Sherri's Family History
Welcome to SHERRI'S FAMILY HISTORY. Thanks for taking the time to stop by. Tracing/discovering/researching my family history could probably be considered a passion of mine. Am I addicted? Probably. I've been researching my family history for over 20 years now. My Family Tree Maker database file now holds over 23,000 people and growing. Some of you might be surprised that its not just people I "collect". I also collect information that I find adds interesting facts that tie into the family. Hopefully I will have that information on my web page soon!
The Internet has made
unbelievable changes and advances in my research.
It has enabled me to “meet” so many cousins and others who are
interested (possibly addicted) to Genealogy.
The family history is for
everyone, and that is my main reason for publishing – sharing my family
history with any and everyone who is interested.
And of course, I am always looking to expand my family branches and would
appreciate any additional information or possible new leads on people.
I have a Home Page with Family Tree Maker
which has a complete Ancestor Report of my ancestors, an index of all individual's in my database, and Descendants of four families - Marheim (Morem), Overland (Ingolvsland), Crisman, and Bachman (Baughman).
With over 23,000 people in my file, the possibility of descendant charts is endless - far too numerous to put on my home page (Family Tree Maker won't let me), but they are easily e firstname.lastname@example.org
Please check back soon - I am always updating and adding....
Section 1 Serving the families of........listing of main surnames
Section 2 The MOREM family in Norway and America
Section 3 Norway - History of Norway/Regions in Norway of significance to family
Section 4 Emigration from Norway to America
Section 5 America - family in the United States and their communities
Section 6 Family in the Military
Section 7 My Resource "Library"
Section 1 - Serving the families of
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Askildsen - begins with Lars Askildsen; his daughter Johanne Lavine Askildsen born 9 Feb 1772 in Arendal, Norway died 17 April 1931 in Arendal; married to Arnt Bruun born 21 September 1752 in Larvik, Norway died 1 Mar 1831 in Christiansand, Norway
Barry - this is my brother in law's family - beginning with John Barry
Baughman (Bachman) - from Richtersweill, Zurich, Canton, Switzerland and Ibersheim, Pfaltz, Germany; family beginning in 1629 with Hans Jacob Bachman (Baughman); 10 generations 499 people. The Baughmans began emigration to America in the early 1700's and settled in Lower Saucon Township, Northampton, Pennsylvania
Berge - Tinn, Telemark, Norway; begins with Bjorn T Hellem (my 7th great grandpa) born 1647 Norway died 1719 Norway; his daughter Kari Bjornsdtr Berge married Overland
Bernas - beginning with Jon Bernas, my 9th great grandpa, born 1595 in Tinn, Telemark, Norway died in Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Bergman - this is my husband's family. They emigrated from Germany in and settled in Batesville, Indiana and Indianapolis, Indiana; begins with Herman Heinrich Bergman (Bargmann) born 1791 in Vehandorf, Germany. Died on 14 July 1873 in Osgood, Ripley, Indiana
Bjorgo - from Hallingdal area, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway - family beginning in 1660, beginning with Knut Sjurson Bjorgo, my 8th great grandpa, born 1660 Evanger, Voss, Hordaland, Norway died 1726 Evanger, Voss, Hordaland, Norway, married Elisabeth Olsdtr born 1670 Evanger, Voss, Hordaland, Norway; their daughter Anna Knutsdtr Bjorgo 1696 - 1767 married Ola Knutsson Mestad. They remained on the Bjorgo farm. 11 generations 283 people. Knut Bjorgo emigrated to America, with his family, around 1848, and settled in Dan County, Wisconsin. Four years later they moved to Decorah, Iowa
Bjortuft - Tinn, Telemark, Norway; begins with Tarald Bjortuft born Tinn, Norway in 1600's; 15 generations 2101 people
Boen - Tinn, Telemark, Norway; beginning with Ola Rolvsson Boen born Tinn, Telemark, Norway; see Ingulfsland (Overland); Agot Oysteinsdtr Boen 1808-1887 was married to Herbjorn Ingulfsland 1805 -; Agot's mom emigrated to America with Herbjorn Ingulfsland's family
Bokko - Tinn, Telemark, Norway; beginning with Knut Oysteinsson Bokko, my 7th great grandpa, born 1674 in Tinn, Norway; 601 people 12 generations
Brunborg - beginning with Marita Bergesdtr Brunborg born 1761 died 1787 married Haldor Knutsson Bjorgo born 1753 died 1828
Bruun - Tinn, Telemark, Norway; begins with Christian Eilert Bruun, died 15 September 1710 Larvik, Norway; his son, Christian Christianson Bruun, born 12 Feb 1708, died 25 Dec 1796 Larvik, Norway was a ship captain
Buley - beginning with William Buley, born 1758 New York died 1839; married Marie Borrings, born 1794 New York died 1839; their daughter, Elizabeth Buley, born 8 Nov 1836 Ulster County, New York died 8 Aug 1908 Richville, Ottertail, Minnesota married James Hardenberg Eckert
Burns - beginning with Fanny Burns born Ireland died 1857 United States; married William F Dunn born 1822 died 1905
Byrnes - this is my brother in law's family. They emigrated from Ireland and settled in New Jersey and Philadelphia; beginning with Bernard J Byrnes; married to Mary Van Wart; 32 people 5 generations
Cossell - this is my husband's family; they settled in Indianapolis, Indiana; family begins with John Cossell born October 1837; in 1900 census John and his wife were living in Wayne Township, Marion, Indiana; his daughter, Mary Jane Cossell, born 1851 in Indiana, married Thomas Wilfred Donovan
Crisman - from Pfungstadt, Germany; family beginning in 1629 with Johan Friedrich Crisman; 11 generations 895 people; the Crisman family began emigrating to America in the early 1700's and settled in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Dale - beginning with Guri Knutsdtr Dale; married Ulv Tveito and remained on Dale farm in TInn, Telemark, Norway
Davison - from New Jersey the family begins in 1786 with Robert Davison (my 4th great grandpa), born 30 July in New Jersey, died 30 May 1858 Porter County, Indiana. The Davison family information I have begins in America, so there is no emigration information on this family; 8 generations 150 people
DeSeuc - begins with NIcolai De Seuc, born in France, died 19 April 1706 in Norway; married Christiance Margrethe Mechlenburg 1680 in Bragernes; Nicolai was a French nobleman who fled France because of a dual. Served as officer in various positions from 1674 - until he died at Akershus for Oslo, Norway; colonel in infantry; governor at Akershus castle
Donovan - this is my husband's family - family begins with Thomas Wilfred Donovan born 1847; his daughter, Martha Mary Donovan, born ca 1895, died 21 April 1971, married Fred H. Bergman
Dunn - from Ireland - family beginning in the late 1700's with Michael Dunn (my 4th great grandpa) born and died in Ireland (my 4th great grandpa; 8 generations 154 people. The Dunn's began emigration to America in the mid 1800's with William Dunn. He settled in Ludlow, Allamakee, Iowa
Eckert - 8 generations 257 people; beginning with James Hardenberg Eckert born March 1827 in Duchess County, New York died 5 May 1896 Shellrock township, Minnesota
Eggerud - beginning with Gunnulv Torjesson Eggerud, my 8th great grandpa, born ca 1640 in Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Einung (Gronskei, Miland) - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning in the 1582 with Holje Eivindsson Einung born 1582 Tinn, Norway died 1668 Tinn, Norway; my 10th great grandpa; 3999 people 15 generations
Elmiger - beginning with Jacob Elmiger, born March 1833 in Switzerland; family settled in Elizabeth, New Jersey
Flaten - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning in the 1600's
Florentz - from Denmark to Kviteseid, Telemark, Norway - Family beginning in the late 1600's with Christian Asmus Florentz; 9 generations 307 people; The Florentz's began emigration to America in the late 1800's and settled in Iowa, South Dakota, and Alaska. Ellis Island records show Theodor J. Florentz (my great grandpa) arriving on 16 May 1896, on the ship The St. Paul. He had departed from Southampton. He was 21 years old
Gaustad - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; begins with Truls Torkjellsson Gaustad (my 8th great grandpa) born ca 1616 Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Gjoystdal - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Gronskei - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; see Einung
Gullingsrud - the family begins with Barbo Gullingsrud born 17 February 1841 in New, Hallingdahl, Norway, died 1900 Riceford, MN; she was married to Christapher Christapherson Lee in New, Hallingdahl, Norway
Gvammen - also Sjotveit, Jonsjorden; brgins with Anulf Halvorsson Gvammen (my 10th great grandpa) born ca 1580 Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Hanson - from the Hallingdal area Hordaland, Norway - Family beginning in 1831 with Hans Eide Hanson; 8 generations 186 people; Hans emigrated to America, with his family in the 1800's and settled in Decorah, Iowa; The Hanson family suffered many hardships, beginning with two babies dying at sea
Haddeland - Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning with Oluf Haddeland (my 10th great grandpa) born 1589 in Tinn, Norway died Tinn, Telemark; 5795 people, 16 generations
Hegard - Tinn, Telemark, Norway - see Marheim - Gunnulv Knutsson Marheim
Hjornevik - begins with Gjertru Magnesdtr Hjornevik born 13 Feb 1818, died 10 Nov 1900 in America; married Knut Knutsson Bjorgo; also Agata Olsdtr Hjornevik born 1721 died 1796 married Knut Olsson Bjorgo born 1719 died 1796
Hoover - beginning with Nancy Ann Hoover d 31 Oct 1843; married to Jesse Isaiah Baughman
Ingolvsland (Ingulfsland) - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway - Family beginning in 1500's with Oluf Gunnulvsson Overland (my 9th great grandpa); 14 generations 3838 people; Herbjorn Ingulfsland and his family emigrated to America in 1842 on board the Bark Ellida. They settled in Muskego, WI and later in Harmony, Minnesota
Jonsjorden - beginning with Holje Jonsjorden (my 10th great grandpa) born ca 1600 Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Ketrow - family begins with Mary Ketrow, born 1848 in Indiana; married to John Cossell and living Wayne township, Marion, Indiana in 1900
Lee (Lie) - From Naes, Buskerud, Norway; Family beings in 1724 with Christofer Olsson Lie (Lee) (my 5th great grandpa); 10 generations - 407 people; Christapher Lee and his family emigrated to America in 1867 and settled in Riceford, MN
Lillienpalm - beginning about 1630 with Heinrich Sigismund Lillienpalm (my 8th great grandpa); by 1660 was living in Christiansand, Norway
Lind - from Christiania, Norway beginning in 1700's with Ole Nielsen Lind (my 5th great grandpa); moved to Bo, Telemark, Norway; died 1766 Christiansand, Norway
Lisland - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway begins in 1600's with Nils Nilsson Lisland (my 9th great grandpa), died 1694 in Tinn, Telemark, Norway; 1316 people 14 generations; see Espeland
Lofthus - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; family begins with Knut Gunnulvsson Lofthus born in Tinn, died 1701 in Tinn, Norway; married to Sigrid Olsdtr Marheim died 1690 in Tinn, Norway
Ludy - begins with Susanne Ludy born 1 December 1810 in Maryland, died 16 Feb 1882 Valparaiso, Indiana; she married Abraham Stoner, born 19 November 1809 in Montgomery County, Ohio, died 23 Feb 1881 in Morgan Prairie, Indiana
Luras - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning with Nils Olsson Luras born 1724 Tinn, Norway died 1788 Tinn, Norway - see Marheim
Morem (Marheim) - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; family beginning in early 1600's with Oluf Marheim; 13 generations 2907 people; the Marheim's began emigration to America in 1842; they first settled in Muskego, WI and many then went to Fillmore County, Minnesota a few years later
Marheimsrud - begins with Hallgrim Olsson Marheimsrud born ca 1600 Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Mechlenburg - begins with Carsten Mechlenburg, died 1618 in Haderslev, Denmark; married in 1602 to Margrethe Schnell. Carsten Mechlenburg was the mayor in Haderslev, Denmark
Mestad - from Evanger, Voss, Hordaland, Norway; family beginning in 1642 with Knut Knutsson Mestad; see Bjorgo
Miland - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; see Einung
Moe - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; begins with Herbjorn Knutsson Moe (my 5th great grandpa) born ca 1743 Tinn, Telemark, Norway died Tinn, Norway; married to Signe Olsdtr Veset
Moli - see Bjortuft; begins with Halvor Torgrimsson Moli (my 8th great grandpa), died 1709 in Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Moreland - from Frysedal, Norway beginning with Hans Amundson Moreland, died in Fryesdal, Norway; the family moved to Kviteseid, Telemark, Norway and then Arendal, Norway by 1740's; Amund Hansson Moreland born ca 1625 died 1700 was a priest in Kviteseid, Telemark, Norway 1650-1700; Samuel Amundsson Moreland was a skipper/tradesman in Arendal, Norway
Overland - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning in the 1500's; see Ingolvsland; brgins with Oluf Gunnulvsson Overland (my 10th great grandpa) born in Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Pettersen - Petter Pettersen (my 4th great grandpa) born 1777 in Egersund, Norway and married Guri Olsdtr Ueland born 12 Nov 1776 Egersund, Norway on 29 July 1798; Petter was a boat custom officer in Egersund, Norway
Roch - from Seljord, Norway beginning with Christian Christopherson Roch in 1631, died 22 January 1706 in Seljord, Norway
Renebo - from Hardanger area Fjotland, Vest-Agder, Norway; Family begins in 1812 with Aanene Larsen Roinebo (Renebo) (my 3rd great grandpa); 8 generations 124 people; Aanen's daughter Inger (m to Lars Sinland) emigrated to America in 1887 and settled in Buffalo Grove, Minnesota
Rollag - from Tinn, Norway beginning in the 1600's with Kjetilsson Rollag (my 10th great grandpa); 3490 people 15 generations
Rye - from Bo, Telemark, Norway beginning with Henrik Sorensen Rye, died 1700 Domkirken, Bergen, Norway; his son Paul Christian Rye, born 1684 in Denmark, died 17 Jul 1773 in Vik, Sogn, Norway was commander at Berganhus; Paul's son, Johan Henrik Rye, born 11 March 1721, died 28 May 1790 in Bragneres, was colonel in the military; his grandson is the famous Olaf Rye -
Olaf Rye 1791-1849 was a Norwegian lieutenant (and skijumper) who in 1814 - when Norway -
undefeated was taken over by Sweden after Denmark's policies in the Napoleonic wars had failed - refused to swear allegiance to the Swedish king and joined the Danish Army. Olaf Rye won fame during his brilliant conduct as Brigade Commander at Nybol and Dybbol in South Jutland during the war between Denmark and Prussia in 1848 and was appointed to Major-general in 1849. He fell in the defense of Fredericia (Funen, Denmark) in 1849 and the famous painting of "General Rye on horseback at Fredericia" belong to the most cherished memorabilia of the Danish nation history.
Olaf's brother Johan Henrik Rye, 1787-1868, Norwegian government official and politician, member of the Storting 1836-45, President of the Storting 1836-37.
Saheim - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway; family beginning with Jon Jonsson Saheim (my 8th great grandpa) born 1627 in Tinn, Norway died ca 1705 Tinn, Norway; 2121 people 13 generations
Scherven - beginning with Nils Mathiasson Scherven; his son Oluf Nilsson Scherven was born 1600 died 1646 in Larvik, Norway
Sinland - from the Hardanger area Flekkefjord, Vest-Agder, Norway; Family beings in 1809 with Ammund G. Larson Sinland; 7 generations 121 people; Ammunds' son Lars emigrated to America in 1887 and settled in Buffalo Grove, MN
Sowder - settled in Pulaski, Kentucky and Indianapolis, IN
Stoner - settled in Frederick County, Maryland and Dayton, Ohio; 10 generations 178 people; begins with Philip Stoner (my 6th great grandpa) Stoner family moved to Indiana also
Ulleren - beginning with Ola Ulleren (my 8th great grandpa) born ca 1600 Tinn, Telemark, Norway
Van Wart - this is my brother-in-law's family.
Veset - from Tinn, Telemark, Norway beginning in the 1600's with Herbjorn Veset (my 8th great grandpa)
Von Ansbach - beginning with Jorgen Meinertsson Von Ansbach born in Bayeren died ca 1598
Warfendorfer - Anna Sophia Warfendorfer, of Dutch decent born 1867 Indiana and married John Christian Joseph Bergman; in 1900 census they were living in Center township, Indianapolis, IN
Watsager - from Risor, Norway; family beginning in 1705 with Peder Christian Watsager (my 5th great grandpa) born 1705 died 1782 in Risor, Norway; married Ase Samuelsdtr Moreland born 19 May 1709 in Risor, Norway died 1777 in Risor, Norway
Weidemann - beginning with Simon Weidemann born Aalborg, Denmark 1500's; Hans Weidemann born 1666 died 1701; lived in Christinia, Norway; his ship was on route to Denmark and ship perished in 1701
Willand - from Hoel, Hallingdahl, Norway - Family beginning in 1835 with Arne Olson Willand; 6 generations 145 people; The Willand's begin emigration to America around 1870-1872. The family settled in Lake Mills, Iowa
Wright - beginning with Real Christian Wright born 1600's in England died 1706; the family came to Norway
Yingling - beginning with Merelis Elizabeth Yingling born 24 Dec 1774 in Maryland died 24 October 1859 in Ohio; married Benjamin Crisman
and all their branches and roots
back to the top
Section 2 - The MOREM family - history of the Morem family beginning in the 1600's in Tinn, Telemark, Norway
The Morem family can be traced to Norway beginning in the 1600's. There are many variations on the spelling of Morem....Marheim, Marum, Morreim...and I'm sure many more
Marheim farm is located in Upper Telemark in Tinn and is about one
hundred miles west of
Marheim farm in Tinn
Marheim farm is located east of the Atra church near the NW side of
It is 1397 that the oldest documentation of the Marheim farm can be found.
It is not until 1650 that documentation shows a grandpa - Oluf Marheim,
mayor of Tinn
It is 1397 that the oldest documentation of the Marheim farm can be found. It is not until 1650 that documentation shows a grandpa - Oluf Marheim, mayor of Tinn,
1 1/2 tn
and 2 huder or 3
1/2 tn 1
there was one family on each main farm, but as population increased, farms were
divided between many families. The
Marheim farms - nord and sud - were no exception.
the structure to the Marheim farm has changed over the years, a direct
descendant - a grandparent - has always lived on the Marheim farm until Ole
Jonsson Marheim - a grandpa -
emigrated to the
following is statistical information, such as census, ownership changes, land
division changes, and other transactions that have been documented on the Marheim
Farm over the years . Many
|1615||Gullbrand 4 1/2 tns middle farm (owned 20 farms) – brother of Hallgrim Marheimsrud|
|Halvor - 3 tn|
|1657 census||2 horses, 7 cows, 24 sheep|
|1662||Gullbrand 90 years old 4 1/2 tn - not married - very rich|
|Halvor 3 tn|
|1703||North Marheim was divided into 5 parcels of land|
|Jon Olsson Marheim 2 tn|
|Lars Olsson Marheim (son of Ola Arsteinsson) 1 1/2 tn br nr 2|
|Hellek Hallgrimsson 1 tn|
|Jon Halvorsson (son of Halvor) 1 1/2 tn d 1766 br nr 4|
|Gunnulv Olsson 1 1/2 tn|
Marheim Farm br. nr. 1 (2 tn)
probate of Oluf Marheim
- names on son Knut Olsson Marheim on this farm
|1697||Ola Knutsson Marheim's farm went to his wife Birgit Jonsdtr Marheim|
|1703||Jon Olsson Marheim on farm (son of Ola Knutsson Marheim & Birgit Jonsdtr Gjoystdal|
|Gunnulv Knutsson Marheim received Marheim br nr 1 from father Knut Olsson Marheim|
|1726||302 rd. sold to Ola Jonsson Marheim|
|1730 census||Ola Jonsson Marheim 1 horse, 5 cows, 2 heifers, 2 calves, 8 sheep, sowed 4 and hausta 16 tn, 1 staul, no timber; 7 children, eldest born in 1706|
|1735 census||1 horse, 8 cows, 14 sheep, 6 goats, 2 tn bygg, 3 tn potatoes|
|1737||divided by Ola Jonsson Marheim and his wife, Aslaug 3 tn sold valued at 622; Ola Jonsson Marheim's son, Greggard Olsson Marheim, received N Marheim br nr 1|
|1745||split between brothers Greggard Olsson Marheim 1 1/2 tn and Halvor Olsson Marheim 1 1/2 tn br nr 3|
|1749||Greggard Olsson Marheim living on farm 1 tn 8 sett; eldest daughter inherited farm, Aslaug, but she died before her dad Greggard and Aslaug's husband Nerid Torsteinsson Rue purchased 1 1/2 tn in Marheim and 5 sett in Rue for 726 rdl|
|1790||Aslaug Greggardsdtr Marheim received Marheim br nr 1 from her dad Greggard|
|Beginning at this time, there is not a direct descendant, a grandparent, who is living on Marheim br nr 1|
|1798||Nerid sold farm to his eldest son Torstein, and his wife Taran stayed at the farm for many years|
|1825||Torstein sold to Knut Toresson (eldest dtr's husband) 7 3/4 sett for same price; Knut toresson sold farm and wife and 7 children rta i|
1 horse, 7 cows, 14 sheep, 2 1/2 tn bygg, 3 tn potatoes
Kjetilsson Marheim and wife Ingeborg Gunnuvlsdtr,
Child Kjetil Hansson,
Child Gunnulv Hansson,
Child Margit Hansdtr,
(Inderst Ann Johannesdtr age 28)
|1858||Kjetil Hansson Lisland sold farm br nr 1 to his son Hans|
|1865 census||1 horse, 7 cows, 14 sheep, 2 1/2 tn bygg, 3 tn potatoes|
|1879||Hans Kjetilsson Lisland sold farm to son Kjetil Hansson Marheim for 2400 KR|
Farm br. nr. 2 (1
|1703||Lars Olsson Marheim named on farm|
|1730 census||1 horse, 4 cows, 1 heifer, 1 calf, 6 sheep, 4 goats and sadde 2 tn hausta 8|
|1735 census||1 horse, 4 cows, 8 sheep, 2 goats, 1 tn bygg, 3 tn potatoes|
|1759||Ola Knutsson Marheim had farm until 1759, he sold 1 1/2 tn to his son in law, Oystein Knutsson Marheim (husband of Helge Olsdtr Marheim|
|1775||Tov sold to Svein Torgeirsson Lisland; Svein sold to Ola Oysteinsson for 632 rdl; Ola sold to Oystein Helleksson Asen (Bernas) m to Kari - lived on farm for many years. Kari Greggardsdtr Marheim moved to N Marheim br n r 2. This was the year she was married|
|1797||Kari Greggardsdtr Marheim's husband, Oystein Helleksson Bernas purchased Marheim br nr 3 and the Kasen farm (part of the Marheim farms) from Hellek Nilsson|
|1801||census - Kari and Oystein Marheim are listed as living on the Marheim farm. This was the first official Norwegian census taken in Norway's history; Oystein Helleksson Marheim (Bernas), age 58 farmer, Kari Greggardsdtr Marheim, age 47, Hellek Oysteinsson Marheim, age 24 unmarried, at home, soldier, Ola Oysteinsson Marheim, age 24, unmarried, soldier (farm br nr 2, Kasen), Svein Oysteinsson Marheim, age 23 unmarried, no occupation listed, Kari Oysteinsdtr Marheim, age 16, unmarried, no occupation listed, Oystein Oysteinsson Marheim, age 14, unmarried, no occupation listed, Barbara Oysteinsdtr Marheim, age 12, unmarried, Gunnhild Oysteinsdtr Marheim, age 10, unmarried, Turid Oysteinsdtr Marheim, age 4, unmarried|
|1809||Ola Oysteinsson Marheim received Marheim br nr 2 from his dad. Sons Hellek and Ola had part of farm|
|1835||Census 1 horse, 4 cows, 8 sheep, 2 goats, 1 tn bygg, 3 potatoes|
|1836||Ola Oysteinsson Marheim (Bernas) sold farm to Jon Olsson Marheim his son|
|1865||census 1 horse, 8 cows, 16 sheep, 2 1/2 and hausta 1 tn|
|1893||Ingeborg sold farm to Nils Greggardsson|
Marheim Farm br. nr. 3 (divided from br nr 1)
|When Ola and Aslaug divided farm br nr 1 between his sons Greggard Olsson Marheim and Halvor Olsson Marhem, Halvor’s part 1 ½ tn became br nr 3|
Olsson Marheim split
|Sold br nr 3 to son Jon 1 ½ tn|
|Sold to brother Knut|
|Exchanged farm with Hellek Nilsson Marheimsrud|
|1797||Hellek Nilsson Marheimsrud sold to Oystein Helleksson Bernas of br nr 2|
to sister Kari
Farm br. nr. 4
|1703||Jon Halvorsson named at farm|
|1730||Halvor Jonsson Marheim and Agot Helleksdtr named, husmannsfold at Sud Marheim too|
|1730||census 1 horse, 6 cows, 1 heifer, 1 calf, 7 sheep, 4 goats and hausta 12 tn|
|1735||census 1 horse, 7 cows, 13 sheep, 4 goats and 2 1/2 bygg, 4 tn potat|
|1736||Halvor Jonsson Marheim and Agot Helleksdtr named, husmannsfold at Sud Marheim too.|
|1835||census 1 horse, 7 cows, 13 sheep, 4 goats, 2 1/2 tn bygg, 4 potat|
|1865||census 1 horse, 6 cows, 9 sheep, 4 goats and 1 1/2 bygg, 4 tn potatoes|
|1735||census 3 cows, 4 sheep, and 1 bygg, 3 tn potat|
|1835||census 3 cows, 4 sheep, 1 tn bygg, 3 potat|
Oluf Marheim - our grandpa - mayor of
|1650||Oluf Marheim owned full farm|
|1657||census 1 horse, 10
cows, 18 sheep ,12 goats and 1 pig; Oluf
Marheim is listed as living on the
|1668||Oluf Marheim died and his Marheim holdings went to his son Knut Olsson Marheim. Knut Olsson Marheim owned enough farms and the Marheim farms were large enough that he could give all his sons a farm|
|1694||Knut Olsson Marheim died and farm went to his wife Ase Olsdtr|
|1716||Ola Jonsson Marheim received Sud Marheim upon the death of his father Jon Knutsson Marheim. Jon Knutsson Marheim's other son received Marheimsrud|
|1730||census 1 horse, 6 cows, 1 heifer, 1 calf, 6 sheep, 5 goats and 4 and hausta 12 tn|
|1735||census 1 horse, 9 cows, 19 sheep, 5 goats and 2 3/4 tn bygg, 5 1/2 potatoes|
|1835||census 1 horse, 9 cows, 19 sheep, 5 goats and 2 3/4 tn bygg, 5 1/2 potatoes|
|1865||census 1 horse, 8 cows, 17 sheep, 3 goats, 1 gris, 3 1/2 tn bygg, 4 tn potatoes|
The Marheim's - Morem, Morreim, Marum, .......began emigrating to America in 1842 from Tinn, Telemark, Norway. My great great grandpa Ole Jonsson Morem emigrated in 1852. In 1842 many Marheim's departed Drammen, Norway onboard the Bark Ellida in June 1842 and arrived in New York on August 8, 1842.
Some of the Morem's that came to America are
The Morem farm in Harmony, Fillmore, Minnesota
The Morem farm in America was purchased by my great great grandpa Ole Jonsson Marheim on 4 July 1863 from Ole's cousins John and Mary Johnson
The following census information for the Morem farm
1870 Federal Census lists Ole, Ase (his wife), John, Henry, Austin (sons all born in Minnesota). Ole is listed as a farmer and Ase as keeping house in Harmony, Fillmore, MN.
1870 Federal Census Production of Agriculture Schedule for Ola Jonsson Marheim - Ola Morem in Harmony, MN. Dwelling Number 115, Family Number 116
20 acres of improved land
66 acres of unimproved land
0 acres of unimproved woodland
value of farm $700
value of farming implements and machinery $100
no wages were paid during the year
2 milk cows (milch)
0 other cattle
value of live stock $250
270 bushels of spring wheat
50 bushels of Indian corn
102 bushels of oats
15 bushels of Irish potatoes
75 pounds of butter
5 tons of hay
value of home manufactures $12
value of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter $65
estimated value of all farm production, including betterments and additions to stock $365
1880 Federal Census lists Ole, Ase (his wife), John (son, working on farm), Henry (son, working on farm), Austin (son, attending school), and Augusta (Gustie - daughter attending school) living on farm in Harmony, Fillmore, MN.
All children are listed as attending school at some time during the year. According to the census, Ole and Ase could neither read nor write English.
The Morem Farm was purchased by Ole's son, Henry Morem, on 15 Dec 1897 for $2000.00. In this deed there is a paragraph that states..."maintain the aforesaid grantors during their natural lives said forsard ...furnish all necessary food, clothing, wood, comfortable dwelling house, medical attention and receiving when necessary and all other necessities required by them...
Henry indulged in heavy work, ditch digging,
masonry, farming until he had to take it easy when he suffered a heart condition. Henry played euchre and was an achiever.
1900 census listed as head of household; living with Henry his dad Ole emigrating to USA 1852; Henry's sister Agot and her daughter (Henry's niece) Olivia.
1930 census living Harmony, Fillmore, MN
Henry; farmer; owns farm, no value listed
My grandpa, Oren Lester Morem, was a master carpenter, owned Morem Transfer in Harmony, MN (trucking); foreman of construction at
Hormel for over 18 years. Oren's sponsors are Nils Helle, Mrs. Helle, Peder Helgeland, Gustie Morem. At his wedding witness's were Clarence Lee, Miss Portia Hammer (cousins).
1930 census Harmony, Fillmore, MN
occupation of Oren freight truck driver; rented home; value $20
My grandpa and grandma moved to Austin, Minnesota where they lived the remainder of their lives.
The Morem farm in Harmony, Fillmore, Minnesota was taken over by Henry Morem's two sons, Theodore and Irvin Morem.
back to the top
Section 3 - Norway - History of Norway/Regions of significance to family
NORWAY’S HISTORY – INCLUDING WWII
The following is a brief
history of Norway
, beginning in 1130. At this time,
Norwegian Vikings plunder and
settle European seacoasts and
The year 1130 is
regarded as the start of the so-called "High Middle Ages", a period of
population growth, consolidation within the Church, and the rise and development
of the towns. As Crown and Church
brought district after district under their rule the degree of public
administration and authority increased.
The power of the monarchy
increased in the 1100s and 1200s, ending in victory both over the Church and the
nobles. The traditional secular
aristocracy was replaced by a serving aristocracy.
The status of the farmers changed in this period, from that of freeholder
to that of tenant. In the middle
ages almost all Norwegian farm land
was owned by the king, the church, and a few wealthy land owners.
The church, for example, received considerable real estate as gifts in
return for agreeing to provide a requiem mass in the memory of the donor.
However, the farmer, who
usually rented his lands on a lifetime basis, enjoyed a free status that was
rare indeed in most of contemporary
The state revenues in the High
Middle Ages were extremely modest by European standards.
Towards the end of the period they were scarcely adequate to finance any
expansion. The Black Death or Black
Plague 1349-1350 had raged with terrible effect, reducing the population to one
half or possibly only one third of the Norwegians of its pre-1350 level.
The loss of the labor force causes the abandonment of farms.
This development prompted the King and the nobility to seek revenues from
lands and feudal estates, regardless of national boundaries.
The late Middle Ages were a
period of marked economic deterioration in
The economic depression
brought political consequences in its wake.
This decrease in income to the
landowners, the nobility, and the church, is perhaps the most important
explanation as to why
The political links with
Development of the shipping
fleet and fishing industries begins
By 1660, the king and church
had sold off a great deal of its land holdings.
The farms were sold due to the crises (Black Death) in the late middle
ages, which led all landowners to suffer a dramatic decrease in the income they
received from leasing out land. There
was a sharp decrease in farm income due to the decreases in the population and
in productivity that the Black Death brought about.
From 1661-1721 more and more
farmers purchased their own farms. One
reason for this was the increasing use of mortgages which allowed farmers to
borrow the purchase money. The
farmers would buy the farm, log the timber on the farm, and sell the timber to
obtain money for mortgage payments. Another
reason was the increasing willingness of landowners to sell their land because
they could invest the capital in the shipping industry and receive a higher rate
of return. And finally,
a law passed in 1684 that limited the amount that a landowner could charge for
the fee payable each time a new tenant farmer took over a farm and the fee for
renewing the lease every three years.
During this period, Norwegians
were undergoing a change in their agricultural system.
Like the rest of
From the 1830's
The Nazi's occupied the town
A movie, starring Kirk
Douglas, "Heroes of Telemark" commemorates the bombing of the Hydro
plant at Vemork in
The following is some of the
information that I found on
Resistance towards the Nazi
Germans was very strong amongst the Norwegian people.
Underground military groups were established with civilians to assist in
the Allied and Norwegian intelligence.
Resistance took many shapes:
police warned the Resistance of German plans, mail, phone and railway
workers took many chances in illegal work and many employees in the public
sector lost their lives that way. Authors,
actors and artists blacklisted publishers, theatres and movie houses that had
been put under Nazi leadership. Even
the public joined in so that at many plays, shows and movies, the seats were
empty. Doctors assisted in many
ways, engineers joined in actions of sabotage in industries of military
importance. Sportsmen of all kinds
refused to sign up for competitions arranged by the nazified Norwegian Sports
In September 1941 a curfew
was announced, banning all meetings during curfew.
Also in the fall of 1941 listening to radio was prohibited and all radios
were confiscated. In 1942, the
Germans introduced the death penalty to anyone caught listening to a radio.
Blackouts were general:
In 1939 coffee and sugar were
being rationed. By 1941, many other
items were rationed, including milk. Only
newborn and sick people could have fresh milk.
The longer the occupation continued, the smaller the rations became.
The Germans often conducted house-to- house searches for illegal items.
Even though there was a terrible lack of food and other supplies, the
Norwegians were very inventive on substituting.
In March 1942, 1100 teachers
The following is an article
written about the bombing of the Hydro plant at Vemork in Rjukan during WWII.
It explains the importance of this area and why
it was occupied:
The heavy water production
facility of Hydro at Vemork in Rjukandalen, Telemark was vital to the Germans'
attempt to produce an atomic bomb and became the objective of a select group of
6 commandos (second lieutenants Joakim Ronneberg CO, Knut Kaukelid, Kaspar
Idland, sergeants Hans Storhaug, Birger Stromsheim and Fredrik Kayser) from
Company Linge who were dropped on Hardangervidda - the mountain plateau above
the factory in February 1943 with orders to destroy the factory.
Aided by an advance party
headed by second lieutenant Jens Anton Poulsen, sergeant Arne Kjelstrup, radio
operator Knut Haugland and sergeant Claus Helberg and a 9 man demolition group,
the commandos managed to get four men inside the heavily guarded "eagles
nest" like mountainside target, placed their high explosives with a 30
second fuse, and got out to watch the factory go up in smoke.
5 months later an American air bombing attack again stopped production
and one year later Knut Haukelid assisted by two locals Rjukan boys, Lier Hansen
and Sorlie, blew up the ferry transporting the only heavy water ever made before
it could be sent to Germany.
The following information
comes from a brochure put out by the museum in
Had the Germans been
allowed to continue research on heavy water, they might well have been in a
position to produce an atomic bomb, and this could have meant defeat for the
Allies. This was the conclusion
reached by Allied scientists who were themselves working intensely to produce an
atomic bombs, proceeding along different lines, at a time when WW II was at its
height. Not only were they still far
from a solution, but all available stocks of heavy water were produced at
Rjukan, in German occupied
It all started in March
1942, when a lone parachutist was dropped. On
October 19th four Norwegians were dropped in the Songadal area, just west of
Rjukan. The task of this group,
which had been give the code name GROUSE, was to prepare the ground for the
sabotage operation, and to maintain radio contact with the UK to collect
intelligence on the production of heavy water.
The GROUSE Group had a hard
task reaching their planned headquarter. For
many long days, too, until few accumulators could be obtained, they were without
contact with the outside world. But
a month later, on November 19th a British sabotage group was dispatched from
This venture ended in
disaster: the plane towing one of
the gliders crashed into a mountain, and the glider followed suit, while the
other glider, after being released, failed to land.
Some of its occupants were killed, and all survivors were shot by the
Despite this set back the
Grouse Group was still intact, though from now on its code name was changed to
SWALLOW. They had to withdraw into
the heart at the Hardangerplateau where they spent the winter, seeking out what
was left of their food with wild reindeer, which they were lucky enough to track
down and shoot.
ATTACK AT VEMORK
In the evening of February
27th the saboteurs were lying up, ready to strike, at Fjosbudalen, just north of
the Vemork works; soon they had tackled the perilous and difficult descent,
negotiating the gorge running down to the heavy water plant, and forcing their
way with wire clippers through the perimeter gates, approached the plant.
The cover party took up their position, and the sabotage group made their
way swiftly to the target, placing their explosive charges on the vital
container of heavy water, the bulk of which was destroyed.
Strangely enough the German guards had no idea that anything unusual was
afoot in the area. After a strenuous
trek on skies they reached the safety of the plateau, where they went into
After resting they split up
into two groups: one fully armed and
in uniform, skied clear across
BOMBING OF RJUKAN AND
Meanwhile the plant was
rebuilt, and to counter this new threat the Americans decided to bomb the
The saboteurs soon received
information that the Germans had decided to move all stocks of semi processed
heavy water from Rjukan to
The weakest link in the
chain was the ferry that carries the railway across
When the costs of the war were
About 6,000 Norwegians had
served the German war caused, and 709 of them had fallen in battle.
In addition, several died
shortly after liberation - too worn out to live any longer.
During the years of
occupation, the Germans had absorbed nearly 40% of the gross domestic product.
In addition, there was the considerable material destruction.
Finmark county had been almost totally razed, and a number of towns and
communities were damaged by bombings or had been burned by the retreating
Germans. An estimated 16% of the
national wealth had been lost, and the outflow to the occupying power had been
twice as high per capita as it was, for instance, in
When the war broke out, the
merchant navy totally 1,024 ships and had a combined tonnage of about four
million. It's service had been vital
to the Allied war effort. During one
period, Norwegian vessels were transporting more than 30% of all the oil under
shipment from the
An addition to the history of
I recently saw a special on
ABC News 20/20 on the Hitler’s “Master Race”.
One episode of the Nazi plan
for a “master race” was the program implemented by Reich SS leader Heinrich
Himmler. In short, for decades,
The farming community of
freeholder, proprietor, farm owner. Also
called gardmann, odelsbonde, small and large landholder
– tenant farmer; actual user of the land
– tenant farmer; does not own the land but has a lease
– day laborer
– unemployed, paupers; lived by traveling and begging
– ran a farm for its owner
– farm laborer, residing servant
– renters; rented a room or two on a farm
– servant on a farm
– farmer living on a small farm
For centuries farmers had
become use to a system of land privately and rigidly controlled and to a shared
common land. With the emerging
pressures of population and the need to produce for a cash income, this system
became obsolete, and landowners were no longer able to accommodate the cotters
and landless day laborers whose numbers more than doubled in the first half of
the nineteenth century. With over ¾
of the population engaged in agriculture in 1801, and still 2/3 in 1865,
emigration became inevitable.
Unlike earlier days,
membership in the bonder class during the 19th century
no longer gave one a guarantee of economic security.
The system of primogeniture, whereby the eldest son inherited the family
farm, had been the accepted rule among this class.
Primogeniture, coupled with an increasing population, and the lack of
available new farmland, together with fluctuating grain prices on the world
market, brought many bondes (farms) to financial ruin.
The terms used most often in
farm histories, census and emigration records do not necessarily referring to a
person’s occupation because a great deal of people combined farming with
fisheries or forestry. They worked
as blacksmiths, shoemakers and in many other trades.
Their means of livelihood almost never consisted of only one
Farming terms refer to the
rights to the farming land they used and also depended on where and when in
Two of the fixed classes that
comprised this agricultural population:
or freeholders (Gardbrukar, bonde,
freehold, proprietor, farmowner, gardmann, odelsbonde, small and large
can be divided into small and large landholders
or cotters (cottager, crofter,
considered themselves free men. It
became virtually impossible, for these people to rise above their station of
birth, and it was only the exceptional individual who achieved economic
owned little, renting their dwelling houses and a few acres of land from the
Bonde. In return, Husband rendered
their services a certain number of days a week for the Bonde.
Husmand, as well as the day laborers and servants, suffered most from the
economic and social disruption of the 19th century.
– a person who owns the farmland he or she is using, and who has a registered
deed to prove the ownership. This
deed is both a security and potential danger.
It’s a property and in a bankruptcy it can get lost to the creditors.
They are equal in social class to leilending.
– “tenant farmer” (tenant
farm couple) The leilending didn’t own the farm.
The right to use the land was granted through a registered lease
contract. They could also be
referred to as bygselmann
The lease was valid for his or
her lifetime. A leilending was
usually a married couple. In
contrast, there are many single persons in the selveire group.
Together selveire and
leilendinger constituted the class of farmers the used registered farmland
units. They were of a socially equal
In most cases, a leilending
couple could let married offspring “inherit” the lease, but then a new lease
contract had to be registered. If a
bankruptcy occurred (and it often did) the lease contract was not treated as a
property, so in most cases the leilending could continue to live there and use
the land as before. The biggest
threat was the death of either the husband or the wife.
Since there had to be a couple on the farm, remarriages were very common
in the leilending system
- farm land they
used was never registered as separate units
- their houses
stood on land that belonged to a selveier or was leased by a leilending
- their lease
contracts were limited in time
- in most cases a
husmann was a couple
A Husmann could be someone with
farmland or without farm land. However,
the couple might own a cow and a few sheep.
There was a social gap between
the husmann on side and the selveir or leilending on the other, especially
The husmann class can be seen
as the solution to a difficult problem: A
growing population had to make a living in a country where the land resources
didn’t expand at the same rate. Many
couples could get a farm, but not all. The
last group became husmenn. By and
large the husmenn had to their disposal the poorest land resources, and they
lacked any kind of permanent rights to use them.
During the 1800’s, the
husmann group grew in numbers. Their
means of living didn’t get any better; most of them experienced harder times.
Then came a new possibility – farmland in another country.
The emigration of
innerst is a couple or single persons who rented a room (or maybe rooms),
often on farms. They could be:
Newlyweds waiting to get their own house or farm
people who moved from place to place, living of some craft (shoemakers, tailors,
seasonal workers on the farm
very poor, sick or old persons
This group had the most
temporarily character. The persons
in this group were usually in transition, either to something better – or to
something much worse.
WHAT'S IN A FARM NAME
of farm names
These can be used at the
beginning or ending of farm names.
TELEMARK COUNTY NORWAY
Telemark is among the most
versatile counties in
There were no cities or villages in Tinn, and
therefore, the farms in the area were grouped around four churches.
The churches were Austbydi, Atra, Mael, and Dal.
In 1911 a dam and hydroelectric plant were built on the
There were 3 stave churches located in Tinn,
Tinn can boast many beautiful churches.
The oldest is Atra, dating from 1836 and decorated with the traditional
rose painting by the local artist, Oystein Orekas.
Mael church was built in 1839 and Hovin in 1850.
These churches were built on the sites of earlier stave churches.
Austbygd church was finished in 1888, Dal in 1775 and Rjukan church,
which is the most recent in 1915. This
church has a dramatic history. In
1927 there was a huge flood in Rjukan causing landslides down the mountainside.
One of these swept away the vicarage and a corner of the church.
In 1953 the ceiling collapsed, fortunately on to an empty church.
Then in 1965 the church burned to the ground.
The church was being used to film “The Heroes of Telemark” and in the
evening a fire started in which everything combustible went up in flames.
The church was subsequently rebuilt in a modern style.
Tinn is comprised of the former districts of
Hovin and Tinn. The rural population
of Tinn makes its living in agriculture and forestry.
Atra and Tinn Austbygd are villages in the area but most of the
population lives in the administrative center of Rjukan.
Vacation cottages are numerous in the valleys of Tessungdalen, Skjervedal,
and Nystoldalen. Tinnsjoen is
In 1635 Tinn, Norway had 12 Odelsbonder
(land owners) and 39 Leiglendingar (tenant farmers)
1645 Gullbrand Marheim owned 11 farms (12 tn);
Gisle Boen owned 6 farms (5tn) and Brynulv Rue owned 7 farms (5 tn) in Tinn,
The power was to be found in the lovely, fierce
Rjukan waterfall. Sam Eyde, an
engineer, and Kristian Birkeland, a natural scientist, had the knowledge.
Fertilizer was in great demand all over the world
because of a booming population growth. These
factors laud the foundation for a large scale hydropower development and one of
the most technically sophisticated electrochemical process plants in the era.
It was nothing less than revolution for the
Rjukan is the historic site of the nation’s
first heavy industry. Here is the
Norwegian industrial society concentrated form in the midst of old rural
civilization and surrounded by mountain wilderness.
Hydro provided everything – housing, shops,
hospital, fire station, even dairy to supply the townspeople with milk.
Thanks to it’s founder, the great industrialist Sam Eyde, the town was
built to high architectural standards, characterized by a classical style.
The managing director and engineers were
allocated the houses high up in the mountainside, where the sun first shone in
the spring and lasted longest in the autumn.
Office workers had their houses lower down in the valley.
Since Norsk Hydro sold its housing the class distinction has been wiped
Rjukan is a growing town, which has been
Rjukan was created by Norsk Hydro around the turn
of the century. Its name comes from
- the rights to Mar water course was purchased by the government in 1920.
However, the building of the Power Station did not start until 1941 when
the Germans begun. But due to the
war actions the work stopped. The
first machines started in 1948. Today
the Power Station has five generators. Mar
Power Station also has the world’s longest wooden staircase with almost 4000
steps. It is located inside the
- the Krosso Cable Railway was built by Norsk Hydro so that the people
of Rjukan could get up into the sun of the mountain plateaus during the winter
months when the town is immersed in shadow.
It was the first such railway in
Before the modern network of
roads was developed, Setesdal and inner Telemark had very little contact with
the authorities and the people who lived along the coast – apart from the logs
they sent down the river. These once
remote parts of
The Telemark canal stretches
over 110 km from Skien inland to Dalen. The
five locks at Vrangfoss raise boats some 23 meters, an the sluice gates are
manually operated, just as they were 100 years ago when the canal was opened.
The roads wind their lazy way
around Telemark, taking you from one breathtaking view to another.
So make sure you take your time, especially on the mountain road over
Tuddal to Rjukan. On a clear day,
you can see one seventh of the entire country from Gaustatoppen.
The views stretch from
The Canal Queen M/S
“Victoria” built in 1882, has traveled between coastline and mountain for
116 years. Five years ago she
finally acquired a mate, M/S “Henrik Ibsen”, built in
M/S “Telemarken”, which
takes its name from one of the earliest boats on the
The Telemark Canal,
maybe one of
Kviteseid is a tourist area
with a landscape of mountains, forest ridges and lakes.
Kviteseid village lies along
highway 39 south of Brunkeberg. It
is the township’s administrative, business and service center.
It has a beautiful, peaceful location on the Sundkilen, a bay opening off
The first travelers came to
Voss more than 3000 years ago. They
were hunters and gatherers looking for a place to settle.
In Voss they found fertile green valleys, numerous fishing lakes and
mountains with an abundance of wildlife.
This natural wealth formed the
basis for the development of a prosperous farming community where rich
traditions took root.
At one of the local farms,
Finne, a guildhall was built around the year 1250.
Finnesloftet is today part of the collection that is administered by the
National Historical Society King Olav the Holy visited the settlement of Voss in
1023 to convert the pagan villagers to Christianity.
The King erected a stone cross, St. Olav’s Cross, as a symbol of the
new belief in the region. The cross
is to be seen in the center of Voss.
Uniquely situated between
Sognefjord in the north and Hardangerfjorden in the south, Voss lies at the
heart of fjord
Voss retains its cultural
heritage with a living tradition in handcrafts.
Modern industries; working in wood, silver and textiles build on
techniques and designs dating back to ancient times.
Folk music thrives through the
Winter sports have a natural
home in Voss. Alpine, cross-country,
biathlon and freestyle; Voss has them all. Voss
prides itself in being represented in the 1994 winter Olympics by having 6
athletes on the Norwegian National Team. For
the adventurous visitor, Voss can offer hang gliding, paragliding,
mountaineering and rafting. For those seeking peace and tranquility in a natural
setting Voss offers fly-fishing in approximately 500 lakes or a memorable stroll
in the mountains.
Voss is primarily an
agricultural area, but secondary industries such as commerce, communications,
education and tourism; provide our guests with the product-variation, which
makes a holiday interesting.
Voss Centre is approx. 56
meters above the sea level and is situated at the end of the lake
“Vangsvtnet” and is the administrative center of Voss.
Center of communications, commerce and education for large surrounding
King Magnus the Law Mender
ordered the building of a church in Voss in the year 1200,
back to the top
Section 4 - Emigration from Norway to America
Many ethnic groups left their European homelands
because of religious or political oppression.
However, that was not the main reason for the Norwegians who had little
religious or political persecution in their native land.
Some of the early Norwegian emigrants were Quakers or Hauge followers who
suffered persecution, but their numbers were small.
A note about emigration from
For a time in Tinn the
introduction of the potato, which generally gave reliable annual yields, made it
possible to feed more people and thus delayed the inevitable crisis.
Natural resources were put to more intensive use, as far as agricultural
methods of time permitted. Farms
were divided among brothers; new land was put under the plow in marginal
agricultural areas, as high up as possible; and pastures in outlying fields and
in mountain grazing areas were fully exploited.
The largest increase in population occurred among the lower, landless
classes, and it was the cotters who took the lead in this cultivation.
The increase in population created a reservoir of mobile people, on the
lookout for opportunity wherever it might be found, who once the initial contact
had been made in 1837, would consider
Emigration by individuals from
the lower social classes in peasant society, however, became noticeable only in
the 1850’s. There was then
economic support from earlier emigrants from the community to finance the
journey, and Norwegian settlements stood ready to receive the newcomers.
An increase in general mobility in Norwegian peasant society must be
acknowledged; the greater mobility manifested itself in the sale and purchase of
farms and in people moving within the country.
A Norwegian society was set in motion.
People were not driven out by poverty and hunger but by a hope for a
better future and an improved social status.
The pioneer emigrants were people who had sufficient resources to finance
their own move. In many instances
they even had means to invest in the purchase of farms, usually government land,
after their arrival in
Norwegians loved the land of
their birth and they did not want to leave.
The reasons people left
The Norwegians’ reasons for
leaving their country were more commonly to be because of the poor conditions
and little availability of the farm land necessary for them to earn their
livelihood. The geography and
climate of the land played a big part in how much land was available for
families to grow on. 75% of the
total land area cannot be cultivated, and the remaining 25% is mostly forested
and grazing kinds, with only 3% that could be cultivated.
From 1815 forward, the population annually exceeded its agricultural
This was particularly true for
the people of
When the size of the population
exceeded the productivity of the farmland, people had to find other means of
From 1801 to 1860 the number of
farms increased from 79,256 to over 135,000.
That included some new land that was able to be cultivated with new
farming practices and stronger equipment, but the majority came from the old
farms being divided and subdivided to make room for the growing population.
In 1907 the majority of farms had less than 15 acres.
Those with acreage too small to
support the family had to find extra work to supplement the income.
When years of bad crops occurred, even the extra work was not enough to
save the family from bankruptcy or starvation.
Borrowing money was out of the question for the majority.
One never recovered being in debt, so it was better to sell for what they
could and leave.
The system of primogeniture,
whereby the eldest son inherited the family farm, had been the accepted rule
among the landowners. Primogeniture,
coupled with an increasing population, and the lack of available new farmland,
together with fluctuating grain prices on the world market, brought many
landowners to financial ruin. Their
sons and daughters, and even some of the landowners themselves were forced to
search for other opportunities. Also,
taxes were high. Few people could
afford to pay them. The winters were
long and cold in
Jon Jonsson Luras from Tinn,
Telemark gave this reason for leaving Tinn,
"I was my father's oldest son and consequently heir to the Luras
farm. It was regarded as one of the
best in that neighborhood, but there was a $1,400.00 mortgage on it.
I had worked for my father until I was 25 years old, and had no
opportunity of getting money. It was
plain to me, that I would have a hard time of it, if I should take the farm with
the debt resting on it, pay a reasonable amount to my brothers and sisters and
assume the care of my aged father. I
saw no way to pay the money owed on the farm.
I saw to my horror how one farm after the other fell into the hands of
the moneylenders, and this increased my dread of attempting farming.
But I married and had to do something.
Then it occurred to me that the best thing might be to emigrate to
The difference between
For those individuals who were
not farmers, the potential wages available in the
At the beginning of the
nineteenth century, Norwegian merchants became aware of the possibilities in
trade with North American ports.
One of the earliest Norwegian
The following is a description
of a typical ship's voyage in the 1850s (written by a ship captain).
The arrangements on board
were very primitive and inadequate. On
the beams between decks was laid a deck of planks with hatchways down into the
hold, where all the baggage was stowed away on top of the cargo.
Two rows of bunks or rough boards were built up, one above the other, the
whole length of the ship from fore to aft. Between
these open bunks there were often put up special berths reserved for emigrants
whose demands were greater. Everything
else was used in common - no separate rooms for men and women.
Light was admitted through open hatchways and partly through the
skylights in the deck. There was
canvas in the hatchways, but during storms and rough seas these often had to be
covered, and if this continued for any length of time the air in the room below
occupied by the emigrants often became frightfully bad.
There was no first or second cabin. Each
passenger paid twenty-five dollars for his passage, but had to supply himself
with bedding and food for the voyage. The
board consisted chiefly of smoked and salted meat, flatbread, and casks of sour
milk. The ships, however, had to
equip themselves with ample provisions in case the food of the emigrants should
give out during the voyage.
There was only one caboose
for all the emigrants in common, but occasionally the ship's caboose was used in
addition. Every one cooked and fixed
his food for himself. It is clear
that under these conditions the meals must necessarily be both irregular and
inadequate - the porridge pot was boiling all day long.
Generally the captain and the emigrants arranged that one or two from
among the latter were chosen every day to supervise the cleaning.
This was of course not much to brag of, especially in the beginning when
all had to struggle with seasickness (yet it was really remarkable how soon
seasickness generally disappeared) or
during a prolonged storm when the hatches had to be kept covered.
A definite portion of water
was doled out to the passengers every day. Just
as there was no supervision and no medical inspection before starting, so there
was, to begin with, no ship's doctor on board.
The first emigrant ship from this neighborhood, which is known to have
had its own doctor, was the Norden of Laurvig.
The passengers were
generally landed in
In spite of the absence of
comforts, life on board such as emigrant vessel might be quite gay.
When the weather was fine and the
Influencing emigration from
As occurred with other
European groups, earlier Norwegian settlers to
The decision to emigrate was
strongly influenced by friends or family members already in
One famous document that
influenced many people to emigrate was the American Manifesto by Norwegian
Immigrants written on
The most dramatic defense of
the immigrants’ new home and their move to
Johannes Johansen wrote the
document. The signers acknowledge
difficulties, “caused by many kinds of illnesses and by lack of the most
essential necessities of life.”
The document presented in
translation below, sent as an open letter to the people of Norway by the
Norwegian colonists of Muskego, Wisconsin, and printed in the Christiania
Morgenbladet under date of April 1, 1845, has to my knowledge never been
reprinted in any language in the United States; it deserves publication in the
Centennial year as a sort of Norse American Declaration of Independence, as a
striking evidence of the spirit with which the Norwegian immigrants faced the
future in the land of their adoption. The
somewhat controversial tone of the communication will be more clearly understood
after a glance at the historical background.
AN ACCOUNT OF CONDITIONS IN
Something like a year has now
gone by since the hearts of nearly all among us were filled with foreboding and
discouragement, brought about by illness of various kinds and in part of want of
the very necessaries of life; a condition which at that time prevailed among us
because of the crowing into our midst of large numbers of our poor immigrant
countrymen who, lacking funds to continue their journey, found themselves
compelled for a while to sojourn here. It
was a season of sorrow, such as to try the patience of several of us to the
utmost. A certain few, overwrought
in mind, even spread the most thoughtless rumors, accompanied in some cases by
curses and expressions of contempt or America, as much as to say that God had no
part in creating this land, a land so highly endowed by nature that even its
uncultivated condition must be regarded as in effect half cultivated when
compared with the native state of the soil in Norway and many other European
countries; a land which for centuries has been a safe refuge for exiles from
nearly every state in Europe, exiles who have, almost without exception, found
here a carefree livelihood after conquering the first difficulties that beset
every pioneer community, provided only that they bent their minds on gaining
through industry and thrift the necessary means of subsistence.
There are some who complain of the trials that immigrants at first must
meet; but all such persons should feel a sense of shame when they recall what
history ahs to tell of the sufferings of those earliest immigrants who opened
the way for coming generations by founding the first colony in the United
States, the Virginia colony. Not
only were they visited by contagious diseases and by famine; they had also to
fight against wild beasts and Indians. Through
such misfortunes the colony was on several occasions nearly exterminated and had
to be reinforced. At length, of some
six hundred colonists about sixty were left; these survivors, facing certain
death from famine, found themselves compelled to leave the shores of the country
in boats which they had built in the hope of reaching the banks of
“The dissatisfaction that
showed itself at the beginning among many of the immigrants at this place had
its origin for the most part in an unseasonable homesickness more to be looked
for in children than in grown people; it arose from such circumstances, for
instance, as that they had to get along without certain kinds of food to which
they had been accustomed, that this or that article in their diet did not have
the same flavor as it had in the old home, that they suffered from the lack of
some convenience or other, or that they missed certain of their friends with
whom they had before had pleasant association.
By taking such things to heart they permit their minds to be filled with
unquiet longings that must remain fruitless.
Meanwhile they lose sight of all those former difficulties, of the whole
gloomy prospect of material success under which they labored heavily in the land
of their birth; and so they now imagine that place where they were born to be
that land of Canaan which at one time they supposed to lie in America.
One who tires to forget bygone things and to look forward instead, and
who pursues his lawful labors in patience and in the fear of God, will surely
not find his hopes disappointed if he will only aim, so far as his material
needs are concerned, to be content with his daily bread.
We have no expectation of gaining riches; but we live under a liberal
government in a fruitful land, where freedom and equality are the rule in
religious as in civil matters, and where each one of us is at liberty to earn
his living practically as he chooses. Such
opportunities are more to be desired than riches; through these opportunities we
have a prospect of preparing for ourselves, by diligence and industry, a
carefree old age. We have therefore
no reason to regret the decision that brought us to this country.
An attempt has been made to
prevent people from coming to this country by representing America as a suitable
refuge for released convicts or such men as seek to escape the wrath of the law.
It is true that many persons of this type have come hither and that here
as elsewhere there are altogether too many wicked men.
Yet this state of affairs is unavoidable, inasmuch as good men and evil
are permitted to come in, the one with the other; nevertheless, assault,
robbery, and theft are much less common here than in the lands from which such
men may have come. At all events,
misdeeds of this kind are unheard of among us, and so no one need shrink back
“Only a few words more.
By reason of the circumstances just mentioned, namely the privations and
the sickness that revisited our colony and robbed most of us of the gains of our
labor, some among us found it expedient to turn to our friends in Norway with a
request for assistance in building the church of which we stood in such great
need. The response to our request
has been so unexpectedly generous that we have been enabled to complete after a
fashion the church building that for some time has been under construction in
this settlement. Wherefore we take
occasion to express here our thanks to the honored donors, the following named
Hr. Proprieter TO Bache, Walle pr….Drammen….200 Daler
Hr. Kjobmand T. Bache……
Hr. Kjobmand E. Olsen……
Hr. Kjobmand JK Lykke…..Throndhjem….10 Daler
Hr. Simen Svendren…….Lier…….15 Daler
Hr. Tollef Moreh………………5 Daler
Total 430 Daler
“The newspaper editors of
“The settlement of
Signer (as name
Name in my history
Halvor Nilssen Lohenev
Ole Nilssen Lohenev
Halvor Olssen Silgundalen
Ole Olsen Gronhovd
(Halvor Tovsson Lyngflat)
Anders Larsen Folsland
Even Hansen Heg
Even Hansen Heg
Torgeir Ostensen Luraas
Torgeir Oysteinsson Luras
Halvor Ostensen Luraas
Halvor Oysteinsson Luras
Asle Hellesen Fosgaard
Knudt Johnsen Bekhuus
(Knut Jonsson Bakhus)
John Nilsen Ruii
Jon Nilsson Rue
Lars Olsen Dommerud
Tarjer Olsen Landsverk
Ole Knusen Thraeim
Thore Thoresen Spaanheim
Tore Toresson Spanheim
Hans Torgrimsen Tveitve
Hans Torgrimsson Tveito
Tosten Rearsen Bo
Knud Johnsen Luraas
Knut Jonsson Luras
Torbjorn Halvorsen Jr.
Ole Leiufsen Vemork
Ole Leiulvsson Vemork
Ole Jacobsen Emurg
(Ole Jakobson Einung)
Christen Olsen Grove of
Torkel Kittilsen Lislerud
Halvor Torbjornsen Omnes
Jan Pedersen Husevold
Jon Persson Husevoll
Hotjer mattisen Fossoe
(Holje Mattis Fosso)
Herbjorn Gunmundsen Hagen
Osten Olsen Skaalaas
Ole Gjermundsen Haakaanes
There is one b 1811
Ole Evensen Kjonaas
Bryjul. Tollevsen Groue
Ole Larsen Groue
Colben Davidsen Westreim
Stork Jeversen Wiche
Gulaug Iversen Wiche
Ole Pedersen Engen.
Gregar Halvorsen Nogarden
Tosten Ostensen Bon
Torstein Oysteinsson Boen
Gunder Gautesson Midtboen
Ole Aslesen Myren
Andreas Aslaugsen Schese
Haelge Toresen Faane
Niels Hansen Kallerud
Ejel Olsen Kleven
Gullbrand Gunderson Skale
Svenung Johnson Tyttegraf
Ole Johnsen Sanden
John Knudsen Traem
Jon Knutsson Traen
lars johannesen Graue
The names appear here
as copied from Morgenbladet; some of them have no doubt suffered mutilation in
going through the press. The most
interesting of the names is probably that of Even Hansen Heg, the father of Col.
HC Heg. Any Norwegian father of any
American son might well be proud to have attached his name to a document
expressing such homespun virtues and loyalties.
In the year of the Centennial it may be fitting to emphasize that the
above letter is an American manifesto drawn up by Norwegian immigrants.
“article” was sent to me by Gene Estensen.
I have copied it exact from the copy he sent to me.
The Homestead Act of 1862
opened up land to settlers who promised to farm and live on the land for 5
Government actions, such as
treaties with Minnesota Indians, including the Treaties of Traverse des Sioux
and Mendota, and various other treaties with the Winnebagoes (HoChunk),
Wahpekeute and Madewkenton, opened up even more land for white settlement.
Land in the
The British Government
repealed the navigation laws in 1849 and from 1850 on,
Routes of Travel
In earlier years
neither Bergen Norway nor any other Norwegian port provided transportation to
The trip from
In the 1840's the Telemark
emigrants often traveled via
In the 1850's, with the
opening of Norwegian trade with
Most Norwegians entered the
The California Gold Rush in
the 1850’s caused the Norwegian shipping interests to notice the possibilities
for passenger traffic to America. It was easy to find Norwegian
sailors to sail around
Supplies for the journey
consisted of smoked and salted meat, flat bread, dried peas and beans, and many
large casks of fresh water. In fair
weather cookhouses were set up on deck. When
the weather turned stormy, however, it became difficult for anybody to use the
cooking facilities and the voyagers had to content themselves with cold uncooked
On the open
In spite of the discomforts
and dangers experienced throughout the length of the voyage, there were also
times of joy and relaxation. "When
the weather was fine and the Atlantic lay clear and smooth, the deck at times
rang with merriment in the evenings,", wrote the Norwegian American
historian, Theodore C. Blegen. Sunday
was always a special day. In fair
weather prayers and devotion would be held above deck and the singing of hymns
might be accompanied by a flute, violin, or other musical instrument.
The travels from landing in
Conditions in New York
We left New York on 24 July
1843, after having looked around for a couple of days in this crowded town, but
which also seemed to be a real home for crooks and swindlers, at least those
were the people we most often had the honor to meet during our stay; though we
had hardly set foot on American soil, before they were all around us, not
American, but Norwegian crooks who had found in New York a field of activity for
their dirty tricks, and as those kind of people have the habit of conveying an
impression of honesty and uprightness by slandering their colleagues,
this was also the case here, as the Norwegians who had undertaken the task of
supplying passengers for the various American transport companies to transport
into the country, tried to give the impression of not being in any company's
service, but just for their love of mankind, to try and help their countrymen
not being cheated by others. Nearly
half a dozen of these "fine gentlemen" gathered around us, and soon we
heard from each and one of them, that the others were crooks and cheaters.
We had a lot of fun with these men for a couple of days, but at last we
settled for one of them, who looked decent and gave the best prices.
Up the rivers and canals
Then we were stowed
together on one of the tow vessels which are hauled by the steamers on the
Hudson River up to Albany, New York, on which boat we, together with Scots or
Irishmen, had to lie scattered around day and night on the deck just like pigs.
The agreement we had with the New York company said that we from there to
Buffalo, New York should pay 1.75 dollars for each adult; one dollar to be paid
by departure in New York and the rest when we came to Buffalo.
For children age from 2-12 we paid the half and children under 2 were
free. Bed clothing together with
provision should be completely free, and we should also have 100 pounds free to
These were the main items
of our contract, which we also had in writing, thinking this would be most safe
and we also thought the contract to be quite sensible, but as mentioned above,
it was broken at once with regard to the tow boats, which we were supposed to
have for ourselves. We were packed
together with strange and suspicious people.
When we came to
The next morning all our
clothing was weighed, and completely against the contract, all bed clothing and
provisions. We protested, but were
told that it was not because we should pay for it, but just in order to know the
weight when the boat should be weighed by the locks.
This calmed us down all our clothing was packed onto two boats.
The first boat was for the Norwegians and then mostly those from the
mountains. The other one, on which
we were, were again against the contract, filled up with a lot of wealthy
passengers, but as they looked quite respectable, we said nothing about it , as
it was space enough onboard, but you should know were irritated as these hangers
on were given the cabin, while we, who had paid for it, had to be satisfied with
the hold. But I guess that in order
to fill the pockets of our agent, we should have to suffer a bit.
When we were onboard the
canal boat, we received a message from the agent that we should deliver those
tickets we got in New York and would get others which should be valid until we
reached Buffalo, New York. This
change of tickets had already taken place on the other boat, and now were
supposed to hurry up, as we were about to depart, but as they say "once
bitten, twice shy", so we decided to keep our tickets until we knew what we
would get in return. The matter was
that the tickets we already had was in fact valid to Buffalo, and all the talk
about changing tickets was just dirty tricks in order to cheat us for more
money. Several of us came into the
office and soon experienced how the matter was.
All the passengers freight for both the provisions and bed clothing along
with the excess weight for the rest, and instead of 50 pounds free according to
contract, it now ready 40 pounds on the tickets.
We would of course not accept this, nor would we part with our tickets in
exchange for these new ones, but kept to the written contract and said that if
the contract was not fulfilled, then we would refuse to have anything more to do
with this agent and his people. Nor
would we pay another cent more than what we already had in
When the passengers on the
other boat heard this statement and also learned about this fraud, they also
came up with their tickets and agreed with us that either the contract had to be
fulfilled or they would not have anything more to do with this agent.
The agent was now grave difficulties as it was now apparent that he had
tried to cheat his fellow countrymen, and it was fun to see how he wriggled like
a snake to get out of his troubles, but the poor fellow had to accept that we
had the law on our side and he had to fulfill the contract.
The new tickets were once more exchanged with the old ones, and the
matter was settled once and for all when we arrived in
I don't find it worthwhile
to tell you about the voyage through the canal, as it would be just as boring
for you to read, as it would be fore me to write.
All what seemed to me somewhat interesting on this voyage, was the
constant danger we were surrounded by all the time, partly all the ugly bridges
and locks in which we tumbled about all day, and by which many, especially the
Norwegians, who have traveled this way this year, have had their limbs crushed,
so they now have become cripples for the rest of their lives; yes, even some
have lost their lives there, caused by those wicked and rough people, by whom we
all the time are surrounded, and whose dishonesty we experienced, when one of
them stole a silken scarf from my
wife, and whose inclination for murder and robbery is just as suspicious, and as
people say, not seldom has been proved by real action
The extremely beautiful
countryside along the Hudson river and the canal, which the bragging letter
writers had so much bragged about to Norway, must either have changed this year,
or it must have only existed in the braggers' imagination, with the exception of
some beautiful parts along the Hudson river, but even these were not to be
reckoned as real beauties. What was
to be seen, was mostly rather ordinary or some times ugly land, especially along
the canal, where we often traveled many miles through thick forest, which grows
in the most horrendous swamps and bogs. On
this part of the voyage I found the art much better to admire then the nature,
because there are so many enormous constructions like bridges, locks, etc.
However, our crew and we
arrived safely in
Onboard we learned, that
his intention was, when we arrive in Rochester, New York to travel before us on
the Canal Packet boat to Buffalo, New York as this boat travels much faster than
the freighter, in order to secure us the best and cheapest, transportation from
there to Milwaukee, but we had all of us already in Albany been so fed up with
his affectionate consideration for us, that we did not want any more of it, and
in order to prevent further problems like we had in Albany, we all decided to
choose three men and send them in advance from Rochester, New York to inquire at
all the Transport offices about the best and cheapest contract, so that we, when
the rest of us arrived, would not be confused by the agent, and each and one of
us could decide for himself how he would continue his travel.
So, Clausen, Krogh, and
Helgesen were chosen and traveled, without the agents knowledge, by the steamer
which was about to leave Rochester when we arrived, and they arrived already the
same evening in Buffalo, about 1 1/2 days earlier than us.
When we arrived in
Our boat was in front and
the other a couple of hours behind, and we were now separated, as a steamer lay
ready for departure, which some of us boarded for the cheap fare of 5.50 dollars
per person and all our belongings free of charge, but some stayed behind, among
them Krogh and Helgesen, and also the passengers of the other boat, in order to
make the voyage by sailing ship, which of course was much slower, but they paid
a fare of only 2 dollars per person above 12 years, the half for children under
12, nothing for children under 2 years, and all their belongings free of charge,
together with free disembarkation in Milwaukee, Wisconsin which normally was
quite costly. We arrived in
New York to Wisconsin/Illinois
Travel time for this journey
was 7 to 10 days
After arriving in Quebec, most
traveled by riverboat to Montreal, then by canal boat to Lake Ontario, and
across the Lake to Buffalo. At this
point they linked up with their countrymen arriving from
The following is an account of
Ole and Torstein Morreim's travels from
Ole and Torstein Morreim -
summer of 1855
They left Muskego, WI with one
large covered wagon pulled by three yokes of oxen and the smaller wagon pulled
by 2 yokes of oxen. A milk cow was
tied behind one wagon. The route
traveled was by way of Blue Mounds, WI, where they had relatives, then Northwest
They followed the
From here they followed the
Torstein went back to
They traveled back to
OF NORWEGIAN-AMERICAN SETTLEMENTS
Norwegians settled in
Norwegians arrived in
The Norwegian ship,
Restaurationen, arrived in
The first Norwegian group
Several ships carrying
Norwegian arrived in
Norwegians moved into
became the main region of Norwegian settlement and remained the center of
Norwegian-American activity until the Civil War (Jefferson
After the Indian Treaties
of 1851, Norwegians started moving into
was the leading state for Norwegian immigration.
The numbers of Norwegians in
now had more Norwegians than any other state in the
59.3% of Norwegians in
back to the top
Section 5 America - family in the United States and their communities
These were all pioneer
settlements in previously unsettled areas. There
were no roads, railroads, or steamboats for transportation.
This was before general stores, mills, churches, or schools.
Waukesha, Racine, Milwaukee
|1845||Columbia, Fond du Lac
Ozaukee, Manitowoc, Winnebago
|1848||Brown, Crawford, Jackson,
|1849||no prominent settlements
LaCross, Monroe, Pierce, Portage, Richland
|1850||Hennepin, Ramsey, Goodhue
Adams, Juneau, Waushara, Waupaca
Dakota, Houston, Nicollet
Kewaunee, St. Croix, Trempealeau
Benton, Chickasaw, Iowa, Story
Dodge, Olmstead, Steele, Mower
Faribault, Freeborn, Rice, Sibley, Waseca
McLeod, Meeker, Watonwan
settlements in America
states listed in chronological order as to time of settlement
Norwegian settled in New
Netherlands with the Dutch in 1630. This
area never became a purely Norwegian settlement but was the location for some of
the first Norwegian settlers to the new land.
The first wholly Norwegian