Updated 5 Sept 1999
Submitted by Peter Langley from Vol. VIII of A New History of Ireland. Posted here with his kind permission.
|30,000 BC||Evidence found of bears, reindeer, hyena and woolly mammoths during this period.||8,000 BC||Final spell of severe cold weather ends and post-glacial period begins.||6,500 BC||Ireland cut off from Britain by rising sea level.
Earliest presence of man in Ireland.
|3,000 BC||Building of megalithic tombs starts.||2,550 BC||Wheat cultivated at Newgrange, Co. Meath.||1,500 BC||Copper mining at Mount Gabriel Co. Cork.||753 BC||Rome founded.||500 BC||Start of Iron Age in Ireland.||300 BC||Evidence of La Tene influences in Ireland through trade and possible migration from the continent.
Building of ring forts, hill forts and crannogs commence.
|55 BC||Julius Caesar invades Britain.||297 AD||Picts, in conjunction with the Irish attack Roman Britain. Irish raids on Britain continue to 450, many slaves being brought back including one who went on to become St. Patrick.||370||Assault on Britain by Picts, Irish (Scotti), and Saxons.||432||Traditional date for the commencement of St. Patrick's mission.||449||Saxons invade Britain.||493||March 17th.||Traditional date for death of St. Patrick.||544||Bubonic plague reaches Ireland.||549||Recurrence of the plague.||554||Outbreak of Small Pox.||564||Great wind.||588||Great snow||589||Hot summer.||594||Eclipse of the sun, causing wide spread panic.||616||Battle of Chester in England, and Northumbrian power reaches the Irish sea.||664||Another outbreak of Bubonic plague, continues for four years.||670||Great snow, famine.||698||Start of three years of famine and pestilence, cannibalism rumoured.||700||Cattle plague in Ireland.
Around this time there was a gradual transition from tribalism to dynastic politics, resulting in 5 hundred years of inter Kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, there were also inter monastery battles.
|709||Plague, believed to have been polio, also dysentery.||742||Outbreak of small pox.||764||Great snow for 3 months.||772||Twelve years of famine and plague, Bloody flux, small pox, rabies and cattle murrain.||773||Drought and famine.||777||Bad summer - wind and rain.||795||First Viking raids on Ireland.||799||Inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.||807||Large Viking raid on western coast.||837||Vikings carry out intensive raids on Ireland, and set up bases.||848||Norse occupy Cork.||876||Relative respite from Viking raids for next forty years.||892||Great wind, forests destroyed and wooden churches and house blown away.||899||More inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.||900||English coins begin to circulate in Ireland.||902||Dublin evacuated by the Norse.||914||Large Viking fleet arrives in Waterford.||920 to 50||Dublin Kings strike coins at York in England.||922||Foundation of the Norse town of Limerick.||951||Outbreak of Small pox and bloody flux among the Norse in Dublin.||965||Famine.||978||Battle of Belach Lechta – in Ballyhoura mountains in north Cork. Brian Boruma mac Cennetig (Brian Boru) defeats and kills Mael Muad mac Brain and become king of Munster.||999||Battle of Glenn Mama near Dublin, Mael Morda, king of Leinster, and Sitric Silkbeard king of Dublin defeated by Brian Boru. Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.||1000||Brian Boru captures Dublin.||1002||Reign of Brian Boru as High King commences twelve years of reasonable peace apart odd out breaks of inter dynasty fights in Ulster.||1014||Mael Morda, king of Leinster invites Jarl Sigurd of Orkney to help him fight Brian Boru. In the battle of Clontarf on Good Friday Apr. 23. They are defeated and both killed. Brian Boruma is killed after the battle. Inter kingdom feuds and battles recommence.||1047||Famine in Ulster causing a lot of them to settle in Leinster.||1061||Small Pox and Collic reach epidemic proportions in Leinster.||1062||Colic in Leinster, spreads to rest of country.||1066||Battle of Hastings, Normans conquer England.||1086||Doomesday survey in England.||1094||Severe weather throughout the country causing dearth.||1095||Pope Urban II proclaims first crusade at council of Clermont; "Scotti come in crowds from the land of mist" to join||1095||Another great plague.||1096||Foundation of the See of Waterford.||1096||Great plague continues, laws of abstinence and almsgiving promulgated by clergy and princes.||1097||Round tower of Monasterboice burned and library destroyed||1098||Great famine.||1099||Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, again took place during this century.||1106||See of Limerick founded||1107||March;||many cattle died in severe snow.||1108||Flemish colonisation of Pembroke in Wales.||1116||F||reat famine in spring; affecting Leinster and Munster.||1122||Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair of Meath campaigns with fleet and land forces throughout Munster.||1145||"Great war this year, so that Ireland was a trembling sod" - From the Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters.||1151||Battle of Moin Mor in north Cork. Toirrdelbach Ua Briain , king of Munster defeated by Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair, 7,000 Munstermen killed.||1155||Cattle plague.||1155||Proposal for invasion of Ireland by Henry II discussed at Council of Winchester, but rejected.||1156/57||Great frost, lakes frozen.||1163||Muirchertach mac Domnaill Ua Mael Sechlainn drowned at Cork in the River Lee after falling from a bridge while drunk. (First mention of a bridge in Cork).||1164||Malcolm IV of Scotland, defeats and kills Somarlaide, helped by Dublin fleet near Renfrew Scotland.||1165||Henry II of England campaigns unsuccessfully in Wales having hired the Dublin fleet for six months.||1169||Robert fitz Stephen, Hervey de Montmorency , and Maurice de Prendergast land at Bannow Bay in Wexford. Wexford captured by Diarmait Mac Murchada, assisted by the Normans and the custody is given to Robert fitz Stephen.
Mac Murchada invades Ossory, Maurice fitz Gerald arrives in Wexford.
|1170||May||Raymond (le Gros) Fitz William land in Co. Wexford||Aug. 23||Richard de Clare (Strongbow) Earl of Pembroke, lands near Waterford.||Aug. 25||Strongbow and Raymond le Gros capture Waterford. Strongbow marries Mac Murchada's daughter, Aoife.||Sept 21.||MacMurchada and Norman allies capture Dublin.||1169||May.||Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster dies and is succeeded by his son in law, Strongbow.||Nov.||Kings of North Leinster and Breifne submit to Henry II in Dublin. Henry II grants charter to city of Dublin.||1170||Sept. 20||Pope Alexander III writes to the Irish Kings advocating fealty to Henry II||1171||Merchants of Lucca and Flanders trade with Cork city.||1175||Ruaidri Ua Conchobair and Normans campaign together in Ormond and Thomond, Limerick city captured.||1185||Prince John lands at Waterford||1189||Prince John grants charter to Cork city.||1197||Prince John grants charter to city of Limerick.||1199||Numerous battles during this century; Irish versus Irish, Norman versus Irish, Norman and Irish versus Irish and other combinations.||1209||King John campaigns in Ireland.||1213||May 15.||King John reconciled with the pope.||June 6.||Papal confirmation of annual tax of 300 marks for Ireland.||Oct 3.||King John surrenders kingship of England to Holy See.||1214||June 24.||Magna Carta signed in England.||1215||Nov. 12||Magna Carta issued for Ireland.||1217||Jan. 14.||Royal Mandate against promotion of Irishmen to cathedral benefices.||Feb. 28.||Papal tax levied for Fifth Crusade.||Nov. 10.||Feudal aid levied.||1218||Apr.||Papal recognition of rights of crown in Irish Episcopal elections.||1222||Dublin imposes tax on wines.||1232||Kerry shirred as separate county.||1237||Revolt of the O'Briens||1242||Jan. 2.||Henry III grants Cork city right to hold in fee farm, and recognises guilds.||1245||Light house built at Hook Head, Co. Wexford.||1246||Connacht shired.||1251||Mint for the minting of coins, opened in Dublin.||1252||Mar. 13.||Clerical tenth levied.||1253||Limerick and Tipperary shired as separate counties.||1256||Jan. 26.||Pope condemns English attitudes to Irish laws of inheritance.||1260||Apr. 29.||Royal order against Scots migration into Ireland.||1261||Irish Kings offer high-kingship to Haakon IV of Norway, for support in expelling English from Ireland.||1271||Bad weather, famine and disease.||1272||Irish wool taxed at Bruges.||1293||Edward I gives safe conduct to Flanders merchants in Ireland.||1294||Mint operates briefly for one year in Cork.||1296||Edward I invades Scotland.||1750||Nov.||First copy of Dublin Directory published.
Charles Smith's The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork published.
|1752||Sept.2||Julian calendar abolished and replace by Gregorian calendar the following day became 14 Sept.||1755||Nov. 1||Earthquake at Lisbon, felt in Munster.||1756||April||Dearth of corn and potatoes, continues to 1757.||1761||Oct.||Start of Whiteboyism in Munster.||1763||Sept 10||First number of Freeman's Journal.||1765||April||Start of severe drought resulting in poor harvest and stunted livestock.||1766||Summer||Wide spread rioting owing to scarcity and high price of food.||1773||Nov 8||Opening in Dublin of first house of industry. (Work House).||1775||June||Reconstitution of Irish regiments in French service: regiment of Clare amalgamated with Berwick, Bulkeley amalgamated with Dillon.||1776||July 4||Declaration of American independence.||1778||Series of bank and merchant failures.||1782||May 4||Catholic relief act, allows Catholics to acquire land.||1784||May||Irish Post Office established by statue.||1785||Sept||Whiteboys, now known as Rightboys, renew disturbances in Munster.||1790||July 5||First mail coach.||July 10||Based on hearth-money returns made in 1788, population estimated at 4,040,000||1791||July 21||Irish brigade disbanded by French national assembly.||Oct 14||Society of United Irish Irishmen founded in Belfast. Secretary Robert Simms (The wife's ancestor)||1794||Mar 1||Statutes of Dublin University amended to allow Catholics to take degrees.||1795||Sept 21||Battle of the diamond near Loughall Co. Armagh between Peep o' Day Boys and Defenders, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.||1796||July 12||First Orange Parade at Portadown.||1798||May 23||United Irish rebellion begins in Leinster.||1799||Aug 1||Irish act of union||Aug 2||Last meeting of Irish parliament.||1750||Nov.||First copy of Dublin Directory published.
Charles Smith's The ancient and present state of the county and city of Cork published.
|1752||Sept.2||Julian calendar abolished and replace by Gregorian calendar the following day became 14 Sept.||1755||Nov. 1||Earthquake at Lisbon, felt in Munster.||1756||April||Dearth of corn and potatoes, continues to 1757.||1761||Oct.||Start of Whiteboyism in Munster.||1763||Sept 10||First number of Freeman's Journal.||1765||April||Start of severe drought resulting in poor harvest and stunted livestock.||1766||Summer||Wide spread rioting owing to scarcity and high price of food.||1773||Nov 8||Opening in Dublin of first house of industry. (Work House).||1775||June||Reconstitution of Irish regiments in French service: regiment of Clare amalgamated with Berwick, Bulkeley amalgamated with Dillon.||1776||July 4||Declaration of American independence.||1778||Series of bank and merchant failures.||1782||May 4||Catholic relief act, allows Catholics to acquire land.||1784||May||Irish Post Office established by statue.||1785||Sept||Whiteboys, now known as Rightboys, renew disturbances in Munster.||1790||July 5||First mail coach.||July 10||Based on hearth-money returns made in 1788, population estimated at 4,040,000||1791||July 21||Irish brigade disbanded by French national assembly.||Oct 14||Society of United Irish Irishmen founded in Belfast. Secretary Robert Simms (The wife's ancestor)||1794||Mar 1||Statutes of Dublin University amended to allow Catholics to take degrees.||1795||Sept 21||Battle of the diamond near Loughall Co. Armagh between Peep o' Day Boys and Defenders, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.||1796||July 12||First Orange Parade at Portadown.||1798||May 23||United Irish rebellion begins in Leinster.||1799||Aug 1||Irish act of union||Aug 2||Last meeting of Irish parliament.||1801||July 2.||Copyright act .. Requiring one copy of every book published in UK to be deposited in library of Trinity College, Dublin and makes illegal the pirating in Ireland of British-published books.||1803||Jan.||Influenza epidemic, which continued until June.||July 23.||Robert Emmet's rising in Dublin.||Sept 19.||Robert Emmet convicted of high treason (executed next day).||Dec. 7.||Commissioning of officers in new Irish legion established by Baonaparte||1804||Jan 14.||Opening in Dublin of Institution for vaccinating against small pox.||Mar 4 - 5||Insurrection at Castle Hill near Parramatta, New South Wales many Irish involved.||1805||Mar 25.||Presentation to parliament of Irish catholic petition||April 9.||Pius VII grants final approval to Presentation order founded at Cork by Nano Nagle.||May 13||House of Commons debates Irish catholic petition;
Grattan makes his maiden speech in its support.
|1807||Jan 19||First meeting of Gaelic Society of Dublin.||Mar 20.||Charter incorporating Cork Institution for promoting science and agriculture.||1808||August.||Christian Brothers, lay teaching order, founded by Edmund Rice.||1809||June 15.||Drainage of bogs act.||1810||September.||Commission to inquire into state of Irish records (Reports 1-15 in 3 vols.)||1813||July 12.||First recorded disturbances in Belfast as a result of tension between Protestants and Catholics.||1816||August.||Potato crop fails owing to late seasons and excessive rain;
beginning of first major famine since 1742.
|Oct - Nov.||Typhus epidemic begins. (Continues until December 1819 causing some 50,000 deaths).||1817.||June 16.||Poor employment act, empowers appointment of commissioners to direct public works financed by mortgages of rates.||July 11.||Act to provide for the establishment of asylums for the lunatic poor in Ireland.||July .||Jeffery Sedwards forms total abstinence society in Skibbereen,||Sept 30.||National fever committee appointed to disburse government aid for victims of epidemic (£18,629 spent in 2 years)||1818||May.||Fever hospitals act provides for the establishment of fever hospitals and extension of dispensary system.||1820||May 25.||Failure of Roche's Bank and stoppage of Leslie's Bank at Cork causes banking crisis which spreads throughout Munster and then to Dublin.||1821||Census - population 6,801,827||Sept.||Potato crop fails again.||1822||May 24.||Poor employment act, provided £50,000 for building of roads in response to widespread failure of potato crop.||June.||Fever follows famine in west of Ireland.||1823||July.||Irish tithe composition act. Enables incumbents and their parishioners to substitute fixed money payment, settled by arbitrators, in lieu of tithes.||1825||Dec.||Over 60 English banks suspend payments, causing severe recession in English and Irish manufacturing industry.||1826||June-August.||Fever epidemic follows collapse of textile industry in Dublin, Belfast and Cork.||1834||Dec 18||Affray at Rathcormac Co. Cork during collection of tithes.||1835||June 2.||William Sharman Crawford opens tenant-right campaign in Commons by bringing in a bill to compensate evicted tenants for improvements.||1838||July 31.||Poor Relief Act extends English poor law to Ireland. Commission set up to administer a workhouse system.||1839||Jan. 6.||The night of "The big wind".||1840||Apr. 24.||First union workhouse (South Dublin) opened.||1841||June 6.||Census taken throughout Ireland: Population 8,175,124 (5.25% increase since 1831).||1841||Aug. 30.||First edition of Cork Examiner.||1842||June 18.||Capital Punishment (Ireland) Act abolishes death penalty for numerous offences.||Aug. 12.||Act confirms validity of marriages celebrated by dissenting ministers.||1844||Aug.||Act authorising construction of railway from Dublin to Cashel. Extension to Cork authorised July 1845.||1845||Sept 9.||Dublin Evening Post reports the arrival of potato blight in Ireland.||Sept 25.||First sod cut for Cork Bandon railway.||Oct 31.||Committee formed in Dublin to examine extent of potato loss and to suggest remedies.||Nov. 10.||Peel, on his own responsibility, orders purchase in USA of £100,000 of Indian corn for shipment to Ireland.||Nov 18.||Appointment of Peel's relief commission to administer scheme of relief.||1846||Jan. 23||Public Works Bill, the first in a series of measures intended to relieve distress.||Mar 13||Eviction of 300 tenants on Gerrard estate in Co. Galway.||Mar 28.||Sales begin at Cork and other places of food being distributed by relief commission||June 26.||Peel repeals the corn laws, abolishing all duties on imported corn.||June 14.||Reappearance of potato blight.||Sept 25.||Disturbance at Youghal arising out of attempt by crowd to hold up ship laden with oats for export.||Nov.||Start of unusually severe winter, snow, frost, north easterly gales.||1847||Jan 1.||First operation performed in Richmond Hospital, Dublin under general anaesthesia.||Jan 2.||Formation of British Association for the relief of the extreme Distress in the Remote Parishes of Ireland and Scotland.||Jan 26.||Duties on importation of corn suspended until Sept 1.||Feb. 26||Destitute Poor Act - permits appointment of relief commission to administer outdoor relief.||Apr. 5||First soup kitchen opened in Dublin.||June 8.||Poor Relief Act, empowers boards of guardians to grant outdoor relief to aged, infirm, and to sick poor and to poor widows with 2 or more dependent children; it also empowered poor law commissioners to permit boards to give food to able-bodied poor for limited periods; but persons holding more than quarter acre of land were excluded.||July.||Potato harvest small but sound.||Sept 19||Meeting of tenant farmers at Holycross, Co. Tipperary, convened by Lalor to form a tenant league.||Oct 1.||Distribution from government soup-kitchens ceased.||1848||Summer.||Failure of potato crop due to blight.||Aug. 1||Inauguration of regular mail service by rail between Ireland and London.||Nov.||Cholera returns to Ireland.||1849||June.||Reappearance of potato blight.|