19C Migration
19thC european migration

Causes of Migration
As the population of Europe started to increase in the 18th century, the attractions of emigration began to grow with it.  In the course of the 19th century the development of large steam-driven transatlantic vessels made it possible and safe for millions to leave for the Americas--above all the United States--and Australia. Between 1825 and 1920 some 17 million people emigrated from Britain and Ireland. About 6 million Germans, 4 million Austro-Hungarians, 9 million Italians, and 4 million Spaniards left home in the same period. This great migration drew the United States in particular closer to Europe in the 20th century.

Fig. 1  Cook, Cleke, Gore & King's circumnavigational route, of 1776 to 1780.  The preferred sailing route from Europe to the Pacific, via the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope is clearly shown.

Origins of 19thC Ships
With the opening of all-sea routes from Europe around the Cape of Good Hope to the Far East, and across the Atlantic to the New World in the west, came a great increase in seaborne trade. This additional volume of transported goods required larger merchant ships.  Spain led the way by designing and building carracks of as much as 1,600 tonnage.  These and the later galleons (which had rigs similar to those of the three-masted carracks, with the addition of topmasts and with up to three decks) were the forerunners of the full-rigged ships that came to dominate naval architecture until the general introduction of steam propulsion in the mid-19th century.