The Golden Falcon

The Golden Falcon

Chapter I/2 - Falcon



"Ken diraie?  Par plusurs anz tint Hereward contre Normans

Il e Winter son compaignon e dan Geri un gentil hom

Alueriz, Grugan, Saiswold, Azecier.


Malment lagueitat Ailward, son Chapelain, le dust guitar

Si s'endormi sur un rocher.  Ke dirraie?  Surpris i fust,

Meis gentement sen est contenux, si se contint un leun

Il e Winter, son compaignum."


("L'Estoire del Engles" - Gaimar)


The surname Winte or Winter occurs in the "Gesta Herewardii" and the "L'Estoire des Engles."


The principal sources of the Hereward legends are the "De Gestis Herewardii" in the "Chroniques Anglo-Normands", the Rolls edition of Gaimar's "L'Estoire des Angles",  the pseudo Ingulph (1300-1370), John of Peterborough's "Annales Burgo-Spaldenses" of which there is a 14th century edition "Scriptores", "Historia Eliensis" (written between 1174 and 1189) and the "Liber de Hyda" written at Lewes, Sussex in 1136.


Geoffrey Gaimar wrote in Norman French and probably came from the region of Gamares in Caen - he has not been identified.  The "L'Estoire" was written for Coutance, wife of Ralph fitzGilbert (de Clare) from manuscripts borrowed by Robert, Earl of Gloucester (Henry I's illegitimate son) from their friend Walter Espec.

Walter was probably the Yorkshire baron who founded Rievaulx Abbey in 1131/12 and took part in the Battle of the Standard in 1138 (in which one of the de Lacys and 11,000 Scots died) against David, King of Scots, fought at Cowton Moor near Northallerton, Yorkshire.  The Norman forces were led by Bishop Thurston of York, Walter Espec, Sheriff of York and the Bishop of Durham against the men of Galloway.  The Standard was a ship's mast on a cart with silver pyx and the host and the banners of the churches of St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverley and St. Wilfred of Ripon.  King David was uncle of Queen Matilda, first wife of Henry I (her mother was Margaret, sister of Edward the Atheling).  Henry I's children were the twins William the Atheling who died in the wreck of the White Ship and Matilda the Empress.


Hereward was first exiled to Flanders in 1068, the rebellion of Ely which occurred in 1072.


Hereward's revolt was a culmination of a series of rebellions.  William I left for Normandy leaving William FitzOsbern, his seneschal, and Bishop Odo of Bayeaux, his half-brother, as guardians of the realm.  King William took Edgar the Saxon Atheling or Prince and Harold's brothers, the Earls Edwin and Morcar with him.  When he returned to England later that year, he had to suppress a revolt in Exeter in which Earl Harold's mother Gytha (aunt of Sweyn Estrithson, king of Denmark) and Harold Godwinson's sons took part.  Harold's sons fled to Ireland, the earls Edwin, Edgar and Morcar defected to Northumbria where Earl Gospatrick (Waltheof's cousin) rebelled.  Edwin and Morcar later returned their allegiance to William I and the Atheling (the Saxon heir to the English throne) fled to Scotland where his sister Margaret was queen.


Other rebellions took place in Durham where the Fleming Robert de Commines was burnt to death with his followers; in Herefordshire where Edric the Wild, descendant of Welsh princes revolted, Staffordshire, which was in the kingdom of Mercia, joined in; Harold's sons and the Danes under Asbjorn, brother of Sweyn, raided the south west and north coasts whilst Waltheof of Northumbria defected to the Saxons.  William harried the north in 1069-70 and laid it waste.  Northumbria and Mercia were pacified; the Danes bribed to leave and Edgar the Saxon Atheling went back to Scotland.


Waltheof was pardoned and married Judith, the Conqueror's niece (daughter of Tostig earl of Northumbria and Judith of Flanders, Queen Matilda's sister).  The Saxon earls Edwin and Morcar fled after 1071 - Edwin was betrayed and killed; Morcar joined Hereward.  Many Saxon rebels, led by Hereward, took refuge around Ely and Peterborough - its Abbey had supported the Saxons, its Abbot, Leofric, had died at Hastings and Abbot Brand had to pay a fine of 40 marks to reconcile himself with William.


Hereward had knowledge of the revolt of William's earls (known as the "Bridal of Norwich") in 1075.  This revolt had been planned at the wedding (held at Exning, Cambridgeshire perhaps in a house belonging to Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria) between Ralf the Gael, Earl of East Anglia (Ralf the Staller's son) and Emma, sister of Roger, son of William fitzOsbern, William I's seneschal and kinsman.  Ralf and his wife escaped to Brittany and both died later in the Holy Land.  Roger fitzWilliam escaped to Denmark but was later captured, his lands were forfeited and he spent the rest of his life in prison, other rebels were horribly mutilated.  Waltheof (who had been pardoned and made earl of Northumbria after the revolt of 1069-70), was accused of joining the rebellion and executed in 1076 after which Canute, brother of the Danish king, raided to the coast of Northumbria with 200 ships.


William fitzOsbern, Earl of Hereford had been given Lydney (later bought by Sir William Winter, the Tudor admiral) with much of West Gloucestershire.  FitzOsbern subsequently married Richilde of Hainault, Countess Dowager and Regent of Flanders and died fighting her enemies in 1071 at Cassel.  His son Roger only held his lands for 4 years until he was attainted for this rebellion when these lands were assigned to the family of Beauchamp, Earls of Warwick and Worcester.  Osbern's other son William de Breteuil, Treasurer of England, sided with Robert of Normandy in 1088 so did Bishop Odo de Bayeux (Robert's uncle), Bernard Newmarch (William I's half-brother), Roger Montgomery de Bellême, Earl of Shrewsbury, Ralph Mortimer and Roger de Lacy.


Hereward the Wake was said to be the ancestor of the family of Wake of Liddell mentioned in the genealogy of the Hungerfords whose descendants were the Winters of Wych.


Hereward's revolt took place in 1071, he was said to have led the Danes to Peterborough to loot the abbey when a Norman was appointed in place of the English abbot Brand.  Hereward was a tenant of Peterborough and held lands in south west Lincolnshire near the manor of Bourne.


Hereward (the English form of the Anglo-Saxon Harold) was supposed to have been the son of Leofric of Mercia or connected with the royal house of that kingdom to whom the manor of Bourne belonged.  According to the Peterborough MSS, his parentage is given as: "Hujus igitur pater fuit quidam Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre et mater Aedine trinepta Oslaci ducis, utroque parente nobilissime progenitus." (whose father was Leofric of Bourne, nephew (or grandson) of Count Ralph the Staller and his mother Adina, grand daughter of earl Oslac).  Ralph the Staller (Aelfgar Scalre) was the Edward the Confessor's Master of the Horse and Earl of East Anglia (consisting of Norfolk and Suffolk).  Earl Oslac was exiled in AD 975.


Hereward was described as short, stout but agile with long golden hair and light eyes which did not quite match.  His first wife was Torfrida, a Fleming and reputedly a witch who took the veil when he later abandoned her for Dolfin's daughter.


Flanders was the traditional refuge for the Saxon royalty of England.  The Flemings were Saxons who fled to the Netherlands (called Fleanderland or the "land of those who fled") and its Counts were descended from King Alfred the Great.


When driven into exile by Earl Harold's father Godwin, Emma, Queen of England, daughter of Duke Richard the Fearless of Normandy and widow of both King Ethelred the Unready and King Canute, went to Bruges with her son Hardacanute in 1036.  Canute the Great's niece Gunhilda, accused of opposing the election of Edward the Confessor (married to Harold's sister Edith) fled to Bruges in 1040.  In 1047 when Godwin's son Sweyn was outlawed, he took refuge in Bruges where Godwin himself fled 4 years later and negotiated a marriage with Count Baldwin's daughter Judith to his son Tostig, Earl of Northumbria.  Godwin's widow Gytha and her daughter Gunhilda also fled to Flanders where Gunhilda lived for 20 years.  She bequeathed her jewels to the Collegiate Church of Bruges and was buried at St. Donatian's when she died on 24.8.1087.


The "Gesta" relates how Hereward had numerous fabulous adventures in Cornwall and Ireland, was ship-wrecked, exiled to Flanders, waged a war with the Count of Guisnes, taking his nephew prisoner, and took part in another conflict in "Scaldemariland", returning home to avenge his brother killed by the Normans.  He was knighted by Abbot Brand and killed Earl Warenne's brother, then revisited Flanders but returned to England to rejoin his followers, consisting of 300 men including crossbow men and archers.  He resisted and defeated the Normans at the Isle of Ely and took refuge in the Forest of Brune (Bruneswald) or Bourne which spread through the counties of Northampton, Canterbury, Lincoln, Holland, Leicester, Huntingdon and Warwick.  He kidnapped the Norman Abbot of Peterborough who had taken Brand's place, asking for a ransom of 30,000 marks and sacked the Abbey.  Hereward finally paid homage to William and had his lands restored.


The "Gesta" describes his companion Winter as a remarkably distinguished knight, short of stature, very robust and courageous, foremost and steadfast in war and virtuous of spirit.


"Horam igitur primus et recte in militia et virtute animi prior habendus quidam Winter nomine a sinistro latere erat.  (a blank was left here in the manuscript for the rubric or signature.)


Qui repente de adventu ejus congratulantes festim ad eum recurrent, videlicet Wynter quodam, insignis miles, qui erat brevi statura sed valde robustissimus ex fortitudine perspicui.


Cum quibus nec non et alii in militia probatissimi adhus computati sunt, Lefricus Diaconus et Villicus de Draitone, atque Turkillus et Utlamhe, id est Exhulis, cocus Herewardii, Hogor cognatus Herwardi, Winter et Liueret duo praecleri et Rapenaldus dapifer de Ramesis."


Edward Outlaw (Utlamhe) or Atheling, son of Edward Edmundson called Ironside, was heir to the English throne.


Turkillus was Thorkill of Ardern, sheriff of Warwickshire, a pre-Conquest Norman. Thorkill possessed vast lands in Warwickshire in 1086, part of which had been seized from other Englishmen.  The property was valued at more than £120 (increased by a third between 1066 and 1086), assessed at over 35 hides for the geld and consisting of nearly 220 ploughs.  The major part of Thorkill's lands passed to Roger of Beaumont, Earl of Warwick and Leicester - Thorkill's heirs were Beaumont's military tenants.

Normans came into England as early as 1002 in the retinue of Emma Aelfgifu, daughter of Richard, Duke of Normandy.  She was wife of Ethelred the Unready by whom she had Edward the Confessor and secondly of Canute, by whom she had Hardacanute.  Her niece's stepson was Baldwin V of Flanders at whose court Emma took refuge during the reign of Harold I (1037-9), Canute' son by his first marriage.  Emma returned to England during Hardacanute's reign and died in 1052.  William the Conqueror was her great nephew.


Geoffrey le Wac, (probably a Fleming in Matilda of Flanders' entourage) held lands at Bessin, in Normandy with Mandeville (a descendant of the family of Senlis from Magnaville or Mancavilla near Douai) and Adam de Port.  Hereward le Wac married the lady of St. Omer (Seymour) whose arms were "azure, a fess between 6 cross crosslets."  At the Domesday Inquest Heward le Wac held the manor of Marston or Marston Jabet in Bulkington, Knightlow Hundred of Warwickshire and possibly Harrowsley or Herewardsley in Horne, Tandridge Hundred of Surrey - the Hereward legend says he had a quarrel with earl Warenne and Surrey over a manor.  There is also a manor "anciently called Butlers alias Herewards" in Norfolk.


The manors adjoining Marston Jabet were Coventry and "Merston-juxta-Herdewik" (Marston juxta Hardwick) in Warwickshire, the latter held by John le Vinetier according to an inquisition No. 128 dated 1285 (13 Edward I).


Hardwick manor was in Pillerton Priors in the Kington Hundred, Warwickshire and consisted of 2 manors, Priors Hardwick and Hardwick manor which included Marston held by the Priors of Coventry.


Priors Marston and Priors Hardwick are on the Warwickshire/Northamptonshire borders, Butlers Marston and Pillerton Priors about 8-10 miles west of the first two.  Butlers Marston passed from the earls of Leicester to Ralph le Boteler (Butler), the Ferrars and Nevilles; it was sold by Sir William Gascoigne to Thomas Cromwell in 1537.


Ladbroke in the Knightlow Hundred of Warwickshire is not far from Priors Marston and Hardwick.  In 1316 a watermill there (which had been listed in 1086 on Hugh de Grantemaisnil's estate) was conveyed by William le Vynter of Coventry and his wife Joan, together with 2 caracutes of land in Ladbroke to John and Alice de Langley.


Flanders manor in Kingsbury, Hemlingford Hundred, Warwickshire was held by John Hardwick of Coventry.  He married (1) Elizabeth daughter of Henry Boteler of Coventry and (2) Anne Langham.  The manor was divided between John Hardwick's daughters by Anne Langham - Joyce, wife of Michael Purefoy and Anne, wife of George Winter.  The manor passed to Edward Winter and his wife Katherine who held it from 1581 and after their death it passed to their daughter Mary Winter, wife of Edward Baskervyle of Shulton, Leicester - the manor was then called Winter's Flanders.


Snitterfield, Barlichway Hundred, Warwickshire is near Priors Marston and Hardwick.  It belonged to Thomas Coventry whose arms: "sable, a fesse ermine, between 3 crescents or" are a differencing of Sir William Winter's arms.  Coventry bought Croome d'Abitot in 1592 and was created earl of Coventry, the last earl was also Viscount Deerhurst (the Cassys, ancestors of the Winters, are buried in Deerhurst Abbey).  The Coventrys had eagles as supporters of their arms (the eagle was the symbol of the earls of Mercia).


The advowson of Bletchingley, Surrey was connected with the families of Winter, Coventry, Walsh and Elmbridge (who held the manor of that name in Worcestershire and had the same "checky" coat of arms as some of the Winter families).  Gilbert de Clare granted to Magister John Cemetar of "Blaschingel" (Bletchingley) land which he held of the gift of Richard Walensis "the Welshman" (Richard Walsh).  Amongst the burgesses of Bletchingley were William le Welsh or Westal in 1298, John Gaynesford (1424), Henry Winter (1473), Nicholas Gaynesford (1453) whose daughter Elizabeth married Thomas Elmbridge (d. 1492), porter to Cardinal Morton (imprisoned in Brecon during the Wars of the Roses) and Thomas "Gynnor" (Gwyntour?) in 1451.


Henry Winter (1440-94) of Newbold, Leicestershire was MP for Bletchingley (1472-5) and may have been the collector of the subsidy in Derbyshire in 1463 (Fine Rolls 3 Edward IV m.15) who was appointed customer of Southampton on (Fine Roll, 4 Edward IV M5).  He died on 12.4.1494, seised of Newbold, Worthington & Breedon, Leicestershire held of the duchy of Lancaster, his son and heir was Robert then aged 24 (Cal. Inq. pm Henry VII. p 476).  Robert Wynter of Worthington, Leicestershire, grandson and heir of Henry Winter is mentioned on 27th June 1509-10 on the Pardon Roll.  (1 Henry VII 1509-10).  The arms of George Winter of Worthyngton, Leicestershire were "cheque or and sable, a fesse argent" (the same as those of Barningham Winter) - his daughter Jane married Thomas Bole of Gosterkirk.


The advowson of Bletchingley was held in 1342 by Edmund de Coventry and Egidus (Giles) at Ware.  William de Coventre, rector of Westminster on 11.4.1328, exchanged Bletchingley for Banstead, Surrey.  In 1522 the advowson of Bletchingley was held by Willliam Winter and on 28.5.1465-8 James Winter was vicar of Banstead.


In 4-5 Edward II (1311-12), John Vineter was MP for Southwark.




At the Domesday Survey Walter the Vineyard Keeper (Walterus Uinitor) appears as a tenant in Wandsworth of William fitzAnsculf, Baron of Dudley.


Wandsworth was the berewick or outlying portion of the manor of Battersea (called Badric's Eye or Patricsey or island) in the Brixton Hundreds of Surrey, held by Earl Harold in the reign of King Edward the Confessor from Westminster Abbey.  68 hides were given to the Abbey by Cadwalla, king of the West Saxons in 685-88 AD.  The king also gave the Wandsworth manor of Afferthying called Barking's Fee to the Monastery of Barking.  In 1086 Wandsworth was divided between Earl Mortain (1 hide), Giselbert the priest (3 hides), the Bishop of Liseux (2 hides), the Abbot of Chertsey (1 hide), Westminster Abbey (35 hides), the Abbey of St. Wandrille in Normandy (1 hide); 13 hides including the manors of Dunsford went ultimately to the prior of Merton, the manor of Doune (later owned by the Robert and Richard de la Doune) and William fitzAnsculf, Lord of the Honour of Dudley in Warwickshire (12 hides).


William FitzAnsculf of Picquigny in Flanders had 2 manors on his 12 hides - one was Downe, Downe Barns or La Doune, a fief of the Honour of Dudley in the 13th century, the other may have been Dunsford which later passed to the Priory of Merton and was called Down Lodge or Dunsford Farm.


The Domesday entry reads:


"The land of William, son of Ansculf in Brixton Hundred - the same William holds Wandsworth.  Six sokemen1 held it of King Edward and they could go whither they pleased.  There were two halls.  Then and now, it was and is assessed for 12 hides2.  The land is for 4 ploughs.  Ansculf had this land after he received the sheriffdom; but the men of the Hundred say that they have not seen the King's seal nor Livery Officer.  Ansfrid was assessed for 5 hides.  Walter the Vineyard Keeper (Walterus Uinitor) for 1 hide. They did not pay geld3.  In their land there are 2 ploughs and half in demesne4 and villanes5 and 22 bordars6 with 2 ploughs and 22 acres of meadow.  The whole manor in the time of King Edward was worth 110 shillings and afterwards 50 shilling and now £18 altogether."

1Soc or soke was the right of holding a local court, socage was tenure of lands by service, fixed and determinate in quality and sokemen were such tenants.


2In old English law, a hide was a variable area of land, enough for a household.


3Geld was tax.


4Demesne was a manor house with lands adjacent to it not let out to tenants or any estate in land.


5A villane or villein was free in relation to all but his lord and not absolutely a slave later a copyholder.


6A bordar was a villein who held his hut at his lord's pleasure.


Winter's hide was confiscated for non-payment of geld and given to Westminster Abbey.


Battersea manor in the Brixton Hundreds included Wandsworth and was roughly bounded by the present-day High Street, Falcon Road and Old Battersea.  The medieval Canterbury Way to the shrine of St. Thomas passed from Kingston-upon-Thames through Battersea Rise, Wandsworth, Clapham, Kennington and Newington.


Many of the Norman conquerors of Wales and then Ireland, called the Advenae, were descendants of Surrey landholders so it is quite possible that Walter Winter followed his lord into Wales or alternatively fled there after Hereward's rebellion.


Richard fitzGilbert de Clare, called Strongbow (leader of the Advenae descendants into Ireland), was descended from the Dukes of Normandy via Richard de Tonbridge who held extensive manors in Surrey - they were Chivington, Southwark (now in London), Bletchingley, Chelsham, Tandridge, Tilingdon, Farley, Woldingham (Hundred of Tandridge), Tooting Bec and Streatham (Hundred of Brixton), Chipstead and Buckland (Hundred of Reigate), Worth (now in Sussex), Beddington, and Woodmansterne (Hundred of Wallington, Walton-on-the-Hill, Mickleham, Guildford, Betchworth and Leatherhead (Hundred of Copthorne), Elmbridge, Walton-Leigh, App's Court, Stoke D'Abernon and East Molesey (Hundred of Elmbridge), Talworth, Long Ditton, Ember Court, Maldon and Chessington (Hundred of Kingston), Driteham and Effingham (Hundred of Effingham), Albury and Shalford (Hundred of Blackheath), Ockham (Bocheham or Bookham) and (Hundred of Woking), Betchworth and Evershed in Ockley (Wootton Hundred).


Another Welsh/Irish Advenae William de Braiose (ancestor of the families of Winter of Wych, Mowbray and Howard) held South Tadworth near Banstead (Copthorne Hundred) and Little Book (Effingham Hundred).


Ilbert de Lacy (whose descendants were Earls of Herefore and Ulster) held Cuddington (Copthone Hundred) from Odo, Bishop of Bayeaux (William I's half-brother) and Ralf de Fougeres had Hedley (Copthorne Hundred) and Westcote in Dorking.


William fitzOther (ancestor of the fitzGeralds or Ireland and elsewhere) held Compton (now in Sussex), Hurtmore, Godalming, Pepper Harrow and a "homager" in the soke of Kingston.  He and his brother Walter fitzOther were the sons of Other, Uther or Odo, third in descent from Zuria Lopez the Fair, 1st Lord of Biscay who had 3 sons.  One of them, Gerald Dias Lopez, was expelled to Florence by his bastard brother Iñigo.  Uther or Other lived in Normandy and came to England during the Conquest with his sons, Walter and William.  Walter's son Gerald, castellan of Windsor and Pembroke (under Arnulf Montgomery de Bellême) married Nesta, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr.  Their daughter Angharad married William de Barry (parents of Gerald de Barry known as Giraldus Cambrensis, the historian).


William fitzAnsculf, lord of Piquigny and the Honour of Dudley, Warwickshire held Witford and Mitcham (Wallington Hundred).  He also held Pinkney which, with Abingdon, had the duty of castleguard at Windsor.  A Winter was deputy governor of Windsor in 1660.


Another castellan of Windsor was John Wintersell whose surname derives from Winter's Hall in Surrey (there is also a Winter's Hall in Pembroke).  The Winters of Wych and the Wintersells had common ancestry - the Winters can trace descent from de Braiose, fitzGerald and fitzAnsculf.


The first Norman assault on Wales and the Welsh Marches was led by William fitzOsbern, son of Osbern Herfast, seneschal of Normandy who was murdered by William of Montgomery.


Osbern may have had some relationship with that Pre-Conquest Norman of the same name, lord of Ewias Harold in Herefordshire who came to England with the Breton Ralf the Staller (Aelfgar Scalre), a military leader or standard bearer who became Constable of England and Earl of Essex (he held the manor of Monks Risborough at the Conquest) and East Anglia during the reign of Edward the Confessor.


William fitzOsbern was created Earl of Hereford in 1067 and built castles at Wigmore, Ewyas Harold, Clifford-on-Wye, Striguil (Chepstow), Monmouth and Gloucester.  He became regent of Flanders by right of his wife Richilde of Hainault (widow of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders) and died at Cassell on 21.2.1071.  His son Roger rebelled against the king and was imprisoned for life.


Further conquests of South Wales were made by the families of Mortimer, de Toesni, de Lacy, fitzBalderun, Saye (lords of Cleobury), Clifford, Ludlow and Monmouth and the de Clares of Striguil.


Roger Montgomery de Bellême, Earl of Shrewsbury, led the assaults on Powys in 1070.  The "caput" of Roger's Vicomte was Bailleuil-en-Gouffern in the Hiemois region of Normandy - his niece Amieria married Renaud of Bailleul (ancestor of the Balliols, one of whom was John king of Scots).  His tenants in Shrewsbury were Roger and Robert fitzCorbet, Robert of Say, known as Ficot or Picot, Osbern fitzRichard, lord of Richard's Castle (descendant of a pre-Conquest Norman Richard fitzScrob or Scrope), Ralf de Mortimer, Roger de Lacy, Robert Pincerna (Butler), William Pantoul, Alan fitzFlaald (ancestor of the fitzAlans and Stuarts), Norman and Roger Venator (Hunter).


Roger de Montgomery, who was at Hastings and created earl of Shrewsbury, was son of Hugh de Montgomery by Jocelina, daughter of Turolf of Pontaudemer by his wife Weva, sister of Gunnora, duchess of Normandy, great grandmother of William the Conqueror.


Roger had by his first wife Mabel (daughter and heiress of William Talvas, son of William and grandson of Ivo de Bellême) 5 sons and 3 daughters.  Robert "the Devil" of Bellême (canton and arrondissement Orne, 18 km south of Mortaigne) who inherited his father's and mother's estates in Normandy, Hugh, earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury killed on the beach at Anglesey by an arrow from the ship of king Magnus Olafsson, Roger of Poitiers created earl of Lancaster, Philip, a priest, Arnulf, earl of Pembroke (who, with Roger became allies of Prince Henry against Henry I), Emma, abbess of "Almanisca", Maud, wife of Robert, earl of Mortain (William I's half-brother), Mabel, wife of Hugh of Newcastle and Sybil, wife of Robert fitzHamon of Gloucester, lord of Corbeil in Normandy.


Earl Roger Montgomery, William I's cousin, was the first Norman overlord of Chichester where he built a castle on the ruins of the Friary.  He led the cavalry at Hastings and was given 3 manors in Wiltshire, 4 in Surrey, 8 in Middlesex,  11 in Cambridgeshire, 1 in Hereford, 1 in Gloucester, 2 in Worcestershire and 157 manors in Sussex where he also held the lordship.  He was created Earl of Sussex and owned Arundel, Shrewsbury and Shropshire (originally Scrope's shire).


His son Arnulf seized Pembroke in 1093, it was one of two castles which remained in Norman hands (Rhyd-y-gors being the other) when the Welsh recaptured the remainder.  He made Gerald of Windsor (son of Walter fitzOther) castellan of Pembroke.  Arnulf had been promised the daughter of Murtagh, the Irish king but she married Seward, son of the Norwegian king instead.  Roger and Arnulf were banished after a rebellion - the latter fled to Ireland and later joined his brother Roger in Normandy where he fought the English on the side of Fulk of Anjou.  Arnulf eventually married his Irish Princess who was a widow by then but he died during his wedding banquet.  His forfeited estates were given to the de Clares.  The 3rd earl Montgomery forfeited the earldom in 1102 for treason against Henry I.


Further advances into Wales were made by the de Braioses of Radnor, Corbets of Caus, fitzalans of Oswestry and the de Lacys of Ewyas (Longtown) and in 1146-7 a large force of Normans and Flemings led by the sons of Gerald (of Windsor) and William, son of Aed (perhaps Gwilym ap Aeddan) attacked Carmarthen.


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