( This makes tracing family histories very difficult as births and deaths occurring before one transaction and after another find themselves with different location names for the same place)
A map drawn about the time of Champlain's explorations of the area.
One can see the reference to Isle aux Noix, South River, LaColle River ,and Ash Island ( great island au têtes) and of course Missisquoi Bay, and Isle La Motte.
This is a partial map of the Seigneuries of Quebec
That area allocated to François Foucault, can be seen on the map below has its boundaries both along the river front and the bay front. When Foucault requested that his original grant be returned to him he also asked that the lands of the Seigneurie of La Fontaine be added to his, thus providing Foucault with a large land grant. In 1763, however the frontier of Quebec was established, and the Seigeurie of Foucault or as it had become to be known , Caldwell's Manor, was cut leaving most of the original settlements and three quarter of the area on the American side of the border. This caused an enormous amount of confusion and hardships, both politically and economically to the land owner Caldwell and to his tenants who found themselves in possession of lands lying south of the 45 parallel . The problem continued until about 1785 when an agreement was made between Col Caldwell and Herman Allen of Highgate Vt. wherein possession of the southern portion of the original Seigneurie was transferred to Mr Allen.
Seigneurie de Foucault - 1733- 1763
Foucault François, Seigneur , négociant, membre du Conseil supérieur, né en 1690 dans la diocése de Bayonne France, fils d'Eusébe Foucault et de Catherine Catalon, décédé le 19 juillet 1766 a Québec.
Bien qu'on ait affirmé qu'il avait des liens de parenté avec les comtes de Foucault de Gascogne, François Foucault était probablement issu d'une souch moins illustre. Il avait 25 ans lorsque, en 1715 , il fut envoyé en Nouvelle-France pour servir sous les ordres de l'intendant Michel Bégon. Le 11 août 1715, celui ci le nomait garde-magasin du roi, poste qu'il occupa pendant 25 ans. Il réussit a garder la confiance de quatre intendants successifs, fait plutôt rare dans un systéme administratif oû chaque haut fonctionnaire avait sa clientéle. Il devint l'ami intime de Bégon qui au moment de son retour en France en 1726 lui confia l'administration de sa vaste fortune. Claude Thomas Dupuy sucédant à Bégon prisait preque autant son amitié que son génèreux crédit. Lors de son départs la Nouvelle France en 1728 ,il devait à Foucault pas moins de 27,082 Louis . Gilles Hocquart intendant de 1729 à 1748 s'appuya fortementsue ses aptitudes administratives et contrairement à Dupuy , contribua grandement à l'accroissement de ses biens personnels. Bien que Foucault n'ait pas appartenu au cercle intime de François Bigot, celui ci en 1752 le recommanda au poste de premier conseiller et garde das seaux au Conseil supérieur, nomination qui lui valut l'honneur trés discutable d'en présider la derniére séance, tenue le 28 avril 1760.
Ce fut Hocquart cependant qui exeréa la plus grande influence sur la carriére de Foucault. Comme il le tenait pour l'un des fonctionnaires les plus loyaux et les plus capables de la Nouvelle France, ses fonctions fuent progressivement tendues
plusieurs secteurs de l'administration civile. Ainsi le 18 avril 1733 il était nommé au conseil supérieur. Tout en reconnaissant que Foucault n'avait pas de formation juridique, Hocquart assura à Maurepas, ministre de la Marine, qu'il se mettrait à étudier le droit sous la direction de procureur général , Louis Guillaume Verrier. Pour le récompenser d'avoir prête à maintes reprises ses services l'intendance dans les affaires finciéres, Foucault était nommé écrivain principal en 1737. On lui confia aussi de temps à autre l'exploration des resources naturelles et l'examen de l'état de l'agriculture. Presque immédiatement aprés qu'il eut pris a retraite comme garde-magasin du roi en octobre 1740 on le chargeait de la gestion financiére de la construction navale royale. En 1740 et en 1747 il remplaçait Jean Victor Varin de la Marre comme contrôleur de la Marine. Pour ces lourde responsabilités il ne touchait que le modeste traitment de 600 (Louis), augmenté à 900 (louis) à partir de 1742 en plus de ses appointements de conseiller et de gratifications occasionnelles. Les nombreuses tentative de Hocquart pour augmenter sa rétribution échouçrent.
Par ailleurs, les affaires personnelles de Foucault prospérérent. Entre autres il gàra son propre magasin parallélement à celui du roi, ce qui l'amena à approvisionner la population urbaine en articles de mercerie et à s'engager dan le commerence de produits agricoles à la campagne. Il possédait au moins un petit bateau de péche le Manoir et en affréait d'autres en association avec des marchands québecois . Il acheta et vendit des des terrains à Québec et essaya même de fabriquer de la colle de posson pour l'exporter en France. En outre, comme beaucoup d'autres marchands de Québec il s'occupa de la consignation des marchandises qu'il importait et vendait aux trafiquants de fourrures. Son marriage, le 3 juin 1718 à Québec avec le fille d'un marchand montréalais, Catherine Sabourin, dit Chauniers (décédée en 1731) contribua largement à l'expansion de cette branche de ses activités commerciales. Le marriage en 1744 de sa fille Marie - Claude - Geneviéve avec Guillaume Guillimin marchand québecois et membre du Conseil supérieur comme Foucault, resserra encore davantage ses liens avec l'elite commerçante de la colonie. En 1747 deux autres de ses filles, Marie Thérèse et Louise Catherine épousérent respectivement Jean André Lamaltie, marchand québecois dont le pére était un éminent négociant de Bordeaux, et Joseph Étienne Nouchet, assesseur au Conseil supérieur dont le pére Joseph était directeur du Domaines d'Occident au Canada.
Dans les années 30 , Foucault bénéficia de la politique de Hocquart qui voulait développer l'économie industrielle et agricole de la Nouvelle France en encouragent, de façon sélective, les initiatives privées. Le 3 avril 1733, on lui concédait un importante seigneurie de deux lieues de font sur la riviére Richelieu. Mais comme il ne chercha pas à la mettre en valeur, on la lui enleva en 1741, lors de la réunification massive des seigneuries non exploitées pour la lui rendre le 1ere mai 1743 avec une lieue de plus sur la riviére. Une autre lieue de font y fut ajoutée le 1er novembre 1744 , ce qui en faisant une des plus grandes seigneuries de la colonie. Foucault vendre sa maison à Québec pour la somme de 2,650 (louis) afin de construire sue ses terres un moulin du farine et en 1746 il y avait déjà installé six habitants. Un presbytére était achevé en 1747 et avec l'aide de Hocquart, Foucault persurada Maurepas de financer l'installation d'un curé.
Le 27 avril 1735 on avait concédé à Foucault, en commun avec Nicolas Gaspard Boucault, le poste de péche de saint Modet, sur la côte du Labrador. Ils établirent une pécherie sûdentaire et en 1736 ils réssirent à produire 200 barils d'huile de loup de marin. Ils furent forcés de l'abandonnner en 1737 à la suite d'une querelle avec Pierre Constantin au sujet du titre de propriétè mais, le 1er mai 1738 , on leur concédait un autre poste, Apetépy , sur la côte du Labrador. Foucault obtenait également en 1719 l'autorisation de Maurepas de s'associer à François Daine et à Louis Fornel pour exploiter les pécheries de la lointaine baie des Esquimaux ( probablement l'inlet de Hamilton)
Étant donné l'envergure de ses opérations commerciales et la nature quasi- privée de l'administration financiére de la Nouvelle France on pouvait s'attendre à ce que ses affaires finissent par s'entreméler inextricablement avec celles du roi. Les revenus de ses duex sources étaient acheminés vers sa caisse personnelle et l'inefficacité du systéme de comptabilité de la Nouvelle France était notoire. Ainsi il n'était pas toujours clair si les larges crédits qu'il accordait provenaient de ses revenues ou de ceux du roi. C'est pourquoi lorsqu'un créancier s'avérait insolvable, Foucault pouvait transférer de déficit de son compte personnel à celui de la couronne. Dans le cas de Dupuy cependant, le roi déclina toute responsabilité , et Foucault se vit obligé d'absorber une perte se montant à plus de 11,000 (louis)
D'autres conflits surgirent à propos des approvisionnements que Foucault achetait à Québec pour le copmte de roi. En 1740 Maurepas apprit qu'il avait payé le blè, envoyé l'anne précèdente à la Martinique à un prix qui d'passait de 2(louis) celui de marché. Il souçonnait Foucault d'avoir fait une faveur à un parent ou à un amis, mais l'enquéte de Hocquart révè la qu'on réalité Foucault avait acheté son propre blè en utilisant le pseudonyme de Lemieux. Il se peut que c'est ce genre de transaction qui ait amené Maurepas à envoyer en 1740 un agent spécial, Jean de Laporte de Lalanne pour faire une enquéte sur la gestion financiére de la Nouvelle France. Il se peut aussi que la mise à nu des agissements de Foucault ait eu un réle dans la soudaine retraite de celui-ci comme garde-magasin du roi en 1740. Cependant, même aprés sa retraite Foucault semble avoir tiré des avantages personnels de son poste d'acheteur pour les chantiers navals du roi.
Mais malgré le succés de sa carriére administrative et l'étendue de ses biens, Foucault , affaibli par la maladie, finit ses jours aprés la Conquéte dans la pauvreté. Les censitaires avaient depuis longtemps abandonné sa seigneurie sur le Richelieu, et ses pécheries n'existaient plus. A la suite de la défaite française, il fut privé de sa pension de 600 (louis) qu'il touchait depuis sa retraite en avril 1751 comme écrivain principal et son traitement de premier conseiller fur suspendu en janvier 1761. Il ne lui resta plus que son magasin à Québec et 875 (louis) par année provenant de la vente de sa masion en 1758. Il aurait voulu aller rejoindre sa fille Marie Thérèse en France, mais il n'arrivait pas à vendre son magasin à un Anglais, même aprés avoir fait un emprunt de 5100 (louis) pour le transforme en masion d'habitation. Forcé de de demeurer au Canada, il lui arrivait parfois de recevoir des nouvelles de son fils Nicolas- Denis qui aprés 1763 occupait le poste de contrôleur de la Marine en Louisiane. En 1764, il fit une dernoére et vaine tentative pour faire restaurer sa pension, en alléguant - la situation la plus triste à laquelle (il était) reduit ; à l'áge de soixante-quainze ans , sans aucune ressource et accablé d'infirmites qui (le mettaient) dans la dure nêcessité -. Il mourut deux ans plus tard, triste victime de l'explusion de la France du continent nord -américain.
Les censitaires that Foucault finally persuaded to settle his lands were
Francois Laporte, alias Labonté, 6 arpents frontage by 40, Francois was able to clear between 8 and 9 arpents, he had built a house, barn and stable and possessed 4 cows, 2 oxen and a horse. He had three sons living with him , each having been granted lots which had been cleared and made ready for seeding (1741)
Christophe de St Christophe alias Lajoie who also had a lot 6 by 40, had erected a house and some other building as had about 8 to 9 arpents ready for seeding
Thomas Keret had been settled on a same sized lot as his neighbors but had succeeded in clearing only one and one half arpents, and had not begun to erect any structures.
David Corbin a master carpenter resided with Francois Laporte ,
Joseph St Onge of the King's schooner, had applied to Foucault to obtain two concessions one for each of his two sons
Pierre Marmette of Quebec had staked out a lot in the Seigniory and was intending to take possession in the spring of 1741
Michel St Julien also of Quebec had also intentions of settling in the Seigniory
|After the year 1727 , the king of France empowered the Gourvernement and Intendant jointly to make concession to inhabitants of the country and to those coming into it for the purpose of settlement.
Seiur Fougault, a member of the Superior Council of Quebec, and special scrivener of the marine in New France, petitioned the King for a grant of land measuring two leagues in width, on the Chamblée river and extending back to Baie Missiskouy
On the 3rd of April 1733, a concession was made to him, by the Marquis de Beauharnois, Lieutenant Gouverner and Intendant Gilles Hocquart, of which the following is in part a copy ( translated)
3rd April 1733 Concession to the Sieur de Foucault of two leagues on the River Chamblée
Charles Marquis de Beauharnois & Gilles Hocquart
On the petition present to us by the Sieur de Foucault . We in vitureon the power jointly entrusted to us by His Majesty do give, grant and cocede unto the said Sieur Foucault, the said extent of two leagues of land, in front by the depth prayed for.. bounded on the north side by the seigniory recently granted to the Sieur de Noyan and on the same line, and on the south side by a parallel line drawn east and west, in front by the River Chamblée and in rear by the Baie Missiskouy :
to have and to hold the same unto him, his heirs and assigns, for ever, in fief and seigniory, with the right of Superior, mean and inferior jurisdiction and that of hunting, fishing and trading with the Indians, throughout the whole extent of the said concession:
subject to the performance of fealty and homage at the Castle of St Louis de Quebec, of which he shall hold under the customary rights and dues agreeably to the custom of Paris , followed in this country;
on condition to be preserved by his tenants the oak timber fit for the building of the King's ships ;
that he shall give notice to His Majesty or to us and our successors, of the mines, ores and minerals which may be found with in the extent of the said concession:
that the appeals from the decision of the judge who may be established at the said place, shall lie before the royal jurisdiction of Montréal;
that he shall keep house and home there on, and cause the same to be kept by his tenants, in default of which it shall be reunited to His Majesty's domain ;
that he shall immediately clear and cause the said land to be cleared ;
that he shall leave on said concession the King's Highways and other roads which shall be judged necessary for public use and cause the same conditions to be inserted in the concessions which he may grant to his tenants, subject to the customary cens et rents - and dues for every arpent of land in front, by 40 arpents in depth:
that he shall allow the beaches to be free to all fishermen, with the exception of those which he may want for his own fishery;
and should His Majesty hereafter require ant portion of the said lands to build forts, batteries, arsenals, magazines and public works, His Majesty shall have the right of taking it, as well as the timber necessary for the said works, and the firewood for the garrisons of the said forts, without being held to pay any indemnity;
the whole under the will and pleasure of His Majesty, by whom he shall be held to have these presents confirmed within one year.
In Witness where of we have signed these presents and caused the same to be sealed with our seals at Arms and countersigned by our secretaries
Given at Quebec, the third day of April, one thousand seven hundred and thirty-three.
This grant was ratified by His Majesty the King of France, on the 6th day of April 1734.
Several seigniories were surveyed and granted on the Chamblee ( Richelieu) River and on Lake Champlain, besides those of Missisquoi. Little if anything was done in the way of settling them with tenants.
On the 10 th day of May 1741, therefore a decree was issued declaring that several of the grants of land on Lake Champlain, including that to Sieur Foucault, had become and were there by declared forfeited, because the grantees had failed to fulfill the condition upon which the grants were made.
These forfeitures however were subject to reconsideration and the regranting of the concessions, took effect , provided the grantees, within one year of the forfeiture fulfilled the conditions under which the original grants were made.
In the mean time, Janvrin Dufresne, a sworn land surveyor, of Montréal, had been commissioned to survey several seigniories along the Chamblée river and on Baie Missiskuoy and Lake Champlain. On the 14th of June 1737, Dufresne made his process verbal of the survey, of the seigniory which had been granted to and forfeited by Foucault. Although Foucault had forfeited the grant of his seigniory, he prepared himself for a renewal application for the same seigniory, and that of which bordered his lot on the south and ran into Lake Champlain.
He expended a certain amount of money in improvements upon theSeigniory and settled six inhabitants there on, in a settlement which he called Missiskouy Village
Francois Laporte alias Labont had been granted a lot of land six arpents in front by forty arpents in depth, of which between 8 and 9 arpents had been cleared , had built a house, a barn and a stable and possessed 4 cows, 2 oxen and a horse. He had also raised on his said lot 20 to 25 bushels of Indian corn, 3.5 bushels of peas, besides beans, and other vegetables. He had three sons living with him , to each of whom land had been granted on which clearings ready foe seeding had been made.
Christophe de St Chirstophe, alias Lajoie hand been granted a concession of similar size, and had erected a house and other buildings on a cleared portion similar to that of Labonté
Thomas Keret had been granted a similar concession but he had only managed to cleared about one and .5 arpents
David Corbin a master carpenter, who resided with Laporte, together with other carpenter and workmen, who came from Fort St Frederick, in the spring of 1741
Joseph St Onge, of the King's schooner, navigating on Lake Champlain, had applied to the prospective seignior for two pieces of land for his two sons, whom he wished to locate in the seigniory of Foucault.
Pierre Marmette and Michel St Julien of Quebec, in the month of January 1741, went to the seigniory and staked out two pieces of land, which they intended to occupy in the spring, after opeing of navigation
Sieur Foucault then made his application to the Gouvernor for a renewal grant. This time however he applied for a grant of three leagues in width on the Chamblée River, extending back in parallel boundaries to Baie Missiskouy, that is for his original grant and an additional league in width adjoining it on the south. Foucault's application was accompanied by a plan of the proposed concession, which he has caused to be made, in the month of March 1739, by Jean Pladeau alias St Jean, land surveyor of Montréal
This application was granted on the 1st of May 1743 and in part declares:
Seeing the letter and plan above mentioned and Our said ordinance of the 10 of May 1741 and having regard to the premises and in consideration of the expenses which the said Sieur de Foucault has incurred for the settlement of said concession and that he is on the point of removing to it, with several inhabitants, to form new settlement
We in virtue of the power jointly entrusted to us by His Majestey by these presents do give, grant and concede : de novo ( once again) unto Sieur de Foucault, the said extent of land, two leagues in front, on the said Chamblée River by the depth which may be found, going as far as Baie Missiskouy and moreover , one league in front of augmentation by the same depth to be taken at the end of the said two leagues ascending the river Chamblée which said three leagues of land should be bounded on the north side by the boundary which was set according to the process verbal of Janvrin sworn land Surveyor, dated the 14th of June 1737 and signed by us with our sign manual in front be the said river Chamblée going towards the south, in rear by two parallel lines running east and west as far as the Baie de Missiskouy the said two lines joining a tract of land reunited and unconcealed.�
This grant as ratified by the King's warrant on the 25th of March 1745.
Sieur de Foucault's ambition as a land owner was not satisfied with even three leagues of territory along the Chamblee ( Richelieu) river for we find that in 1744, he again petitioned the Governor and Intendent for an additional piece of land immediately adjoining his three leagues of land, on the south, which is described as follows :
A neck of land or peninsula of about two leagues in front, joining the concession granted to him on the said first day of May 1743
The reasons advanced bt him in support of this application were
1st he had caused during the years of his application 1744 a stone mill to be erected, at a cost of nearly 4000 Livres
2nd he had already established eight inhabitants and had three more to establish
3rd he declared his intention of establishing a domain for himself and he had already cleared from 10 to 12 arpents of land and built a log-house
4th he had moreover granted a notarial donation to the Bishop of Quebec, of a piece of land measuring two arpents by forty arpents as a site for a projected church of 20 feet front by 20 feet deep
His representations seem to have impressed the Governor and Intendat favourably for they granted him this neck of land or peninsula on the 1st of November on the same year ( 1744) .
Two days after the date Sieur de Foucault was granted his first concession of two leagues, that is the 5th of April 1733, Sieur de la Fontaine de Bellecourt was granted a concession of one and one quarter leagues in width on the Chamblee, to the south of and adjoining to that of the Sieur de Foucault.
This left a point of land extending south from La Fontaine's seigniory, between the Chamblee River on the west and Lake Champlain of the east, which was not then granted. The land which had been granted to La Fontaine , became again a part of the King's domain, under the decree of 1741 for non settlement. Foucault by his three grants of 1743 and 1744 became the proprietor, not only of the original grants to himself and to Sieur de La Fontaine de Beellecourt but of the point or neck of land above referred to , which had never been granted or conceded.
There is not a doubt that Sieur de Foucault, according to his means and opportunities made a valiant and bona fide effort to become a Seigneur of New France. Fate , however was very much against him,
One of the most frequented routes of the contending forces of the British and French and their associated savage tribes, was the natural water route from Lake Champlain to Sorel, the Chamblee river.
It can be readily understood that any small settlement in the Seigniory of Foucault was too dangerously near the river route for the comfort of those inhabitants who had been granted lots. This area was entirely deserted about 1747, from which time, until after the revolutionary war in the British colonies to the south, no concerted attempt at settlement was made.
By the treaty of Paris, signed on the 10th of February 1763, New France was ceded to Great Britain, the French inhabitants were given the option of returning to France.
The first English owner of the lands that had been recorded as the Seigniory of Foucault was General James Murray, an officer who had played a major role in the conquest of New France and who subsequently became its first British governor. General Murray evinced as active and practical ambition to speculate in real estate and began purchasing seigniories in 1764, and by 1865 has included the Seigniory of Foucault in his portfolio.
By July 1766 General Murray returned to England, appointing his nephew Richard Murray his agent , to administer the property he had acquired in Canada ( New France). Richard Murray , leased the Seigniory de Foucault in 1774 to Colonel the Hon Henry Caldwell for a term of some 99 years.
General Murray however passed away in 1794 and his holding which had been passed on to the Duke of Athol, who had not real interest in the Canadian real estate, there fore on the 28th of February 1801, Colonel Henry Caldwell was able to purchase out right the lands for which he held the 99 years leases.
Henry Caldwell had however experienced much difficulty with the area that was once know as the Seiginory de Foucault as detailed under French rule. After the signing of the treaty of Paris in 1763, and at the purchase of the area by General Murray, nothing was resurveyed , so there was no legal definition of the area established by Great Britain. The whole area in the new world with the exception of the Lousianna tract came under British administration, and those settlements that were already very well established along the eastern coast of North America began pushing westwards.
As these settlements pushed west ward, the governors of the day , assumed right or wrongly that the land attached to their territory belonged to them, rather than to the British Crown and they began selling parcels to local individuals. The land that General Murray had acquired known as the Seiginory de Foucault, which was leased in its entirety ( without any new survey) to Col Henry Caldwell, was in fact directly in the path that the westward moving colonists of New England were travelling.
The problem while not pronounced in the beginning, came to a head during the American Revolution, and was further complicated once the rebellion ended. At the start and during parts of the troubles between the Colonies and Britain, there were settlers who left the more populated areas of New England in an attempt to avoid the conflict altogether. These people moved north towards the fortified British positions in what was known as Canada. They sought out shelter that would allow them to prosper with out having to take up arms. Others who were not luck were obliged to leave their homes as they were considered sympathizers with the British and were not welcome to stay, others had joined with the loyal British Regiments of the Colonies and sent their family members north to be safe.
Many of these people found themselves in areas believed by Henry Caldwell to be his Seiginory, and Henry went ahead and leased out his lands to them. It was not until 1783 that the border was set between Canada and the new United States as the 45 parallel and from the end of the war until this particular date the settlers in the area of what would be called today Alburgh Vermont often found that their leases were not at all considered legal, and often lands leased by Caldwell, would be released by those who had been given title to them by a governor of the New England colonies .
Henry Caldwell had held the rank of captain in Colville's Regiment in Wolfe's army , at the siege of Quebec. He was a fine man, physically and a very capable officer. At the age of 24 years, he occupied the position of deputy quarter master general during part of the operations against Quebec. He took a very prominent part and rendered very valuable services in the defence of Quebec, against the invasion from the Colonies in 1775, as commanding officer of the British Militia in Canada. On the 25th of July he was appointed to the very responsible position of receiver general of Canada. He was a man of great energy and ambition and was very progressive in commercial and agricultural affairs, as the result of his administration showed. He at once built grist mills and saw mills, roads and bridges and other improvements in his Seigniory in Lauzon.
To meet the enormous expense of these improvements he borrowed, without leave, of the public funds which he had collected, and of which as the receiver general he was the trusted public custodian, and eventually got into difficulties with the Crown.
Colonel Caldwell did not in the meantime entirely neglect his seigniory of Foucault. He visited it and built a manor house which is said to have been known as the * McCummins Place* . It was destroyed by fire in 1875, after the building of the manor the seigniory was called indifferently Foucault, or Caldwell's Manor. He also built a Banal mill which did service at that time, but has long since been destroyed.
Colonel Caldwell died at his manor house Belmont situated three miles from Quebec City on the 28th of May 1810. His son John afterwards Sir John, succeeded to his property, including Foucault and assumed his liabilities . John's management of the properties that he inherited was as disastrous as was that of his father. When he was removed from office on the 23 of November 1822 he was to all appearances hopelessly involved, financially. On the 20th of October 1825 His Majesty the King ( of England) obtained a judgement against him.
The Seigniory of Foucault which was in the district of Montreal, was sold at a sheriff's sale in the city of Montréal, under a writ of venditioni exponas issued out of the court of King's Bench, district of Quebec for the sum of £2,700 currency in a case of the King vs John Caldwell on the 21st of August 1829.
The purchaser was John Donegani, of the city of Montreal, who subscribed to and preformed the act of faith and homage to the King, as Seignior of Foucault, before Sir James Kempt, lieutenant governor of the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick on the 16 th of November 1830. In this act of faith and homage the seigniory of Foucault is also known as Caldwell's Manor and was purchased for the sum of four hundred and five pounds currency.
On the 22nd day of November 1842 John Donegani sold the seigniory of Foucault to Joseph Frederic Allard of Chambly Quebec, who applied for letters patent of the seigniory, by petition. The ownership of the Seiginory passed from Seignior Allard to his heirs, who still held possession of the lands to the time of abolition of the seigniory tenure .
(From a history written by Donald MacCallum, a long time resident of the area and one well known for his constant search and writings of historical information on this area we have the following detailed report.)
" Foucault was also a family name (see above story in French) Sieur Foucault a member of the Superior Council of Quebec and special scrivener of the Marines in New France, petitioned the King for a grant of land measuring six miles in width on the Richelieu River and extending back to Missisquoi Bay.
The first settlement in Missisquoi County was probably here in 1741. Seiur Foucault settled six inhabitants on his seigniory in a settlement of six farms. These six farms were 240 arpents, which is slightly over 200 acres, the exact size of the farms were 1086 feet frontage on the river and extending back 6400 feet. Four other farms were staked out at this time but not settled. The combined total of these ten farms covered slightly over two miles of frontage on the river shore. I have three reasons why I believe that the first settlement in Missisquoi County was one mile North of the present boundary (the US border)
First - This two mile stretch is the highest land in the six miles of the Seigniory
"This point called by the French, Pointe Algonquin, is shown on the above map.
The Seigneurie de Foucault under the auspice of English management became to be known as Caldwell's Manor
Dès 1782 un an avant la fin de la guere, Issac Salls, qui a quitté Long Island, dans l'état de New York, s'installe dans la seigneurie de Foucault, sur le site de futur village de Clarenceville. D'autre famillies le rejoindre l'anne suivante et chosissent des concessions au bord du Richelieu, ce sont celles de Philip Derick, du Colonel Henry Ruiter, de John Savage de John Dewer et de Major Duncan Cameron.
|In the year 1781 , Isaac Salls, of Long Island, being a loyalist, was forced to leave his home, when his farm and all his property which he could not carry was confiscated by the American authorities, to seek the protection of the British government and set he face towards the British province of lower Canada.
He was accompanied by his wife and his son Jacob and wife, who had one daughter Phebe ( afterwards married Gamalist Little) and one son George Field Salls (who was born on the journey,), the present narrator.
For the purpose of aiding him in clearing land in the wilderness, he brought with him three men as labourers, named Amas Curtis, David Wilcox and Stephen Wilcox. The party ascended the Hudson to Albany and then to Skenesborough (Whitehall) at the head of Lake Champlain . Here they found the British Sloop of war, the Maria, commanded by Commodore Steel, on board of which they all embarked and on the first of June 1782 they landed at Ash Island in the Chamblee ( Richelieu) River.
At this time the lands on the east side of the river were owned, in seigniory, by the French officers names Foucault and Noyan to whom, ot to their families, they had been granted by the gouvernment of France, previous to its conquest by England and whose names they still bear.
Frearing to be disturbed on the banks of the river by the war which continued between England and the United States, the said Isaac Salls placed the party under the guidance of a party of Indians, who conducted them five miles into the interior, to their own encampment where now is the village of Clarenceville.
About a year after 1783, David Tryon and Josephus Vaughan were added to the settlement , which was partly on each seigniory. Isaac Salls's residence was on the spot occupied now by the Clark's Hotel . His son Jacob's residence was on the farm now owned by G W Johnson. David Tryon'S farm was the one now owned in part by L Simpson. Josephus Vaughan's farm was that owned by Enoch Curtis.
About one year afterwards that is 1784, two other sons of said Isaac Salls, namely Hix and Abraham who had been settled and married from Albany, came with their families to join the infant settlement. Hix Salls took the farm no 14 Noyan, and built the house now owned by E Johnson Smith and Abraham Salls took the farm no 17, 5th concession Foucault, now owned by Jasper Schutt. About this time settlements were formed on the banks of the river by H Ruyter, on the Cutting Farm, Major D Cameron ( on the Mayo farm), A Friot, John Dewar (on the McCallum farm) E Filer , John Griggs ( on the Steel farm) . After this year the settlement increased more rapidly and generally.
One must take exception to this particular verbal story or 1850 - while the whole can be taken on good faith it must be remembered that George Salls is now 79 years old and is not recounting a history, but a family story.
For one the Seigniory of Foucault was not at the time of that the event occured in the possession of the Foucault family, but had been leased by Col Henry Caldwell, from James Murray. ( see indenture to Jacob Salls )
In 1850 we are able to refer to the United States, but at the time Isaac Salls moved to Lower Canada, the name was not in use.
The British Sloop , Maria was sailing from the British fort at St John, not Ash Island where they were no facilities what so ever
The indian encampment was not that of the location of the municipality Clarenceville as it is today, but somewhere a bit south of that location where a freeman's tavern would have stood at one time ( see map )
The last paragraph mentions those names who had the farms in or about 1784, then goes on to mention the names of the owners by 1850 ( see map )
|1851 Lovell's Directory - Clarenceville||1865-1866 MItchell & Co Directory- Clarenceville
|1871 Lovell's Directory - Clarenceville||Eastern Townships Directoy - Clarenceville
|1878 Eastern Townships Directory - St George Parish
||1871 Lovell's Directory - Aird|
|1871 Lovell's Directory - Nutt's Corners||1871 Lovell's Directory - Venise|
|1871 Lovell's Directory - Noyan||1878 Eastern Townships Directory - St Thomas Parish|
|1881 Census Parish of St George de Clarenceville- Revised
||1854 Cadastral Listing - Seigneurie de Foucault Coming Soon
|Other towns close by
Pictures of Clarenceville
past and present
( click to enlarge)
A good quantity of the documents which have been placed in these folders was kindly given to me by Cindy Lequin of Noyan ( the originals pieces scheduled to be handed over to the Missisquoi Museum hopefully in the summer of 2014)
|Pamela Wood Family Histories|