  At this time Yerger the murder of Col. Crane Of the Army was confined in the guard house at the post - in a cell 14 feet square - He was handcuffed and his legs shackled.  Two sentinels were constantly watching him.  These precautions were taken because it was thought that his friends would attempt to release him by an attack of the guard.

(Page 57)
(Margin Note:  1869)
His wife was permitted to visit him an hour each day in the presence of an Officer.  She was not allowed to approach him nearer than 8 feet.  These rules were made by Ames and were strictly enforced.  A number of soldiers who were suspected of accepting a bribe from Yerger were confined by Ames in the State prison.  Nothing was found against them.  Yerger was tried by a Military Commission but his sentence was never published and when the State of Miss. was pronounced “reconstructed” he was turned over to the Civil Courts.  He was indited by a Grand Jury and bound over for trial.  He was never tried which is just as well because the Rebel Jury and Judge which would have tried him would have complimented instead of condemned him.  The evidence taken by the Commission proved him to be a cold blooded murderer.  He looked like one.  I learned him well during the times I was charged with his keeping.  He had violent fits of anger.  Condemned everything not in accord with his ideas.  Claimed to be one of the best of men.  He always insisted that he had injured no one.  He often said “I have injured no one but God.”  One day he said this with more than usual earnestness.  I turned to him and asked “Do you think you have done no injury to the wife and children of the man you murdered!”  He said nothing.  And I never after this heard him make the remark.  He read during his confinement, many works on the Protestant and Catholic churches and one day announced that he was converted to the Catholic faith.  He was a bold bad man, and a very dangerous man to cross.  In 1872 he moved to Baltimore and started a violent rebel paper.  He died a short time after and the world was better for it.

(Margin Note:  October)
On the 14th of October I left Jackson and went to Monmouth on Leave of Absence for 20 days.  I remained with Estelle until Nov. 10 when, not being able to get an extension to my leave from the

(Page 58)
(Margin Note:  1869 November  (Addeller & Genl Butlers son law Married Blance)
cold bolded Ames, to await Mary’s debut into this world I returned to Jackson on the 13th of November.
On the 28th Nov. I was sent with ten men to Brandon Miss. To remain during the state election.
The citizens of Brandon invited me and my men to a dinner and presented me with a complimentary letter for the manner in which I had deported myself.  I returned to Jackson on the 6th of December.  On the 15th of December I was sent in command of Co. “G” 16th Infty to Vicksburg to transfer the company to that post.  I returned to Jackson on the 17th and was assigned to duty with Co. E 16 Infy. Capt. Fletcher
(Margin Note:  1870)
On the 5th of January 1870 we left Jackson for Corinth? Miss. which place we reached on the 8th.  On the 12th of Feby. I went to Jackson Miss as witness in the case of Capt. Allyn?  While here I received an order directing my home to await orders.  The order was revoked from Washington and I remained on duty with the 16th Infantry.  I returned to Corinth on the 16th.
On the 17th I started for Monmouth on a 7 days Leave – and returned to Corinth with Estell, Guy & Mary who was born on 19th of November. 1869.
In April I was ordered to report for duty at Ash Barracks Nashville Tennessee.  I reached there on the 29th of May.
On the 9th of June I marched with 9 men mounted to assist Revenue Officers in Henry County.  Went by rail to Huntington from which place we marched to Paris, Corysville?, Roberts Stone, Mouth of Sandy Creek on Tenn. River, Henderson’s factory where we seized a large quantity of tobacco.  About 20 wagons were hired in the neighborhood and the tobacco taken to Paris & shipped to Memphis.  We marched to Paris on the 6th and to Caldwell’s factory, returned on the 18th.  On the 19th marched to Big Sandy – thence towards Camden – where on the 20th I took cars and returned to Nashville having traveled by rail 170 miles and marched 150 miles.

On the 15th of Sept. Hodges? Band & one Co. of the 16th arrived at Nashville.  I was assigned to duty with Co. “F” Capt. Mede??eyen

(Page 59)
(Margin Note:  1870)
In September Genl Capin? preferred charges against 1 Lt. Armstrong of the 16th Infty. and I was appointed a member of the court to try him.  When his case came up his council ???y properly objected to me, on the ground that I was as yet unassigned to a Regiment and that Armstrong’s dismissal would open a vacancy to which I would probably be assigned.  As I had been recommended for assignment to any vacancy that might occur in the 16th Infty and that I was a material witness for the prosecution.  I then requested to be relieved as a member of the court.  I was relieved.  Armstrong was dismissed from the Army.
 On the 13th of Oct. we left Nashville (Co. F Capt. W) to go to Alabama during the state election.  Reached Livingston Ala. Going via Corinth & Meridian Miss., on the 14th where we went into camp.
 On the 5th of Nov. I went with 15 men to Gaston to remain during the election on the 8th Went by rail to York Station and thence marched to Gaston.  On the 9th inst. I returned to Livingston.
On the 14th we left Livingston and took the cars for Atlanta Ga. Via Selma & Montgomery.  Reached Atlanta on the 16th instant and went into quarters at Mc Pherson barracks where 6 companies of the 16th Inf are in quarters and were to be sent into Georgia to preserve peace during the elections on the 20th, 21st & 22nd of December.
On the 18th of Nov. I was on my application sent to Nashville Tenn. To await orders as to whether I would be assigned to a Regiment or mustered out.  As the law provided that the supernumeraries should be mustered out on the 1st of January 1871.  I reached Nashville on the 19th inst.  In December I was permanently assigned by the War Department to the 16th Infantry.  And by a Regimental order was assigned to Co. “F” 16th Infty.
 On the 28th of Dec. received a 7 days leave to go to New York (to see Geo Nye about pumps)
I left Nashville on the 28th of Dec. and reached New York on the 31st instant.  Not finding Nye there I started for Chicago the same day.  I reached Chicago on the 1st of Jany. 1871 and found Nye at the Clifton House.
On the 3rd of Jany. I went to the farm at Harrison & on the

(Page 60)
 6th instant went to Monmouth Ills.  I returned to Nashville on the 15th
 

On the 28th of Jany I left Nashville with 9 mounted men went to assist U.S. Revenue Officers in enforcing the Revenue laws.  Took cars at 4 P.M. and at 10 at night reached Fountain Head on the Louisville & Marshville R.R. from which place we marched.  Returned to Nashville on the 3rd. of February, having marched 150 miles.
In March I went to Memphis as witness before the U.S. Court in the tobacco case seized from Henderson.
On the 20th of March I marched with 10 mounted men to assist revenue officers.  I marched until 11 P.M. passing through Gallatin and halting there.  At 50 miles from Nashville at daylight of the 21st we reached Caldwells house and illicit still.  Caldwell was arrested.  On the 23rd we returned via Hortsville & Galaten? To Nashville, rain poured upon us during the whole of the last days march.  Total distance marched 125 miles.  In April I went to Humboldt as member of Genl. Court Marshal, absent 10 days (300 miles)
In may I returned to Humboldt & remained 5 days.

In June I recved. 60 days Leave of Absence and went to Louisville, Monmouth, and to the farm ( I purchases an interest in Nye’s Steam Vacuum Pump in which speculation lost $800)
On the 15th of August I returned via St. Louis & Louisville to Nashville.
On the 21st went to Louisville to meet Estelle who had remained in Ills. Returned to Nashville on the 29th.

In Jany. My Co. went to Louisville to attend the funeral of General Hallick who was burried [sic] on the 13th inst.  The escort consisted of the 4th and 16th Infantry and one Company of the 7th Cavly.  We returned to Nashville on 14th instant.
 Mch 21st Detailed Judge Advocate Genl. Court Martial at Nashville.  From Mch 24th to May 17th I was acting Regimental & Post Adjutant in absence of Lt. Barber.
 May 26th 1872 In command of a detachment of the 7th Cavalry Lt. De Rudio & 20 men I marched to

(Page 61)
(Margin Note:  1872 May)
assist U.S. Revenue Officers in enforcing the Revenue laws.  On the 3rd day out Lt. De Rudio & 10 men were detached to go to Winchester Tenn.  I scouted through the counties of Coffee, Lincoln, Giles, and Bedford.  We found and destroyed 18 illicit distilleries.  They were all secreted in hollows & woods and were in full blast.   The Revenue Officer was J.C. Bryant, from Ohio, his sister married Campbell the founder of the Campbellite Church.  He was absent 15 days and marched 350 miles.
In June, July, and August I was acting Regimental and Post Adjutant.

  Ruth born July 25th ‘72

On the 2nd of November I took train with Lt. Morrison & 20 men to attend elections in Alabama.  We reached Troy Ala. On the 4th inst.  While here I met a Mr. Bucher 72 years old and a cousin to Henry Ward Bucher and very much like him in appearance.  He said Henry Ward when a youth preferred fishing on Sunday to going to church.  The rain poured on us every day during our stay here.  We returned to Nashville on the 13th inst.
(Margin Note:  Nov.)
 I was sent to Carroll County Tennessee to investigate a claim for pension made by one Mrs. Towe??dy.  On the 18th of November I brought out my Infty. Equipment, the first patterns, on which I had been at work for some time.  Since Nov. ’71

(Margin Note:  1873)
In February I went to Louisville to conduct Recruits to Nashville for the 16th Infty.  While here I heard Henry Ward Bucher lecture on the subject of Manhood and Money.  Returned to Nashville on the 28th instant.

On the 1st of May 1873 I left Nashville on “Sick Leave” for 6 months.  Reached Beloit Wis. on the 3rd inst.  On the 1st of Aug. ’73 I went to Waukesha Wis. a resort for invalids.  Where I remained about 5 weeks.  From Sept. 25th to Oct 23rd I was at Chicago.  On the 22nd of October I went to Winamac Indiana to see my brother Allen who had fallen from a Balloon and was dangerously injured.  I remained with

(Page 62)
him until he was past immediate danger when I returned to Beloit Wis.  Allen subsequently died from the effects of his injuries received by this fall.  I returned to Nashville on the 1st of November 1873.
(Margin Note:  1874)
On the 5th of May I went to Jackson Miss. To conduct recruits.  Returned to Nashville on the 8th.

July 1st 1874 I received Leave of Absence to go to Leavenworth Kansas, to present my Equipment to the Board of Officers there convened.  I went via of Monmouth Ills. And visited my uncle A.C. Harding, remaining at his house until 6th of July.  This was the last time I saw him.  He was very sick at this time and died shortly after.  (July 19th)I reached Leavenworth on the 7th and on the 8th and 9th went before the Board to exhibit and explain my Equipment.  Leaving two sets of them to be tried by the troops at Leavenworth.
On the 12th of July I returned to Nashville.
On the 23rd I sent 2 additional sets of Equipment to the Board.
On the 25th I left Nashville to join my Company at Manchester Tenn.  We returned to Nashville on the 31st of August and returned to Nashville.
(Margin Note:  September)
On the 16th of September by telegraphic order from General McDowell I left Nashville with my Company for New Orleans which place we reached on the 17th at 10 o’clock at night and marched from the depot to the Custom house where we found Capt. Theaker, and some of the 3rd Infty, Pitt Kellogg was Governor at this time and a fight between the Kellogg Officials and the Rebel White League, who claimed that McEvery was Governor, had taken place in the streets of the city.  A number had been killed on each side.  Major Wainwright of the 16th Inf. took command at the Custom House and appointed me his Adjutant.  On the 29th of Sept. Maj.Wainwright was sent to Little Rock Ark.  I dined with him at Moreaus the day he left.
On the 1st of Sept. by order of Genl. Emory who was in Command at New Orleans, I left New Orleans for Nashville which place we reached on the 4th of October.

(Page 63)
(Margin Note:  1874 November)
On the 1st of November I went with ten men to Huntsville Ala. To attend the election  there.  Met on the train Senator Spencer and reported to Deputy U.S. Marshal Z.E. Thomas at Huntsville that I was ready to assist him in preserving peace.  I made camp in the town 160 yards from the Court House where the election was held, kept my men in camp under arms during the day of election.  On the 7th of Nov. I returned to Nashville.

(Margin Note:  1875)
January 1st 1875.  This New Years day in company with the Officers of the post called on Mrs. Polk wife of the ex President.  And on ex President Andrew Johnson at the Maxwell House, and Governor Brown of Tenn. at the Capital building.
On the 20th of Jany. Genl. Frank Cheatam introduced me to Genl. Forrest -W.B of Rebel fame.  I said I had long desired to meet him as I had run against him on several occasions during the War.  He asked me where and I said at Donelson.  Which he seemed not to relish.  He was a man of mean appearance and had a brutal reputation among those who knew him.
(Margin Note:  Feby)
On the 4th of Feby. I went to Newport Ky. To conduct 150 recruits to New Orleans which place we reached on the 11th inst. and on the same day started our return, reaching Nashville the 13th.
On the 9th of June went to Humboldt Tenn. for Garrison Court Martial duty.  Returned on the 16th instant.
 Clark Harding came the 16th July and left the 30th.
(Margin Note:  August)
On the 17th August went to Humboldt on a General Court Martial.  Fletcher Morse Twedenger?? on the Court.  Returned to Nashville on the 19th.
Oct. 19th went again to Humboldt on a Genl. Court returned on the 22nd of November.

(Margin Note:  1876 January)
On the 11th of January 1876 went to Huntsville Alabama on a General Court Martial returned to Nashville on the 14th.  On the 27th May Estelle & the Children left Nashville for Ills.  Captain Theaker moved with his Co. from Humbold to Nashville and the Band & Hdqrs 16th Inf. moved to New Port Barracks in June.  On June 1st I was detailed Post q.m. O.C.S. and Adjutant.
In August I was detailed by order from War Dept. to take charge of the Natnl. Cemeteries in Ky. And Tennessee.

(Page 64)
Centennial Exhibition
  Entire page blank.
(Page 65)
(Margin Note:  1876)
In August I received a Leave of Absence and started on the 31st of August for Philadelphia to attend the Centennial Exhibition.  I reached Philadelphia on the 2nd of September and stayed with Wm. Gourlay?.  In Fairmount park was an Iron elevator 240 feet high a wire rope wound on a drum and turned by an engine drew a car, in which passengers rode to the top of the tower.  I rode up and from the top a fine view was had of the city and the Jersey Shore.  In the Exposition building, among the thousands of things that were to be seen one can hardy remember any of them.  My first day there left an impression on my mind that I had seen a tanned Elephant skin.  And this was about all I knew of the first days sights.  A carpet made by Templeton of Glasgow Scottland for the King of Siam was exhibited.  It was in one piece 86 by 36 ft.  The figures were three-headed Elephants, each figure being 12 ft. square.  Each State had buildings on the Ground.  That of the state of Mississippi was a small log cabin.  Inside of which were hung two photographs.  One the State Legislature of 1875 in which were many negroes and the Legislature of 1876 in which there was but one negro.  Of course the whole thing had a political significance.  A rail road was laid around the grounds and small open cars drawn by engines carried passengers the circuit 3 ½ miles for 5 cents.
The wrist & had of the Statue being made in Paris for New York Harbor lay on the ground.  The thumb is large enough for a man to lie in.  the frame work of the Statue is of Iron bars the covering of Sheet Copper.
On the grounds was what they called “An old time Log Cabin”  When I went here about 400 people were trying to pay 25c to get in.  Once in you saw Old clock, tables chairs, dishes, cradles used some hundreds of years ago.  At a table under a porch people sat and ate pork and beans at 25c a plate.  All the girls and old maids on the grounds were continually scribbling in note books.  The Chinese carvings are wonderful.  Ivory ships, balls within balls, pagodas &c &c.
A bedstead was exhibited on which a lifetime must have spent in carving.

(Page 66)
(Margin Note:  1876)
On the 8th of September I left Philadelphia and went to New York.  In Co. with Mr. Theadon Stevens I went all through Western Union Telegraph building from the tower which is 200 feet high a fine view is had of the city.
Went on Elevation Railway to 29th St.  Visited Stock exchange on Wall Street.  Trinity Church is at the head of this street.  The tomb stones read here lies “ye” body or here lies “ye” daughter &c.  Visited Central Park which is not so large as
Fairmont but much finer.  On the 11th Sept. I went out to Newark N.J. to see Peddie & Co. about Post office Equipment.
In the A.M. I took boat at Jersey City and sailed up East River to Harlem where I took the cars and went to Palmer Mass. to visit le ??wey.
Left Palmer on the 14th and remained in Chicago until the 18th when I went to the farm and remained, until Oct. 2 1876, when I returned to Nashville, and In the same month was relieved from Charge of the Cemeteries and ordered to join my Company.  I went to Mobile thence to Mount Vernon & left my family in the barracks there & on the 23rd joined my Company in New Orleans.  3rd & 13th Regiment of Infty are also in the city.  We are here to preserve peace between the Union & Rebel Legislatures.  I saw the Colored woman Elizabeth Pinkston when she arrived at the Custom house.  The Ku Klux had attacked and killed her husband, shot her child in her arms and had mutilated her & left her for dead.  I saw her assisted up the steps of the Custom house, saw the terrible wounds on her body and herd her tell her story.  There also came in with her 6 or 8 negroes who had been wounded by the White League.  The facts have not half been told about the murders committed by Southern democrats.  Their crimes are almost beyond belief.  Yet northern democratic papers deny all these terrible things and say they are republican lies.  I have not one spark of love or respect for most of the Southern people.  They are as a class frauds, liars - They will kiss your cheek while they stab you in the back - They are beyond hope.  I have seen and know their hellish deeds.

(Page 67)
On the 1st of Jany. The Rival Legislatures met.  The Packard at the state house and the Rebel at St. Patricks Hall.  The Rebel Legislature presented itself at the state house but was not admitted.  The Packard party had baricaded [sic] the windows and had a strong force of armed police in the building.  The troops are kept in quarters ready to march into the streets in case of trouble.
On the 3rd I called on the Senatorial Committee which was in session in the Custom House.  Introduced to Senator Oglesby & Howe.  The Republican Legislature is nearly all Negroes.  The Lieut. Gov. Antoinc? Is an intelligent and fine looking negro.  In the Senate I met Mr. Luichell who is crippled in both arms and in his legs.  He was attacked by the Democrats or White League at his house and shot to pieces.  His sister was present and from the effects of terror died on her way home and was burried [sic] in Indianapolis.

(Margin Note:  1877)
On the 9th of Jany. The white League are under arms.  Guy came to the Custom house with my driver and says he saw 200 White League in Larayette Square.  From the Custom house we can see the stores being closed.  Men going into gun stores and coming out armed.  The streets are in a ferment.  About 3000 White Leagers marched by the Custom house under command and of Ogden.  They took possession of the police courts & stations, civil courts, state arsenal and surrounded the state house which was the only place in the city held by the Packard Government.  Four Companies were held under arms in the Custom House to march to the state house by direction of Col. V??post to watch the movement of the League.  The streets were jammed full of them.  They had a guard around the State house and would let no one approach it, but would let any one come out from it.  They gave way for me as soon as my uniform was recognized.  They in no way offered opposition to the U.S. troops.  In one of my trips to the state house U.S. Senator Leonard met me and requested me to carry a letter to Gov. Packard which I did.  He said it was of the

(Page 68)
of the greatest importance to Packard, but he had therefor been unable to get it to him.  The League marched off at dark. Leaving only a guard at the State House and in some other parts of the City.  Emil Augur who is in Command here is directed not to interfere but merely to keep the peace.
On the 10th of Jany. The City was quiet.  The League withdrew their pickets from the immediate vicinity of the State house and the Packard Police appeared on the streets in front of the building.
This state of affairs continued until April 5th when the Commissioners appointed by Hayes arrived to fix up between the rival Governments.  Packards friends file away from him, and he was forced to give it up.
On the 24th of April the 3rd Infty under Col. Brook, Stationed in the Orleans Hotel which stood adjoining the State House marched out of the City in full dress and bands playing.  This was the beginning of the end of the use of troops to sustain State Government in the South.  The White League fired 100 guns to Celebrate the departure of the troops.  Flags were flying all over the city.  The news paper offices were illuminated.  Forge crowds were on the streets and the damned Rebels who had got control by the use of pistol knife & gun raised the rebel yell to see the troops march out.
(Small note inserted into the Journal)
During the session of the Commission sent by the President The Packard Government became satisfied that the President would not sustain them.  The order for the withdrawal of the troops caused many of the Legislature to go over to the Nichols Government.  One by one Packards supporters left him.  And to day the 25th of April ’77 As I arrived at the State House yesterday Packard will surrender the State house to the Nichols Govt.  It appears that the Nichols govt. is nothing more than a usurpation.  His party carried on its election with shot guns butchering Union men & negroes who would ???vote they ??? And he ???tion? himself in power by an armed force in this city.  His has been purely a military government because his white league has been on active duty, and Nichols would not be Governor today were it not that his army has crushed out the Republican party.  It remains to be seen what their promises to protect Republicans in their rights amount to.  Now that the Confederates are in full possession of the South and almost in control of the Government it becomes a question whether we are to loose all the fruits of the last war and see the restoration of slavery.
(End of small note)

(Page 69)
 In June 1877 my Regiment was ordered to the Department of the Missouri.  We left New Orleans and reached Fort Wallack Kansas on the 14th of June 1877, Col Van Voast Commands the post.  One Co. 9th Cavly (Capt. Dodge) was at the post on our arrival.  I was appointed a.a.qm. & a.g.s.? from 1st to 4th of July.  The Cheyenne Indians who were being taken to the Indian Territory camped 15 miles east of here – many of them came to visit the post.  I issued rations to 1000 of them.  Nov. 4 to 10th 1877 went on Buffalo hunt with Boehm 4th Cav. Rode 90 miles. 4 Buffaloes killed.
Continued A.A.q.m & A.G. S. until Sept. 2nd 1878 when I was relieved & Lt. Love appointed.
Cheyenne Indians reported to have left their Reservation in the Ind. Territory and going North. They are raiding on the settlements.  About 100 men of the 23rd. Inf. mounted arrived at Wallace to assist in intercepting the Indians.  Reported that Indians had been seen near Sheridan Station and had chased a party of emigrants.  My Co. left the post at night on the 13th went by rail to Sheridan.  From Sheridan I went with five men on an engine to Gopher siding where we found an abandoned wagon but no evidence that Indians had been in the vicinity.  At 2.30 A.M. of the 14th left Sheridan and marched 7 miles to Gleason’s Ranch where we remained until 10 A.M. when Capt. Eskridge with his mounted Co. 23rd Inf. arrived from Wallace.  We marched in the P.M. to Gopher siding and made dry camp getting water from a passing engine.  At daylight of the 15th marched to Sheridan Station where we found Maj. Dallas 23rd with the remainder of his mounted command.
 The whole command returned to Wallace at 4 P.M. 23rd went into camp.  On the 16th I was detailed Post Adjutant.  Some within 17th reported that Roudlebrock 14th Cav had had a fight with the Indians on the 13th and had lost 6 men on Bluff Creek north of Camp Supply.
26th Reported by several that the Indians have crossed the A. T. & S. F. Rail Road, and confirmed by telegraph – But little has been done to find out just where the Indians are.  Many cattle men offer their services as scouts but they are not employed.

(Page 70)
(Margin Note:  29th  Cheyenne Raid from Indian Territory)
Sept. 29th at 11 P.M. Lt. Gardner, Dr. Dan’s & 20 of the 4th Cavalry as escort – came to the post with the body of Lt. Col. Lewis of the ____ Inf who was killed by the Indians at Big bend of the Beaver on the 27th inst in the evening.  There were also brought in 2 wounded soldiers.  This is the fist intimation we have had of the whereabouts of the Indians.  The Officer in Command at the Big Bend has made a fatal omission of duty in not sending a Courier at once to inform us of the battle.  It seems that the troops who fought were mostly of the 4th Cavly.  That after Lewis was killed there was no one to properly direct affairs and the Indians moved off a [sic] dark on the 27th and gained a march on the troops.  Capt. Mauck has assumed of the Column and will follow on the trail of the Indians.

Today the 29th Genl Jeff A. Davis arrived at Fort Wallace and assumed direction of affairs.  He withdrew Capt. Hale & Lt. Vinal from Monument and Carlyle stations east of here.  The 29th we took the cars and with Genl Dons went by rail to Monument returned at 1 P.M. At 4 P.M. the 29th we heard that the Indians had crossed the K.P. Road going North on the night of the 28th at near Carlyle station from which place Lt. Vinal had been withdrawn.  If Mauck had sent us word immediately after the fight we would have been in front of the Indians before they crossed.
 In the afternoon a command was got ready to go in pursuit of the Indians who are reported as raiding, Killing the settlers north east of here.  The Command consisted of Co. “F” Lt. Palmer, Co. “G” Lt. Allen “H” Hale & Vinal, Vance in Command.  The detachments of 29 men of the 4th Cavly which brought in Lewis body accompanied us.  Also Dr. Davis – marched with 10 days rations & 5 wagons – on the 29th we camped at the R.R. station Wallace.
 Sept 30th Marched at daylight – Noon halt at

(Page 71)
Lake creek and after crossing north Smoky made dry camp.  While here Dodge a scout arrived with orders from Genl Don’s to change our course more to the east as the Indians were raiding on Solomon river.
Oct 1 marched to Beaver creek & made noon camp. Oct 2nd marched down Beaver & passed Major Dallas in camp with 23rd. Inf. mounted.  Camped 4 ½ miles above the forks.  On the 3rd marched to forks of Beaver and learned that the Indians had crossed 15 miles below on the 2nd going north with Capt. Mauck of the 4th Cavly in pursuit.  The Indians had raided on Beaver and Sappa Creeks and had secured about 100 fresh horses killed about 20 men and women and ravished a number of girls, one of whom a school teacher had been streched [sic] on the ground and secured by stakes driven in the ground and outraged by fifteen of the fiends, her hair was cut off and after the Indians left her she crawled into the creek and remained there until the Indians had passed.  At this time she is at a Ranch at the forks of the Beaver.  At 11 A.M. of the 3rd we continued the pursuit with the mounted 23rd in advance we struck the Indians trail about 12 ??? and followed it to the Republican and marching during the night reached the Republican at 1 A.M. of the 4th inst. A march of about 40 miles.  On the 4th Maj. Dallas continued on the trail.  And a scout from Genl Davis Carried an order for our return to Wallace.  We (the 16th Inf.) started on return march via forks of the Republican, Big Timber (No water in south fork of Republican) At Big Timber found good supply of water, grass & wood.  On 5th camped on divide between Big Timber and Beaver Creek.  No water in this camp.  On the 6th marched to Beaver dams on Beaver Creek – found no water in the north fork of the Beaver.  On the 7th camped on North fork of the Smokey where we found water.  On the 8th marched to Wallace reaching there at 12 A.M.
 Total marched during the raid 220 miles.
On the 13th we learned that the Indians had crossed the U.P.R.R. and no body had yet caught them.  After crossing three lines of Rail Road and as many lines of troops the Indians were finally forced to surrender at Camp Robinson Nebraska.  It seems miraculous that two or three Brigadiers, four of five Colonels, Majors and about a thousand men in good positions

(Page 72)
with wagons Rail Roads and telegraphs were unable to stop the march of this party of 50 warriors who carried their women and Children with them and rode broken down ponies from the Indian Territory away into Nebraska.  When the Indians crossed the Rail Road on our line Col. Dodge was wandering around in wagons on the Smokey South of Sheritan.  Dallas with all the mounted men was about 40 miles south of Wallace and the Infty men at Fort Wallace and at this time the Indians crossed at Carlyle 50 miles east of Wallace.
 We can now see that our troops should all have been on the Rail Road and all east of the Indians with cars ready to carry them to where the Indians crossed.
A most fatal error was in the failure to send at once a messenger from the battle field at Big Bend of South Beaver to Fort Wallace.
 The battle at the Big Bend of Beaver was on eve of the 27th.  News brought to Wallace by Lt. Gardner, Dr. Davis and 20 Cavly
 With the body of Col. Levi’s at 11 P.M. of the 28th at which hour the Indians were crossing the Carlyle.  From Wallace to the Battle field is 46 miles.  A messenger on a good horse could have brought up the news in 8 hours at most which would have enabled our troops to move in the proper direction early on the morning of the 28th and place themselves in front of the Indians some hours before they could have possibly reached the Rail Road.  Lt. Gardner would have done a good thing by detaching two of his twenty men and sending them with all speed before him to Wallace.

On the 10th of October Capt. Hale (H. Co.) returned to his station at Ft. Riley.  On the 1st & 2nd I went to Hays City & made luty? of 160 acres Lant? At Wallace.  On the 3rd of Nov. the Cheyenne Indians (Standing Elk) reached Wallace in charge of Capt. Mauck 4th Cav. in route to the Indian Territory.  These were not the band of Indians who made the raid in September.  On the 6th Lt. Febbiger arrived with the horses of the 23rd used in pursuit of the Cheyennes.  My Co. “F” 16th Inf is to be mounted on them for scouting duty south of Wallace.  Co. Mounted Dec. 1st 1878
(Margin Note:  1879)
The Co. mounted on the 9th of April, started on scout, camped at Allen Clark’s ranch on Rose creek.  10th marched S.E. 17 mi and camped on Punished woman creek at Schracks Ranch.  The forks of this creek are 4 mi. above this camp.  11th marched S.E. to Poison or

(Page 73)
White woman creek 16 miles and camped at Schracks old hunting camp. 12th marched down Poison creek 6 mi. and found water here.  No water below here so reported, from here marched due north 10 ½ mi to Punished Woman or South Beaver and camped at 230 P.M.
April 13th Raining and blowing hard.  Marched 15 mi. North West up the creek.  14th marched to Wallace 19 miles.  Total marched 92 miles.

April 19th Co. scouted south east crossed Butte Creek 10 mi. from post.  Camped on Chalk Creek 16 mi. from Wallace found little water.  We should have born more to the east after crossing Butte Creek.  Apl. 20th marched down Chalk or Hackberry 18 miles and camped, found but little water in holes.  Apl. 21st continued down Chalk 4 miles and made permanent camp on the trail from North Fork of Smokey to Big Bend of Beaver here we found fine grass, wood, and water.  To fort Wallace from here is about 36 miles.  Apl. 22nd Capt. W. returned to Wallace for forage.
 On the 23rd I marched with Lt. Tyler and 14 men on the Indian trail of last year and reached the Battle field at Big Bend of South Beaver at 1230 P.M. 14 mi. from our camp at 2 P.M. marched down river 2 mi. then east along Canon and camped at Ed Court’s dugout.  2 ½ mi from mouth of Canon, fine wood water and grass here.  A bad place to reach with heavy wagons.
On the 24th marched to camp which we reached 2 P.M.  Total marched, 28 miles.
 On the 25th marched to Spring Canon East of camp.  Marched around the head of the canon which puts in from the south and down east side until about 2 mi. from its mouth where we found a fine spring of excellent water plenty of wood and grass from camp via head of canon 9 mi.  Marched back to camp via valley of Hackberry or Chalk creek 7 miles.  Total 16 mi.  26th Capt W. returned from Wallace.

On the 1st H Co. marched east to Punished woman creek 11 miles with 2 men I went up the creek to Courts Ranch and returned 14 miles.  May 3rd Marched North West, crossed Hackbury and Butte creeks, which were dry, and reached the Smokey 10 miles from starting place and camped 2 mi. East of Old Smokey Hill stage station, found here wood water and grass.
On the 4th to mouth of North Smokey 19 miles and camped near Mathews Ranch.  To day near Smoky Hill Station

(Page 74)
we came upon a dead Indian who had been killed during the raid last summer.  Some cowboy had dragged him to the road side an thrust one of his legs into a prarie [sic] dog hole leaving him half reclining with his [sic] turned side ways and upward.  His skin had dried and stiffened on his bones, his scalp was bare and he presented a horrid appearance to passers by.  We thought to taking him to Wallace but the stench was too much and we left him as we found him sitting at the side of the road.  On the 5th we marched to Wallace 16 miles.  Total marched on this scout 150 miles (Since 19th Apl.)

On the 12th of May I marched with 11 men to scout South of Post at the top of the Bluffs five miles from the post a severe hail storm came on and we took shelter under the rocks, just as the storm had abated a message came from the post with orders to return.  The Company was ordered to go into the Indian Territory to keep settlers off Indian lands.
The Papers report that thousands are pouring into the Territory.  Our experience there proved that these reports were utterly groundless.  We found no more than 3 unauthorized persons where we were stationed.  Altho the presence of troops there had the effect of keeping people from coming in.  Is there no place on this earth where an Indian can rest in peace?
 On the 13th the Co. with Capt. Wedner? Lt. Tyler & myself took K.P.R.R. and reached Kansas City on the 15th and Baxter Springs on the 17th.  We marched across the line into the Territory and made permanent camp 3 miles from Baxter Springs on the Quawpaw? Reservation.  Capt. Lowle of the 19th is also here and camped at the Reservation buildings.  The Nez Percy Indians are camped 5 miles below on Spring River.  The Modocs are 16 miles west.  The Cherokees are in the country 8 miles south.  Upon our arrival we found no intruders but found the whole country in a manner taken up.  A few logs had been collected together and stakes driven with the claimants name written thereon.  These evidences of the intention of the border people of Kansas & Arkansas to possess the land were found every where.  Some of the people along the Kansas line had houses on wheels pushed up to the

(Page 75)
                  1879
boundry [sic] line so they could jump the land at a moments notice.
After considerable scouting I found two families in a wood preparing to build cabins.  They were warned off and they went.  Many families were passing along the roads in wagons but all claimed to be going to Texas.
 On the 4th of June we returned to Wallace via Kansas City.  Reaching Wallace on the 8th of June.
 Total traveled from Wallace to Baxter Springs & return 1160 miles.

On the 12th of June I marched with 8 men and 2 Pawull? Indians who had been sent from Indian Territory to be used as guides, 18 miles south and camped on Chalk creek.
On the 13th marched south to South Beaver 14 miles.
On the 14th marched to Hd. Waters of Poison or White woman creek and down that creek & camped 2 ½ miles below head, found no water above this place and but little here.  At this camp we killed a buffalo – marched 14 ½ miles.
On the 15th marched down the creek 9 miles and camped found water and good grass.  The water disappears about 2 miles below this camp.  In this camp met two hunters who had been up the fork or draw to the south of this but found no water after going nearly to its head.  They were 2 ½ days without water.
On the 16th marched 22 miles and camped on South Beaver.  Sent scouts three miles down Poison who reported but little water. We killed a buffalo today.  While here in camp a terrific storm raged for two hours drenching every thing.  On the 17th marched down south side of Beaver and found Lt. Tyler in camp at the Big Bend where the road from Northfork of Smokey crosses.  Marched 11 miles.  In the afternoon we marched 8 miles to the Battle field and camped.
On the 18th marched down Beaver and crossed canon at Courts Ranch and camped in a canon of Chalk creek where we found a fine spring and plenty of wood.  Marched 12 miles.
On the 19th marched Chalk creek 9 miles and camped on trail from North Smokey and met Lt. Tyler.  I send one of the Indians (Little Chief) with him and he marched to Wallace via Butte Creek.
On the 20th I marched 18 miles up Chalk creek and camped.
On the 21st Marched 20 miles to Fort Wallace.
(Margin Note:  June 21st)
 Total distance marched on this scout 170 miles.
 On returning from this scout I was taken sick with malarial fever contracted in the Indian Territory and a Certificate of Surgeon finally obtained a sick leave for six months dated.

(Page 76)
(Margin Note: 1879)
In August 1879 I left the post of Wallace on the 9th of August together with Estelle & the children and went direct to the farm in Winnabago? Co.  Estelle, Mary & Bruce went to Louisville Ky. Where they remained until July when they joined me at the farm.
 In November I went with Guy to Monmouth to prepare the house we built there, for occupancy.  In Dec. built an addition of passage way and three rooms. My Leave was extended and I returned to Wallace in the beginning of April 1880, leaving my family at Monmouth.

On the 28th of may I left Wallace with my Co. Mounted for Summer Camp in Middle Park Colorado.  We reached Georgetown Colorago [sic] by rail on the 29th and went into camp in a heavy snow storm.  The roads remained impassible until the 3rd of June when we marched via Empire and Be??thold Pass.  After crossing the Continental divide a heavy snow storm came on and we went into camp on Frazer River on the 4th.
On the 5th marched to and beyond the palace called the junction and camped.  On the 6th reached Hot Sulpher Springs.  On the 7th we marched 12 miles west of the springs and made a permanent Camp on the Grand River near the mouth of Troublesome creek.
 At the springs the water strongly impregnated with sulphur flows out from the base of a high barren and rocky mountain.  The water on issuing from the mountain is hot and is conducted into a natural basin in the rock, about 40 feet square, over this a bath house is built and into it those whose ailments require hot sulphur plunge.  A portion of the water is conducted in open gutters to cool it and carried into bathtubs where delicate natures may sport in tepid sulphurous slime.
 In winter this land is desolate caverns filled with snow.  The Range is a white cold wall rising into the clouds, to man, wearing a warning and impassible appearance.  The bones of many who have dared to come, lie lost and crumbling on the mountain tops.
 In summer is a transformation.  The snow vanishes. The rivers are unlocked and run through the can?ons and thunder along the plain.

(Page 77)
The fish jump on the water.  Thousands of elk, deer & antelope nip the growing grass.  The valleys and mountains are in flowery attire.  The peaks whose sides and tops are covered with intermingled brown, yellow, red, and green trees look like huge bouquets of the gods.  When summer bids them welcome men women and children come from house and from across the seas to loiter in this peaceful land.  I write this sweltering in a tent on Texas Plains.  I long to climb one of those rugged maintains and rob it of a handful of snow to put on my head.

 While in the Park I made a number of scouts in different directions.  A quantity of game was killed while we remained.  Enough to keep the Co. abundantly supplied at all times. The trout fishing was excellent and we had enough trout to get tierd [sic] of them.
 I marched into North Park in pursuit of two deserters who stole horses from the Company.  After going all over the Park I returned having secured but one of the horses.  rode 200 miles on this scout.  In appearance North Park is a vast table land encircled by mountains, the grass is abundant and good and there is plenty of water.
 On the 11th of Oct. I marched the Co. for Fort Wallace.  On the 12th I marched 28 miles and camped on top of the divide where the snow was three feet deep on the level.  It was with great difficulty that the wagons were got up the mountain and the last one did not reach the top until 9 o’clock at night.  Had we been one day later we would have been a week in getting over the pass.
 On the 13th we began the decent which was comparatively easy.  One wheel of each wagon was locked and the only danger to be apprehended was that the wagons would slide off the road and roll down the mountain sides.  As we decended [sic] the snow was less deep and at Empire but little snow was on the road.  On this day we marched through Empire, Lawson, Idaho Springs and camped at Millers Farm at East fort end of Flayds Hill.
 On the 14th I marched into Denver and camped at Stock Yards of K.P. Rail Road, having marched in 4 days 120 miles.

(Page 78)
(Margin Note:  1880  Oct.)
A snow storm came on just as we went into camp and continued during the night.
Capt. W. joined by Rail from Grotown? The Co. here.
On the 15th we took cars for Wallace which place we reached on the 16th of October.

The 16th Infantry having been ordered to The Department of Texas.  We took the cars at Fort Wallace on the 13th of Nov. and went via Junction City Kansas where two other Companies (Rose’s & Morse’s) joined us to San Antonio Texas which city we reached on the 20th and went into camp at the Quartermaster’s Depot.  As our train was nearing Corsicanna Texas about 7 P.M. The front car containing soldiers run off the track and turned over, this was followed by three other cars carrying the band and two Companies.  The front trucks of the car in front of the sleeping coach got off the track but did not turn over.  This car carried the Laundresses and their children.  The cars fell into a ditch filled with water and partially frozen.  About 50 of the men were cut and bruised.  Ten of whom were so much injured as to necessitate their being left at Corsicanna.  These all recovered and afterwards joined their companies.  The train was running at the rate of 15 miles an hour and the shock threw us off our seats in the sleeper.

(Margin Note:  November)
On the 26th of November the 3rd F.A & C. Companies left San Antonio to march to Fort Concho.  We were compelled to remain in camp 8 miles from the City for a week on account of the muddy roads.  We reached Fort Concho on the 16th of December 220 miles from San Antonio.
 At Concho we found Genl. Ginson?, Hdqrs. And 4 companies of the 10th Cavly (Colored)

(Margin Note:  1881 Feby)
On the 16th of February 1881 I went on Leave of Absence for one month to bring my family from Illinois.  Took stage to Eastland on the Tex Pacific Rail Road on the night of the 15th rode all night in an old open coach called there a jerky.  It jerks the passengers forward and back at the rate of 60 times to the minute, and if you do not relax your muscles the jerky

(Page 79)
will jerk your back bone out of your body.  Every rut and bump sends a painful thrill up your spine and into your head which now and then punches the wooden top of this nasty jolting jolly jerky.  The night was intensly [sic] cold and I was unhappy.  We started out behind two little old broken down dyspeptic bronco mules.  It was not necessary to have a strong man hold each mule while 5 other strong men hooked the traces.  And the driver did not mount his seat and gathering in the slack of his reins say “Let go every body”, and he did not make three or four turns around the next station before he could get the ambitious bronkos [sic] to stop.  Our gentle steeds stopped.  They remained stopped.  The driver got down and found a pole 10 feet long, with this he punched and pounded and our mules walked on.  At the next station we got a better team, at the next a still better one and we jerked into Eastland about four o’clock on the cloudless P.M of February 16th 1881.  From Concho to Eastland about 140 miles.

(Margin Note:  March)
I reached Monmouth packed up, rented the house and returned to Concho with my family on the 21st of March.  We left the Rail at Abilene where we found Government teams to carry us to Concho.
On the 27th of March I joined my Comany at Camp Charlotte 50 miles west of the post.  I returned to Concho until the 18th of April and remained until the 28th of May when I joined the Co. at Head of North Concho River 56 miles northwest from the Post.  Reaching the camp on the 29th of May.

(Margin Note:  June)
8th Rode 30 miles to lay out road from Colorado City to Stockton. 10th Rode 20 miles to lay out the road.  11th left camp at Head of North Concho with 11 men to layout and build a road from Colorado City on the Texas Pacific Rail Road to Camp Charlotte, traveled 105 miles and opened the road.  Making crossings of creeks grading &c.  Returned to Camp on June 20th.

(Margin Note:  July)
July 2nd to 8th Went to Fort Concho & returned. 112 miles.  On the 18th the Co. was ordered to return to Fort Concho.  Reached there on the 20th 56 miles.
(End of Journal)
 
 

(Page Silk Jacket)
((Small torn note inside silk jacket with many small notes written in several different directions))
M. Fowler Claim Agent Springfield Ills. Has my ???? from Co. “G” 1st. Ills Calvy sent to him June 26th 1864 with claim for repatrating it to me for $17.00 horse lost at Lexington Mo.
?ist vote Co. A – 83rh 1864 ??? Lincoln
69 votes McClellan 0 – dacebtful 3
Left in War Dept. Dec 7 1861. Recommendation for Adjuntant in Reg Army.  Endorsed by President Lincoln
The U.S. between 25 & 54 Deg. North Lat & 67 & 125 West Long. 2,600,000 Sq. miles. Frontier 10000 mi. Sea Coast 3600 Lake Coast 1200- Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Mass. Dec 21 1820 Columbus dis. Oct 21 1492 West Ind islands main land discovered near mouth O??ined River S. A. Aug 1498 1st. Settlement Florida at St. Augstine by Spanish 1568.  C?gb? Coloty ??? ?? by Raleigh 1585
 

(Page Silk Jacket)
((Read list)
Besides(?) Lext [sic] Books         Read -
Irvings Life of Washington – 4 Vol.
History of the Settlment of the Valley of the Mississippi
 By I.W. Monette 2 Vols.
Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin –
 Edited by Jared Sparks 1 Vol.
Live Public services and Writings of Abraham Lincoln
 By H. J. Raymond 1 Vol.
Jornini’s Art of War, Edited by Captains Wendell and Craig Hill. U.S. Engineers.
Elements of Military Science by H.W. Halleck 1846
Operations of War by Col. Hanley of the Staff School at Aldershott England
Art of War by Chevalier de la Valliere –
 Translated and reprinted at Philadelphia 1786
“The Art of War in 4 parts written in French by four able officers of long service and experience and translated into English by an English Officer”
 340 Pages Printed in London 1707

Address of The Genl of the Army to Cadets of Michigan Military Academy June 19 – 1879
 
 
 

Appendix:
(A) “Palmam qui meruit ferat” (Latin)
The earliest citation of the motto, according to former USC archivist Paul Christopher, was by John Jortin (1698-1770) in Lusus Poetici: Ad Ventos (Poetic Game: To the Winds), 2nd Edition, London, 1724.  It was later adopted by Lord Nelson and the British Royal Naval School.  Here are translations from various sources:
 “Honor to one who earns it.”
 “Let him who deserves it bear the Palm.”
 “Let him who has deserved it bear the Palm.”
 “Let whoever earns the Palm bear it.”

 The recurring reference to the “Palm” is from the ancient Crusades where soldiers would bring back the leaves from a palm tree as proof of their travels to the Middle East.

(B) (Small Note:  Undated)
For Barbara –  (Barbara (Palmer) Greene, Harding Palmer’s second daughter)
 This is your great grandfathers Civil War diary.  Harding had the original given to him by his Uncle Ned Palmer.  He loaned it to Bruce and instead of Bruce returning it he made this copy for Harding and gave Harding’s original to his son Bruce Palmer III.  When you lived in Alaska you wrote and said you wanted it, so here it is.
     SP  (Sara Palmer, Harding Palmer’s second wife)

(C) On page one of the Journal is a note stapled to the top right corner which reads:
Property of:

Harding Palmer
6348 Crestline Drive
Jacksonville, FL  32211
(D) George’s pawn ticket  Photo ? Copyright 1999 by David A. Luff

Names List  (Alphabetical list of all individuals mentioned in the Journal):
Addeller,
Allen, Governor
Allen, Lieutenant
Allyn?, Captain
Ames, Lieutenant Colonel
Antoinc?, Lieutenant Governor
Armstrong, Lieutenant
Augur, Emil
Band,
Barber, Lieutenant
Bilden, Lieutenant
Bisbee, Captain
Bissill, Lieutenant
Blance
Boehm,
Bond, Major
Booth, J.W.
Bradley,
Bradley, Colonel
Bradley, Lieutenant
Bradley, L.P., Colonel
Brady, Sergeant
Bridger, Jim
Brook, Colonel
Brott, Colonel
Brown, Governor of Tenn.
Browning, A.H.
Brownlow, Colonel
Bryant, J.C.
Bucher, Henry Ward
Bucher, Mr.
Burbank, General
Burgoyne,
Burnap,
Burrows, Captain
Burt, Captain
Butler, General
C_____, Captain
Cameron, Simon
Campbell,
Capin?, General
Casey, Lieutenant
Cheatam, Frank, General
Clark, Allen
Clark, Davis M.
Connor,
Coole?, Lieutenant
Cooley,
Crane, Colonel
Court, Ed
Cutler,
Dallas, Major
Dan, Dr.
Davis,
Davis, Dr.
Davis, General
Davis, Henry Winter
Davis, Jeff (CSA)
Davis, Jeff A., General
Davis, Jeff G.
DeIssay,
DeRudio, Lieutenant
Dodge,
Dodge, Captain
Dodge, Colonel
Dons, General
Dorch, Captain
Douglas (of Lincoln/Douglas fame)
Douglas, Lieutenant
Emory, General
Eskridge, Captain
Estelle (Hoban)
Febbiger, Lieutenant
Fetterman, Captain
Fletcher, Captain
Ford,
Forrest, General
Forsyth,
Freeman, Captain
Freemont,
Gamble,
Gardner, Lieutenant
Gibbon, Colonel
Gilson, Captain
Ginson?, General
Gordon, Captain
Gourlay?,
Grant, Abbey, Sergeant
Grant, U.S., General
Gardner, Lieutenant
Green, Colonel
Green, John
Griffith, I.
Hale, Captain
Hallick, General
Harding, Abner Clark (G.H. Palmer's Uncle)
Harding, Clark
Harding, Dennes
Harding, Lib (G.H. Palmer's Aunt)
Harding, Nathan
Harvey, General
Harty, Captain
Hays,
Hodges?,
Hoban, Estelle (Palmer)
Howe, Senator
Howard, B.F.
Hughes, Captain
Hurd,
"Iron Bull"
Ivy, John
Jackson, General
Jenness, Lieutenant
Johnson,
Johnson, Andrew, President
Johnson, Cane
Jones,
Jones, J.H.
Kearney, Mick
Kellogg, Pitt, Governor
Kilpatrick, General
King of Siam
Lane, Private
Lea, J.G.
Lee,
Leonard, Senator
Lewis, Colonel
Lincoln, A., President
"Little Chief"
Levi, Colonel
Lotten?, General
Love, Lieutenant
Lowe, Colonel, General
Lowle, Captain
Luichell, Mr.
Luther, Lieutenant
Lyon,
"Man Afraid of his Horse"
Marshall, Sam
Mathews, Dr.
Mauck, Captain
McClanahan, Captain
McClellan,
McCormack, Mr.
McDowell, General
McEvery, Governor?
McNulta?, John
Mede??eyen, Captain
Miller, Lieutenant
Mills, Captain
More, Lieutenant
Morgan,
Morgan, Captain
Morrison, Lieutenant
Morse,
Mosby,
Mulligan,
Nelson, A.M.
Nichols, Governor?
Noris, Mrs.
Nye, George (G.H. Palmer's brother in law)
Oglesby, Senator
Outlaw, "Bill" (a guerilla)
Packard, Governor
Palmer, Allen (G.H. Palmer's brother)
Palmer, Bruce (G.H. Palmer's son)
Palmer, Elias Sanford
Palmer, Estelle (Hoban)
Palmer, George Washington
Palmer, Guy (G.H. Palmer's son)
Palmer, Mary
Palmer, Noyes
Peabody,
Pinkerton,
Pinkston, Elizabeth
Pillow, General
Polk, Mrs. (former First Lady)
Polk, William (former President)
Pollard,
Poor,
"Poor Elk"
Porters,
Price,
"Red Cloud", Chief (and his brother)
Reed, Philo E.
Richard, John
Rose,
Ross, General (CSA)
Rosseau, General
Roudlebrock,
Sanbourn, Mr.
Schrack,
Scott, J.W.
Seaton, Lieutenant
Serse,
Seward, Wm. H.
Sherman, General
Shirley, Lieutenant
Smith, B.T., Major
Smith, Colonel
Smith, E. Kirby (CSA)
Smith, General
Smith, Mr.
Smoot, Colonel
Spencer, Senator
"Standing Elk"
Stenback,
Stevens, Theador
Sternburg, Lieutenant
Stilson,
Taylor, Dick, General
Templeton,
Theaker, Captain
Thomas, Z.E., Deputy U.S. Marshal
Tilman, Mrs.
Towe??dy, Mrs.
Townsend, E.F.
Turnbull, Captain
Twedengh?,
Tyler, Lieutenant
Vance,
VanVoart, Major
VanVoast, Colonel
Vinal, Lieutenant
W_____, Captain (might be Wedner?)
Wainwright, Major
Wedner?, Captain
Wessell, General
Wharton,
"White Mouth", Chief
Wheeler,
White,
Wilson, General
"Winking Eye"
Wishart, Lieutenant
Yates, Governor
Yerger,