HMS Leviathan

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Leviathan, 1790
Type: 3rd rate ; Armament 74
Launched : 9 Oct 1790 ; Disposal date or year : 1848
BM: 1707 tons
Complement: 634

Apr / May 1793 departed under the command of Captain Hon. Hugh Seymour Conway, as a part of a squadron for the Mediterranean Fleet, then to be based off Toulon.

Jul 1793 captured the French privateer Vrai Patriot in the Mediterranean.

2 May - 1 Jun 1794 Departure of the Channel Fleet from St. Helen's, and the lead up to actions and manoeuvres with the French fleet. 19 May 1794 Covered frigates looking into Brest Roads. 28 May 1794, Engaged the Révolutionnaire. 29 May - 1 Jun., what was to be known as the Battle of the Glorious 1st June commences, resulting in the capture of six sail of the line and one sunk. Review of the part performed by each British ship engaged. 13 Jun, the fleet arrived back in home ports.

7-21 Sep 1794 the Channel Fleet departed from Torbay to cruise off the coast of France, but as a result of bad weather returned to Torbay.

14 Feb 1795 the Channel fleet departed from Torbay for a brief cruise and to see various convoys safe out of the Channel.

21 Mar 1796 St.-Domingo, W.I., a squadron, including the Leviathan, Captain John Thomas Duckworth, arrived off town of Léogane with troops, with a view to reducing the area, which was found to be too strongly defended and the Leviathan had been so seriously damaged in her masts and yards in supporting the assault that she had to go to Jamaica to refit.

21 Mar 1796 in company with the Swiftsure, Leviathan, Africa, Ceres, Severn, Iphigenia, Cormorant, Lark, Le Serin, and Marie Antoinette, at the capture of the schooner Charlotte and Brig Sally.

4 Jun 1797, Plymouth Dock, The Times reports that a Midshipman was reputedly drummed ashore by the crew for ill-behaviour to them.

7 Nov 1798 a part of a squadron which arrived this day for the invasion of Minorca.

13 Nov 1798 off Minorca the Leviathan, Centaur, and Argo, along with some armed transports, chase a fast disappearing Spanish squadron, but re-capture the late British sloop Peterel, taken the previous day.

19 Nov 1798, off Fournelles, with the Centaur, Calcutta, Ulysses, Argo, Cormorant, Aurora, Peterell, and cutter Constitution, Lieutenant Whiston, letter sent by Commodore J. T. Duckworth to Flag Officer reporting his support of the Army during the capture of Minorca which commenced on 7 Nov.

6 Feb 1799 Argo captured the Spanish frigate Santa-Teresa, whilst in company with the Leviathan 74, near Majorca. The Santa-Teresa was subsequently purchased into the service.

30 May 1799 joined the fleet in the Mediterranean off the Spanish coast, but detached that day to reinforce Lord Nelson at Palermo.

7 Jun 1799 joined Nelson's squadron off Palermo.

13 Jun-mid Aug 1799 departed from off Palermo for a cruise, arriving Naples 24th, where crews were involved in operations ashore.

5-7 Apr 1800 captured the Spanish frigates Carmen and Florentina, which were purchased into the Service, and merchant vessels from a convoy.

Circa Jul 1800 problems with neutral states and a diplomatic breakdown involving the Danish 40-gun 18-pounder frigate Freya and her convoy. See also Naval Chronicle, vol 4, p 157.

27 Oct 1800 off Martinique.

Twixt 30 Dec 1800 and 16 Jan 1801 the packet Leicester arrived at Martinique, from Barbadoes, where the Leviathan was about to sail, destination unknown, and the Aimable, Severn and Hornet were at anchor.

Circa 11 Feb 1801 the Lady Arabella packet, Capt Portens, departed Barbadoes for Martinique where the Venus, Gaité, Arab and Calcutta were lying, she then proceeded to Dominica, where she found the Tamar and reportedly the Gaité again. The latter then accompanied her to Antigua, and in the process recaptured a schooner and sloop which had been taken by a French privateer, which had also captured an English letter of marque. The Leviathan was at Antigua, which sailed shortly after her arrival. The packet then departed for St. Kitt's where she found the Hornet, with the Southampton and Arab, the latter convoying the packet to Tortola, and sailed for England on 6 Mar, where she arrived on 3 Apr.

10 Mar 1801 at Martinique, with Adm. Duckworth's flag.

16 Mar 1801 departed Barbadoes with the Leviathan, Andromeda, Unité, Drake, Hornet, Fanny, armed brig, L'Eclair, schooner, and Alexandria, tender, with 1,500 troops for Grand Saline Bay, St. Bartholomew. Following their arrival, circa 20th, at St. Bartholomew, the Andromeda and Alexandria were detached to St. Thomas's to watch for any reaction to the landings at St. Bartholomew. The Coromandel arrived with the 2nd West India regiment on the 23rd, and a convoy with reinforcements arrived from England on the 24th, under the command of the Proselyte. The Hornet and Fanny, armed brig, were sent to the main harbour in the Island to detain a number of French privateers etc., before the armistice was signed, but they weren't able to get into position to perform the task and even after a chase of 24 hours were unable to detain any of the vessels concerned.

25 Mar 1801 leaving sufficient troops and the Proselyte, Hornet, and Drake to defend the island the rest of the troops were embarked and the squadron departed for St Thomas's on the 26th. The Unité was to be detached with the prisoners to Martinique.

27 Mar 1801 at sea, reported to the Admiralty the successful capture of the West Indian island of St. Bartholomew, and the departure to St. Thomas's with a convoy of troops etc. to attempt the capture of that island.

30 Mar 1801 off St Thomas, prepared to land the troops with the aid of the Andromeda, and Alexandria marking the landing place, but before landing the troops advised the French regarding the strength of our force and whether they would be prepared to capitulate under suitable terms, which was agreed, thus avoiding the need for a dangerous or difficult landing etc. for the troops. This time the vessels in the harbour were unable to escape following a blockade enforced by the Southampton, Diana, and Amphitrite, and, thus, an 18 gun brig, amongst other vessels, remained in the harbour as a prize when the French capitulated.

2 Apr 1801 off Christianstadt, Santa Cruz, having arranged a suitable capitulation as above, with a view to not wishing to alienate possible future allies ?

18 Jul 1801 letters dated Martinique advise that Capt C Cole, late of the Surinam, has been promoted to be Flag Captain to R.-Adm. Duckworth in the Leviathan, preparing for a cruise, with the hurricane season approaching.

29 Jul 1801 remained at Martinique when the Falmouth packet Duke of Cumberland departed for Dominico.

21 Sep 1801 by letters received at Plymouth, from the Leviathan, dated Martinique, Captain Cole apptd. from the Surinam to the Leviathan. She was to cruise to windward during the hurricane season.

28 Sep 1801 by letters from Martinique, dated July 28, it appears, that the Leviathan, of 74 guns, Vice-Admiral Duckworth, was to sail on a cruise to windward during the hurricane months.

21 Oct 1801 the Falmouth packet Lord Charles Spencer arrived Barbadoes, and after departing Barbadoes, regret no dates given, arrived at Martinique where he found the Leviathan, Osprey and Surinam, and after delivering mail at the several Leeward Isles, arrived at Tortola on 14 Nov., where he found the Southampton, which departed that place, with the packet in company, on the 16th.

Circa 24 Apr 1802 Lieutenant Whitby, of the Leviathan, is promoted to the rank of Commander, and succeeds to the command of the Pelican.

4 Sep 1802 anchored in Cawsand Bay, from Jamaica, the Spencer, 74, Commodore Darby, with his broad pendant flying at the main ; the Circe, 28, Captain Woolley, having left Vice-Admiral Sir T. Duckworth, Bart. Captain Dunn, in the Leviathan, 74, and it was supposed he would not leave that station till the Spring.

17 Oct 1802 the packet Lady Arabella, Porteus, arrived Falmouth from Jamaica, after a passage of 41 days, and reports that the Flag Ship Leviathan remained at Port Royal when she departed. The Theseus had departed Port Royal on the 17 Aug., the same day as the Aeolus, arrived from England. The Tartar also arrived at Port Royal on the 17 Aug, and departed on the 26 Aug., in company with the frigates Desiree and Trent.

28 Dec 1802 when the Falmouth packet Princess Elizabeth arrived at Port Royal, Jamaica the Leviathan, Desiree, Trent, Racoon and Pelican were lying there, and the she departed in company with the Bellerophon and Elephant.

13 Jan 1803 when the Falmouth packet Leicester arrived at Port Royal, Jamaica, she found lying there the Leviathan, 74 ; Bellerophon, 74 ; Vanguard, 74 ; Elephant, 74 ; Desiree, 40 ; and sloops Shark, Pelican and Racoon ; the De Ruyter arriving on the 17 Jan, with the 87th Regt., from Curacoa, and on the 21st the Theseus, 74 ; Cumberland, 74 ; Goliath, 74 ; and Ganges, 74, from a cruise.

16 Mar 1803 Mid Murray of the Leviathan, has been promoted Lieut, for service on the Stork.

13 Apr 1803 Lt C C Dobson, RM, of the Goliath, court martialled on board the Ganges at Port Royal, for ungentlemanlike behaviour, and the charges being proved was dismissed the Goliath.

14 Apr 1803 Capt O Fitzgerald, RM, of the Goliath, was court martialled on board the Ganges at Port Royal, for charges brought against him by Lt B Kent, for sending him a challenge, for treating him with contempt and disrespect, and for defrauding the wardroom mess ; charges 1 and 2 being in part proved he was dismissed from the Goliath, and rendered incapable of ever serving on full pay in the RM forces.

23 Apr 1803 resulting from the court martials the Flag Officer on board the Leviathan, Adm J T Duckworth, at Port Royal, felt it necessary to observe that it appeared that discipline had broken down in the wardroom of the Goliath, particularly regarding Lt Kent, RM's irregular conduct, and made it known that he felt that the First Lieutenants on all the ships under his command would be held responsible for ensuring that good order and officerlike behavour &c were maintained, and that any breaches should be reported to captains and commanding officers, or otherwise answer for his neglect at a court martial.

19 Jul 1803 returned to Port Royal for a refit, following a cruise of Cape Francois. She also brought with her the French National ship Lathanias, from Jacmel, for Port au Prince.

19 Oct 1803 arrived Spithead, from Jamaica, the Leviathan, Capt Bayntum, her convoy being escorted to the River by the Santa Margaritta. It is reported that her passage from the West Indies took 3 months ; and her crew has been very sickly during the passage, 20-30 men having been lost, amongst whom was Mr Thompson, late purser of the Hercule, son of J Thompson of the Dockyard ; 24 men have been sent into RNH Haslar following her arrival.

Circa 22 Oct 1803 Mr Richards, Purser of the Santa Margaritta, apptd to the Leviathan.

Circa 22 Oct 1803 Mr Holes, Clerk of the Leviathan, apptd to the Santa Margaritta.

30 Oct 1803 came into Portsmouth harbour from Spithead.

4 Feb 1804 departed Portsmouth harbour for Spithead.

9 Feb 1804 dropped down from Spithead to St Helen's the Leviathan, Capt Bayntun ; the Montague, Capt Otway ; and the Wolverine, Capt Gordon.

15 Feb 1804 a court martial was held on board the Gladiator, at Spithead, on Mr W Rudgley, Boatswain of the Leviathan, was tried for absenting from duty himself without leave, and the charge being proved he was sentenced to be dismissed the Service.

18 Feb 1804 a boat belonging to the Leviathan, Lying at St Helen's, in attempting to get on board, struck on the rocks of the Bembridge Ledge, and overset, by which melancholy accident, 12 persons were drowned. Those who died included Mr Foster, nephew of the commanding officer, Captain Brenton ; Mr Stephenson, surgeon's mate ; Mr Monkatine, a Russian officer ; and 9 seamen : W S Smith, J Atkinson, T Dedworth, J White (1), J Davis (3), W Wareing, R Bowen, J Quin, servant, and J Yeates, Marine Servant.

20 Feb 1804 a court martial was held on board the Gladiator, at Spithead, on T Mahoney, of the Leviathan, was sentenced to 300 lashes for disobedience of orders and contempt.

9 Apr 1804 the Leviathan, Capt Bayntun ; Aetna, Capt Thomas ; Acheron, Capt Farquhar ; and the Thunder, Capt Cocks, bombs, with the Mediterranean convoy, departed Spithead.

19 Apr 1804 the Leviathan, Aetna, Acheron, and Thunder, arrived at Gibraltar, with their 79 merchantmen, after a passage of 10 days from Portsmouth.

10 May 1804 joined the Mediterranean fleet, accompanied by three bomb-vessels, anchoring in the Magdalena islands 11-19 May, following which the fleet departed for off Toulon.

19 Jul 1804 following the receipt of supplies from England the fleet departed for the gulf of Palma to store ship ; returned 26 Aug.

19 Jan 1805 whilst watering at Agincourt sound the Mediterranean fleet was informed that the Toulon fleet was at sea, and departed in search. It was discovered on 14 Feb that the French fleet had returned to Toulon.

Circa 15-25 Mar 1805 Leviathan detached to off Barcelona - 4th Apr Phoebe reported that the Toulon fleet was at sea : the search began again. 4 May, having heard that the Toulon fleet had passed through the Straits on 8 Apl, the fleet anchored at Mazari bay to water and provision, but following a change in the wind the fleet departed on 5 May, the Superb leaving her cargo of cattle and vegetables etc. on the beach. Having provisioned for 5 months on the 10th rendez-voused on 12th at Cape St.-Vincent with a convoy of troops from England and detached the Royal-Sovereign to the convoy, following which Nelson departed for Madeira and the West Indies.

15 May 1805 arrived Madeira : and Barbadoes 4 Jun with news that the French fleet was in the West Indies : was joined by the Spartiate : 13th arrived Antigua and departed for Europe.

17 Jul 1805 arrived off Cape St.-Vincent and departed for Gibraltar, and having watered etc. proceeded west and north. 15 Aug received news from Adm. Cornwallis off Ushant, before Victory and Superb departed for Spithead, arriving on the 18th, leaving the Leviathan as a reinforcement to the Channel fleet.

7 Oct 1805 joined the fleet off Cadiz from Gibraltar.

10 Oct 1805 off Cadiz - the tactical preparations etc. for the forthcoming battle. 20 Oct combined fleet departed Cadiz, fleet manoeuvres.

21 Oct 1805 England expects….. &c. signalled, the first shots of the Battle of Trafalgar are fired. Nelson shot. Resumé of what had taken place. Individual ship actions and losses : Leviathan. The post-mortem commences ; Summary of British casualties ; Death of Nelson ;

22-30 Oct 1805 losses amongst the prizes due to bad weather etc: Redoutable, Rayo, Monarca (sank) ; Fougueux, Bucentaure, Indomptable, San-Francisco-de-Asis, Aigle, Berwick (wrecked) ; Algésiras (taken into Cadiz) ; Santa-Ana, Neptuno (recaptured) ; Santisima-Trinidad (scuttled) ; Achille, Intrépide, San-Augustin (burnt) ; the washup ; burial of Nelson ;

24 Oct 1805 Leviathan captured the Monarca, which went on shore the following night.

23-26 Oct 1809 a part of the Mediterranean fleet off the coast of Catalonia, was sent in chase of a small French squadron from Toulon which resulted in the destruction of the French ships Robuste and Lion.

24 June 1811 Reported to be off Toulon.

18 Jul 1811 off Toulon.

29 Apr 1812 Leviathan, accompanied by the Undaunted, off the port of Agay, sent the ships' boats to cut out a number of vessels lying in the harbour.

9-10 May 1812 the ships' boats of the America, Leviathan and Eclair, protected by the fire of the latter, attacked a French convoy of 18 vessels, which took shelter under the batteries of Languelia, the marines having destroyed a number of shore batteries.

18 Aug 1812 Joined the fleet off Toulon .

Gibraltar 4 Jul 1813 departed with convoy for England.

Deal 12 Jul 1813 arrived with a convoy from the Mediterranean, most of them departed for the River.

Portsmouth 19 Jul 1813 arrived from Malta.

Portsmouth 4 Aug 1813 Came into the harbour.

Portsmouth 7 Dec 1813 To take the West Indies convoy and other traders to Cork.

Cove 6 Jan 1814 departed with the convoy for the West-Indies.

Dartmouth 31 Aug 1814 Passed by with the Jamaica convoy.

Portsmouth 2 Sep 1814 arrived with a convoy from Jamaica.

Portsmouth 6 Sep 1814 Came in from the Motherbank, having been released from quarantine.

Portsmouth 7 Nov 1814 Returned due to contrary winds.

Weymouth 11 Nov 1814 arrived and departed for Lisbon.

Plymouth 12 Nov 1814 arrived.

Plymouth 21 Nov 1814 departed for Lisbon.

Malta 11 Oct 1815 Remains.

1816 Convict ship.

Jan 1825 at Portsmouth with about 600 convicts on board.

1830 Convict hulk, Portsmouth

8 Jan 1842 transferred prisoners to the convict ship Isabella out at Spithead.

Feb 1842 Convict hulk, Portsmouth

1846 Target