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Image of Kathleen Norris





I never know whether to laugh or to cry when women ask me this – and women do ask it, all the year round, and through all the years, and many times a week.  Our particular generation represents the transition stage between the clinging woman of the ‘Nineties, with her five-gored, bell skirt sweeping the street on all sides as she walked, and her prettily-confident request to Papa, or Brother Bob, or John, dear, for money, and the coming woman – with her profession or trade instilled into her as a matter of course, with her confident voice, and her trim office suit, and her financial responsibilities, and her vote.  And there is humor, and pathos in the insistent, consciencious inquiry; “Ought I stay at home? Ought I go out into the world?”

    My answer to this question is contained in one world – with a post-script.  The word is “Yes.”  “And the post-script is … and never forget that the whole wide world, with its books, its politics, its galleries and slums, its sins and its virtues, is your home.”

    Because one of the things that we working women learn with most surprise is that there is nothing mysterious, nothing sacred and cryptic and essentially undiscoverable, about all these hitherto solely masculine things; that lawyers and politicians and broker and bridgebuilders are just solving the same old problems of family living – on a slightly larger scale.

    And when your little house and mine, and  your little block and mine, and your little village and mine have solved a few riddles, like divorce and wages and the relationship of capital and labor, and public health and morals and educations, and fair taxation, and the financial rights of a wife, just as these things touch us and our families; then your little house, street and village and mine will have done what all the big government officials at Washington have failed to do.

    If there was a village of three thousand  souls in America where the girls and boys were growing up straight and clean to high ideals, where the mothers demanded honest school-boards and town trustees where kitchens were sanitary, and decent movies alone were admitted, where idle, prosperous childless women felt themselves morally and patriotically bound to stand beside struggling little impecunious mothers, where simplicity and hospitality and the safety of childhood were the first considerations – then that village would be the most important place in the entire union.


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    And these things are in women’s hands: these are women’s jobs – the greatest in the world, and the smallest in the world.  Some of them will take her out of her home – out, that is, of the five rooms and the front garden that she considers her home.  But none of them can possibly take her out of the sphere in which she rightfully moves as the bearer and the teacher of the race, no national problem is so great that it does not touch the lives and the ideals of men.

    And those ideals, and those lives, were given them by woman.


Kathleen Norris


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    Any history of Child Welfare in San Francisco shows that the child stranded in a pioneer community was a matter of community interest.  The Orphanages, the homes for partially dependent children were started early in the history of San Francisco, endowed and made recipients of State support.

    The Sick Child made the appeal to the pioneer women physicians.

    In 1875 they started the first training school for nurses and the Hospital for Children.  The beautiful buildings of the Children’s Hospital and the far reaching service throughout the city of this work by woman physicians for children attest the fact that the San Francisco citizens love, honor and support their work for suffering childhood.

    To KEEP the CHILD WELL is the new slogan in the HEALTH CRUSADE.  The college women of the American Association of University Women in 1909 undertook to supervise medically and furnish milk (Certified) to the Babies boarded out by the Associated Charities.  This work has grown to include educational work in the care and feeding of infants for mothers with their own babies.  So that now over a thousand mothers are enrolled at the Haight Street Center and the work has been extended to include the pre-school child.  This work has been carried on and developed under the women physicians who give the guidance needed in the educational work.

    The Health Center idea has been taken over by Hospitals, Medical Schools and the City Board of Health so that today, no mother in San Francisco need lack guidance and assistance in learning to care for her baby, for wherever she may live, a Health Center is fairly accessible.

    Thus both the sick and the well child have enlisted the scientific and the civic contribution of the women physicians of the city and this work for both well and sick children has been inaugurated by them.

Adelaide Brown, M. D.





    Dr. Adelaide Brown is president of the California Organization of Women Physicians for Federal Recognition.  Gail Laughlin is the attorney: Dr. Louise B. Deal, secretary-treasurer; Dr. Anna MacRae, Dr. S. K. Kewitt, Dr. Ethel Owen; Dr. Olga Bridgman, Dr. Ruby Cunningham, Dr. Elsie Mitchell, Dr. Florence Scott; and Dr. Eleanor Seymour of Los Angeles, Directors.

    Members residing in Northern California are:  Dr. Rachel I. Ash, Dr. Olga Bridgman, Dr. Mary A. Breen, Dr. Maraiana Bertola, Dr. Adelaide Brown, Dr. Isabel Boeske, Dr. M. E. Botsford, Dr. Lily Boldeman, Dr. Edith Bronson, Dr. G. C. Boalt, Dr. Emma Budeley, Dr. Mary W. Cain, Dr. H. Crabtree, Dr. Millicent Cosgrave, Dr. Mary P. Campbell, Dr. M. B. Cleveland, Dr. Mary Cavanaugh, Dr. Monica Donovan, Dr. Henrietta Damkroeger, Dr. Henrietta Dugan, Dr. Lillie D’Ancona, Dr. Louise B. Deal, Dr. Mary A. Dangel, Dr. C. R. Deckelman, Dr. Lolita D. Fenton, Dr. Matilda Feeley, Dr. Anna M. Flynn, Dr. E. B. Field, Dr. Mary Glover, Dr. Alice Goss, Dr. Amelia Gates, Dr. Vera S. Goldman, Dr. K. I. Howard, Dr. Florence Holsclaw, Dr. Maud U. Havens, Dr. Mary Harris, Dr. S. K. Hewitt, Dr. Madeline E. Johns, Dr. Malvine Judell, Dr. Elizabeth Keys, Dr. A. Kopeiowski, Dr. Lillie Koerber, Dr. Frieda Kruse, Dr. E. A. C. Lafontaine, Dr. Anna Lyle, Dr. Esther Lynn, Gail Laughlin, Dr. Margaret Mahoney, Dr. Anna D. MacRae, Dr. Mary J. Mentzer, Dr. E. S. Merritt, Dr. Mary Mylott, Dr. Alice Maxwell, Dr. Mary T. Murphy, Dr. Jean Martin, Dr. Ann Mosgrove, Dr. Myrl Morris, Dr. Marion B. McAuley, Dr. Ethel D. Owen, Dr. C. Palmer, Dr. Zilda T. Pettis, Dr. Pearle P. Penfield, Dr. Hane Parkhurst, Dr. Eva C. Reid, Dr. L. A. Rethwilen, Dr. Esther Rosencrantz, Dr. Natalie Selling, Dr. Blanche Sanborn, Dr. Ellen Stadtmuller, Dr. Bertha Wagner Stark, Dr. E. B. Siebe, Dr. Grace Simon, Dr. Ann E. Sweet, Dr. Gertrude A. Spriggs, Dr. Florence Scott, Dr. Leila Trimmer, Dr. Mary Turnbull, Dr. Agnes Walker, Dr. Laverne C. Wright, Dr. Ethel M. Watters, Dr. Emma K. Willitts, Dr. L. M. Wanzer, Dr. Edith H. Williams, Dr. Pauline M. Wicksteed, Dr. Dorothy A. Wood, Dr. Florence Dunlop Strickler, of San Francisco; Dr. M. L. Abbott, Dr. Alice Bush, Dr. Fay Jewell, Dr. Katherine McClurg, Dr. Anna W. Small, and Dr. Amy F. Temple, of Oakland; Dr. Elizabeth W. Bailie, Dr. E. S. Brownsill, Dr. Ruby Cunningham, Dr. Kate Gompertz, Dr. F. Green, Dr. Marian Hooker, Dr. Louise Hector, Dr. Stella Lehr, and Dr. M. H. Sampson, of Berkeley; and Dr. Kate P. Van Orden of Alameda.  Dr. L. Etta Farmer of Folsom; Dr. Anna W. Williams of Haywards; Dr. Nellie Ford of Mills College; Dr. Berta Saunders of North Palo Alto; Dr. Alice Woods Fiddes of Pacific Grove; Dr. Grace McCosky and Dr. Margaret Smyth of Stockton; Dr. Martha T. Giannini of Ukiah; Dr. Lulu J Beebe of Woodland; and Dr. Louise Morrow, who is with the Y.W.C.A. in China.

    Southern California is equally represented by a similar group of prominent women physicians as members of this organization.


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    The foundation of the Children’s Hospital was made by women physicians.  Dr. Martha Bucknall and Dr. Charlotte Blake Brown in 1875 called on seventy women in San Francisco to secure a board of directors of eight women.  Women’s boards were then a new idea.  No Y.W.C.A. existed, no Associated Charities, no Fruit and Flower Mission.  Social service was confined to the boards managing orphanages.

    This first organization was incorporated as the Pacific Dispensary for Women and Children, and was one of a chain of hospital s run by and for women physicians across the United States.

    The purposes of the institution are defined: “To provide for women the medical aid of competent women physicians and to assist in educating women for nurses and in the practice of medicine and kindred professions.”  Note the vision of “kindred profession”, which can include technicians, medical social workers, X-ray workers, physiotherapists, etc., and this was the vision of women physicians in 1875.

    The financial straits of the institution during the first ten years of its life can best be shown by these two incidents.  Dr. Ellen Sargent, who was graduating from the University Medical School and had become interested in the Hospital as a medical student, gave up her commencement black silk dress and deposited the money with the Hospital to pay the rent to keep it open for another month.  At another time of crisis, Dr. Lucy M. Wanzer and Dr. Charlotte Blake Brown took out their life memberships to avert the same catastrophe.

    Mrs. Jessie Astredo Smith was the first graduate; her brother is now the head of the Juvenile Court in San Francisco, and two of her children are on the faculties of universities.  Mrs. Smith died a year ago.  The second-class graduate four nurses, three of whom are still in the service.

    Of the women members of the staff from the beginning to the present date, one can say that a deep devotion to the individual patient, to the Hospital, and to the cause of women in all its ramifications, has characterized them.  They have had vision and ideals always before them, and have consistently carried out their purpose.

    The Children’s Hospital may, perhaps, in an academic analysis have been short in scientific output, but it has been long in the intelligent and personal care and attention it has given suffering humanity.  After all, when one is cataloged and analyzed and defined by the many laboratory analyses of the present date, or has been dissected and analyzed by group medicine, is not the personal help of the patient to recovery often lost sight of?

    An institution is judged by three things:  Its scientific output, its pupils, and the developing of assistants and new lines of work.  Up to 1918 – 475 nurses have graduated.

    A resume of the graduate nurse would be rich in human attainment.  In their homes as daughters, wives and mothers, and in the community as private and public health nurses, they are busy, helpful, able women.  A few names and what they are doing will help you to see the group and emphasize the pioneers among them.  Miss Ethel Sherman, at the Students’ Infirmary of the University of California, has been a path blazer in college nursing and health work among college students.  Miss Eleanor Stockton, at the San Francisco Board of Health, has developed her work as a pioneer and today has four nurses in her department, Miss Edna Shuey, of the Berkeley Dispensary, is a real contributor to the public health nursing course at the University of California, and the public health nursing group of Hawaiian girls working in tuberculosis, leprosy, and general public health work in the Islands, was a most inspiring sight to me in a recent visit.  Miss Boye, as executive of the Training School, is making a steady contribution to the education of nurses.

    The other group of pupils is the intern group.  Where do they come from, and whither do they go?  During the first period from 1875 to 1885, the interns were called residents, several of them serving two years or more at the Hospital.  General practice was their occupation later and Dr. Kate Post Van Orden, whose name appears in the Hospital Report of 1880, is still in active practice.  Institution work has claimed Dr. Fletcher and Dr. Mary B. Rittler made the pioneer contribution in the teaching of hygiene to the University Women Students at Berkeley.  Form 1885 to 1915, during the development of the Hospital as a permanent institution, interns sought the training from the local medical schools of Stanford and University of California, from the Medical Department of the University of Southern California, the University of Minnesota, Rush, Michigan, the P. and S. in Chicago, the Women’s Medical in Philadelphia and John Hopkins.  Total number of interns 117 – Stanford 42, University of California 27, Southern California 12, Woman’s Medical 7, John Hopkins 3.  The contribution these women are making is best illustrated by some individual records.

    They have settled in New Bedford to India, five are missionary physicians; Dr. Margaret Smythe has been for sixteen years connected with the State Hospital at Stockton, and is now first assistant and in charge of the woman’s department of over 1,000 patients.  She is a general surgeon and able executive.  In public health Dr. Anna E. Rude is the Director of the Child Hygiene Division of the Children’s Bureau in Washington.  Dr. Ethel Watters is Director of the Bureau of Child Hygiene of the California State Board of Health, Dr. Viola Russell is acting assistant surgeon in United States Public Health Service.  Dr. Appel is at the head of the Vocational and Work Certificate Department of Chicago Board of Education, and is making an extensive contribution to the health improvement of the working child.


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    In anesthetics Dr. Mary Botsford will always have the name of leader and developer of this work for physicians.  It is now a legally defined specialty of medicine in California.  She has always been extremely generous in educating younger women in this specialty, and her group is too well known to need special mention.

    In pediatrics, the interns who have gone into general practice has always excelled.

    In tuberculosis, Dr. Martha Patrick of Los Angeles, is working under the Board of Health. In pathology, Dr. Agnes Walker has held both city and State positions, and Dr. Macrae, after serving the Hospital for many years as Chief of Laboratory, is now in charge of the Laboratories at the San Francisco Hospital.

    Since the period of affiliation, although six years have elapsed, pioneer work has not characterized the interns.  Whether this is due to lack of encouragement is difficult to say.  Dr. Mary Cain has served as executive of the San Francisco Tuberculosis Association.  Dr. Myrl Morris is now on the staff of the Children’s Hospital, Dr. Dorothy Atkinson is in charge of the Health Centers of the San Francisco Board of Health, Dr. Nell Ford is resident physician at Mills College and in charge of twelve health centers in the Oakland public schools.

    The support of the Hospital is from endowment, patient’s board, laboratory, surgical, and X-ray service.  The gap between funds earned interest from endowment, and expenses is bridged by the activity of the managers – soliciting gifts and donations and by the Auxiliary in entertaining the public yearly at the Mardi Gras Ball.  The point is that the public supports the work of the Hospital over and above the degree to which it can be self-supporting.

    In September, 1920, the re-organization of the staff took place, and the staff stands today as follows:  There are four women on surgery, including the general surgery of women and children and no men; two women on obstetrics and no men; three women on pediatrics and no men; three women in medicine and no men; one woman on the eye and ear service, the senior on the service and one man; four women in anesthetics.  There are three men and no women in the orthopedic service, and no women physicians in the department of pathology; one man and one woman on contagious service.  The Hospital staff thus consists of seventeen women and six men.  In a hospital organized by women physicians, with a purpose that has never changed, and depending upon a public which has always supported it, this division is as it should be.

    You may ask me, why hold the Children’s Hospital for women? And I ask you where else you as women will get a chance at heading a service.  Assistants’ positions are waiting at every turn for women, but a chance to rise, to be chief after ten years of such service, does not materialize.  Men pass over your heads or pass on to other chief positions.  As illustration, I will cite Dr. Florence Sabin, Associate Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins.  I have yet to see a women in America attain a clinical head position and hold it.  Competition is too severe and man’s mind fixed on the idea that a women’s place is to serve, not lead.  Therefore, to have this type of experience we must perpetuate the hospital we have created and preserve it for the advanced opportunities of women physicians.  Without leaders, we will be allowed to serve by our professional brothers, but the experience of running a power in dealing with interns and nurses, we will get very little of except in hospitals we create.  The value of such opportunities, we certainly all realize.

    The interns of the period since the affiliation are the women who must carry on the institution.  The first group of women physicians during the years of struggle and establishment of permanency gave ideals, vision, and daily labor to the Hospital.  In the revolution of 1914, out of which came the affiliation, when the idea was fostered that the purposes of the Hospital had been fulfilled and it looked to be a financial asset to the University of California, the women physicians of the staff rallied and saved the position of women physicians in the institution, as well saved the entity of the Hospital for the city of San Francisco.

    The light affiliation which resulted with the University instead of absorption, defined the purposes of the Hospital clearly; but for the first five years the affiliation has been a negative rather than a positive influence in the Hospital.  As one of the University of California medical men expressed it, “he could not see that the affiliation had done any harm.”

    Since the rearrangement of the staff in 1920, the lines are well marked out for a wonderful development of women in medicine.  Against the full development is the great lack of adult free or part-pay beds, and the tendency, subtle perhaps, but nevertheless present, to discourage service patients in the adult and obstetrical department.

    A first generation of women physicians has passed through this Hospital.  Another group is at the zenith of its career.  Are the younger women being prepared to carry on?

    Producing, nurturing, and fighting for the very life of what this Hospital stands for has been hard work.  The women physicians now in the positions of leaders owe much to their predecessors, and much to you, younger women, to give you the chance that was given them, a chance the Board of Managers and the friends who yearly contribute of their abundance, all help to secure for you.  But the real thing, yourselves, you must give.

    The Hospital needs a loyal Nurses’ Alumnae Association, it needs a loyal group of old interns, it needs a steady feeding in of younger women physicians to the clinics and assistant positions, to hold for women in medicine what two generations of women physicians have created and developed.

    Perhaps this historical survey of the situation may help you to realize what the Children’s Hospital has meant and can mean to women in medicine.

Adelaide Brown, M. D.


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Image of Mab Copland Lineman





    Women, today, being engaged in every line of endeavor, having come to be recognized as a factor in the business world, and having been approved as proper participants in every important phase of commercial life, practice of law by women becomes almost a matter of necessity.  The practice of the law is based absolutely on the theory of representation.  Under our system of Jurisprudence, stamped with the approval of many years, a person understands the law, and maintains his right thereunder only through his representative – his attorney.  Moreover, our judges and many of our legislators are recruited from the ranks of the legal profession.

    The advent of women into commerce, it is conceded, has added thereto a new, a different point of view – the woman’s way of looking at things – which it is difficult and sometimes impossible for the man to understand or represent.  It therefore becomes necessary that we have in the legal profession, not only minds trained in represent, but minds which have the woman’s point of view, themselves.

    The woman’s point of view having been added to, and become a salient factor of our commercial life, it must be represented in the Court Room, on the Bench and in our Legislative Halls, for thus only can our existing laws be construed to reconcile and harmonize so-called unessential yet keenly felt differences, and thus only can this added viewpoint find safe and proper expression, and deserved recognition.  So also, not only will systems introduced by man have been filled out and brought nearer to perfection, but there will be created an understanding between men and women, which has never existed before, for heretofore the security of our institutions has been considered the Home, because there alone was a community of interest and understanding.  How much then shall we add to this security by having this community of interest made universal.

    Who then can better represent woman than woman herself?  She alone can be the proper representative of the woman’s view, for she knows without learning and understands without mediation.

    Thus can women aid in the advancement of that principle which we hold to be self evident, that every woman has a God-given, inherent right to develop herself for Good – the good of herself and of her country.


Mab Copland Lineman,


Women Lawyers Club.


The other officers of the Women Layers Club of Los Angeles include:  Constance Leitch, vice-president; F. Josephine Stevenson, corresponding secretary; Lois Webb, recording secretary; Grade Brinck, treasurer; Armelia F. Johnson, auditor; and Elizabeth I. Kenney, parliamentarian. 


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    Law for women is still a field for pioneers.  However, within the last five years there has been a highly gratifying acceleration in the expansion of opportunities for preparation, application, and advancement.  This was in some measure due to the war-created demand for young women to replace the young men called from their desks, but inasmuch as the demand diminished appreciable upon the declaration of the Armistice, it cannot account for the continued interest which women are manifesting in the profession.  Suffrage does not account for it.   It is a part of the larger effort of women to become oriented in the modern society, a society in which, whether praised or condemned, the profession of law plays one of the vital parts. 

    It is fifty years since women first entered the law schools of this country.  The earliest record found of admission of any woman to the practice of law is that of Myra Bradwell, who was admitted by examination to the Illinois Bar in 1869.  Now women are eligible for admission in every state except Delaware.

    In the fifty-one years since the date of the earliest record, the total number of women admitted to the Bar as far as can be ascertained is 1,599, of whom a proximately less than one half are in the practice.  There have been one hundred and thirty women admitted to the practice of law in California up to the present time.

    The following are the names of the women attorneys, who are engaged in the practice of law in San Francisco, Oakland, and the northern part of the state:  Mrs. Annette Abbott Adams, Grade Arnold, Edna May Bayless, Mary A. Blass, Suzanne V. Bolles, Marion Weston Cottle, Ada Harvey, Mabel Dorn Hirst, Jane Hoyle, Mrs. W. Kahlert, Helen Kaufman, Gail Laughlin, Ethel Linney, Geraldine McCown, Charlotte McGregor, Theresa Meikle, Lucy Mount, Alma Myers, Caroline Nunlist, Esther Phillips, M. A. Ross, Frances Smith, Christena A. Turner, and Harriet P. Tyler of San Francisco; Lucile Bradley, Arline Cavins, Enid Childs, Helen Harris, Frances Jersen, Frances Wilson Kidd, Calla Matheson, Rosamond Parma, and Marguerite Shipman of Berkeley; Eloise Cushing, Anne Golver, Agnes Polsdorfer, and Bird Wilson of Oakland; Hedwig Engle, of Santa Cruz; Esta Broughton of Modesto; and Carol Rehfisch of Palo Alto.


Theresa Meikle

Secretary “The Queens Bench.”


Gail Laughlin, of San Francisco, is president of the Queens Bench.  Dr. Theresa Meikle is secretary and treasurer.


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Image of Margaret Mary Morgan





    The business of being a woman is precisely the same as the business of being a man.  A woman in business brings to it all the discernment, all the subtlety of attack endowed by her sex.

    In every business nowadays some branch, great or small, is left entirely in the hands of women.  This must be a wise provision, because today represents the utmost perfection in the history of business.  A few years ago a woman lawyer or a doctor was a matter for publicity.  Nowadays women take a hand in the politics of their community.

    Women lawyers are in almost every city and women doctors are legion.  Whether it be a change in the times or a change in the women, or both, we can not deny that the self-supporting woman is no small factor in the fabric of things.

    Then there is the side of what the woman gets out of it.  She gets a broader outlook of practical life.  She gets a confidence in her powers given a successful man – without, possibly, his arrogance.  She gets a philosophy of life to carry her through.  It never fails to dissect out her little narrowness --- never fails to overcome her shrinking lack of courage – never fails to endow her with an understanding of both sexes which cannot but help her in her own evolution and thus infinitely broaden her life.

    “There is no past that we need long to return to, there is only the eternally new”; the evolution of Mother Eve, of Helen, of Ruth, of Griselda, of Joan of Arc, or Priscilla, or of Becky Sharp finds expression in the modern professional woman, the woman of business.


Margaret Mary Morgan


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    The largest organization that we have is the Los Angeles County Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs with Miss Lloy Galpin as President.  That club is one of the biggest forces in the community there and has been largely instrumental in putting through the Women’s Athletic Club.  Miss Jane Humphreys who was the first President of our State Federation of Business Women’s Clubs, was the real organizing factor and it is through her influence that the Club has remained a strict democratic organization open to all the women of the city.  By the sheer force of her personality and will, she finished getting the necessary financial support during the year when the difficulties seemed almost insurmountable.  The financial depression, the last winter’s freeze, and the influenza gave it a terrible set back, but she succeeded in accomplishing what she set out to do, and Los Angeles has a splendid athletic club.

    The personnel of the various clubs are very interesting and varied.  In our local club we have farmers, lawyers, secretaries, librarians, teachers, and a number of women who own their own business such as the Peerless Ice Cream Company, the Leipsic Shoe Company, the Portable Garage Company, the Gift Shop, and Millinery.  The Stockton Club under the presidency of Dr. Goodman is increasing is membership very rapidly and this year they are emphasizing the support of a municipal camp at Silver Lake in the mountains.  They are giving a cottage to the camp and are not only contributing to its financial support, but helping build it as well.  The Chico Club is just a new organization that started last fall, but it is already a factor in the accomplishments of the town.  The Business Men’s organizations gave a day to planting trees on the highway and the Business Woman’s Club was called upon to serve lunch and cold drinks through out the day.  The Oakland Club has devoted most of its energy to securing and finishing clubrooms.  The Bakersfield Club which is also a new one to join our State Federation, is made up of younger business women and is largely social in nature; something that was very much needed in Bakersfield.  Each club has its own particular problems to work out, according to the locality and the community, but the spirit and enthusiasm is wonderful and will develop into a power for the advancement of the younger business girls in a very short time.

    Clubs affiliated with the California Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs and the number of members enrolled, respectively, including May 1922 are:


            Los Angeles Business Women’s Civic Club………………………………120

            Los Angeles Business Women’s Association……………………………… 80

            Pasadena Business and Professional Women’s Club………………………147

            Business Women’s Club of Sacramento…………………………………...109

            San Diego Business and Professional Women’s Club……………………..200

            Woman Lawyers’ Club of Los Angeles…………………………………  46

            Business and Professional Women’s Club, Oakland…………………..…..160

            Woman’s Forum, San Francisco…………………………………………...100

            Woman’s Osteopathic Club, Los Angeles…………………………………   57

            Business and Professional Women’s Club, San Francisco…………………330

            Women’s Advertising Club, Los Angeles………………………………….  40

            Long Beach Business and Professional Women’s Club…………………  42

            Faculty Women’s Club of University of California, Southern Division…. .. 50

            Adelphian Club of the Y.W.C.A. of Los Angeles………………………….. 50

            Schoolwomen’s Time to Time Club….…………………………………….132

            Business Woman’s Forum, Oakland………………………………………..  26

            Business and Professional Women’s Club of 1st Baptist Church of

                        San Francisco…………………..…………………………………… 30

            Business and Professional Women’s Club of Stockton….…………………. 54

            Business and Professional Women’s Club of Bakersfield.…………………. 84

            Business Women’s Club of Chico……………………..…………………… 77

            Secretarial Association of Los Angeles……………..……………………… 30


                                    Total, 21 clubs, with a total membership of ………………. 1964


Susan T. Smith,



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Image of Clotilde Grunsky






San Francisco



Miss Clothilde Grunsky, 531 Rialto Building………………………….……..President

Miss A. M. Alexander, Bank of California……………………………...Vice-President

Mrs. Estelle V. Walker, 1207 Hobart Building……………………………….Secretary

Miss Grace H. Sweeney, 710 Hearst Building………………………..………Treasurer

Miss Ida J. Lord, Wellington Sears Co., Postal Telegraph Building………….Auditor



Miss Fail Laughlin                     Miss Lenore Dolcini                              Mrs. W. D. Kohwey

Miss Lillian Palmer                                                                                Miss Z. Clements


    The Business and Professional Women’s Club of San Francisco was started in 1916, by a small group of business women who believed that there was need in San Francisco for such an organization, devoted to the interests of women in business.  For some time the club met weekly at luncheon at some one of the restaurants of the city, listening to speakers on topics of interest or transacting business as the case may be.  Miss Lillian Palmer, proprietor of the Palmer Shop, San Francisco, was the first president and one of the founders.  Under her leadership the club greatly increased its membership and in 1919 secured its own quarters at 54 Kearny Street, where for some time the weekly luncheons were served and the club quite happily carried on its activities.  It soon outgrew its headquarters, however, and in 1920 moved to its present commodious rooms at 575 Market Street.  Miss Margaret M. Morgan, Manager of Walter N. Brunt, printers, was the second president of the club, leaving the chair at the end of her second term under the pressure of her outside duties as the first woman supervisor of San Francisco.

    The club at the present time has a membership of nearly three hundred and fifty.  Daily luncheons are served to members and their guests at the clubrooms, where also the weekly meetings are held, either at dinner or lunch, at which speakers of prominence are enjoyed.  Study classes formed from among the membership have the use of the rooms on other evenings.  A recent activity undertaken by the club is the formation of vocational groups made up of women in similar lines of business who meet together regularly to discuss topics of common interest.  A survey of women in San Francisco in executive positions in various business and professional fields is now under way.  Believing that upon the businesswomen of the community must fall the burden of advising those who think of entering similar work, vocational placement work has been initiated in a small way.  Under the leadership of the club, a Business Girls’ Club has been formed to meet the needs of the office worker and now meets regularly in the clubrooms.  Study sections are now being formed under leading businesswomen to undertake the study of problems of civic interest particularly affecting women.  Among the subjects to be taken up are: Legislation of Interest to Women; The Housing Problem for the Business Woman, Social Service and Employment.  The club has been most active in the support of charitable work, being responsible for the adoption of fourteen babies during the recent campaign of the Associated Charities, as well as making substantial contributions in money to this and other worthy causes.

    Any business woman of San Francisco, either in independent business or service in an executive capacity in the company with which she is employed, is eligible to membership, pending her acceptance by the club.  The organization is a member of the State Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs.


Clotilde Grunsky


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Los Angeles


Mrs. Lloy Galpen, 314 W. Adams………………………………………..……President

Florence Shindler, Baker Apartments……………………………….…..Past President

Alice Quill, 740 S. Broadway…………………………………………….…….Secretary

Clara J. Erickson, H. W. Hellman Bldg., care J. Harvey McCarthy……….Treasurer

Lulu Hove Stephson, City Hall, Pasadena……………………………….……..Auditor



Jane C. Humphreys, Federation Estension         Elizabeth Hill, Legislative

Elizabeth Hill, Entertainment                              Winifred Hausom, Vocational


    The Los Angeles County Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs has developed cooperation among women heretofore largely unorganized.  Unwittingly, man has been taking away woman’s individual work, thereby lessening her responsibility in the home.  He has placed a commercial value on what heretofore has been measured by love and duty.  The centralizing of work has had its economic and social advantages far beyond the hardships it has caused the few who have not been able to adjust themselves to the rapid changes.  Necessity caused women to go out of the home to work.  The more daring ones sacrificed public opinion and ventured into new occupations and professions.  As the few succeeded, the many crowded into the new-old occupations and professions.  The economic changes have been so great, that both men and women, in their effort to pile up worldly goods have lost sight of their civic and social responsibility.  Money seems to be the medium of measurement of every vision.

    To the pioneers of early club life among business and professional women, the constant measurement by money values was very discouraging and the only way to change this point of view was to bring together women of all occupations and professions on a common ground of human needs – human needs which each and every woman could understand and take to herself and use for the good of all.

    This was tried out in a small way in the Business Woman’s Civic Club, which has a club presidents’ council as an advisor for its executive board.

    In the spring of 1919, a proposed National Federation was presented to business and professional women’s clubs throughout the country.  The clubs in Los Angeles were ready for a bigger field of cooperation and were glad of the opportunity presented.

    It seemed to the pioneer clubwomen here that the best way to serve a National Federation was to organize a County Federation.  This feeling of greater cooperation locally spread and resulted in the Los Angeles County Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs.

    From a beginning of six club members, it has extended to fourteen and at present includes the following clubs: Adelphian Club of Los Angeles, Jessie C. Skewes, president; Business Woman’s Civic Club of Los Angeles, Dr. Maud Wilde, president; Home Economics Association of Pasadena, Ruth Dickey, president; Los Angeles Business Women’s Association, Docia A. Conley, president; Professional Women’s Club of Los Angeles, Ida Viola Wells, president; Progressive Household Club of Los Angeles, Hattie Kirbis, president; Time to Time Club of Los Angeles, Ethel Masters, president; Women’s Advertising Club of Los Angeles, Mrs. L. E. Eckels, president; Women Lawyers Club of Los Angeles, Mab C. Lineman, president; Women’s Faculty Club of Los Angeles, Orabel Chilton, president; Women’s Osteopathic Club of Los Angeles, Dr. Daisy D. Hayden, president; Glendale Business and Professional Women’s Club, Mrs. M. I. Biggs, president, Long Beach Business and Professional Women’s Club, Maomi Tompkins, president; Pasadena Business and Professional Women’s Club, F. Josephine Stevenson, president.

    The launching of the Women’s Athletic Club is the accomplishment of its first two years of work and it is now promoting a Vocational Alliance as a clearing house for all women’s vocational activities.

    Organization is typically American as a procedure for the accomplishment of social progress and this new group hopes to be of service to the larger community of which it is a part to the end that southern California may enrich and ennoble its life.


Lloy Galpin


Page 179

Image of Dr. Gwladys Morgan






San Diego




Dr. Gwladys Morgan, 3768 Eighth Street………………………...…………..President

Mrs. Jeanette P. Townsend, 1136 Twenty-second street…..…...….First Vice-President

Nellie C. Parsons, 1038 Second Street………………………..…Second Vice-President

Theresa E. Kruse, 2740 Granada Avenue…………….….………Recording Secretary

Mrs. Lillian M. Gabbs, 1463 Tenth Street………………..…Corresponding Secretary

Lena M. Port, 4239 Cleveland Avenue……………………………...………..Treasurer



Margaret E. O’Connell             Jennie Sherk                          Mrs. David A. Fraser


    The Business and Professional Women’s Club of San Diego is, as its name indicates, an association of business and professional women.  It has about two hundred and forty members.  Its membership represents a great variety of professions and lines of business.  It is proud to number among its members, women who stand at the top in their chosen work.  There are nurses, doctors, librarians, bookkeepers and accountants, musicians, stenographers, clerks, buyers, teachers and welfare workers.  All of these women are “actively and primarily engaged in a profession or in the management or pursuit of a business.”

    The club meets at luncheon on the first and third Wednesdays of the month and at dinner on the second and fourth Wednesdays.  When a fifth Wednesday occurs, an evening party is given.  These parties, as well as other smaller functions, give the members and opportunity for the social companionship which is essential for the busy women who is employed all day.  At the luncheons and dinners varied programs are provided.  It is not possible for the members to live all lives, as Shakespeare is said to have done, but they, through the speakers, can vicariously enjoy and appreciate all lives.  They can see through other eyes, the beauties of all lands; they can feel the thrill of adventure of the traveler, the glow of accomplishment of the portrait painter or the musician.  They can feel the charm of the writer and the inspiration of the earnest worker in the common work of every day.  The club tries to establish, through its programs, the line of contact with business and professional women of the world.  It seeks to broaden the horizon that even the busy woman may find happiness and enrichment in her own life as well as in the development of a consciousness of world life.  The club is hoping to have its own rooms so that there will be a greater comradeship among the members.  It hopes also, to establish a Vocational Placement Bureau, which will be of great interest to the club and of great service to the community.

    The club stands for the biggest and best for women and its women try to be worthy of that standard.


Gwladys Morgan,



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Image of Miss Geneve Shaffer





    Whether the passing of women suffrage chronicled the advent of a vast increase in the number of women in business.  I would hesitate to say, but certainly women are holding executive positions hitherto considered the exclusive and inalienable province of man.  They are here to stay.

    Perhaps it is woman’s singleness of purpose, her concentration, and the fact that, in most cases, she works harder that pushes her ahead in spite of opposition.  We have heard over and over again that some girl takes the place of two or more male office help, who have unexpectedly left, before she is even noticed as other than a bit of office machinery.  Then the head of the firm cannot fail to appreciate that she is an important member of the office force, usually in spite of his unwilling belief.  He is forced reluctantly to admit that it would be cheaper to keep her and pay her a trifle more than to keep on “hiring and firing” the usual run of restless, and undependable male clerks.

    She is like an unnoticed understudy to a big star.  One day some vital transaction comes up, the executive is out, no one knows what to do.  Consternation reigns, loe and behold, without any fuss or feathers “Miss Jones” has done it so well that everyone gets to depending upon her.  Now what thing, feminine, could resist the stimulation of her innate mother instinct of having someone who needs her help, depending upon her?

    Soon it is found “good business” to relieve her of the detail that has been heaped upon her (and it is put off on the shoulders of some slavey who needs the heat of work to bring her out of the chrysalis) while she does the work that she can do better than anyone else in the office.  Why? Because she knows more about it than anyone else in the office and is truly and completely interested.

    Let me here dispel an illusion that has been with us ever since the days of Adam.  Let me whisper it, as it is dangerous to tell a big truth out loud.  It makes such a noise to explode an old theory.  “Women can keep a secret.”  Yes, I have it from many big officials and men of affairs.  Just ask any executive about his faithful private secretary, or confidential office woman, who has been with the firm for years.

    To be sure, on the other hand, no doubt, it is woman’s long training in gossip, used primarily to entertain and hold the changeable male, that makes her so successful in the field of novel and scenario writing, journalism and advertising, but when she is put in a position of trust, the right kind of woman, never goes back on those who believe in her.

    Many social leaders have made a success in business because they have given themselves (unconsciously to be sure) wonderful training in the right way of meeting people, the remembering of names and faces, and they have schooled themselves to think quickly in any emergency.

    I thought all the women who did not want to be actresses wanted to be real estate operators, but after my experience in journalism I found out that there were just as many who wanted to be journalists, so it is merely woman’s demand for self-expression.  Whether she is carrying out this thought quietly by creating a home and being a mother, or by building up a business and mothering her ideas to fruition, the quality of self-expression is paramount.  It is part of her very being and she cannot help but be successful – it is born in her.


Miss Geneve Shaffer


Page 181

Image of Mrs. May A. Fitzpatrick





    When a moving picture director wishes to show a conference of business executives, he invariably gathers a number of imposing gentlemen (of the golf-course age and breadth of waistcoat) about a well-polished and spacious table.

    As a matter of fact, a modern assemblage of business executives is not complete without a fair representation of the “gentler sex.”  The modern “ad man,” at least, is usually a woman!

    Today in San Francisco and Los Angeles women executives expend practically all the advertising appropriations of the larger stores.  Every kind of business is coming gradually within the scope of the woman-advertising manager.

    Miss Mary B. Ennis, “ad man” of the Emporium, San Francisco, was one of our first and most picturesque examples of woman’s success in the advertising field.  Miss Ennis also had the unique distinction of being the first woman director of an Advertising Club in America.

    Mrs. B. F. Woerner, formerly of Sacramento, is advertising manager of the White House, Mrs. Georgie Ashford has charge of the City of Paris publicity, Miss Helen Coleman of Magnin’s, Miss Louise Norvell of Livingston Bros., Mrs. Gertrude Brady-Murphy of Willard’s, Mrs. Allie Harris of O’Connor, Moffatt & Co., Mrs. M. Blynn of H. Liebes & Co., Mrs. Christine Acker of Sterling Furniture Company; Mrs. Emily Harvey of Rosenthal’s; and Mrs. E. K. Finch of S. & G. Gump & Co.

    In Los Angeles there are nearly half a hundred women advertising writers and many directors.  Miss Florence Shindler has written the advertising for Desmond’s Men ‘s Furnishing House for a number of years.  Mrs. Lulu Echels and Miss Bayly share the responsibility of Hamburger’s Publicity – and, in fact, many other prominent Los Angeles stores, and at least one bank, have placed women in charge of their publicity departments during the last few years.

    A successful advertising manager must have thorough knowledge of the basic principles of business – as well as a workable understanding of art, typography, and human nature.  The fact that women are proving themselves so well qualified as advertising directors is conclusive evidence that they can and will succeed in any field toward which they may direct their energies.


Mrs. May A. Fitzpatrick


Page 183

Image of Mrs. Lulu Eckels




Los Angeles


    The Women’s Advertising Club of Los Angeles is one of the pioneer professional women’s clubs of the city.  It began in the earlier days of the city’s business life with a very small nucleus of members and with the advent of more and more women into the advertising field, the growth of the city and its commercial activities, the club has rapidly expanded.  Statistics show that a large percentage of the workers connected with advertising in Los Angeles – directly or indirectly – are women. 

    Perhaps to a further degree than in other cities, Los Angeles has been extremely generous to women in the unusual branches of advertising.  Among the members of the club are women who hold enviable positions as bank publicity advisors – as directors of advertising for churches – as advertising managers of some of the largest specialty and department stores of the city.  One of the members was instrumental in compiling statistics of inestimable value regarding the “pulling power” of certain national advertising campaigns for the Carnegie Institute.

    Other advertising women have originated and have kept together by their ingenuity and personality “shopping” columns for the various newspapers.  One of the country’s few advertising agencies composed exclusively of women is a prosperous and growing concern in Los Angeles.  Not only in the way of copy preparation, but also along art lines, women are closely allied to the city’s most successful advertising campaigns.

    The club’s business meetings are held bi-monthly with club dinners once a month at which time prominent men and women are speakers.

    Many of those who have appeared as speakers before the club are nationally famous in the advertising world and their addresses have been both enlightening and stimulating.  The club is on a co-footing with the Men’s Advertising Club of Los Angeles.  In welcoming famous men and women who come to Los Angeles the two clubs often act as joint host and hostess.  Numbering advertising women exclusively as members, the club endeavors in every way to bring before the meetings every factor that will mean the growth of each and every member along advertising lines.

Lulu E. Eckels


Page 184

Image of Fannie H. McG. Williams, D. D. S.




San Francisco


    The Soroptimist Club of San Francisco is an organization comprising active business and professional women, the membership being limited to one representative from each profession or business.  Charter members numbering one hundred and five from the varied business and professional fields launched the club under auspicious beginnings at the initial dinner given at the St. Francis Hotel.

    Mrs. Jack Holt, one of the founders of the club, was the toastmaster introducing as speakers: Annie Laurie, Victor Herbert, Edward Rainey and William Levings, of the Chamber of Commerce.  Musical numbers were given by Madame Louise Brehany who introduced her pupil Harriet Bennett, brilliant singer.  Mrs. Margaret Medbury, secretary of the Soroptimist Club, Miss Ester Robinson, Miss Jean Parker McEwen, Mrs. James Wilkins, Madame Jouillin, Mrs. Marie A. Burtchaell, Mrs. Daisy Prechtel, Mrs. Mary E. Stewart, Miss Eva Robinson, Miss Geneve Shaffer, Miss Katherine Livingstone, Mrs. Elizabeth Church, Miss Maud Muller, Miss Ryan, and Mrs. Clara Ward, the first vice-president, and Mrs. Stella Donovan, assisted in welcoming the guests.

    Miss Ida F. McCain, Mrs. Maud M. Blair, Miss Dolores Denechaud, Miss Emma Buckley, Mrs. Carol C. Rhodes, Miss Ruth O. Pierson, Miss Cecil Watkins, Miss Emily Corkill, Mrs. Louise C. Mandler, Dr. Catherine Schumacher, Mrs. Gladys M. Perrin, Mrs. Jessie B. Mallery, Mrs. Florence Wellington, Miss Margaret E. Christen, Miss Ethel Suhl, Pauline Schaefer Eckman, D. D. S., Mary Mentzer, M. D., Mrs. Jessie W. Sheehan, Edith W. Edmondson, D. C., N. D., Mrs. Katherine Abben, Miss Dolly Hyams, Miss Clara Scott, Madame Emelie le Doux, Mrs. Elsie Hoeflinch, Madame Marie Taff, Mrs. Lillie F. Chalmers, Miss Mary McKay, Miss Mary Smith, Mrs. Ida M. Haley, Miss Matilde Kahn, Mrs. Ruby von Schmelling, Mrs. Caroline G. Jones, Mrs. Irene Jules, Miss Mary J. Tilden, Mrs. Margaret S. Wilbur, Dr. Rideout, Harriet M. Gillespie, Mrs. Opal Keck, Madeline E. Johns, M. D., Mrs. Evelyn Sresovichson Ware, Mrs. Sara H., Heine, Miss Anna Tara, Miss Ida Tara, Mrs. Laura H. Johnson, Miss Laura Kennedy, Mrs. Cora Muller, Mrs. Etta J. Guyett, Miss Florence Barclay, Mrs. Flora Bennett, Madame Maria C. Marin, Miss Genieve Colman, Avis C. Eaton, A. B., M. D., Miss Eva Robinson, Mrs. Ida Chernoff, Mrs. Ella M. Gilbert, were among the charter members who aided in launching the splendid opening event of the club of active business and professional women.

    That the San Francisco Soroptimist Club may live as a monument of woman’s intelligent service to humanity is my earnest wish.  There is but one thing that could mar the club’s future and that is the inactivity of intelligent women, and one of the great factors in its success is a perfect understanding of true service as given in the Golden Rule; All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them.

    Soroptimist Clubs based on the principals of the Men’s Rotary Clubs have been formed in various parts of the State.  Oakland has a large organization.  Los Angeles now has an organization.


Fannie H. McG. Williams, D.D.S.,



Page 185






    Unusual vocations for women reveal a rare diversity of business enterprises.  They acclaim the value of feminine acquisition and point in unmistakable terms to leaders of superlative ability in whatever may be their chosen field.  Mrs. Freda Ehmann, president of the Ehmann Olive Company, is pronouncedly one of those leaders.  Long ago she led in pioneer olive planning in her district and prepared the way for one of California’s best-known producing enterprises.  Interesting historical references bring to mind the planting of the olive trees by the padres to the industrial and commercial importance they now maintain.  The olive industry in California from the time of its incipiency to the high development it has now attained contributes interesting data in the history of horticulture.  The belief of Mrs. Ehmann in the value of the olive as a commodity, as well as a luxury for the table, has been part of the commercial development of fruits within the confines of the state.  It is, furthermore, the story of a woman’s enterprise and business ability. 

    Women, who of their own elective preference “start something” have a distinctive place in the business work.

    Miss California Gibson, or “Miss California” as her neighbors know her, has the full management of the J. S. Gibson Company’s half million-dollar ranch, three miles northwest of Williams, in Colusa County.  She controls a ranch with its section in rice, its model one hundred acre alfalfa field, its $10,000 machine shop and a herd of 120 registered Holstein-Fresians.

    As a girl, Miss Gibson was given broad, social opportunities, but when circumstances placed her in possession of the 2,177-acre property she took full charge of everything connected with it.  At the present time the University of California has a representative on the Gibson ranch checking the records of cows in the herd that are under test for prize milk production.

    On January 28, 1922, Miss Gibson was appointed a director of the $15,000,000 Glenn-Colusa Irrigation District.  Her appointment was made by the Board of Supervisors in Colusa County.  As one of the three directors Miss Gibson has the great responsibility for the successful management of the 103,000 acres of land in the two countries and the welfare of the towns of Colusa, Willows, Maxwell, Williams, Hamilton and many other smaller villages.

    Miss Annie M. Alexander and Miss Kellogg comprise the firm of Alexander & Kellogg, Suisun, and own one of the finest herds of Dairy Shorthorn cattle in California, and one of the finest in the United States.  Miss Alexander is a sister of Wallace M. Alexander of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce.  The Alexander & Kellogg place is one of the islands near Suisun.

    Mrs. Harry V. Bridgford, wife of Harry Bridgford of the Bridgford Holstein Company of  Patterson, California, is one of the most expert pedigree students in California.  Mrs. Bridgford is also a breeder of Kentucky saddle horses.  Mrs. Julia Shafter Hamilton, of Point Reyes, is one of the foremost Ayrshire (dairy cattle) breeders and fanciers in the state.  Her herd is one of the largest in California.  Miss Mary Holdridge, of San Jose, is a widely known breeder of Holstein-Fresian (dairy) cattle.  Mrs. Mario Fortini is an owner of Jersey cattle.  She is known as a Jersey expert and has set her aim in the direction of the American or large type of Jerseys, rather than the original Island type.  Mrs. Annie Donders, Fresno, has one of the best herds of Holstein-Fresian cattle in San Joaquin Valley.  Miss Annie Wood is one of the noted breeders of Toggenburg goats in California.  Her place is at Pasadena.

    Mrs. Lindley is the active head of Lindley & Company, wholesale grocers of Sacramento.  She was on the city council of Sacramento; Mrs. R. L. Craig was for years head of the wholesale grocery house of R. L. Craig & Company of Los Angeles.

    The pigeon business is a novel occupation followed by a woman who started with a one-acre ranch between the two canyons at the foot of Mt. Lowe in the suburbs of Pasadena.  Her business has grown from a flock of thirty-six pigeons to one numbering practically four thousand.  She started in with the Homer pigeon.  Then later began to supply squabs for the Pullman Company and large hotels.

    Up in the high Sierra, in the town of Truckee, near Lake Tahoe, is a Butterfly Farm managed and directed entirely by a woman known as “The Butterfly Girl.

    So far as is known, there are few people in America, except scientists, who attempt to raise and breed butterflies for the market.  It remained for Miss Ximena McGlashan, a California girl, to catch the winged jewels and to start a farm for raising butterflies.  During her first experience of ten weeks, Miss McGlashan cleared $500 raising and selling butterflies.  That was several years ago.  Since then she has correspondents all over this country and in Europe.  As for her markets, a scientist of the worldwide reputation takes everything she can raise or catch paying a flat sum for every specimen.

    “No capital is required,” says this original girl.  “The work is interesting and so light that a child can do every part of it, and there are millions of dollars in the business.”

    From butterfly farm to the banking world is a flight, but in the amount of human energy and thought expended the vocations are not, after all, so variant.  For the banking world holds out to women the same opportunity for concentrated work, and calls upon the facilities for practically the same kind of devotion, that of intelligent application and the feminine point of view.

    Foremost in the banking world stands the name of that pioneer in the woman’s sphere – Mrs. Phebe M. Rideout.  Her grasp of finance surpassed the understanding of her time.

    In writing of banking Mrs. Rideout once said: “Although banking is not an occupation for which women are especially fitted, there are of course among women, as among men,


Page 186


persons who either start with natural ability in financial matters, or fall heir to responsibilities which they must learn to carry, and carry successfully.  Banking as a profession, it is needless to say, contains great interest and fascination.”

    Mrs. Rideout, a director in a number of banks in California, succeeded her late husband in the varied business interests in which he was engaged during the formative period of California’s commercial and banking industries.

    Many of California’s capable women are now successfully engaged in the business of banking in the capacity of assistant cashiers, heads of the woman’s departments, secretaries, or in the other departments formerly filled exclusively by men.  In San Francisco, the women in the banking world in the several departments include, in alphabetical order, Miss A. M.  Alexander, Bank of California; Miss Gladys M. Adams, Bank of Italy; Margaret P. Beetz, Mertantile Trust Company; Miss M. A. Cairns, Merchants’ Trust Company; Miss Anne Featherstone, Liverty Bank; Mrs. E. D. Knight, Bank of Italy; Miss Caroline Nunlist, Bond Department Union Savings Branch of the Mercantile Trust Company; Miss Hulda B. Pass, Anglo-California Trust Company; Miss Alice A. Wright, First National Bank.

    In an article written by Miss Bessie Beatty, she has described a “Woman Behind Magic Initials,” in this way:  “Gilt-lettered upon the doors of half a dozen handsome offices in the Russ Building is the same inscription M. V. B. Mac Adam Co., Inc., Real Estate, Insurance, Loans.

    “The signs give no hint of the identity of M. V. B. Mac Adam, and so far as the imposing steel safe in the outer office and the metal Real Estate Board Membership card hanging on the letter file, will tell you, M. V. B.  MacAdam might be exactly like any other businessman on Montgomery Street.

    “But she isn’t.  She is a woman.”

    The MacAdam Company, today, has offices in the Holbrook Building with a peninsula branch office under the management of Mr. Harry Francis Cavis.  Mrs. MacAdam is a member of an old New York family.  Her name was Victoria Brocklebank.  She knew nothing of business life when she first came to California on a pleasure trip in 1900.  She is a member of the exclusive organization of Colonial Dames and of the Daughters of the American Revolution.  By lineal decent she is a member of the Society of the Nobility (“Societe de Noblesse”).  She is the only woman member of the San Francisco Real Estate Board and the only active member of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce.

    Miss Jean Hudson, unofficially a sergeant major, now stationed at the Presidio, San Francisco is the only women field clerk in the United States army.

    An interesting story is told of Mrs. Elizabeth Church, well known for her charming home portraitures of society leaders, debutantes and Mardi Gras queens.

    It seems that she took a vacation trip from her post as society editor of the Honolulu Evening Bulletin to visit San Francisco.  The San Francisco Chronicle immediately engaged her services to assist in editing the society columns.  While meeting the fashionable women of San Francisco and posing them for their pictures, her talent for portraiture work was discovered and she opened a fascinating studio in the building formerly occupied by the Francisca Club.  Her business is now an acknowledged success.

    Among the women publishers of California are a number of straight-thinking women.  Many of them are writers on the staff of the dailies, and are publishing books, magazines and newspapers.

    Alice Harriman, of the Pacific Coast, now of Los Angeles stands out conspicuously as the first woman to take up the business of book publication.  She started on a very small scale and then went to New York City where her name as a book publisher became known from coast to coast.  Mrs. Harriman is of the feminine type combining charm of personality and business ability.

    Women in the newspaper business as publishers and editors in California include:  Mrs. S. S. Boynton, president of the Register Company, Oroville “Register” daily; Mrs. Edythe Dungan, editor and publisher of the Oroville “Mercury” daily; Mary Schillinger, editor and publisher of the Colfax “Record”; Mrs. W. S. Green, editor of the Colusa “Sun” daily; Miss Catherine Burke, editor and publisher of the Concord “Transcript”; Mrs. Katherine Tingley, editor and publisher of the “Theosophical Path,” Pt. Loma; Mrs. George A. Oakes, publisher of the Hayward “Journal”; Elizabeth R. Douglas, editor and publisher of the Mill Valley “Record”; Dorothy D. Lawrence, editor of the Paso Robles “Press”; Etta Dittman, editor of the Reedley “Ledger”; Verna Gates Hosfeldt, editor of the Rialto “Record”; Misses Downing, editors and publishers of the Santa Clara “Journal”; Susie Piersen Mitchell, editor publisher of the “Veteran Enterprise” Sawtelle; Miss Ethel G. McDaniels, editor and publisher of the Templeton “Advance”; Miss Z. Clements and Miss L. Palmer, editors of “The Business Woman,” and Jessica Lee Briggs, associate editor; Mrs. Lucille Lapachet, publisher; and Mrs. Z. Kathleen Ayers, advertising manager, “The Business Woman.”


Page 188

Image of Mrs. Frederick H. Colburn








Mrs. Frederick H. Colburn, 737 Sutter……………………………….………President

Mrs. William Harold Wilson, Fairmont Hotel………………………….Vice-President

Mrs. Mary Lenfox, 691 Post………………  …………………...………Secretary

Mrs. May C. Lassen, Hotel Regent…………….……….……Corresponding Secretary

Mrs. William Major Collins, 2701 Larkin………………………..………….Treasurer




Mrs. Annette Abbot Adams                  Mrs. Percy King                  Mrs. Jules Alexander

Mrs. M. E. Dittman                              Mrs. Bradford Woodbridge

Miss De Neale Morgan                        Mrs. William Beckman     Miss Josephine Blanch



    One of the newest of the women’s organizations in California was formed during the Bankers’ Convention in Del Monte, May 1922, the nucleus of the new society being part of the research work followed by California women of prominence in the world of literature, geology and in historical attainment.

    Eventually there will be a representative of the society in every county and city of northern California.  It is intended to co-operate closely with the Lassen Volcanic National Park Association in making the wonders of the volcanic area known throughout the world.  To do this effectively the Landmarks Department of the State Federation of Women’s Clubs will be asked to assist and so will the Native Daughters of the Golden West, the Automobile, the Hotel and Good Roads Associations.  It is planned to have a series of talks given, both with and without illustrations, before the various women’s organizations.  In short, a campaign in education very much needed to make the average Californian familiar with the fascinating history of our volcanic territory.  The well educated and traveled native-born knows not only the geographical features of Mt. Vesuvius and Kilauea, but their myth, their legends, and local stories.  Many of these same people however, are profoundly ignorant of the scenic values of Mt. Lassen.  This situation is neither to our credit nor our profit.  The society just formed will make a determined effort to rectify this error and to place before the peoples of the world – something historical and geographical concerning our own wonderful California mountain whose volcanic eruptions have incited the interest of the world.

    Within the past few years, Mt. Lassen has aroused universal concern among scientists, geologists and students of the relative sciences, because of the eruptions of Mt. Lassen.

    The cry: “Mt. Lassen is in action!” spread like the molten fire which poured from the mouth of the crater, from city to city, throughout the entire civilized world.  Many famous scientists hastened to the cities in the Mt. Lassen district.  The world at large was interested, for the mountain which had for years and years been inert, suddenly burst into flowing fire, its hot black lava spreading over the surrounding lands and instilling something strange into the very atmosphere.

    The women of California have long been interested in the scientific causes of volcanic eruptions and when Mt. Lassen, the “picturesque Mt. Lassen” suddenly burst into action there was a new note in the very air.  It was my special privilege to see Mt. Lassen in action – and I never expect to see anything more imposing or mystifying.  It was a realization of my dream come true, for I had always said that this mountain was a sleeping volcano which would some day awake.  It did, and the sight of it was marvelous.


    Our school children should know more about this great California volcano.  It is by far more wonderful in its historical and geological values than any other active volcano in the world, today.

Mrs. Frederick H. Colburn.



Transcribed by Pat Houser.

Proofread by Betty Vickroy.



© 2005 Nancy Pratt Melton

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