STEWART

1. HAMON-

m. RAENTLINA

Hamon was the Vicomte de Dinan about 1000 a cadet of the ruling house of Brittany.

Issue-

  • I. Hamon- Vicomte de Dinan, d.s.p.
  • II.Josceline- Vicomte de Dinan c.1040-1070
  • III. Junkeneus- Archbishop of Dol & Lord of Combourg
  • IV. Rhiwallon- m. Aremburga. Lord of Dol & Combourg, living in 1064
  • 2V. FLAALD- d. 1064
  • VI. Haton- d.c.1070


    2V. FLAALD (HAMON 1)

    d.c.1064

    Flaald was the Seneschal (Dapifer) of Dol from 1032 to 1064.

    Issue-

  • 3I. ALAN- d.c.1080


    3I. ALAN (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2)

    d.c.1080

    Alan was Dapifer of Dol.

    Issue-

  • I. Alan- d.s.p.
  • 4II. FLAALD- d.c.1101
  • III. Rhiwallon-

    Ref:

    English Origins of New England Families- Gary Boyd Roberts, Second Series, Vol. III, pp.429-434, Genealogy Publishing Company Inc., Baltimore 1985


    4II. FLAALD (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3)

    In the Chartulary of the Abbey of St. Florent we find in 1080 and again in 1086 'Alanus Senescallus' or 'Alanus Dapifer Dolensis', witnessing grants of land to the Abbey of which he was himself a benefactor as is proved by a deed (before 1080) to which his brother Fledaldus consents, granting to the Abbey a site for a church. From another deed it appears he had a third brother Rivallon, who entered into religion as a monk at Mezuoit. Alan the Senescal was involved in the crusade of 1097 and d.s.p. The lands and office of Senescal of Dol reverted to his brother Fledaldus or Flaald.(1)

    Issue-

  • 5I. ALAN-

    Ref:

    (1) The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.9


    5I. ALAN (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4)

    m. AVELINA De HESDING- d. of Ernoulf de Hesdin

    Oswestry Castle

    Alan was steward of Dol in Brittany and obtained from William the Conqueror the barony of Oswestry in Shropshire. He appears as Alan Fitz-Flaald as Sheriff of Shropshire from 1101 onwards. He founded Sporle Priory in Norfolk as a cell of St. Florent-de-Saumur in Brittany before 1122.(1)

    Issue-

  • I. Jordan- m. Mary ______, Senescal of Dol and of Lincolnshire.
  • II. William- Lord of Oswestrie, Shropshire. Ancestor of the Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel
  • 6III. WALTER- d. 1177, bur. Paisley monastery
  • III. Simon- ancestor of the Boyds

    Ref:

    (1) The Scots Peerage- Vol.I pp. 9-10

    Alan fitz Flaad- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_fitz_Flaad


    6II. WALTER (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5)

    m. ESCHYNA de MOLLE, d. of Thomas de Londoniis (m.1. Robert de Croc, 3. Henry de Molle)
    d. 1177
    bur. Paisley monastery

    Monument at the Battle of the Standard

    Sir Walter and his brother Simon came to Scotland where Walter was appointed by David I dapifer, ie. meat-bearere or steward of the Royal household. The duties of High Steward comprised the management of the Royal household as well as the collection of national revenue and the command of the King's armies. From his office, Walter's descendants took the name of Stewart. Walter fought at the Battle of the Standard in Northallerton in 1138 under the command of King David's son, Prince Henry. From David I Sir Walter obtained the lands of Renfrew, Paisley, Pollock, Cathcart and others, and in 1157 King Malcolm IV confirmed these grants. In 1160 he founded Paisley abbey, the monks being of the Cluniac order of Reformed Benedictines brought from Wenlock priory in Shropshire.

    Paisley Abbey

    In 1164 Sir Walter commanded the troops at the Battle of Renfrew and defeated Somerled, King of the Hebrides.

    Walter, 'the son of Alan' appears in the English 'Liber Niger Scaccarii' c.1154 as vassal of 'William the son of Alan of Salopscire', for lands of the value of two knight's fees. In a charter of 1185 William, the son of Alan, and Walter, the son of Alan, appear as benefactors of the Order of Knights Templars.

    William Fitz-Alan supported David I of Scotland in asserting the rights of the Empress Matilda to the English throne, and his brother Walter Fitz-Alan seems to have accompanied David into Scotland and to have been identical with the 'Walter the son of Alan' who appears as High Steward of Scotland in the reign of David I and Malcolm IV. In 1335 that office was claimed by Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel as his by hereditary right, the read holder, Robert Stewart, the representative of Walter Fitz-Alan the original grantee, having been temporarily dispossessed by the English.

    Issue-

  • 7I. ALAN- m.1. Eva, 2. ALESTA de MAR, d. 1204
  • 8II. BEATRIX- m. MALDUIN, 3rd Earl of Levenax
  • 52III. MARJORY- m. ROBERT MONTGOMERY (b.c.1125, d.c.1178)

    Ref:

    Walter fitz Alan- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_fitz_Alan
    The Scots Peerage- Vol.I, pp.10-12


    7I. ALAN (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6)

    m.1. Eva
    2. ALESTA, d. of Morggan, Earl of Mar
    d. 1204

    Alan, second High Stewart of Scotland is supposed to have accompanied Richard, Coeur de Lion, to the Crusades and returned to Scotland in July 1191.

    Alan was a patron of the Knights Templar and was responsible for expanding their influence in Scotland.

    Issue-

  • I. David-
  • 8II. WALTER- d. 1246
  • 53III. AVELINA- m.c.1200 DUNCAN, Earl of CARRICK (d. 13 June 1250)

    Ref:

    Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_fitz_Walter,_2nd_High_Steward_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.12


    8I. WALTER (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7)

    m. ?Beatrix, d. of Gilchrist, Earl of Angus
    d. 1246

    Sir Walter was appointed Justiciary and High Steward of Scotland by Alexander II in 1230.

    Issue-

  • 9I. ALEXANDER- m. JEAN BUTE
  • II. John- killed at Damietta 1249 d.s.p.
  • 10III. WALTER- m. MARY MENTEITH (See MENTEITH)
  • IV. Euphemia- m. Patrick, Earl of Dunbar
  • 11V. MARGARET- m. NIGEL, Earl of CARRICK, Lord of Turnberry
  • VI. Elizabeth- m. Maldouen, Earl of Lennox

  • VII. Robert- of Tarbolton and Cruxton Ref:

    Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Stewart,_3rd_High_Steward_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.12


    6I. ALEXANDER (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5)

    b. 1214
    m. JEAN, daughter of James, Lord of BUTE
    d. 1283

    Alex went with King Louis IX on the Seventh Crusade and returned by 1255 when he was one of the councillors to Alexander III and one of the Regents of Scotland. By his marriage to Jean he obtained the Isle of Bute and Arran. Complaints made to the Norwegian court by Ruari or Roderick of Bute of the Scots' aggressions led to King Haco's expedition and the battle of Largs 2 Oct. 1263 in which Sir Alex commanded the right wing of the Scots army and the Norwegians were defeated. In 1265 all the Western Isles were ceded to Scotland.

    Monument to the Battle of Largs

    Issue-

  • 12I. JAMES- d. 1309
  • 13II. JOHN- d. battle of Falkirk 1298
  • III. Andrew- m. _____- d. of James Bethe
  • 14III. ______- m. ALEXANDER LINDSAY
  • 15IV. ELIZABETH- m. Sir WILLIAM DOUGLAS

    Ref:

    Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Stewart,_4th_High_Steward_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.13


    12I. JAMES (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9)

    m. EGIDIA, sister of Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster
    d. 16 July 1309

    Sir James succeeded his father as 5th High Steward in 1283. In 1286 he was one of six people chosen to act as Regents of the Kingdom upon the death of Alexander III. In the contest for the crown James was one of the auditors on the part of Robert the Bruce, but fought under Sir William Wallace at the battle of Sitrling in 1297 in his attempt to regain independence. He took an oath of allegience to Edward I 9 July 1297. In 1302 he was an ambassador to France to solicit aid against Edward to whom he was compelled to swear allegience at Lanercost 23 Oct. 1306. The oath was taken upon the sacred two crosses of Scotland, on the consecrated host, the holy gospels and certain relics. James also agreed to submit to instant excommunication if he broke his allegiance with Edward. In spite of all this he once more took part in the patriotic cause and died in the Bruce's service in 1309.

    Issue-

  • I. Andrew- d.s.p.
  • 15II. WALTER- b.c.1293, m. MARJORY BRUCE (d. 1316), d. 9 Apr. 1326
  • III. John- killed battle of Dundalk 1318
  • IV. James- of Durisdeer, d.s.p.
  • V. Egidia- m. Alexander de Menzies of Durisdeer

    Ref:

    James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Stewart,_5th_High_Steward_of_Scotland The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.13-4


    15I. WALTER (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10)

    b. 1292
    m.1. MARJORY BRUCE (d. 1316)
    2. Alice Erskine (d. of Sir John Erskine)
    3. ISABEL, sister of Sir John GRAHAM of Abercorn
    d. 9 Apr. 1326 Bathgate Castle

    Depiction of the Battle of Bannockburn from the Holkham Bible- 1327-1335

    Sir Walter when only 21 years old commanded with Douglas the left wing of the Scottish army at the battle of Bannockburn. He was sent to escort Bruce's wife and daughter after their release from the English. In the next year Sir Walter married the Princess Marjory.

    The Lordship of Largs after the forfeiture of John Baliol was given to Walter and he also received an extensive endowment of land from his marriage, particularly the barony of Bathgate, Linlithgowshire.

    The Princess died in 1316 and tradition says she was thrown from her horse and killed at the Knock near Renfrew.

    Berwick Castle

    During Bruce's absence in Ireland Sir Walter and Sir James Douglas ran the country and defended its borders against the English. Walter took command of Berwick from the English in 1318, but then Edward II laid seige to the town 24 July 1319 and brought down its walls at which time Sir Walter and his troops attacked and drove away the enemy. In 1322 with Douglas and Randolph he attempted to surprise the English King at Biland abbey near Melton, Yorkshire, but Edward escaped to York pursued by Walter with 500 cavalry and in the spirit of chivalry waited at the gates until evening for the enemy to come forth and renew the combat. Walter died in 1326 at Bathgate castle which was oddly situated in the center of a bog.

    Issue- first child by Marjory, next by Alice, last three by Isabel

  • 16I. ROBERT- b. 2 Mar. 1316, m.1. ELIZABETH MURE, 2. c.1355 EUPHEMIA ROSS, d. 19 Apr. 1390
  • II. Jean-
  • 17III. JOHN- of Ralston
  • IV. Andrew-
  • V. Egidia- m.1. Sir James Lindsay of Crawford, 2. after Oct. 1357 Sir Hugh Eglinton of Ardrossan, 3. int. Oct. 1378 Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith

    Ref:-

    Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Stewart,_6th_High_Steward_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp. 14-5


    16I. ROBERT (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11)

    b. 2 Mar. 1316
    m.1. ELIZABETH, d. of Adam MURE of Rowallan
    2. c.1355 EUPHEMIA, d. of Hugh, Earl of ROSS
    d. 19 Apr. 1390
    bur. Scone

    Sir Robert, 7th Lord High Steward, was declared heir to the throne in 1318, but the birth of a son to the Bruce in 1326 interrupted his prospects for awhile. Robert received large amounts of land in Kintyre from his grandfather.

    Elizabeth Mure was a lady of great beauty and attracted Robert's attention while he was in hiding about Dundonald castle during Edward Baliol's reign. It was considered by some that a marriage never took place, but "Mr John Learmouth, chaplain to Alexander, Archbishop of St. Andrews hath left upon record in a deduction of the descent of the house of Rowallan, collected by him at command of the said Archbishop, that Robert, Great Steward of Scotland, having taken away the said Elizabeth, drew to Sir Adam, her father, ane instrument that he should take her to his lawful wife, which myself have seen, saith the collector as also ane testimonie written in Latin by Roger M'Adam priest of our Ladie Marie's chapel that the said Roger married Robert and Elizabeth foresaids." The dispensation for the marriage with Elizabeth Mure is dated Dec. in the 6th year of the pontificate of Clement VI (1347). The dispensation for the marriage with Euphemia Ross is dated in the 3rd year of the pontificate of Innocent VI (1355).

    Dunoon Castle- from the Gantock Rocks- William Miller 1830

    During the long and disastrous reign of David II, Robert took a patriotic part in the defence of the Kingdom. At the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 he commanded the 2nd Division of the Scottish army when just seventeen years old. A short time later when Scotland was over-run by Edward III he lost his office and in 1334 after the temporary sucess of Edward Baliol, Robert was forced to hide at Bute. The next year he recaptured his castle of Dunoon in Cowal which he been taken by Baliol and had the people of Renfrewshire and Ayrshire acknowledge David II. Upon the death of the Regent Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell in 1338 Robert became commander of the Scottish army and shortly afterwards recaptured Cupar castle in Fife. By his efforts the English were driven out of the country and David II returned from his nine years exile in France in June 1341. In 1346 when the King was defeated at the Battle of Neville's Cross, Durham and taken prisoner the army was taken home in safety by the Earl of March and Sir Robert and Robert was again appointed Regent. In 1357 he negociated the King's release and sent his oldest son as one of the hostages in his stead. The following year King David made Robert the Earl of Strathern. The chronicler Henry Knighton stated:

    "the Scots refused to have their King unless he entirely renounced the influence of the English, and similarly refused to submit themselves to them. And they warned him that they would neither ransom him nor allow him to be ransomed unless he pardoned them for all their acts and injuries that they had done, and all the offences that they had committed during the time of captivity, and he should give them security for that, or otherwise they threatened to choose another king to rule them."

    Then King afterwards entered into an alliance with England to have Scotland ruled by Prince Lionel, Duke of Clarence, a son of the English king. Upon proposing this to the Parliament in 1363 Sir Robert assembled his allies to enforce his right of succession which had been confirmed by the former Parliament. The King's army then marched against Robert's supporters and awed them into submission. David was, however, compelled to respect the law of succession established by Robert the Bruce and he gave the Earldom of Carrick, formerly belonging to the Bruce, to Robert's oldest son Robert III. Upon David's marriage with the daughter of Sir John Logie in 1368 Robert and his followers were thrown into prison.

    Groat of King Robert II

    At the King's death 22 Feb. 1371 Robert, who was 55 years old, succeeded to the crown as King Robert II, being the first of the Stewart family to ascend the throne of Scotland. The following month he was crowned at Scone by the Archbishop of St. Andrews. William, 1st Earl of Douglas, claimed the throne as a member of the families of Comyn and Baliol, but, finding all the nobles against his claim he withdrew his claim.

    For several years Scotland was ravaged by the "black death" and a great scarcity of food. The year before his death King Robert appointed his son the Duke of Albany, Governor of the Kingdom and Robert retired from Dunfermline, where the court had been held, to his castle of Dundonald in Kyle where he died in Apr. 1390 age 75 and in the 19th year of his reign. He was popularly designated "Blear Eye" from an inflammation in his eyelids which left him deformed.

    King Robert is also remembered as the one who commissioned John Barbour to write the poem "The Brus" which helped bolster the image of the Stewarts as legitimate heirs of Robert the Bruce.

    Dundonald Castle- c.1903

    Issue-first nine children by Elizabeth, next four by Euphemia, next four by mistress Mariota de Cardney, next by mistress Moira Leitch, last four by unknown mistress.

  • I. Walter- m. Isobel, countess of Fife, d.s.p. c.1362
  • 18II. JOHN- b.c.1340, m. ANNABELLA DRUMMOND, d. 4 Apr. 1406
  • 19III. ROBERT- b.c.1339, m.1. Margaret Menteith, 2. MURIELLA KEITH
  • IV. Alexander- Earl of Buchin, "The Wolf of Badenoch", d. 3 Sept. 1420
  • V. Margaret- m. John, Lord of the Isles
  • VI. Marjory- m. John, Earl of Moray
  • VII. Elizabeth- m. Thomas Hay, Constable of Scotland
  • VIII. Isabella- m.1. James, Earl of Douglas, 2. c.1389 Sir John Edmonstone
  • IX. Jean- m.1. Sir John Keith, 2. Sir John Lyon, 3. Sir James Sandilands of Calder
  • X. Walter- Lord of Brechin and Earl of Atholl
  • 20XI. EGIDIA- m. WILLIAM DOUGLAS
  • 21XII. CATHERINE- m.c.1380 DAVID LINDSAY
  • 22XIII. DAVID-
  • XIV. Alexander- of Inverlunan
  • XV. John- of Cardney
  • XVI. James- of Abernethy & Kinfauns
  • XVII. Walter-
  • XVIII. John- Sheriff of Bute
  • XIX. Thomas- Archdeacon of St. Andrews, Dean of Dunkeld
  • XX. Alexander- Canon of Glasgow
  • XXI. John- Lord of Burley, killed in battle of Dumbarton castle 1425
  • XXII. James- Canon of Glasgow

    Ref:-

    King Robert II of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.15-7


    15II. JOHN (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11, ROBERT 12)

    b.c.1340
    m. ANNABELLA, d. of Sir John DRUMMOND of Stobhall (d. 1401)
    d. 4 Apr. 1406 Dundonald
    bur. Abbey church, Paisley

    John, then called Lord of Kyle, is first on the scene in the 1350's commanding the forces in Annandale against English occupied Scottish territory. In 1363 he joined his father in a rebellion against King David, however, he was then reconciled with the king.

    John was created Earl of Carrick by King David on 22 June 1368. His father became king after David died unexpectedly in 1371 without any children. John was influential in his father's government and in 1384 he was appointed the King's Lieutenant after having King Robert II removed from direct rule by the council. In 1388 the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Otterburn and the earl of Douglas was killed. With the loss of this powerful ally, John saw his support diminish and the nobles supported his brother Robert, Earl of Fife who was made the King's Lieutenant in Dec. 1388.

    The Battle of Otterburn- Froissart

    Upon succeeding to the throne he changed his name to Robert to which the Scots were partial and after John Baliol and the English King John, John was considered an unlucky name for a king. Unfortunately, most of his reign was disturbed by the feuds of the nobility. He was crowned at Scone 14 Aug. 1390.

    Groat of King Robert III

    The king was kicked by a horse while young and was lame and as he was of an indolent and pacific disposition the administration of affairs was given to his wife Annabella and his brother the Earl of Fife and Duke of Albany who became guardian of the King and Kingdom. Annabella supported the whole dignity of the court and wrote several letters to Richard II. She and Traill, Bishop of St. Andrews managed the affairs of the Kingdom appeasing the nobles and receiving foreigners so that upon their death in 1401 it was said that the glory of Scotland had departed.

    Falkland Castle

    Robert's oldest son was considered by the nobility to have a better right to the post of guardian of the Kingdom than the King's brother and in 1398 the Duke of Albany was forced to resign. When Henry IV invaded Scotland in 1400 the government was in the hands of the heir to the throne, but the licentious habits of the ill fated Prince led his father in 1402 to order Albany to arrest him. He was imprisoned in Falkland castle and was starved to death. After the Prince's death Albany was allowed free reign of the government by the feeble monarch, but the King finally suspected his brother's ambitious ideas. Robert then sent his son James to France for safety, but the boat was seized by the English 30 Mar. 1405 and he was put in the Tower of London. The King died 4 Apr. 1406 at Rothesay castle.

    Walter Bower, abbot of Inchcolm stated that King Robert III was "the worst of kings and the most miserable of men". His personal rule was a period of anarchy by a king who couldn't control his brothers, nor his son. One historian calls the reigns of Robert II & III as "nineteen years of senility and sixteen of infirmity". Ouch.

    Annabella Drummond

    Issue- first seven children by Annabella

  • I. David- Duke of Rothsay, b. 24 Oct. 1378, m. Feb. 1400 Marjory Douglas (m.2. c.1403 Sir Walter Haliburton the younger of Dirleton, d. c.1420), starved to death 1402
  • II. Robert- d.s.p.
  • 23III. JAMES- b.c.1394 Dunfermline, m. JOANNA BEAUFORT (m.2. James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn)
  • 24IV. MARGARET- m. Sir COLIN CAMPBELL of Lochow, ?m. Archibald Douglas
  • IV. Jean- m. ______ Stewart of Donally
  • 25V. MARY- m.1. McDonald of the Isles, 2. c.1397 GEORGE DOUGLAS, 3. WILLIAM GRAHAM, 4. WILLIAM EDMONSTONE, d. before 1458
  • VI. Elizabeth- m. Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith
  • VII. Egidia-
  • VIII. James- of Killbride
  • IX. John- of Auchingowan and Ardgowan

    Ref:-

    King Robert III of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_III_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.17-8


    23II. JAMES (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11, ROBERT 12, JOHN 13)

    b Dec.1394 Dunfermline
    m. JOANNA BEAUFORT, d. of the Duke of Somerset (m.2. James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn, d. 15 July 1445 Dunbar, bur. Charterhouse of Perth)- See PLANTAGENET
    murdered 20 Feb. 1437

    After the death of his brother David, King Robert III sent James to the French court to complete his education which had begun under Walter Wardlaw, Bishop of St. Andrews. In 1405 he sailed from Scotland on the "Maryenknyght" from Danzig, with the Earl of Orkney, but the ship was captured by the English off Flamborough Head and the Prince was taken to the Tower of London where he stayed two years before being moved to Windsor castle. Although closely watched, he was well educated and acquainted himself with the art of government. James did have a small group of Scots in his household in England paid for by the English that included Henry and John Sinclair, and Alexander Seton. James passed the hours with his poetry and philosophy. James' father died and his uncle ruled as Regent. In 1420 Henry V took James on his expedition to France in the hope of discouraging the Scots from fighting on the side of France. James was afterwards put back in Windsor castle.

    Windsor Castle- c.1870

    King Henry V did, by this time, start treating James more as a guest at his court and he attended Queen Catherine's coronation on 23 Feb. 1421 and sat at a position of honor on the Queen's left at the banquet. When King Henry made the circuit of major towns in England he knighted James on St. George's day. James went back to France with Henry in 1421 and along with the Duke of Bedford, he was a commander at the siege of Dreux that summer and received the surrender of the garrison on 20 Aug. 1421. King Henry died in France on 31 Aug. and James escorted the funeral retinue to England. The English council wanted James to go back to Scotland, however, the Scots had little interest in resolving the issue as his uncle remained in power. James' uncle died and power shifted and an embassy was sent to England to negociate James' release.

    After being a prisoner for 19 years he was released by the Regent of England the Duke of Bedford and returned to Scotland in Apr. 1424 having married Lady Joanna whom he first saw from his window walking in the Royal gardens at Windsor castle. In "The King's Quhair" he states she had "Beauty enough to make a world to doat".

    Joanna Beaufort

    Upon finding that his uncle and his sons had alienated most of the Royal possessions and reduced the Kingdom to a state of anarchy he had them and the Earl of Lennox executed as traitors and their estates confiscated. James passed many laws to curb the power of the nobles and to improve the condition of the people thus making him very unpopular with the nobility. He appointed judges to enforce the laws in every county, ordered standard weights and measures to be made, encouraged learned men, built public schools which he endowed, and finding the economy depressed he invited manufacturers from Flanders to settle in Scotland. In 1424 he authorized a tax to go towards paying off his ransom to the English. Of the 26,000 raised only 12,000 went to England and by 1429 James stopped paying the ransom completely and used the money to buy canons and luxury items from Flanders. After the fire at Linlithgow castle in 1425, James diverted 10% of the royal income to build Linlithgow Palace.

    Linlithgow Palace- c.1707

    King Henry VI expected that James would remain sympathetic to English interests, however, by 1430 King James was acting very much as an independant monarch. In 1428 King Charles VII sent an envoy to renew the alliance with France and the terms included marrying off Princess Margaret to the Dauphin and giving Saintonge to King James. James took a non-aligned attitude in regards to England, France and Burgundy and he opened up diplomatic relations with Aragon, Castile, the Holy Roman Empire, Milan, Naples, the Vatican and Denmark.

    In 1428 King James took his army to get the Lord of the Isles to submit to his rule. He told an assembly at Perth:

    "I shall go and see whether they have fulfilled the required service; I shall go I say and I will not return while they default. I will chain them so that they are unable to stand and lie beneath my feet."

    The chiefs of the Gaelic clans were summoned to Inverness and the King subsequently arrested fifty of them and had several executed. Many were released and some kept in captivity. The war with the men of the Isles continued until further campaigns were blocked by Parliament.

    In 1436 James renewed his alliance with France by marrying his daughter Margaret to the Dauphin. England continued to raid the country so James and his army attacked Roxburgh castle, but due to lack of support he disbanded his forces and went to the monastery of Black Friars at Perth for Christmas. On his journey there a Highland woman who pretended to be a soothsayer, but who in reality was aware of a plot against the King's life appeared before James as he was about to cross the Firth of Forth at Queens ferry. "My Lord and King" she said "if you pass over this water you will never return alive." James was startled by this statement and he remembered an old prediction that the King of Scotland would be killed that year. When asked who gave her the information she stated that she received it from a man named Hubert. The woman was ignored as "a drunken fool who knew not what she said". On Ash Wednesday 20 Feb. 1437 Walter, Earl of Athol and Caithness and his grandson, Sir Robert Stewart, had supper with the King. Shortly after midnight Sir Robert Graham with 300 Highlanders from Athol entered the convent without being observed. James was in his chamber talking with his wife and a few of her ladies when he suddenly heard the men in the courtyard and saw flashes from the torches. They went to the door which was open and bolts destroyed. The King being without arms or attendants told them to keep the door closed as long as possible while he tried to escape. Upon finding the windows barred he took the fire tongs and lifted a plank from the floor and dropped into the dusty celler below and the flooring was replaced. Unfortunately, a small square window in his room through which he could have escaped had been walled up three days before on account of the balls entering it from people playing tennis in the garden. The assassins easily got past the ladies. Not finding James in the apartment and forgetting about the cellar they left the room. The King thinking they had left the convent called to the ladies to pull him out with a sheet. While in the process of getting him up Christopher Chambers happened to pass by the open door and saw what the ladies were doing. He called his associates and entered the room and removed the floor board and upon holding the torch over the opening he saw the King and shouted "Sirs! The bridegroom is found for whom we have been searching and carolling all night long." Sir John Hall jumped into the cellar with a dagger, but was thrown down by the King. His brother also went into the opening and received the same treatment, but, unfortunately, James could not take the daggers aways from either of them. Sir Robert Graham then leaped into the cellar and James, weary, weaponless and profusely bleeding appealed to him for mercy. "Thou cruel tyrant" said Graham "never didst thou show mercy to those of thine own blood, nor to any gentlemen who came in thy way, expect no mercy now". "Then" said James, "I implore thee, for the salvation of my soul to let me have a confessor". "No" replied Sir Robert, "no other confessor shalt thou have than this dagger!" Graham then stabbed him in the chest and the King fell and was pounced on by Hall and his brother who stabbed him no less than sixteen times.

    Graham said: "Yitte dowte I nott but theat yee schulle see the daye and tyme that ye schulle pray for my sowle, for the grete good that I have done to yow, and to all this reume of Scotteland, that I have thus slayne and deliverde yow of so crewell a tyrant."

    All of the murderers were captured within a month and were put to death by the most horrible tortures. Graham was carried naked through the streets of Edinburgh in a cart with his right hand nailed to an upright post and surrounded by men who with hooks and knives and red hot irons kept constantly tearing at and burning his body until he was covered with wounds. The next day he was forced to watch as his son was disembowelled and then he suffered the same fate and his body then quartered and beheaded. Nice folks.

    Walter Bower, Abbot of Inchcolm said that King James was of medium height and very strong. He would challenge any one of any size to wrestle with him. He was also good at archery, jousting, and the hammer throw. He stated that he was an excellent musician and played the organ, drum, flute and lyre. He was also a writer and composed a poem "the Kingis Quair" which is 197 stanzas. Fr Walter said the king was "a tower, a lion,k a light, a jewel, a pillar and a leader... our law giver king who ended the thieving, dishonest conduct and plundering". He also described the king as capable to stabbing a relative through the hand for creating a disturbance at court. The abbot regretted the demise of the Albany Stewarts and spoke of James' greed for territory and wealth and alluded to the dismay of those close to the king at his harsh regime.

    John Shirley's "The Dethe of the Kynge of Scotis" described James as "tyrannous and whose actions were motivated by revenge and covetise... than for anny laweful cawse".

    Issue-

  • I. Alexander- b. 16 Oct. 1430, d.s.p.
  • 26II. JAMES- b. 16 Oct. 1430, m. 1450 Princess MARY, d. of the Duke of Gueldres, d. 3 Aug. 1460
  • III. Margaret- b. 1424, m. 24 June 1436 Louis, Dauphin de France, d.s.p.16 Aug. 1444
  • IV. Isobel- m. 30 Oct. 1442 Francois I, Duc de Bretagne. When the envoys returned from Scotland Francis' father John was eager to know their opinion of the princess. They informed him that she had beauty, health and an elegant person, but was very silent and apparently simple minded. "My dear friends" said the Duke, "I beg you will return to Scotland and bring her to me, she is just such a wife as I desire for my son. Knowledge does a woman more hurt than good, upon my soul I shall have not other. By the body of St. Nicholas, a woman is quite wise enough when she can distinguish her husband's shirt from his waistcoat."
  • V. Joan- 'the dumb lady', m. 1458/9 James Douglas of Dalkeith
  • VI. Eleanor- b. 26 Oct. 1427, m. Sigismund Von Tirol, Duke of Austria, d.s.p.4 Mar. 1496
  • VII. Mary- m. 1444 Wolfart Van Borselen, Count of Grand Pre and Lord of Campvere, Zealand (m.2. 17 June 1468 Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier, d. 1487)
  • VIII. Annabella- m.1. 14 Dec. 1447 Stirling, Louis, Count of Geneva, divorced 1458, m.2. before 10 Mar. 1459 George Gordon, divorced 24 July 1471 Ref:-

    King James I of Scotland- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.18-9


    23I. JAMES (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11, ROBERT 12, JOHN 13, JAMES 14)

    b. 16 Oct. 1430
    m. 3 July 1449 Princess MARY, d. of Arnold, Duke of Gueldres (d. 1 Dec. 1463 Edinburgh, bur. Church of the Holy Trinity)
    d. 3 Aug. 1460

    James was crowned at Holyrood on 25 Mar. 1437 and during his minority the government was run by Chancellor Crichton and Alexander Livingstone the King's guardian. James was known as 'James of the Fiery Face' because of a red birth mark on his cheek.

    Edinburgh Castle

    In 1440 the "Black Dinner" at Edinburgh Castle saw the execution of William Douglas and his brother by Crichton, Livingstone and Avondale. William Douglas, son of the murdered earl, was able to drive Crichton and his cronies from power and put himself and his relatives in power. Crichton wias soon back in the thick of things and he and Douglas continued to rule until James reached adulthood in 1449. Upon assuming control of the government James nearly ruined the Douglas family which had rivaled and defied the crown. On 22 Feb. 1452 James stabbed the 8th Earl of Douglas in the heart at Stirling castle for refusing to break up the treasonable confederacy formed with the Earls of Crauford and Ross. He passed more laws to limit the powers of the nobles than any other King and annexed all the possessions of the Earl of Douglas. The country stayed in a state of civil war until 1455 when King James finally defeated the Douglas clan at the Battle of Arkinholm. James was accidentally killed by an exploding cannon during the seige of Roxburgh 3 Aug. 1460 which was still held by the English. Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie states: "as the King stood near a piece of artillery, his thigh bone was dug in two with a piece of misframed gun that brake in shooting, by which he was stricken to the ground and died hastily." Upon receiving news of her husband's death, Queen Mary rushed to the camp with her oldest son James and told the army to continue the seige and said "I give you another King!" The castle of Roxburgh was levelled.

    Ruins of Roxburgh Castle

    Issue- first six children by Mary

  • 27I. JAMES- b.c.1453, m. 13 July 1469 Princess MARGARET of DENMARK, d. 11 July 1488
  • II. Alexander- Earl of March and Duke of Albany
  • III. David- Earl of Moray, d.s.p.
  • IV. John- Earl of Mar and Garioch, d.s.p. Apr. 1479
  • V. Mary- m.1. Thomas, Lord Boyd, 2. James, Lord Hamilton
  • VI. Margaret- m. William, Lord Crichton
  • VII. John- ancestor of the Stewarts of Ballechin, Perthshire

    Ref:-

    King James II of Scotland at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_Scotland
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.19-20


    27I. JAMES (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11, ROBERT 12, JOHN 13, JAMES 14, JAMES 15)

    b. 10 July 1451 Stirling
    m. 13 July 1469 Holyrood, Princess MARGARET of DENMARK, d. of Christian I, King of Denmark (d. 14 July 1486)
    murdered. 11 July 1488
    bur. Abbey of Cambuskenneth

    King James III of Scotland

    James was crowned at Kelso 10 Aug. 1460 and during his minority the government was run by Robert, Lord Boyd, Chancellor, the Archbishops of Glasgow and St. Andrews, and the Bishop of Dunkeld.

    Lord Boyd's administration was particularly unpopular. He did arrange the marriage with Margaret of Denmark in 1469. By his marriage with Princess Margaret he was given a permanent gift of the Orkney and Shetland Islands thus ending the "Norwegian Annual" fee collected by Denmark for the Western Isles.

    Margaret of Denmark

    In the 1470's James had the pipe dream of invading Brittany, Saintonge and Guelders and was subject to criticism from Parliament. In 1474 a marriage alliance was made with King Edward IV where King James IV was to marry Edward's daughter Princess Cecily of York which alienated the nobility given the enmity between the two countries. James wanted to humble the power of the nobles, but in so doing he treated them with coldness and neglect. His brother Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Marr, were implicated in a plot against him so both were arrested and Alexander was locked up in Edinburgh castle and John was murdered probably by the King's request. Alex escaped and went to Edward IV who gave him an army under the Duke of Gloucester (the future Richard III). While James was encamped near Lauder, a conspiracy was formed to kill the King's favorites. The Earl of Angus, Huntly, Lennox and others forcibly entered the King's room and seized all the favorites except Sir John Ramsay and without any trial they were hanged over the bridge of Lauder in July 1482.

    James was taken prisoner to Edinburgh castle but was set free. King James regained power by buying off the members of the Duke of Albany's government His brother escaped to England and tried another failed invasion in 1484. Alex was killed jousting in Paris in 1485. The plots continued and the rebels led by the Earls of Angus and Argyll as well as the Home and Hepburn families, then seized the King's son James and placed him at the head of their group and stated their intention to deprive the King of his crown. James barely escaped on one of Sir Andrew Wood's ships before the Southern part of the country revolted. In the North he assembled an army of 30,000 men and attacked the rebels at Sauchie near Stirling 11 July 1488. James fled and was thrown from his horse and was carried to a miller's hut, he was then murdered by a man disguised as a priest. The story goes that the people at the mill asked who he was and he replied, "I was your king this morning". The miller's wife ran out of the building shouting for a priest for the king. A man claiming to be a priest entered and asked the king if his wounds were mortal. James replied that they were not but he wished to confess his sins and receive pardon. The man then stabbed the king in the heart saying, "This then will give you your pardon!" He escaped and was never found.(1)

    Battle of Sauchieburn

    James ended up being a very unpopular and ineffective king due to his lack of interest and/or ability to administer justice fairly, pursuing a very unpopular allience with England, and the disasterous relationship with his family.

    Tomb of James III and Margaret- Cambuskenneth Abbey

    Issue-

  • 28I. JAMES- b. Mar. 1472, m. 1503 Princess Margaret Tudor, mistresses ISABEL STEWART, MARGARET DRUMMOND, d. 9 Sept. 1513 Flodden
  • II. James- b. Mar. 1475/6, Marquess of Ormond, Duke of Ross
  • III. John- b. Dec. 1479, Earl of Mar, d. Mar. 1502/3

    Ref:

    (1) Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland- Vol. III, pt. 1, p.8 (1860)

    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.20-1


    25I. JAMES (HAMON 1, FLAALD 2, ALAN 3, FLAALD 4, ALAN 5, WALTER 6, ALAN 7, WALTER 8, ALEXANDER 9, JAMES 10, WALTER 11, ROBERT 12, JOHN 13, JAMES 14, JAMES 15, JAMES 16)

    b. 17 Mar. 1472
    m. 1503 Princess Margaret Tudor (m.2. Aug. 1514 Chapel of Kinnoull, Archibald Douglas, divorced Mar. 1526, m.3. Henry Stewart, Lord Methven, d. 19 Oct. 1541 Methven, bur. Carthusian Monastery, Perth)
    mistresses: ISABEL STEWART, MARGARET DRUMMOND, Margaret Boyd, Janet Kennedy
    d. 9 Sept. 1513 battle of Flodden

    James succeeded to the throne in 1488. When he realized the indirect part he had in his father's death, King James wore a heavy iron cilice around his waist every Lent as penance. (3)

    The year after his succession he defeated another rebellion and he brought the Lord of the Isles under his control by 1493. James went to Dunstaffnage Castle and received the submission of the chiefs as well as John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles. In Oct. 1496 the Royal Council decreed that the clan chiefs were responsible for crimes committed by the islanders which was not workable. The Act of Revocation of 1498 undermined the chief's titles to their lands. King James waited at Kilkerran Castle to re-grant the chief's charters in 1498, however, few showed up. Over the next ten years the islanders fought with the king and his supporters who finally were able to exert control over these rebellious Scots.

    A strong attachment took place between the then, Duke of Rothesay and Margaret Drummond, however, the nobles were not in favor of another Drummond queen in the royal family. About 1496 she was living at Stirling castle under the charge of Sir John Lundy of Lundy and in Oct. she was sent to Linlithgow and her expenses are mentioned in the Treasurer's accounts. Shortly after Apr. 1502 Margaret and her sisters Euphemia and Sybilla while at Drummond castle were taken ill after dinner one night and died after much suffering leading to the popular belief that they had been poisoned.(2) James was then married off to Margaret, King Henry VII's daughter when he was 28 and she was 12: "The queen was dressed in white satin damask bordered with crimson velvet, with a collar of gold and pearls, a present from the King. Her long hair nearly reached the floor. The King was also dressed in white damask with gold trimmings, over a jacket slashed in crimson satin and edged with black velvet."(9)

    "..The merle scho sang, 'Haill, Roiss of most delyt,
    Haill, of all flouris quene and soverane;
    The lark scho song, 'Haill, Rois, both reid and quhyt,
    Most plesand flour, of michty cullouris twane;
    The nychtingaill song, 'Haill, naturis suffragene,
    In bewty, nurtour and every nobilness,
    In riche array, renown, and gentilness.'..." (10)

    James was a supporter of the English pretender to the throne, Perkin Warbeck, and invaded England on his behalf in Sept. 1496. In Aug. 1497 he laid siege to Norham Castle using Mons Meg. Meg was an enormous cannon that fired 20" cannon balls that weighed 400 lbs. Mons Meg was one of the cannon on King James' carrack, the 1,000 ton, 240' "Great Michael" which made it the ship with the largest calibre gun in history. It was fired in 1680 to celebrate the arrival of King James VII/II and the barrell burst. It was fired during the Hogmanay celebrations of 2009 from its home at Edinburgh Castle.

    Mons Meg at Edinburgh Castle

    James was also a supporter of a strong Navy and founded two new dockyards and acquired 38 ships for the Royal Scottish Navy.

    King James was generous, brave, and fond of magnificence and soon acquired the confidence of his subjects. He was an excellent soldier and his frequent tournaments attracted knights from Scotland and many foreign lands. To understand the needs of his subjects he would often go out in disguise, meeting and living with the common folk, seeking their opinions on the king and government.

    James was a man of the Renaissance. He chartered the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1505, made Edinburgh Castle one of Scotland's foremost gun foundaries, established Scotland's first printing press in 1507, built Falkland Palace and the Great Halls in Stirling Castle and Edinburgh Castle and supplied his palaces with fine tapestries.(4) He was well educated. In July 1498 Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish envoy, wrote to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that:

    "the King is 25 years and some months old. He is of noble stature, neither tall nor short, and as handsome in complexion and shape as a man can be. His address is very agreeable. He speaks the following foreign languages ; Latin, very well ; French, German, Flemish, Italian, and Spanish ; Spanish as well as the Marquis, but he pronounces it more distinctly. He likes, very much, to receive Spanish letters. His own Scots language is as different from English as Aragonese from Castilian. The King speaks, besides, the language of the savages who live in some parts of Scotland and on the islands. It is as different from Scots as Biscayan is from Castilian. His knowledge of languages is wonderful. He is well read in the Bible and in some other devout books. He is a good historian. He has read many Latin and French histories, and profited by them, as he has a very good memory. He never cuts his hair or his beard. It becomes him very well. He is devout and says all his prayers. He maintains that the oath of a king should be his royal word, as was the case in bygone times. He is active and works hard, when he is not at war he hunts in the mountains. He is courageous. I have seen him undertake most dangerous things in the last wars. On such occasions he does not take the least care of himself."(5)

    James was the last King of Scots to have spoken Gaelic.

    James also had an alchemy lab at Stirling Castle... one of the alchemists, Father John Damian, attempted to fly from Stirling Castle! (6) The good friar was the subject of a satire written by William Dunbar called "Ane Ballat of the Fenyeit Frier of Tungland, How He Fell in the Myre Fleand to Turkiland" (William Dunbar is most famous for being the first to use the "F" word in print in 1503. Of course this was more than 200 years after John le Fucker of Tythinge was imprisoned at Peterborough for the death of Walter de Leyghton and William de Leyghton... but... I digress(11) ).

    And... King James lifted the ban on golf and bought some clubs from a bowmaker in Perth in 1502:

    "Item: the xxi Sept- to the bowar [bowmaker] of Sanct Johnestoun, for golf clubs, xiii s".

    Later he bought golf clubs in Edinburgh and St. Andrews.(8)

    Memorial at Flodden

    James realized that peace with England was in the best interest of both countries and in Feb. 1498 he ratified the Treaty of Ayton. In 1502 he signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace. By the marriage treaty a peace was made with England with lasted nine years, but his brother-in-law Henry VIII became hostile and James invaded England after Henry VIII had attacked Scotland's ally, France. While King Henry was away at the siege of Therouanne he led an army across the border. James was attacked by the Earl of Surrey at Flodden 9 Sept. 1513 and was killed along with 12 Earls, 13 Lords, 5 eldest sons of Peers, 50 gentlemen, several dignitaries of the church and 10,000 soldiers.(1)

    Sheen Priory- Anthony van den Wyngaerde- c.1550

    A body, thought to be that of the king, pierced by many arrows, was taken from the battlefield at Flodden to London where it lay unburied for years at Sheen Priory in Surry. The body was lost after the Reformation, however, John Stow, the 16th century historian, claimed he had seen it and said that the king's head, with its red hair, was removed by a glazier and buried at St. Michael Wood Street. James's blood-stained coat was sent to King Henry VIII by Catherine of Aragon.

    Of course there were all sorts of rumors concerning King James's burial place or that he had survived and gone into exile. There is a story that the body recovered by the English did not have its iron cilice around the waist as the king had removed it when dallying with Lady Heron. Also a story of a skeleton found with a cilice, in a well at Hume Castle, or at Roxburgh castle, or the discovery of the royal corpse at Berry Moss near Kelso.(7)

    Issue- first five children by Princess Margaret, sixth by Isabel, seventh by Margaret Drummond, 8th and 9th by Margaret Boyd, tenth by Janet

  • I. James- b. 21 Feb. 1506/7 Holyrood House, d. 27 Feb. 1507/8
  • II. daughter- 15 July 1508, d.s.p.
  • III. Arthur- b. 20 Oct. 1509, d. 14 July 1510
  • IV. James- b. 10 Apr. 1512 Linlithgow, m.1. 1 Jan. 1536/7 Notredame, Paris, Princess Magdalene of France (b. Aug. 1520, d. 7 July 1537 Holyrood House), 2. June 1538 St. Andrews, Mary of Guise (m.1. Louis d'Orleans, Duc de Longueville, d. 10 June 1560 Edinburgh Castle), d. 13 Dec. 1542, bur. Holyrood House
  • V. Alexander- b. 30 Apr. 1514, d. 18 Dec. 1515
  • 26VI. JOHANNA- m. MALCOLM FLEMING, mistress of Henri II, Roi de France
  • 27VII. MARGARET- b.c.1497, m.1. John, Lord Gordon, 2. JOHN DRUMMOND
  • VIII. Alexander- b.c.1493, Archbishop of St. Andrews, d. battle of Flodden 1513
  • IX. Catherine- m. James Douglas, Earl of Morton
  • X. James- b.c.1499, m. Elizabeth Campbell, d. of Colin, Earl of Argyle, d. 12 June 1544

    Ref:

    (1) Iconographia Scotica- Pinkerton
    (2) Exch. Rolls- XII, p. lxviii; Scots Peerage- Vol. VII, pp.44-5
    (3) The History of Scotland- Robert Lindsay, Robert Freebairn, Edinburgh, 1778- p. 149
    (4) Scottish Royal Palaces- John G. Dunbar, Tuckwell, 1999
    (5) Calendar of State Papers- Spain- Vol. I, No. 210
    (6) Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland- Vol. III, 99, 202, 206, 209, 330, 340-1, 353, 355, 365, 379, 382, 389, 409; Vol. II, 362
    (7) "James IV of Scotland"- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_IV_of_Scotland
    (8) Scottish Golf History- World's First Golfer at Perth, Scotland- http://www.scottishgolfhistory.net/perth_first_known_golfer.htm
    (9) James IV- http://www.nwlink.com/~scotlass/jamesiv.htm
    (10) The Thrissill and the Rois- William Dunbar- 1503
    (11) Calendar of the Close Rolls- Edward I, 1272-1279, London, 1900- p. 451

    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, pp.21-3


    10II. JOHN (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6)

    m. MARGARET, d. of Sir Alexander BONKYL, Berwickshire
    d. 22 July 1298 battle of Falkirk

    Sir John commanded the Scottish archers and was killed with almost all of his men of Bute the Brandanes at the battle of Falkirk on 22 July 1298. Wyntoun says:

    "There Jhon Stewart a-pon fute
    Wyth hym the Brandanys thare of Bute".

    Issue-

  • 40I. ALEXANDER- d.c.1319
  • II. Alan- of Dreghorn, ancestor of the Stewarts of Darnley, Earls of Lennox, killed battle of Halidon Hill 19 July 1333
  • 46III. WALTER- b.c.1275, d. 1340 Dalswinton. ancestor of the Stewarts of Garlies, Earls of Galloway and Lords Blantyre
  • 41IV. JAMES- see 28.John, killed battle of Halidon Hill 19 July 1333
  • V. John- killed at Hallidon Hill 1333
  • VI. Hugh- fought in Ireland under Edward Bruce
  • VII. Robert- of Daldowie
  • 42VIII. ISABEL- m. THOMAS RANDOLPH, d. after 15 July 1351

    Ref:

    Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage- Charles Mosley, Ed.- 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, page 1511
    John Stewart of Bonkyll- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stewart_of_Bonkyll_(d.1298)
    The Scots Peerage- Vol. I, p.13


    40I. ALEXANDER (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JOHN 7)

    d.c.1319

    Issue-

  • 43I. JOHN- m. MARGARET ABERNETHY, d. Dec. 1331


    43. JOHN (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JOHN 7, ALEXANDER 8)-

    m. MARGARET, d. of Alexander de ABERNETHY
    d. Dec. 1331

    Sir John of Bonkil was granted the Earldom of Angus before 1329 by King Robert the Bruce. By his marriage to Margaret he obtained the barony of Abernethy.

    John was knighted in Nov. 1331 but, died two weeks later.

    Issue-

  • 44I. THOMAS- m. 1353 MARGARET SINCLAIR, d. 1361

    Ref:

    John Stewart, 1st Earl of Angus- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stewart,_1st_Earl_of_Angus


    44I. THOMAS (JOHN 1)

    m. 1353 MARGARET SINCLAIR, d. of Sir William St. Clair of Roslin
    d. 1361

    Thomas was at the Siege of Berwick in 1355 and was one of the lords that negociated the release of King David.

    Thomas became Great Chamberlin of Scotland an office which he held until 1359 when he was replaced by Walter, Lord of Biggar because of several reasons which eventually cost him his life including his oppression of the commons, his disorderly life, and his alleged involvement in the murder of Katherine Mortimer the Welsh mistress of David II in 1360. The King sent him to prison at Dumbarton Castle where he died of the plague in 1361.

    Issue-

  • I. Thomas- d.s.p. 1377
  • 45II. MARGARET- m.1. Thomas, 13th Earl of Mar (m.1. Margaret, Countess of Menteith- divorced, d.s.p. 1377), mistress of WILLIAM DOUGLAS
  • III. Elizabeth- m. Alexander Hamilton of Innerwick

    Ref:

    Thomas Stewart, 2nd Earl of Angus- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Stewart,_2nd_Earl_of_Angus
    Papal Letters- Vol. III, p. 512
    Exchequer Rolls- Vol. II, p. 1
    Red Book of Menteith


    28. JOHN-

    m. ISOBEL de ENGARDIA
    d. 26 Apr. 1421

    John Stewart of Lorn and Innermeath was descended from James Stewart the 4th son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill (see 10II. JOHN above)

    Issue-

  • 29I. JAMES- m. JOANNA BEAUFORT (m.1. JAMES I)
  • II. JANET- m. COLIN CAMPBELL (d. 1475)


    29I. JAMES (JOHN 1)

    m. contract 21 Sept. 1439 JOANNA BEAUFORT, d. of the Duke of Somerset (m.1. JAMES STEWART, King of Scotland)

    James was known as the "Black Knight of Lorn".

    Issue-

  • 30I. JOHN-
  • 31II. JAMES-

    30I. JOHN (JOHN1, JAMES 2)

    m.1. Lady Margaret Douglas (m.1. 8th Earl of Douglas, 2. 9th Earl of Douglas- annulled in 1455)
    2. ELEONORA SINCLAIR, d. of William, Earl of Orkney
    d. battle of Flodden 19 Sept. 1512

    Sir John of Valveny was made Earl of Athol in 1457 and in 1475 he and the Earl of Crawford attacked and defeated the rebellious Earl of Ross and thereby obtained many lands. John was also involved in suppressing the rebellion of Angus of the Isles. During the "Raid of Athol" John went to Islay and kidnapped Angus' son Donald Dubh. Angus then attacked the district of Athol and John and his family took refuge in St. Bride's chapel, but was carried away to Lochmaben by Angus. During the voyage many of Argus' galleys were lost in a storm and believing this to be a judgement from heaven for molesting the santuary of St. Bride's he let his prisoners go. In 1488 John was in command of the army of James III against his son and the rebel lords for which he was imprisoned in Dunbar castle after the King's death.

    Dunbar Castle

    Issue- first two children by Margaret, remainder by Eleonora

  • I-II- daughters, ?d.s.p.
  • III. John- killed at Flodden 9 Sept. 1513
  • 32V. ______- m. KENNETH MacKENZIE
  • 33VI. MARJORY- m. Sir COLIN CAMPBELL of Glenurchy, d. 26 July 1524


    31II. JAMES (JOHN 1, JAMES 2)

    James was the Earl of Buchan

    Issue-

  • 34I. ISABEL- mistress of JAMES IV STEWART, King of Scotland


    14II. JOHN (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JAMES 7, WALTER 8)

    of Ralston

    Issue-

  • 35I. EGIDIA- m. PATRICK GRAHAM
  • 36II. MARJORY- m. HENRY DOUGLAS


    16III. ROBERT (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JAMES 7, WALTER 8, ROBERT 9)

    b. 1339
    m.1. 1361 MARGARET GRAHAM, Countess of Menteith (b.c.1334, m.1. Sir John Moray, Lord of Bothwell (d.s.p.), 2. Thomas, Earl of Mar (divorced c.1359), 3. Sir John Drummond of Concraig (d.s.p.), d. 4 May 1380 Dundonald, Ayrshire, bur. Inchmahone Priory)
    2. MURIELLA, d. of Sir William KEITH
    d. 3 Sept. 1420 Stirling castle

    Sir Robert obtained the Earldom of Menteith by his marriage to Margaret and in 1371 the Earldom of Fife from his siste-in-law Isobel countess of Fife. In 1371/2 he presided at the courts to settle differences on the Marches. In 1383 he was appointed Great Chamberlin of Scotland which he held until 1408. In 1385 with the Earl of Douglas and the Admiral of France, Jean de Vienne, he attacked the English at Roxburgh castle taking Wark castle on the way, but they were forced to retreat because of the advance of the Duke of Lancaster. When the English invaded Scotland, Robert, the Earl of Douglas, and Archibald, Lord of Galloway, invaded England returning with a large amount of plunder. In 1388 when Douglas invaded England on the East, Robert and his brother the Earl of Strathearn invaded on the west returning to Scotland without any loss. Because of his father's old age and the weakness of his brother, Robert was appointed Governor of the Kingdom in 1389 by the three estate. He then attacked the Earl of Nottingham and destroyed much of the area. A truce was then agreed to. In April 1390 his father died and his brother John succeeded to the throne as Robert III, but control of the government remained in Robert's hands. Prince David, however, thought that he should be Governor since he was heir to the throne, therefore, Robert was forced to resign but he was head of the Prince's council. In March 1398 Robert and the Prince met with John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, at Haudenstank to settle their differences. On 28 Apr. 1398 at Scone the King made his son the Duke of Rothesay and Robert, Duke of Albany. In 1400 Henry IV invaded Scotland and took Haddington and Leith and laid seige to Edinburgh castle, but due to Robert, Archibald, Earl of Douglas and the Prince the English were forced to retreat. Two years later after his mother's death the Prince's personality changed as related by Boece:

    "Be quhais deith succedit gret displeseir to his son, David, duk of Rothesay, for, during hir life, he wes haldin in virtews and honest occupatioun, eftir hir death, he began to rage in all maner of insolence; and fulyeit virginis, mastronis, and nunnis, be his unbridillit lust. At last, King Robert, informit of his young and insolent maneris, send letteris to his broth; the duk of Albany, to intertene his said son, the duk of Rothesay and to leir (learn) him honest and civill maneris. The duk of Albany, glaid of this writtingis tuk the duk of Rothesay betwixt Dunde and Sanct Androis and brocht him to Falkland and inclusit (enclosed) him in the tour thairof, but (without) ony meit or drink. It is said ane woman havard commiseratioun on this duk, leist meill fall down throw the loftis of the toure; be quilkis, his life wes certane dayis savit. This woman fra it wes knawin, wes put to deith. On the same maner, ane othir woman gaif him milk of hir paup, throw ane lang reid and wes slave with gret cruelte, fra it wes knawin. Than wes the duk destitute of all mortall supplie; and brocht, finalie, to sa miserable and hungry appetitie, that he eit, nocht allanerlie (not only) the filth of the toure quhare he wes, bot his awin fingaris; to his great marterdome. His body wes beryit in Lundoris and kithit miraklis mony yeris eftir; quhil (till) at last King James the First began to punis his slayeris; and fra that time furth the miraclis cessit." The Prince's death is also depicted in Sir William Scott's novel "The Fair Maid of Perth". The reasons for David's unpopularity were many. He had rejected Euphemia de Lindsay and Elizabeth Dunbar for Marjory Douglas whom he married and then became the enemy of their families. He also offended his father-in-law, his follower, Sir William Ramorgeny and openly plotted to overthrow Sir Robert. The Prince was captured on his way to St. Andrews by Lindsay and Ramorgny and taken to the castle where a council was held after Sir Robert and Douglas arrived and the unfortunate Prince was sent to Falkirk. Boece's description is quite fabulous and untrue, none of the murderers were executed and it is improbable that his remains were ever considered to have worked miracles. A parliament was held on 16 May at Edinburgh to investigate the murder. Sir Robert admitted to imprisoning him, but denied being responsible for his death, attributing it to devine providence. The parliament declared him innocent and was given a remission for the imprisonment.

    Homildon Hill

    Sir Robert then turned his attention to the English and marched across the borders and was defeated at the battle of Nesbit Moor 22 June 1402 and at Homildon Hill 14 Sept. 1402. Shortly after the Percies in England broke into rebellion and as a pretext for gathering an army they advanced across the border at Cocklaws and then marched back to engage the English king. Sir Robert thinking that he may benefit from the situation demanded that they invade England, but as Bower says "All were of opinion that upon so trivial an occasion it would be absurd to peril the welfare of the Kingdom, but Albany pointing to his page said "You my Lords may sit still at home, but I vow to God and St. Fellan that I shall be at Cocklaws on the appointed day, though no one but Pate Kinbuck the boy yonder should accompany me." At the head of an immense army Robert marched towards England, but upon receiving word that the Rebels had been defeated at Shrewsbury he disbanded the army and went home. In the meantime Robert III sent his son James to France for safety, but his ship was taken by the English and he became a prisoner of Henry IV. Robert III died 4 Apr. 1406 and Sir Robert was made Regent by Parliament. Donald, Lord of the Isles claimed the Earldom of Ross as his and after forming an alliance with Henry IV he invaded Ross and obtained possession of the Earldom. Donald took the Isle of Skye and Dingwall castle and then in an effort to overthow the government he assembled an army at Inverness and marched toward Aberdeen destroying everything in his path. The Earl of Mar and Sir Alexander Ogilvy attacked Donald at Harlaw 15 miles from Aberdeen 24 July 1411 and both armies suffered greatly. Donald was so weakened that he retreated to the Isles. Sir Robert sent an army to Ross and captured the castle of Dingwall and the Lord of the Isles relinquished his claims to the Earldom of Ross. In 1415 Robert obtained the freedom of his son Murdoch who was captured by the English at Homildon Hill. In 1416 Sir Robert sent his son John, Earl of Buchan, to negociate the release of James I. In 1417 while Henry IV was in France, Robert invaded England, but retreated upon the approach of the Dukes of Bedford and Exeter. In 1419 he sent his son John to France with 7,000 men to assist the Dauphin against King Henry. Sir Robert continued to administer the affairs of Scotland until his death at Stirling castle 3 Sept. 1420.

    Robert Stewart- Duke of Albany's Seal

    Issue-

    first eight children by Margaret, last two by Muriella.

  • I. Janet- m. David de Mowbray
  • II. Mary- m. William Abernathy of Saltoun
  • III. Margaret- m. John Swinton
  • IV. Joan- m. Robert Stewart of Lorn
  • V. Beatrice- m. James Douglas of Balveny
  • 38VI. ISABEL- m. WALTER HALYBURTON
  • VII. Marjorie- m. Duncan Campbell, Lord Campbell
  • VIII. Murdoch- m. Isabella, d. of Duncan, Earl of Lennox, beheaded 24 May 1425
  • IX. John- b.c.1380, m. 1413 Elizabeth Douglas, killed in the battle of Verneuil, Normandy 17 Aug. 1424
  • 37X. ELIZABETH- m. MALCOLM FLEMING

    Ref:

    Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Stewart,_Duke_of_Albany
    Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Graham,_Countess_of_Menteith
    Memorials of Edinburgh- Wilson, Vol.II, p.168
    History of the Highlanders- Skene, Vol. II, p.72
    Peerage of Scotland- Douglas, Vol. I
    History of Scotland- Pinkerton, Vol. I, p.85


    19VIII. DAVID (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JAMES 7, WALTER 8, ROBERT 9)

    m. ? ______- d. of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk
    d. probably in Mar. 1386

    Sir David was given the Earldom of Strathern by his father Robert II 13 June 1371. On 19 June 1371 he obtained a charter to the barony of Urquhart. He was made Earl of Caithness and was called Earl-Palatine of Strathern and Earl of Caithness in a charter from his father 14 Feb. 1381. He obtained a grant to Braal Castle on 21 Mar. 1375.

    David was involved in a dispute with his brother Alexander who occupied his castle at Urquhart by 1385.

    Issue-

  • 39I. EUPHAME- m.1. Sir PATRICK GRAHAM (killed 10 Aug. 1413 Crieff), 2. Sir Patrick Dunbar of Bele, d.c.1434

    Ref:

    David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Stewart,_Earl_of_Strathearn


    46III. WALTER (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JOHN 7)

    b.c.1275
    d. 1340 Dalswinton

    Issue-

  • 47I. JOHN- b.c.1315

    Ref:

    Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage- Charles Mosley, Ed.- 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, page 1511


    47I. JOHN (FLAALD 1, ALAN 2, WALTER 3, ALAN 4, WALTER 5, ALEXANDER 6, JOHN 7, WALTER 8)

    b.c.1315
    Sir John lived at Dalswinton, Dumfriesshire. He fought at the battle of Neville's Cross in 1346 where he was captured.

    Issue-

  • I. Walter- Lord of Dalswinton
  • 48II. KATHERINE- b.c.1365, m. HERBERT MAXWELL (b.c.1366, d. before 16 Oct. 1421 Caerlaverock)

    Ref:

    Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage- Charles Mosley, Ed.- 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, page 1511


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